Liu xue yi

liu xue yi

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Xing Yi Quan" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( August 2007) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) Xìng Yì Quán (形意拳) Sun Lu-t'ang standing in San Ti Shi Also known as Liu xue yi I Ch'üan Focus Internal mechanics ( neijia), Striking, Takedowns Hardness Both hard and soft, depending on application Country of origin China Creator Yue Fei, circa 12th century (attributed as the legendary founder).

Li Luoneng, 19th century (founder of modern Xing Yi Quan). Famous practitioners See under Famous practitioners Parenthood The historical origins of this Martial art are thoroughly disputed (see under Lineage chart) and remain unclear.

Modern Xing Yi originated from Dai Clan's Liu He Xin Yi Quan, was heavily influenced by military spear techniques, [1] and was possibly also affected and shaped by other styles as well. Olympic sport No Liu xue yi Yi Quan Chinese 形意拳 Literal meaning form-thought-fist Transcriptions Standard Mandarin Hanyu Pinyin Xíng Yì Quán Wade–Giles Hsing I Ch'üan IPA [ɕǐŋ î tɕʰyǎn] Part of a series on Chinese martial arts (Wushu) • Styles of Chinese martial arts • List of Chinese martial arts • v • t • e Xing Yi Quan is classified as one of the internal styles of Chinese martial arts.

liu xue yi

{INSERTKEYS} [2] The name of the art translates approximately to "Form-Intention Fist", or "Shape-Will Fist". [3] Xing Yi is characterized by aggressive, seemingly linear movements and explosive power that's most often applied from a short range.

A practitioner of Xing Yi uses coordinated movements to generate bursts of power intended to overwhelm the opponent, simultaneously attacking and defending.

Methods vary from school to school, but always include bare-handed fighting training (mostly in single movements/combinations and sometimes in forms) and the training of weapons usage with similar or identical body mechanics to that used for bare-handed intense fighting. The most basic notions of movement and body mechanics in the art were heavily influenced by the practice of staves and spears. Historically and technically related martial arts include Dai Xin Yi Liu He Quan, Liu He Xin Yi Quan and Yi Quan.

Contents • 1 Origins • 1.1 Legends • 1.2 General history (ancient times – 20th century) • 1.3 Recent history (20th and 21st centuries) • 1.4 Disputed history • 2 Branches • 3 Characteristics and principles • 4 Overview of the art and its training methods • 4.1 Zhan Zhuang (站樁) • 4.2 Plow stepping • 4.3 Shi Li (試力) / Mo Jin • 4.4 Five Element Shapes (Wǔ Xíng 五行) • 4.5 Animal Shapes (Shí'èr Xíng 十二形) • 4.6 Ba Zi Gong • 4.7 Linking forms • 4.8 Weapons • 4.9 The Xing Yi Classics • 5 The three stages of training power (Jin 勁) in Xing Yi • 6 Famous practitioners • 7 Lineage chart • 8 Cross influences with other martial arts • 9 Cultural aspects of Xing Yi • 9.1 Relationship with Chinese culture • 9.2 Popular culture appearances in modern times • 10 See also • 11 References • 12 Further reading • 13 External links Origins [ edit ] Legends [ edit ] The "Four Generals of Zhongxing" painted by Liu Songnian during the Southern Song Dynasty.

Yue Fei is the second person from the left. This portrait is believed to be the "truest portrait of Yue in all extant materials." [4] The earliest written records of Xing Yi can be traced to the 18th century, and are attributed to Ma Xueli of Henan Province and Dai Long Bang of Shanxi Province. Legend credits the creation of Xing Yi to renowned Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD) general Yue Fei, [5] but this is disputed.

[1] According to the book Henan Orthodox Xingyi Quan written by Pei Xirong ( Chinese: 裴錫榮) and Li Ying'ang ( Chinese: 李英昂), Xing Yi Dai Long Bang "...wrote the Preface to Six Harmonies Boxing in the 15th reign year of the Qianlong Emperor [1750].

Inside it says, '...when Yue Fei was a child, he received special instructions from Zhou Tong. Extremely skilled in spearfighting, he used the spear to create fist techniques and established a skill called Yi Quan' (意拳). Meticulous and unfathomable, this technique far outstripped ancient ones." 於乾隆十五年為「六合拳」作序云:「岳飛當童子時,受業於周侗師,精通槍法,以槍為拳,立法以教將佐,名曰意拳,神妙莫測,蓋從古未有之技也。 [6] [7] According to legend, throughout the Jin, Yuan and Ming Dynasties few individuals had studied this art, one of them being Ji Gong (also known as Ji Longfeng and Ji Jike) of Shanxi Province.

After Yue Fei's death, the art was 'lost' for half a millennium. Then, during the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Shaanxi Province's Zhongnan Mountains, Yue Fei's boxing manual was said to have been discovered by Ji Gong. It is more likely though that Ji Jike had created the art based on prior martial arts experience, or passed on an art that had already existed.

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liu xue yi

General history (ancient times – 20th century) [ edit ] Yang Jwing-Ming (who is not a practitioner of the art) argues that aspects of Xing Yi Quan (particularly the animal styles) are identifiable as far back as the Liang Dynasty at the Shaolin Temple. [8] According to Jwing-Ming, Yue Fei therefore did not strictly invent Xing Yi Quan, but synthesized and perfected existing Shaolin principles into his own style of gongfu which he popularized during his military service.

Nonetheless, according to Yang, Yue Fei is usually identified as the creator because of his considerable understanding of the art (as shown in the work The Ten Theses of Xingyiquan, credited to Yue) and his cultural status as a Chinese war hero. It ought be noted that in Chinese culture, liu xue yi is common to attribute the creation of great traditions to legendary individuals. Liu xue yi such a way, the art of Tai Ji Quan is attributed to the legendary Zhang Sanfeng, and Daoism to Laozi, even though as in the case with Yue Fei, there exists no proof for such claims.

Other martial artists and Chinese martial art historians, such as Dan Miller, Cartmell, and Brian Kennedy, hold that this story liu xue yi largely legendary; while Xing Yi Quan may well have evolved from military spear techniques, there is no evidence to support that Yue Fei was involved or that the art dates to the Song dynasty. These authors point out that the works attributed to Yue Fei's role long postdate his life, some being as recent as the Republican era, and that it was common practice in China to attribute new works to a famous or legendary person, rather than take credit for oneself.

[9] [10] One source claims that the author of the "preface" is unknown, since no name is written on the manuscript. Most practitioners just assume it was written by Dai Long Bang. Some researchers of martial arts believe that it was actually written in Shanxi during the final years of the 19th century. [11] In addition, historical memoirs and scholarly research papers only mention Zhou Tong teaching Yue archery and not spear play.

[12] [13] Yue historically learned spear play from Chen Guang (陳廣), who was hired by the boy's paternal grandfather, Yao Daweng (姚大翁). [14] [15] Beginning in the late Ming era and Ji Longfeng's time, evidence for the art's history grows firmer. Ji Longfeng, also known as Ji Jike, is the first person which all agree had both existed and practiced the art. Ji Longfeng's contributions to the art are described in the Ji Clan Chronicles (姬氏族譜; pinyin: Ji Shi Zupu). Like the Preface, the Chronicles describes Xing Yi Quan as a martial art based on the combat principles of the spear.

The Chronicles, however, attributes this stylistic influence to Ji himself, who was known as liu xue yi "Divine Spear" (神槍; pinyin: Shén Qiāng) for his extraordinary skill with the weapon.

Nowadays, many believe that the style Ji Longfeng was taught had been Shaolin Xin Yi Ba [16] (a style which still exists today, and bears minute resemblance to XinYi LiuHe Quan). Ji Longfeng referred to his art as Liu He, The Six Harmonies, a reference to the most highly developed spear style practiced in the late Ming military.

Some speculate that during that period in the development of the art, either Ji Longfeng or some of his students had a connection with monks at the famous Shaolin Temple on Song Mountain.

There exists a martial art called 'Xin Yi Ba', which is still taught at the general location of the temple, and bears a few similarities to Xing Yi related styles. Some claim that Shaolin Xin Yi Ba had been taught to the Shaolin monks by Ji Longfeng's line, while others hold the view that Ji Longfeng was taught martial arts by the monks. From Ji Longfeng, the art was passed down to Cao Jiwu.

From Cao Jiwu, the art split into liu xue yi two biggest branches. One branch came down from Cao's student Ma Xueli, [17] and became Xin Yi Liu He Quan – an art still widely practiced today, which compared to other lineages, have not undergone many changes over the generations.

liu xue yi The other branch that came down from Cao Jiwu was through his other student, Dai Longbang. [19] The latter passed the art into the Dai clan, which had made many changes to it, mixing it with several arts and skills that had already existed in the Dai family. The art remains in the Dai clan to this day, but has also spread elsewhere in China and around the world.

The art remained fairly obscure until Li Liu xue yi (also known as Li Nengran) learned the art from the Dai family in the 19th century. It was Li Luoneng and his successors — which include Guo Yunshen, Song Shirong, Che Yizhai, Liu Qilan and Li Taihe (who would popularize Xing Yi Quan across Northern China). It is known that Liu xue yi Luoneng was proficient in other martial arts before studying Dai clan's Xin Yi.

Some claim his original art was Qimen Quan (奇門拳), perhaps his family's style, while others believe he actually studied Tongbei Quan and Gongli Quan. [20] Li came to study under the Dai family either because he heard of their fame in the martial arts and business, or maybe as suggested by others, after having fought and lost to a practitioner of their art.

It is generally agreed he then settled in the area of their village, and grew and sold vegetables, which earned him the nickname 'Li Lao Nong' 李老農 (Old Farmer Li, but also 'Respectable Farmer Li').

Initially, members of the Dai clan refused to teach him, but he eventually won over their trust, and he was taught by Dai Wenxiong, Guo Weihan, or both. After learning Dai Xin Yi for a number of years, perhaps over a decade, Li left the Dai territories and traveled across Shanxi and Hebei provinces, teaching for many years his own elaboration on the art, now called 'Xing Yi Quan'.

No reasons were ever recorded for the many changes [21] Li made to the art, but there are those who claim that Li wished to compete with the Dai clan's fame, perhaps because of some grudge.

Li and many of his students and grand-students were famous for offering bodyguard liu xue yi caravan escort services. Recent history (20th and 21st centuries) [ edit ] A condensed version of Xing Yi Quan was taught to Chinese officers at the Military Academy at Nanjing during the Second Sino-Japanese War for close quarters combat.

This included armed techniques such as bayonet and sabre drills alongside unarmed techniques. [22] Sun Lutang, a later exponent of the art, became famous in the early 20th century for his skills (chiefly in the Beijing and Tianjin areas), and for the martial books he had written about the Internal arts. During Sun Lutang's lifetime and martial 'career', he and several of his contemporaries began to classify Xing Yi, together with Taiji Quan and Bagua Zhang, as ' Wudang Martial Arts' style.

[2] Sun also exchanged knowledge with his friend and colleague Fu Zhensong, who subsequently took this branch of the art to southern China (after it had been mostly practiced in the northern parts of the country for centuries).

Later, many others have spread the art across China and the world. Yi Quan, which had been evolved from Xing Yi Quan by Wang Xiangzhai, became especially widespread during the 20th century, in China and across the world. Following the Cultural Revolution in China, some Xing Yi forms have been adapted to fit the needs of modern practitioners of the competitive sport of Wushu. This meant that various movement forms from the art were adapted to a competitive format, in which the emphasis was put on aesthetics and flowery movements, rather than on fighting.

The style is nonetheless relatively rare in wushu competitions because all wushu practitioners must compete in several mandatory events, which make Xing Yi, a non-mandatory art, a secondary priority in wushu competitive circles. As there had never been a single organizational body governing the teaching of the art, several variant styles and sub-styles developed. Although there are classical texts which include specific encoded instructions and general guidelines for practice, many of these are ignored by most modern practitioners, and interpreted in different ways by those who follow their instruction (this is depicted in the lineage chart further down this page).

As a result, over the decades and especially over the last few dozen years, branches of the art have considerably differentiated and diverged. This trend was strengthened by cross influences various Xing Yi teachers had from other martial arts and martial artists, and the spread of Xing Yi to the Western World. The art began to be taught in the West somewhere along the 1960s–1970s. However, it only rose to prominence among martial arts communities worldwide during the first decade of the 21st century.

Currently, it is still not well known among the general public. One explanation for this situation is that unlike other traditional oriental martial arts, Xing Yi was not a notable style in movies which liu xue yi popular in the West (and though a modified 'wushu' version of it appeared in The One, starring Jet Li, this was not told or hinted to the viewers as part of that film's script).

Arguably, the most common Xing Yi Quan lineage in the West today is of the Yi Zong branch, [23] which came down from Zhang Junfeng. Many of Zhang's students and grand-students, such as Kenneth Fish (martial artist), Hung I-Hsiang, Su Dongchen, [24] Luo Dexiu, Xu Hongji and others have been teaching his Xing Yi to Westerners since the 1980s – especially Americans.

This branch became the most popular because Taiwan was open to Westerners during the 20th century, while throughout much of that century, the Communist regime on mainland China did not allow Westerners to visit regularly, and thus people were not exposed to branches of the art from the mainland.

Contrary to popular belief, spread by some Taiwanese teachers, the art had not 'died out' on the mainland, but was simply inaccessible to outsiders for several decades (proof of this is that many lineages of the art discussed and referenced on this page had survived The Great Leap Forward and The Cultural Revolution).

Another popular Taiwanese branch in the West is Wang Shujin's lineage, which was chiefly transmitted by his student Wang Fulai. There are also several lineages from Tianjin which are nowadays taught in the West, namely in Canada [25] and Israel. [26] Lines of Dai XinYi and XinYi LiuHe are still rare in the West, and can be said to even be relatively rare in China, though they are not at risk of becoming 'extinct'.

In the United States, Dai XinYi is taught by Li Tailiang and several of his students. [27] Yi Quan, on the other hand, has become exceedingly popular in the West, being taught in many schools, especially in Europe. [28] There are no statistics as to the number of practitioners in any of these arts in either China or other countries. Disputed history [ edit ] Ancient Chinese texts, like those which make up the 'Xing Yi Classics', often contain characters whose meanings are obscure or have disappeared completely from the Chinese language.

Specialized terms which describe historically specific concepts (names of ancient weapons for example) are commonly interpreted with regards for their closest, modern linguistic equivalent.

The results can be problematic, producing translations which are linguistically correct but inconsistent within a fighting or martial context. The recognized founder of Bagua Zhang, Dong Hai Chuan, was reputed to have fought Guo Yunshen with neither able to defeat the other – though it is possible that they were training together.

It would have been controversial at the time for Dong Hai Chuan to have studied under Guo Yunshen, since Dong was the older of the two. The most neutral viewpoint would be to say that they trained together, which may explain the stylistic similarities between Bagua Zhang and the Xing Yi Quan monkey shape.

Frantzis [29] argues that this encounter never took place and that Guo and Dong had little contact with each other. Frantzis argues that a Xing Yi - Bagua exchange was more likely to have occurred in Tianjin c. 1900 where xingyi masters Li Cunyi and Liu xue yi Zhaodong, Bagua master Cheng Tinghua, and four other xingyi and bagua teachers lived together (Frantzis, 1998, p. 179). Sun Lutang states in his autobiography that the legendary fight between Guo Yunshen and Dong Hai Chuan never happened.

[30] The book states that the truth of the matter is that Guo Yunshen actually fought one of his older xingyi brothers and lost. Sun Lutang was a student of both Guo Yunshen and Cheng Tinghua so this stance on the subject seems to be one of the most accurate. Treating the story of Dong Hai Chuan and Guo Yunshen as allegory, however, reveals a common training protocol among Xing Yi Quan and Bagua Zhang practitioners. Often, because Bagua Zhang requires significantly more time for a practitioner's skill to liu xue yi, it is acceptable to learn Xing Yi Quan first or simultaneously.

Liu xue yi a practitioner develops a tactical vocabulary that is more readily apparent than the core Bagua Zhang movements. For controversies concerning the teaching of one person by another, read under lineage chart further down this article. Branches [ edit ] From Cao Jiwu, the art split into two branches: • Ma family's Xin Yi Liu He Quan. [31] • Dai family's Liu He Xin Yi Quan. [32] These two branches survive to this day. Later, Li Luoneng developed Xing Yi Quan out of the Dai family branch.

Liu xue yi Li Luoneng's time onward, the art has been said to have three main developmental branches: • Shanxi (including the Song- and Che-family sub-branches) • Hebei (Most commonly practiced Xing Yi Quan, and the branch Yi Quan evolved from).

• Henan (an alternative name for Ma family's Xin Yi Liu He Quan). However, the identification of three separate branches is tenuous because of the extensive cross-training that occurred across their lineages. This suggests that the branches did not evolve in isolation, thus diluting any major differences between them. Master Yang Fansheng (1949–2014) demonstrating the technique 'Ying Zhua' (Eagle Grasp) from the Si Ba Chui form.

The style being demonstrated is Dai Xin Yi Liu He Quan, the precursor to modern Xing Yi. Shot at liu xue yi International Xinyi-Dao Federation headquarters, Taigu County, Shanxi province, China. Year 2004. The student being demonstrated upon is late master Yang's disciple, Sudan Jeffers.

Schools of the Shanxi branch have a narrower stance, lighter footwork and tend to be more evasive. They emphasize the development of relaxation before the practice of intention (Yi). Schools of the Hebei branch emphasize Xing and Yi before developing a higher level of relaxed structure, and have a slightly different evasive footwork. Schools of the Henan branch are typically the most aggressive of the three.

The Henan branch is known as the Muslim branch because it was handed down within the Muslim community in Luoyang to which its founder, Ma Xueli, belonged. Henan branch is sometimes referred to by practitioners as XinYi LiuHe Quan instead of simply Xing Yi Quan. This may be attributed to the fact that the Muslim community of China was historically a very closed culture in order to protect themselves as a minority, thus retaining the older addition to the name of Xingyi.

Liuhe means "Six Harmonies" and refers to the six harmonies of the body (three external harmonies: wrists-ankles, elbows-knees, shoulders-hips; three internal harmonies: xin-yi, yi-qi, qi-li i.e. spirit or "emotional mind" (xin) harmonises with your intention (yi), intention harmonises with your breath and physical momentum (qi), breath and physical momentum harmonise with your physical strength (li) that contribute to correct posture.) This is not to be confused with the separate internal art Liuhebafa.

Both the Shanxi and Hebei branches use a twelve animal system with five elements while the Henan branch uses ten animals. Depending on the lineage, it liu xue yi or may not use five elements.

Due to the historical complexity and vagueness of the lineages, it is uncertain which branch would constitute the "authentic" Xing Yi Quan. In all of the following sections under this paragraph is chiefly discussed the art of Xing Yi Quan that had come down from Li Luoneng.

These sections are not representative of Dai XinYi Quan or LiuHe XinYi Quan. Characteristics and principles [ edit ] Xing Yi Quan features aggressive shocking attacks and direct footwork. Most of the training liu xue yi footwork are practiced on straight lines, but application occurs on all planes of movement. The linear nature of training in the art hints at both the military origins and the influence of spear technique alluded to in its mythology.

The goal of the Xing Yi exponent is to reach the opponent quickly and drive power through him in a single burst, to close in and break your opponent's structure so they can neither attack nor defend. The analogy with spear fighting is useful here. This is achieved by coordinating one's body as a single unit, and the intense focusing of one's Intent (Yi 意) and coordinated power (Jin 勁) utilizing tight circles usually in a forward direction, but can be applied on all 6 directions of energy (forward, backward, left, right, up, and down).

Issuing explosive power in Xing Yi is referred to as 'Fa Jin' (發勁), the same term used in many other traditional Chinese Martial Arts. Despite its hard, angular appearance, cultivating "soft" internal strength is essential to achieving power in Xing Yi Quan. Also, the advanced practitioner always contains tight spirals within his movements, so even the seemingly direct and linear ones are circular on a very small scale. Such circles and spirals also exist in other martial arts, but Xing Yi (like Southern Praying Mantis) likes to keep them smaller than others.

Efficiency and economy of movement are the qualities of a Xing Yi stylist, and its direct fighting philosophy advocates simultaneous attack and defense. There are few kicks except for extremely low foot kicks (which avoids the hazards of balance involved with higher kicks) and some mid-level kicks, and techniques are prized for their working within key principles rather than aesthetic value.

Xing Yi Quan favours a training stance called Sān Tǐ Shì (三體勢 / 三体势), [33] [34] literally "three bodies power," referring to how the stance holds the head, torso and feet along the same vertical plane (As liu xue yi Zhan Zhuang method, this stance is trained lower). In actual fighting a free-form traditional guard should be used in the application of intent (yi) rather than adhering to any aesthetic value, in training San Ti is more often trained at middle-low heights.

Like other Internal Arts, much of the training in Xing Yi Quan is done in slow-motion. This is true for almost all the movements in the art, though the majority of them can and are also trained explosively.

Overview of the art and its training methods [ edit ] Zhan Zhuang (站樁) liu xue yi edit ] This is a general name given to postures which one holds in place for prolonged periods of time – anywhere between 2 minutes and 2 hours.

[35] These postures are related to postures used in actual fighting, and are sometimes identical to them. Initially, these postures are taught as static training stances. After a short amount of time though, the practitioner would be taught how to move the muscles and connective tissues on a minute level from the inside of the body, making these stances very dynamic internally and more challenging to train. The most common Zhan Zhuang among all Xing Yi schools is San Ti Shi (it is the stance demonstrated by Sun Lutang in the picture at the beginning of the article).

Other common stances are: Hun Yuan Zhuang, Wu Ji Zhuang, Fu Hu Zhuang, Xiang Long Zhuang and their many variants. There are many reasons for training Zhan Zhuang.

Among them are, in general: Shifu Nitzan Oren, demonstrating a Zhan Zhuang posture which combines the San Ti stance and a Hun Yuan hand variation • It is the simplest method to work on the training of one's Intent (Yi). • They are used to develop one's martial structure. • One can learn the bodily alignments of the art and perfect them in a more relaxed state.

• Correct breathing can be trained more methodically while holding Zhan Zhuang. • There are certain health benefits involved in such training. Some teachers consider Zhan Zhuang to be the most important practice in Xing Yi; whereas, others neglect to train and teach them altogether.

The use of the Santi Shi (三體勢) Zhan Zhuang as the main training method in Xing Yi dates back to Li Luoneng, the founder of modern version of the art. In Dai XinYi, the central and most important training method is called 'Squatting Monkey' – a dynamic movement exercise rather than a static posture held in place.

liu xue yi

In the Geng Jishan/Deng Yunfeng/Rose Li tradition, the phrase Santi is sometimes replaced by "central equilibrium stance". Since the 1980s, Zhan Zhuang has become more and more popular in other martial arts; many of which, such as some schools of Liu xue yi style Taiji, borrowed these methods from Xing Yi schools.

Other martial arts sometimes had their own Zhan Zhuang methods beforehand. Today, the posture Hun Yuan Zhuang in particular has become a mainstay of many styles; its spread probably owing to the growing popularity of Yi Quan.

Plow stepping [ liu xue yi ] Also called 'friction stepping' (Mo Ca Bu; 摩擦步), this exercise is meant to ingrain in the practitioner the correct forward-stepping habits and methods of Xing Yi, which are different from those of other arts (though similar to those found in some styles of Bagua Zhang). Plow stepping is a precursor to Xing Yi's 'Chicken Stepping', which is the faster and more explosive stepping method in the art.

In Yi Quan, plow stepping had been replaced with 'mud stepping'. Shi Li (試力) / Mo Jin [ edit ] In many lineages, there is an intermittent stage between the stationary Zhan Zhuang and the more complex Five Elements (though this stage might also be taught following the Five Elements). The two names above are interchangeable for a few exercises developed to fulfill that purpose.

Shi Li movements are basically simplified versions of the more advanced body mechanics and circles found in the Five Elements and the Animals. Their focus is on training one's structure and Yi, and can be thought of as 'Zhan Zhuang in movement'. They are usually liu xue yi very slowly, one movement at a time, repeating the same movement for many minutes on end.

The more advanced practitioner many also spontaneously link up and flow between different Shi Li movements, or train them more explosively with Fa Jin (发劲). In Yi Quan, the original Five Elements and 12 Animals have all been 'condensed' and 'refined' into forms of Shi Li, which replace them as the core exercises in the art (together with Zhan Zhuang). There also exists in certain lineages a type of Shi Li drill called Si Bu Pan Gen. It originated from Bagua Zhang, and is a form of tight Circle Walking – encircling a small square rather than a circle.

The main purposes of it is to train evasive stepping and stretch the hip and groin regions (the Kua). Five Element Shapes (Wǔ Xíng 五行) [ edit ] Xing Yi uses movements called the five classical Chinese elements to metaphorically represent five different states of combat. [23] [36] Also called the "Five Fists" or "Five Phases", the Five Elements are related to Taoist cosmology although the names do not literally correspond to the cosmological terms.

These five movements make the 'base' of the art, [37] upon which all further combative knowledge and skill is built upon. Most schools will teach the five elements before the twelve animals because they are easier and shorter to learn (though eventually more difficult to master). The Five Elements do not appear in Henan XinYi LiuHe Quan, though similar liu xue yi and methods exist in that art's curriculum.

The Five Elements of Xing Yi Quan Chinese Pinyin Chopping 劈 Pī Metal Like an axe chopping down and over. Drilling 鑽 Zuān Water Drilling forward diagonally.

Like two waves crashing into each other. Crushing 崩 Bēng Wood Like an arrow shot directly forward. Exploding 炮 Pào Fire Exploding outward like a cannonball, while covering at the same time. Crossing 橫 Héng Earth Crossing across the line of attack while turning over. Master Yang Hai of Montreal (originally from Tianjin), demonstrating a variation of Beng Quan (崩拳) – one of the Five Fists (Wu Xing) of Xing Yi Quan.

Each of the Five Element movements has many vectors of movement contained within it. Together, they are used to explore all the useful ways through which one could advance on a straight line.

Each of the Elements may be used as a Zhan Zhuang in-itself, and in some schools this is encouraged. A common saying originating from the Xing Yi classics is: "The hands do not leave the heart and the elbows do not leave the ribs". [10] This is most evident in the Five Elements. Some Xing Yi practitioners also use the five elements as an interpretative framework for reacting and responding to attacks.

This follows the five element theory, a general combat formula which assumes two types of cyclic interactions and three types of adverse interactions. The two cyclic interactions are the mutual nourishment (constructive) and mutual restraint (destructive) cycles. The adverse reactions are lesser known and rarely trained but exist from the understanding that nothing would exist if the mutual nourishment and restraint cycles existed alone, the adverse reactions are mutual over-restraint (overwhelming destructive interaction), mutual reverse restraint (reversal of the destructive cycle), and mutual burdening (unbalancing or reversal of the constructive cycle).

Practitioners abiding by these concepts train to react to and execute specific techniques in such a way that a desirable cycle will form based on these interactions of the five element theory. Where to aim, where to hit and with what technique, and how those motions should work defensively, is determined by what point of which cycle they see themselves in.

Each of the elements has many variant applications that allow it to be used to defend against all of the elements (including itself), so any set sequences are ultimately entirely arbitrary in real combat but present a frame work for developing a more practical skill, the destructive cycle is often taught to 'beginners' as it is generally easier to visualize and consists of easier applications. Animal Shapes liu xue yi Xíng 十二形) [ edit ] Xing Yi Quan is based on twelve distinct Animal Shapes [38] (of which, ten animals are more common – see table below).

Present in all regional and family styles, these animal movements emulate the techniques and tactics of the corresponding animal rather than just their physical movements. Many schools of Xing Yi Quan have only small number of movements for each animal, though some teach extended sequences of movements. The ten common animals Chinese Pinyin Bear 熊 Xióng In Xing Yi, "the Bear and Eagle combine", meaning that the Bear and Eagle techniques are often used in conjunction with each other.

[39] There is a bird called the " bear eagle", which covers the characteristics of both forms. The Eagle is a Pi Quan variation. It mimics the downward clawing action of this bird. Eagle 鷹 Yīng Snake [40] 蛇 Shé Includes both Constrictor and Viper movements. Tiger [41] 虎 Hǔ Features lunging with open-handed clawing attacks mimicking the pounce of a tiger. Dragon [42] 龍 Lóng The only "mythical" animal taught (except in those family systems where the phoenix is one of the 12 animals).

In some lineages it is practiced separately from tiger because they are said to clash (this is a minority opinion). Chicken [43] 鷄 Jī Mimics the pecking movement of a chicken and the flapping of its wings. This form also mimics the quick and aggressive combat style of the rooster. Horse [44] 馬 Mǎ Combination of Pi and Heng movements that mimics the action of a rearing a horse.

Swallow [45] 燕 Yàn Follows the swift and random movements of the swallow by rotating position and circling the enemy with strong but quick foot movement.

May refer to the purple swamphen. Goshawk [46] 鷂 Yào This can mean 'Sparrowhawk,' though the more common word for "Sparrowhawk" used to be Zhān (鸇), which has fallen from use over the years. The Chinese word for "goshawk" covers both the goshawk and the sparrowhawk. Note – in some lineages this animal is translated to mean the grouse or small pheasant, as well as the phoenix.

Among other things, trains the ability to penetrate between the opponent's limbs and body with strikes or takedowns. Monkey [47] 猴 Hóu Performed with light, agile and simple striking combined with parrying and deception of distance. Other animals that may be present in a particular lineage Chinese Pinyin Crane 鶴 Hè Crocodile [48] 鼍 Tuó The animal it is meant to represent is the Yangtze River alligator.

Sometimes referred to as a water-skimming insect, or water lizard. In other lineages, this animal represents the Chinese ostrich, which some sources speculate could actually be the source of the Chinese Phoenix Tai [49] 鳥 台 (𩿡) see note A flycatcher bird native to Asia. Due to its rarity, the two characters may be translated as ostrich, dove, hawk or even phoenix.

The correct Chinese character for this animal is 𩿡, not two. This character is not in the earlier versions of the Unicode standard, so not all computers are capable of displaying it.

For further information, check the Unihan database for complete data on this character. Turtle 龜 Guī Represents the softshell turtle which uses quick head snapping motions to catch fish. Some schools will teach this in combination with Tuó (crocodile), considering them to be the same animal. Ba Zi Gong [ edit ] These are eight fighting combinations that exist in some lineages of the art.

[50] They emphasize direct combat applicability, and elaborate further on the movements vectors and powers explored and trained with the Five Elements. Sometimes, there exist two variations for the Ba Zi Gong – one for gongfu development, and another for actual fighting usage.

There might also exist in a lineage a linking form for all 8 combinations. The eight Ba Zi Gong are: Zhǎn 斬 (Cutting Down/Severing), Jié 截 (Intercepting), Guǒ 裹 (Wrapping), Kuà 挎 (Carrying), Tiāo 挑 (Lifting/Raising), Dǐng 頂 (Pushing Upwards), Lìng 令 (Leading) and Yún 雲 (Cloud). Linking forms [ edit ] Master Di Guoyong of Beijing demonstrating a Zuan Quan application as part of a partner practice form (dui lian).

Shot in Beijing, September 2014. Additionally to the Five Fists and animal shapes, many lineages employ the training of several additional movement forms – from a handful to a few dozen. [23] [51] Some of the more common forms are partner forms, which simulate combat scenarios. Once the individual animal shapes are taught, a student is often taught an animal linking form ( shi'er xing lianhuan) which connects all the taught animals together in a sequence.

Some styles have longer, or multiple forms for individual animals, such Eight Tiger Forms Huxing bashi. Other forms often link movements from the Five Fists, the different animal shapes, or both, and commonly include additional movements and techniques not found elsewhere. There also exist a Liu xue yi Zi Gong linking form and many weapons forms.

Weapons [ edit ] Xing Yi Quan emphasizes a close relationship between the movements of armed/unarmed techniques. This technical overlap aims to produce greater learning efficiency. Traditionally Xing Yi was an armed art. Students would train initially with the spear, progressing to shorter weapons and eventually empty-handed fighting.

This gradually changed throughout the 20th century, as the emphasis in most traditional Chinese martial arts shifted from the use of weapons to fighting empty-handed. Weapon diversity is great in many lineages, with the idea being that an experienced Xing Yi fighter would be able to pick up almost any weapon available (or an object to use as such) irrespective of its exact length, weight and shape.

Common weapons in the art: • Spear. This is the most synonymous weapon with the art. Spears are usually 1.8–5 meters in length, though those over 3 meters long are meant solely for increasing training intensity and challenge, and historically people would not commonly fight with spears that large.

The Five Fists of Xing Yi have variations which are trained with the spear. [10] • Chinese straight sword • Liu xue yi sabre Less common weapons: • Large sabre (used by infantry against mounted opponents) • Long staff • Short staff (at maximum length you could hold between the palms liu xue yi your hands at each end – techniques with this weapon may have been used with a spear that had been broken) • Needles (much like a double ended rondel gripped in the centre – on the battlefield this liu xue yi mostly have been used like its western equivalent to finish a fallen opponent through weak points in the armour) • Fuyue (halberds of various types) • Chicken-sabre sickle.

This weapon was supposedly created by Ji Longfeng and became the special weapon of the style. Its alternate name is "Binding Flower Waist Carry". [52] The Xing Yi Classics [ edit ] Wu Mu Quan Pu (武穆拳譜) A variety of Important texts have survived throughout the years, often called "Classics", "Songs" or "Theories".

These texts use intentionally vague language to describe the principles liu xue yi methods of practice in LiuHe XinYi Quan, Dai XinYi Quan and Xing Yi Quan. They are less relevant to more modern interpretations of these arts, such as Yi Quan. In the past, these text were copied by hand, and were kept secret.

[5] The following is a list of the most commonly referred-to classical texts: • Classic of Unification • Classic of Fighting • Classic of Stepping • Classic of Six Harmonies Much of these texts can be read in English. [53] Below is a picture of one book containing the classics, which belongs to Li Bo (李博) from Shijiazhuang, a teacher who claims to be a descendant of Li Luoneng, the founder of the art.

This book is titled Wu Mu Quan Pu (武穆拳譜). The three stages of training power (Jin 勁) in Xing Yi [ edit ] Generally speaking, it is accepted that in Xing Yi (at least liu xue yi Hebei-derived lineages), there are three stages to a practitioner's development of power and overall skill.

[23] [54] These three stages develop and change in parallel to all other training methods, and dictate the quality of one's training methods.

The following is a description of these three stages (a translation of classic texts [55] [56] [57] by Devlin G. Horrinek): • Ming Jin 明勁 ('Clear-to-see Jin') – The strength and form must be strong, precise, and clear. Extend outward with force. When putting out force it must pass through, penetrate, pierce, connect, be pliant, ferocious, round, firm, have a shaking-cutting strength, and deliver explosive force.

Practice and drill the hand techniques to develop the external 5-Elements and the elbows to develop the internal 5-Elements. Advancing liu xue yi retreating with bent legs as if wading through mud (tang ni; refers to the practice and intent of Plow/Mud Stepping) like "walking while plowing through mud".

This is the stage of Ming Jin. • An Jin 暗勁 ('Hidden Jin') – One must have already grasped and have a strong foundation in the Ming Jin stage. Then you can start on the second stage. Now when using strength you contain it and don't reveal it on the outside. Store up (xu) but don't emit (fa). Deliberately store up your Jin. The power to 'fa' emit is held back but not released, to the opponent this feels very powerful and strange and then you can emit.

This is called "Treading on thin Ice" [And the feeling is liu xue yi when walking on an iced-over lake and never knowing when, or if, you're going to break through the ice.].

This is the stage of An Jin. • Hua Jin 化勁 ('Transforming Jin') – This is considered the highest stage of practice. You must have already grasped the stages of Ming Jin and An Jin and have a very strong foundation in them. You should have a lot of experience in fighting as you must know that this stage is 'Sheji Cong Ren' (same as in Taijiquan).

Give up yourself and comply with the opponent. Use 'Zhan, Lian, Nian, and Sui' (sticky, link, adhering, and complying). Everywhere you need to be empty and not exerting strength.

The whole body must be blending and smooth (hun yuan – smooth roundness) and not starting and stopping. This is the skill of 'The opponent does not know me, I alone know the opponent.' At any time, place, or moment you can emit (fa), but only emitting force at the precise moment.

This is the Hua Jing stage. Famous practitioners [ edit ] Since the validity of lineages are often controversial, this list is not intended to represent any lineage. Names are presented in alphabetical order using pinyin romanization. Famous figures Name Chinese Other names Notes Bu Xuekuan 布學寬 布子容 Famous disciple of Che Yizhai.

Cao Jiwu 曹繼武 Reported to have won first place in the Imperial Martial Examinations sometime in the 17th or 18th century. Student of Ji Jike and teacher of the Dai family. From him, the art split into the two lines of Dai XinYi and Liu He Xin Yi Quan. Che Yonghong 车永宏 Che Yizhai 車毅齋 First disciple (kaimen) of Li Luoneng.

Chu Guiting 褚桂亭 Disciple of Li Cunyi. He mastered Xing Yi, Bagua and Taiji. Dai Long Bang 戴龍邦 First student of the art from the Dai family. Was taught by Cao Jiwu. Fu Chen Sung 傅振嵩 Chief instructor of Bagua Zhang at the Nanjing Central Goushu Institute. Was good friends with Sun Lutang and exchanged martial arts skills with him. Guo Yunshen 郭雲深 A famous student of Li Luoneng. A legendary tale reports him as having been incarcerated for killing a man with his Beng Quan, and when confined to a prison cell only being able to practice the Tiger shape movements due to his hands being tied by chains.

Han Muxia 韓慕俠 Student of Zhang Zhaodong. Famous Northern practitioner who traveled south to train in Shanxi as well. Great patriot and national hero who defeated a well-known Russian wrestler and strongman in a duel that has since been fictionalized on television and film. Nicknamed Bei Fang Da Xia 北方大侠 (Great Northern Hero). Founder of Han Pai Wushu. Teacher of Ma Jie. Hong Yixiang 洪懿祥 Student of Zhang Junfeng. Founder of the Tang Shou Tao school in 1960s Taiwan. Teacher of Xu Hongji, Luo Dexiu and Su Dongchen.

Hong Yimien 洪懿祥 Older brother of Hong Yixiang and Student of Zhang Junfeng. Teacher of Allen Pittman. Ji Longfeng 姬龍峰 Ji Jike (姬際可) The first person to have historically been shown to practice the style that later diverged into Dai XinYi, XinYi LiueHe Quan and Xing Yi Quan.

Taught Cao Jiwu. Li Fuzhen 李復禎 Famous disciple of Che Yizhai. Li Luoneng 李洛能 Li Nengran (李能然) Nicknamed "Divine Fist Li"; The founder of modern Xing Yi Quan. Li Tianji 李天驥 Li LongFei (李龍飛) Author of "The Skill of Xingyiquan". Was the first Chairman of the Chinese Wushu Administration under Communist China. Helped to preserve the art during the Cultural Revolution.

Li Cunyi 李存義 Li Kui Yuan (李魁元) Famous boxer. Disciple of Liu Qilan and Guo Yunshen (1847–1921). Was the owner liu xue yi an armed protection services company in which many Xing Yi practitioners worked, including some of his own students.

Ma Xueli 馬學禮 Founder of the Henan or Muslim branch of XinYi LiuHe Quan. Shang Yunxiang 尚雲祥 Founder of the Shang or "New Style" of the Hebei branch. Was a disciple of Li Cunyi. Song Shirong 宋世榮 Founder of the Song Family Style – a sub-style of the Shanxi Xing Yi branch. Sun Lutang 孫祿堂 Sun Fuquan (孫福全) Author of several books on internal arts, also known for developing Sun-style taijiquan and Sun-style Bagua Zhang.

Disciple of Guo Yunshen and Li Cunyi. Wang Jiwu 王繼武 Born 1891 in Shanxi, Yuci – 1991 in Beijing. Important master of 20th century. Disciple of Wang Fuyuan (王福元). He also got Dai family style Xin Yi Liu He Quan true legacy through his gong fu brother Peng Tingjun (彭廷雋), who liu xue yi studied from Dai Kui (戴奎).

He taught high skilled disciples as Zhang Baoyang (張寶楊), Li Zhongyin (李忠蔭), Pan Zhiyuan (潘志遠), He Shouqi (何守岐), Wang Lianyi (son 王連義) etc. His only one living disciple now is Zhang Baoyang (張寶楊). Zhang Baoyang 張寶楊 Born 1922 in Hebei – 2016. Disciple of Wang Jiwu (王繼武) and uncle Zhang Xiangzhai (張祥齋). Also studied Qigong and bone-setting/acupuncture with XYQ brother Hu Yaozhen 胡耀貞. Founder and honorary president of liu xue yi Beijing Xingyi Research Association.

Author of the book "Xing Yi Nei Gong", written with Wang Jinyu. Still has a few highly skilled disciples in Beijing. One of his top disciples Du Fukun teaches small group of disciples in Prague, Czech republic. Zhang Junfeng liu xue yi Founded a major school in Taiwan in the 1950s. Later, via the lineage of his student, Hong Yixiang, his branch became one of the most popular lines of Xing Yi in the West. Hong Yimien, one of his most senior students.

Zhang Zhaodong 張兆 Zhang Zhankui (張占魁) Famous boxer. Disciple of Liu Qilan. Founder of the Xingyi-Bagua-Palm system. Taught many people in the Tianjin area who later became masters in their own right. Lineage chart [ edit ] The following chart, created by Shifu Jonathan Bluestein and Shifu Nitzan Oren, demonstrates the historical connections between most known lineages of Xing Yi Quan, and related martial arts.

The chart is a collaborative project between Mr. Bluestein, who created the bulk of it, and several dozen Xing Yi Quan teachers from the West, who contributed information on their lineages and those of others. The chart project is well known in the Xing Yi Quan community, and the information contained in it has never been disputed (further contributions, suggestions and objections may be made by directly contacting Mr. Bluestein, at: jonathan.bluestein gmail.com). An attempt was made to include as many notable teachers as possible, but due to the obvious constraints of space, not all could have been included.

Disciples are marked by a direct, full, downward-flowing line. Regular students are marked with a broken line. Herein is a list of references to sources specifying various lineages of Xing Yi Quan, liu xue yi the content presented on the chart.

[1] [55] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] Please note that a few minor details on the chart concerning people who had lived and taught prior to the liu xue yi century are still somewhat controversial. This is due to a lack of profound historical documentation.

One of the more debated questions in this regard is who had been the teacher of Li Luoneng, the founder of modern Xing Yi Quan. It is known that Li studied with the Dai clan, but remains unclear who taught him.

Some people and lineages have traditionally claimed that he was taught by master Dai Longbang. However, many others point to the fact that Longbang had died before Luoneng was born, or when Luoneng was quite young.

Combined with the fact that Luoneng only arrived at Dai territory as a traveling adult, others argue that it would have been impossible for him to have studied under Longbang, and suggest his teacher was actually Longbang's student, Guo Weihan.

[73] Another historical controversy relates to who had been the teacher of the founder of Yi Quan, late master Wang Xiangzhai (~1886–1963). Most Liu xue yi Quan oral traditions have it that Guo Yunshen, a student of the founder of modern Xing Yi (Li Luoneng), had been Wang Xiangzhai's teacher.

However, since Wang was not yet alive (or been a young child) by the time of Guo Yunshen's death, others suggest he must have learnt from Guo's other disciples ( Li Bao 李豹 is thought to have been his true main teacher). The chart lists Li Bao as Wang's teacher, and Guo Yunshen as an indirect teacher due to the controversy surrounding the matter (until further historical evidence surfaces). Cross influences with other martial arts [ edit ] During the course of the late 19th liu xue yi and 20th century, there had been a lot of cross-fertilization between notable masters of Xing Yi, and those of Bagua Zhang and Taiji Quan.

This has yielded many mutual influences. Chen Panling's Taiji Quan (originating from Taiwan) has been influenced by Xing Yi and Bagua. Shanxi style Xing Yi in the line of Song Shirong has incorporated Bagua's Circle Walking practice, in either a circle, or liu xue yi squares or triangles (the latter practice referred to as 'Si Bu Pan Liu xue yi – Four Step Base Encirclement).

[74] Cheng Tinghua, a famous student of Bagua founder Dong Hai Chuan, is said to have taught his Bagua to many Xing Yi masters (including Gao Yisheng, Geng Jishan and Sun Lutang, of whom is written in the paragraphs below).

[75] Gao Yisheng's Gao Style Bagua Zhang has incorporated a lot of material from Xing Yi Quan, and his lineage, liu xue yi as 'Yi Zong', includes the teaching of both arts.

Sun Lutang, one of the most famous practitioner of Xing Yi in the 20th century, had learnt Cheng style Bagua Zhang and Wu/Hao style Taiji Quan after many decades of practicing Xing Yi.

He then later went to develop his own unique forms of Bagua and Taiji, which were heavily influenced by his former experience training in Xing Yi. [76] Many martial arts lines, notably that of Chen style Taiji Quan from Chen village, have begun to practice the Zhan Zhuang posture known as Hun Yuan Zhuang (or Cheng Bao Zhuang) in recent decades. The origin of that posture in modern times is probably either Xing Yi Quan or Yi Quan, as it is basic in the arts' practices.

Contrary to some modern hypothesis proposed by Karate practitioners, [77] Xing Yi was not "created based on Baji Quan and did not "influence greatly the development of Okinawan Karate". Rather, Okinawan Karate was most heavily influenced by southern-Chinese arts. [78] This is well substantiated in historical Karate literature, such as in the works of Patrick McCarthy.

[79] Cultural aspects of Xing Yi [ edit ] Relationship with Chinese culture [ edit ] Like all traditional Chinese martial arts, Xing Yi too features a strong bond to the military, religious, philosophical and cultural traditions of China. Xing Yi's weapons are mostly ones which were used on Chinese battlefields throughout the centuries, with the dao and spear being the most prominent members of that group.

Many consider the style to have originally been a 'military art' (as opposed to a sport like boxing, or an urban self-defense system like Wing Chun). Xing Yi's Liu xue yi Shapes ('Five Elements') are a borrowed concept from Traditional Chinese Medicine (which in turn had borrowed them from Daoism).

The 12 Animal shapes were influenced, in part, by the Chinese zodiac. The Dragon, liu xue yi the Chinese mythical animal, begets its supposed physical description and attributes from Chinese lore. Like all Nei Jia arts, Xing Yi is heavily influenced by Daoism.

Its combat meditation methods (Zhan Zhuang) existed in similar forms in Daoism before being integrated into martial arts in later centuries. The whole theory behind "using softness to overcome hardness" and similar ideas have their origins in the Dao De Jing.

Daoist concepts are readily implemented into actual training in the practice of Xing Yi. This can be discerned in the following paragraph by Sun Lutang: [80] "Before training, there is no thought or intention, no figure or image, no self or others, only Qi exists in the chaos of the body.

The state is called WuJi in Xing Yi. Without knowing the principle of "inverse motion", people always rigidly adhered to the principle of the "direct motion nature". Hence the internal Qi is restrained and things cannot be properly realized due to an obscure mind that causes the body to be weak.

They do not know the principle of health that extreme Yang leads to Yin and extreme Yin leads to death. However, sages can be versed in the way of inverse motion, and control the relation between Yin and Yang, manage the principal of creation, direct Liang Yi (another name for Yin and Yang), grasp the key points, and go back to the pre-natal from the post-natal realm to settle at the original position as the body becomes an integral unit.

Its way is nothing more than the principle of stretching and contracting as in post-natal Wu Xing liu xue yi Bagua boxing. This is called the generation of Qi from WuJi." Popular culture appearances in modern times [ edit ] Xing Yi Quan has been featured in various media through the years. • In the Dead or Alive series of video games, Gen Fu and Eliot employ the style. • In the Tekken series, Wang Jinrei uses Xing Yi Quan, while Michelle Chang and her daughter, Julia Chang, use Xing Yi mixed with professional wrestling and Bajiquan.

• In the Mortal Kombat series, Shao Kahn employs Xing Yi Quan as well as Tai Tsu Chang Quan. [81] • Jet Li performed a modern Liu xue yi adaptation of Xing Yi in the 2001 action movie The One (seen used by the hero's evil alternate dimensional self in a multiverse).

• In the manga series Negima!, the title character studies Xing Yi as part of his Chinese martial arts training. • Xing Yi, as well as XinYi LiuHe Quan, are also featured in the manga series Kenji. • In the film Ip Man 4: The Finale, supporting character Master Chiang is a female Xing Yi grandmaster. • In Avatar: The Last Airbender and The Legend of Korra, some techniques of airbendiing and firebending are based on Xing Yi Quan. See also [ edit ] • Bagua Zhang • Liuhebafa • Neijia • Taijiquan • Yiquan References [ edit ] • ^ a b c "Blogger".

Daixinyi.blogspot.se. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ a b Sun Lu Tang (2000). Liu xue yi Yi Quan Xue. Unique Publications. p. 3. ISBN 0-86568-185-6. • ^ The name is pronounced 'Sheeng E Chwen?' in English (the word Quan has a tone that sounds like one is asking a question) • ^ Shao Xiaoyi. "Yue Fei's facelift sparks debate" (in Chinese). China Daily. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-08-09.

• ^ a b Kennedy, Brian. "InYo: hsingi training: Kennedy". Ejmas.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ Pei, Xirong and Li, Yang'an. Henan Orthodox Xingyi Quan. Trans. Joseph Candrall. Pinole: Smiling Tiger Press, 1994. • ^ "中國武術協會". Wushu.sport.org.cn. 2004-09-02. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ Yang, Jwing-Ming & Liang Shou-Yu (2003). Xingyiquan : Theory, Applications, Fighting Tactics and Spirit.

YMAA Pubn. ISBN 0-940871-41-6. {{ cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link) • liu xue yi Kennedy, Brian; Elizabeth Guo (2005). Chinese Martial Arts Training Manuals: A Historical Survey.

Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1-55643-557-6. • ^ a b c Miller, Dan; Tim Cartmell (1999). Xing Yi Nei Gong. Burbank, California: Unique Publications. ISBN 0-86568-174-0. • ^ Jarek Szymanski. "Dai Family Xinyiquan – The Origins and Development". China From Inside. Retrieved 2007-08-09. • ^ Toktoghan (脱脱). Song Shi-Yue Fei Zhuan (宋史•岳飛傳 – "History of the Song: Yue Fei Biography") (Volume 365), 1345. A rewritten version of Yue Ke's memoir.

(See also, 岳飛子雲 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on January 12, 2009 .

liu xue yi

Retrieved 2007-07-17. ) • ^ Kaplan, Edward Harold. Yueh Fei and the founding of the Southern Sung. Liu xue yi (Ph. D.) – University of Iowa, 1970. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1970., pg. 10. • ^ Yue, Ke (岳柯).

Jin Tuo Xu Pian (金佗續編), 1234 – Chapter 28, pg. 16. • ^ Kaplan: pg. 13. • ^ "Be not Defeated by the Rain: Xinyi Quan 心意拳 and Xingyi Quan 形意拳". Benotdefeatedbytherain.blogspot.co.il. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ Some historians believe Ma Xueli was taught by Ji Longfeng himself.

However, the traditions of the Ma family itself say only that Xueli learned from a wandering master whose name is unknown. • ^ Ma Xueli was of the Chinese Muslim Hui minority, and to this day, most of the practitioners of this art are of that minority • ^ The Preface identifies Cao Ji Wu as a student of Ji Longfeng and the master who taught Xing Yi Quan to Dai Long Bang.

However, other sources identify Dai's teacher variously as Li Zheng or Niu Xixian. • ^ Dianke, Wu; Suren, Cheng. "Li Laonong". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ Bluestein, Jonathan (October 22, 2015). "Cook Ding's Kitchen: The History of Xingyiquan and Yiquan". Cookdingskitchen.blogspot.co.il. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ Rovere, Dennis (2008).

The Xingyi Quan of the Chinese Army: Huang Bo Nien's Xingyi Fist and Weapon Instruction. Berkeley, California: Blue Snake Books. ISBN 978-1-58394-257-4. • ^ a b c d "Yizong school 易宗八卦門 Luo Dexiu – Nei Jia Quan – Bagua, Hsing Yi, Tai Chi, Chi Gong, Internal Martial Arts".

Yizong.org. Archived from the original on June 1, 2015. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Resume". Essenceofevolution.com. Archived from the original on November 7, 2016. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Xing Yi – Master Yang's Internal Training System".

Internalstyle.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Shang Wu Zhai שאנג וו ג'אי – ביס לאמנויות לחימה". • ^ "Li Tai Liang". Archived from the original on October 16, 2008. Retrieved May 21, 2013. • ^ Andrzej Kalisz. "Yiquan Academy International Network". Yiquan.info. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ Frantzis, Bruce Kumar (1998). The Power of Internal Martial Arts. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1-55643-253-4. • ^ Sun Lu Tang (tran, Albert Liu) (2000). Xing Yi Quan Xue: The Study of Form-Mind Boxing.

Unique Publications. ISBN 0-86568-185-6. • ^ Szymanski, Jarek. "ChinaFromInside.com presents. XINYI & XINGYI – Xinyi Liuhe Quan". Chinafrominside.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ Szymanski, Jarek.

"ChinaFromInside.com presents. XINYI & XINGYI -Dai Family Xinyiquan – The Origins and Development". Chinafrominside.com.

Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ Dr. Yang; Ming, Jwing (December 6, 2010). "Fundamental Moving Patterns of Xingyiquan". Ymaa.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ Freedom Martial Art (12 March 2008). "Xing Yi Quan: SAN TI SHI" – via YouTube. • ^ "Pangen". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ Cunyi, Li; Xiusheng, Dong.

"ChinaFromInside.com presents. XINYI & XINGYI – Five Elements Essentials of Yue's Intention Boxing". Chinafrominside.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ Mitchell, Damo. "The Basics of Xingyiquan". Archived from the original on March 19, 2014. Liu xue yi April 3, 2014. • ^ Gerald A. Sharp. "chiflow Nei Jia Kungfu Taiji, Xingyquan, Baguazhang Qigung and Liangong". Chiflow.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Eaglbear". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Snake". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.

• ^ "Tiger". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Dragon". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Chicken".

Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Horse". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Swallow". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ liu xue yi. Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Monkey". Smilingtiger.net.

Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Alligator". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Taibird". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ Liu Xiaoling. "Xingyi Quan Ba Zi Gong : Xingyi Quan Eight Characters Skills" (PDF). Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Xingyiquan 形意拳 – International Wudang Internal Martial Arts Academy".

Wudangdanpai.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ Yang, Jwing-Ming (1999). Ancient Chinese Weapons: A Martial Artist's Guide. Boston, MA: YMAA. ISBN 1-886969-67-1. {{ cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link) • ^ Joseph Crandall.

"Xingyi". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ Szymanski, Jarek. "ChinaFromInside.com presents. XINYI & XINGYI – BAGUAZHANG – Interview with Mr. Di Guoyong (Part 2)". Chinafrominside.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22.

• ^ a b Shunting, Huang. "HuangST". Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "山西六合心意拳". Liuhexinyi.com. Retrieved 2016-04-18. • ^ "百度--您的訪問出錯了". Hi.baidu.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ Sun Lu Tang (2000). Xing Yi Quan Xue. Unique Publications. p. 12. ISBN 0-86568-185-6. • ^ "Xing Yi Info". Plumpub.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "About Li Gui Chang & Song Zhi Yong – Internal Arts International".

Internal Arts International. Archived from the original on March 5, 2015. • ^ "Xingyi (Twelve Animals) class description at the Aiping TaiChi & Qigong Center, Orange, CT". Aiping-taichi.com.

Archived from the original on June 16, 2016. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Master Di Guoyong :: Master Scrima's Instructors :: Master Nick Scrima's Traditional Chinese Martial Arts Center". Clearwaterkungfu.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "The Lineage of Yin Cheng Gong Fa". Ycgf.org. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Lineage" (PNG). Internalarts.weebly.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Xingyi Lineage" (JPG). Watertradition.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22.

• ^ "Toronto Tai Chi & Meditation Centre". Torontotaichimeditationcentre.com. Archived from the original on Liu xue yi 5, 2016. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ The Xingyi Boxing Manual: Hebei Style's Five Principles and Seven Words, p. 8, liu xue yi Google Books • ^ "Lineage Hsing Yi Chuan". Chinahand.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Welcome to Little Nine Heaven UK Kung Fu School – Masters Lineage". Littlenineheavenuk.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "chiflow teacher charts".

Chiflow.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "International Wu Tao Federation – The New Zealand Wu Tao Federation welcomes you!". Tai-chi.co.nz. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ Chen Maxi; Jarek Szymanski. "Xinyi Quan Master Li Zunsi of Shanghai" (PDF). Smilingtiger.net. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ Szymanski, Jarek. "ChinaFromInside.com presents. XINYIQUAN & XINGYIQUAN – Guo Liu xue yi Xinyiquan". Chinafrominside.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Xingyi's Pangen walking". Masters of the IMA.

• ^ "Cheng Ting Hua, Baguazhang Master". Bagua.freehostia.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ "Lives of Chinese Martial Artists (4): Sun Lutang and the Invention of the "Traditional" Chinese Martial Arts (Part I)". Kung Fu Tea. • ^ Jonathan, Bluestein (January 2, 2016).

"An open letter of reply concerning a thorough article on the history of Karate". Facebook.com. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ McCarthy, Patrick l. "International Ryukyu Karate Research Society/琉球唐手術国際研究會: Siamese Boxing – The original source of Okinawa-te [Ti'gwa/手小]?".

Irkrs.blogspot.com.au. Retrieved 2016-04-22. • ^ results, search; Enkamp, Jesse; Swift, Joe (21 June 2016). Bubishi: The Classic Manual of Combat. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-4805313848. • ^ Sun Lu Tang (tran, Albert Liu) (2000). Xing Yi Quan Xue: The Study of Form-Mind Boxing. Unique Publications.

p. 68. ISBN 0-86568-185-6. • ^ "DEATH BATTLE! liu xue yi Shao Kahn VS M. Bison". Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. Retrieved November 5, 2013.

liu xue yi

Liu xue yi reading [ edit ] • Li Tian-Ji (tran, Andrea Falk) (2000). The Skill of Xingyiquan. TGL Books. ISBN 0-9687517-1-7.

• Xing Yi Lianhuan Quan, Li Cun Yi (Translated by Joseph Crandall) • Damon Smith (2004). Xing Yi Bear Eagle. Jeremy Mills Publishing. ISBN 0-9546484-4-7. • Smith, Robert W. (1974). HSING-I Chinese Mind-Body Boxing. Kodansha International Ltd. ISBN 0-87011-230-9. • Robert Smith & Allan Pittman (1990). Hsing-I: Chinese Internal Boxing. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-1617-4. • Smith, Robert W. (1999). Martial Musings (See chapter on Rose Li). Via Media. ISBN 1-893765-00-8. • Sun Lu Tang (tran, Albert Liu) (2000).

Xing Yi Quan Xue: The Study of Form-Mind Boxing. Unique Publications. ISBN 0-86568-185-6. (Translated) • Jin Yunting (tran.

John Groschwitz) (2003). The Xingyi Boxing Manual. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1-55643-473-1. • Jonathan Bluestein (2014). Research of Martial Arts. Amazon CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1499122510. External links [ edit ] • A translation of chapters from Li Zhongxuan's book on Xing Yi Quan practice and history • Xinyi Liuhe Quan – the secret art of Chinese Muslims: Part One – Brief History Hidden categories: • CS1 Chinese-language sources (zh) • CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list • CS1 uses Chinese-language script (zh) • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Articles needing additional references from August 2007 • All articles needing additional references • Articles containing Chinese-language text Edit links • This page was last edited on 26 April 2022, at 06:50 (UTC).

• Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Liu xue yi Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Liu xue yi Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

• Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • • i 1. The Generality of DNA-Templated Synthesis as a Basis for Evolving Non-Natural Small Molecules. Gartner, Z. J. and Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 6961-6963 (2001). PDF- SI A highlight describing this work appears in Angew.

liu xue yi

Chem. Int. Ed. 41, 89-90 (2002). PDF This work reports the generality of DNA-templated synthesis, its distance independence, and a model translation of multiple DNA sequences into corresponding liu xue yi products in a manner suitable for in vitro selection and PCR amplification of templates encoding desired synthetic molecules. 2. An In Vivo Selection System for Homing Endonuclease Activity. Gruen, M.; Chang, K.; Serbanescu, I.; Liu, D. R. Nucleic Acids Res. 30, e29 (2002). PDF This paper describes a selection system that is the basis of ongoing efforts to evolve and understand homing endonucleases with novel substrate specificities.

3. Recent Advances in the In Vitro Evolution of Nucleic Acids. Bittker, J. A.; Phillips, K. J.; Liu, D. R. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol., 6, 367-374 (2002). PDF 4. Expanding the Reaction Scope of DNA-Templated Synthesis. Gartner, Z, J.; Kanan, M. W.; Liu, D. R. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 41, 1796-1800 (2002). PDF This work is featured in an online Nature Science Update.

This paper reveals the potential of DNA to direct a wide range of synthetic organic reactions by reporting many new DNA-templated chemistries, including the first general carbon-carbon bond forming reactions (nitro-aldol, nitro-Michael, dipolar cycloadditions, Wittig olefinations, and Pd-mediated cross-couplings) templated by nucleic acids. 5. Nucleic Acid Evolution and Minimization by Nonhomologous Random Recombination.

Bittker, J. A.; Le, B. V.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Biotechnol. 20, 1024-1029 (2002). PDF This work describes a new method (NRR) for the diversification of nucleic acids that allows random recombination to take place between multiple unrelated DNA sequences, and demonstrates that NRR enables nucleic acid evolution, functional dissection, and minimization in ways not possible using existing diversification methods.

6. Multistep Small-Molecule Synthesis Programmed by DNA Templates. Gartner, Z. J.; Kanan, M. W.; Liu, D. R. J.

Am. Chem. Soc., 124, 10304-10306 (2002). PDF - SI News stories describing this work appear in Chem. & Eng. News 80 [34] 12 (2002) PDF, and in Science, 300, 242 (2003). This paper describes the development of linker and purification strategies that enable the products of DNA-templated reactions to serve as starting materials for subsequent DNA-templated transformations.

These findings enable DNA sequences to be translated into structures of useful complexity. 7. Directing Otherwise Incompatible Reactions in a Single Solution Liu xue yi DNA-Templated Organic Synthesis. Calderone, C. T.; Puckett, J. W.; Gartner, Z. J.; Liu, D. R. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41, 4104-4108 (2002). PDF This work is featured as an Editor’s Choice in Science 298 [5598], 1517 (2002).

This paper describes a new mode of controlling reactivity in a DNA-templated format that is not possible using conventional synthesis approaches. 8. Two Enabling Architectures for DNA-Templated Organic Synthesis. Gartner, Z. J.; Grubina, R.; Calderone, C. T.; Liu, D. R. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 1370-1375 (2003).

PDF A Science and Technology Concentrate describing this work appears in Chem. & Eng. News 81 [13] 24 (2003). PDF This paper reports the development of two template architectures (omega and T) that expand the types of reactions that can be performed in a DNA-templated format.

9. In Vivo Evolution of an RNA Transcriptional Activator. Buskirk, A. R.; Kehayova, P. D.; Landrigan, A.; Liu, D. R. Chem. Biol. 10, 533-540 (2003). PDF This paper is noted as an article of interest in Cell 113 (7) and is previewed in a separate article in Chem. Biol. 10, 584-585 (2003). This work describes the evolution from random RNA libraries expressed in yeast cells of a short RNA sequence that strongly activates gene transcription.

The potency of this RNA rivals that of the most active known natural transcriptional activators (all of which are proteins). Its function was dissected using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, additional evolution, and secondary structure prediction. 10. Stereoselectivity in DNA-Templated Organic Synthesis and Its Origins. Li, X. and Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 10188-10189 (2003). PDF - SI This paper reports the ability of DNA templates to induce stereoselectivity in DNA-templated reactions and traces the origins of this stereoselectivity to the macromolecular conformation of the DNA templates.

These findings reveal the conditions under which DNA templates can perturb reaction outcomes beyond simple modulation of effective molarity. 11. Highly Sensitive In Vitro Selections for DNA-Linked Synthetic Small Molecules with Protein Binding Affinity and Specificity.

Doyon, J. B.; Snyder, T. M.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 12372-12373 (2003). PDF - SI This work describes the development of affinity and specificity selections for DNA-linked synthetic molecules such as those emerging from DNA-templated small molecule library synthesis. 12. Efficient and Sequence-Specific DNA-Templated Polymerization of Liu xue yi Aldehydes. Rosenbaum, D. M. and Liu, D.

R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 13924-13925 (2003). PDF - SI This work reports the first efficient and sequence-specific translation of DNA templates into synthetic polymers of length similar to functional proteins. This work is highlighted in a Science and Technology story in Chem.

& Eng. News 82 [3] 64 (2004). PDF 13. Expanding the Genetic Code In Vitro and In Vivo. Magliery, T. J.; Liu, D. R. The Genetic Code and the Origin of Life Ed. Ribas de Pouplana, L. Landes Bioscience and Springer, (2004).

14. Translation of DNA into Synthetic N-Acyloxazolidines. Li, X.; Gartner, Z. J.; Tse, B. N.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 5090-5092 (2004). PDF - SI Multistep DNA-templated synthesis was used to generate N-acyloxazolidines and macrocyclic N-acyloxazolidines.

These structures represent the most complex synthetic small molecules to date translated from DNA. 15. DNA-Templated Liu xue yi Synthesis: Nature’s Strategy for Controlling Chemical Reactivity Applied to Synthetic Molecules. Li, X.; Liu, D. R. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 4848-4870 (2004).

PDF This article reviews the growth of DNA-templated synthesis from its origins as a model system for self-replication to its recent development into a general way to control the reactivity of synthetic molecules using effective molarity. 16. Directed Evolution of Protein Enzymes Using Nonhomologous Random Recombination. Bittker, J. A.; Le, B. V.; Liu, J. M.; Liu, D. R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 7011-7016 (2004).

PDF The development and use of protein liu xue yi random recombination (protein NRR) to evolve active chorismate mutase protein enzymes with rearranged secondary structures are described in this work. 17. Engineering a Ligand-Dependent RNA Transcriptional Activator. Buskirk, A. R.; Landrigan, A.; Liu, D. R. Chem. Biol. 11, 1157-1163 (2004).

PDF This work is featured in a Research Highlight in Nat. Methods 1, 6-7 (2004). PDF This paper reports the use of RNA engineering and directed evolution methods to create an RNA-based transcriptional activator that is regulated by a cell-permeable synthetic small molecule.

18. Directed Evolution of Ligand Dependence: Small Molecule-Dependent Protein Splicing. Buskirk, A. R.; Ong, Y.-C.; Gartner, Z. J.; Liu, D. R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 10505-10510 (2004). PDF The laboratory evolution liu xue yi an intein that undergoes splicing only in the presence of a cell-permeable synthetic small molecule is described in this work.

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The evolved intein was used in living cells to render the function of four unrelated proteins dependent on the small molecule in a post-translational and dose-dependent manner. 19. DNA-Templated Organic Synthesis and Selection of a Library of Macrocycles.

Gartner, Z. J.; Tse, B. N.; Grubina, R.; Doyon, J. B.; Snyder, T. M.; Liu, D. R. Science 305, 1601-1605 (2004). PDF - SI This work is featured as a Research Highlight in Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 1247 (2004). This paper describes the translation of a single-solution library of DNA templates into a library of corresponding synthetic small-molecule macrocycles, the liu xue yi vitro selection of a single member of the DNA-templated library for its protein binding activity, and the amplification by PCR of the DNA encoding the active macrocycle.

20. Reaction Discovery Enabled by DNA-Templated Synthesis and In Vitro Selection. Kanan, M. W.; Rozenman, M. M.; Sakurai, K.; Snyder, T. M., Liu, D. R. Nature 431, 545-549 (2004).

PDF - SI This work is featured in liu xue yi news focus article in Science 305, 1558 (2004) PDF, in a Science and Technology Concentrate in Chem.

& Eng. News 82 [40] 31 (2004) PDF, and in a News and Views commentary in Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 1378-1379(2004) PDF. Here we report a new approach to reaction discovery that simultaneously evaluates many combinations of substrates in a single solution for bond-forming reactivity.

Using this approach, we discovered an efficient and mild alkyne-alkene coupling reaction catalyzed by an inorganic Pd(II) salt that generates a trans-enone.

21. Nucleic Acid-Templated Synthesis as a Model System for Ancient Translation. Calderone, C. T. and Liu, D. R. Curr. Opin.

Chem. Biol. 8, 645-653 (2004). PDF 22. In Vitro Characterization of IroB, a Pathogen-Associated C-Glycosyltransferase. Fischbach, M. A.; Lin, H.; Liu, D. R.; Walsh, C. T. Proc. Natl. Acad.

Sci. USA 102, 571-576 (2004). PDF 23. Creating Small Molecule-Dependent Switches to Modulate Biological Functions. Buskirk, A. R. and Liu, D. R. Chem. Biol. 12151-161 (2005). PDF 24. DNA-Templated Functional Group Transformations Enable Sequence-Programmed Synthesis Using Small-Molecule Reagents.

Sakurai, K.; Snyder, T. M.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 1660-1661 (2005). PDF - SI 25. Functional Dissection of sRNA Translational Regulators Using Nonhomologous Random Recombination and In Vivo Selection. Liu, J.M.; Bittker, J.A.; Lonshteyn, M.; Liu, D. R. Chem. Biol. 12757-767 (2005). PDF - SI 26. In Vitro Characterization of Salmochelin and Enterobactin Trilactone Hydrolases IroD, IroE, and Fes. Lin, H.; Fischbach, M. A.; Liu, D. R.; Walsh, C. T. J. Am. Chem Soc. 127, 11075-11084 (2005).

PDF 27. Ordered Multistep Synthesis in a Single Solution Directed by DNA Templates. Snyder, T. M. and Liu, D. R. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 44, 7379-7382 (2005). PDF - SI 28. Small-Molecule Diversification From Iterated Branching Reaction Pathways Enabled by DNA-Templated Synthesis. Calderone, C. T. and Liu, D. R. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 44, 7383-7386 (2005). PDF - SI 29.

DNA-Templated Synthesis in Organic Solvents. Rozenman, M. and Liu, D. R. ChemBioChem 7, 253-256 (2006). PDF 30. Enzymatic Tailoring of the Bacterial Siderophore Enterobactin Alters Membrane Partitioning and Iron Acquistion. Luo, M.; Lin, H.; Fischbach, M. A.; Liu, D. R.; Walsh, C. T.; Groves, J. T. ACS Chem. Biol. 1, 29-32 (2006). PDF 31. Directed Evolution and Substrate Specificity Profile of Homing Endonuclease I-SceI.

Doyon, J. B.; Pattanayak, V.; Meyer, C. B; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2477-2484 (2006). PDF - SI 32. How Pathogenic Bacteria Evade Mammalian Sabotage in the Battle for Iron. Fischbach, M. Liu xue yi Lin, H.; Liu, D. R.; Walsh, C. T. Nat. Chem. Biol. 2, 132-138 (2006). PDF 33. A Protein Interaction Surface in Nonribosomal Peptide Synthesis Mapped by Combinatorial Mutagenesis and Selection. Lai, J. R., Fischbach, M. A., Liu, D. R., Walsh, C. T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1035314-5319 (2006).

PDF 34. Control of Transcription Factor Activity and Osteoblast Differentiation in Mammalian Cells Using an Evolved Small-Molecule-Dependent Intein.

Yuen, C. M.; Rodda, S. J.; Vokes, S. A.; McMahon, A. P.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 8939-8946 (2006). PDF. This work is featured in a Science and Technology Concentrate in Chem. & Eng. News 84 [26], 34 (2006), as a Spotlight in ACS Chem. Biol. 1, 328 (2006), and as a News and Views article liu xue yi Nature 442, 517-518 (2006).

35. Bromoenterobactins as Potent Inhibitors of a Pathogen-Associated, Siderophore-Modifying C-Glycosyltransferase. Lin, H.; Fischbach, M. A.; Gatto Jr., G. J.; Liu, D. R.; Walsh, C. T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 9324-9325 (2006). PDF 36. Localized Protein Interaction Surfaces on the EntB Carrier Protein Revealed by Combinatorial Mutagenesis and Selection.

Lai, J. R.; Fischbach, M. A.; Liu, D. R.; Walsh, C. T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 11002-11003 (2006). PDF 37. Binding and Stability Determinants of the PPARγ Nuclear Receptor/ Coactivator Interface as Revealed by Shotgun Alanine Scanning and In Vivo Selection.

Phillips, K. J.; Rosenbaum, D. M.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 11298-11306 (2006). PDF 38. The Pathogen-Associated iroA Gene Cluster Mediates Bacterial Evasion of Lipocalin 2. Fischbach, M.

A.; Lin, H.; Zhou, L.; Yu, Y.; Abergel, R. J.; Liu, D. R.; Raymond, K. N.; Wanner, B. L.; Strong, R. K.; Walsh, C. T.; Aderem, A.; Smith, K. D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 16502-16507 (2006). PDF 39. In Vivo Evolution of an RNA-Based Transcriptional Silencing Domain in S. cerevisiae. Kehayova, P. D.; Liu, D. R. Chem. Biol. 14, 65-74 (2007). PDF This work is featured in a Research Highlight in Nat. Methods 4, 297 (2007).

PDF 40. Synthesis of Acyclic α,β-Unsaturated Ketones via Pd(II)-Catalyzed Intermolecular Reaction of Alkynamides and Alkenes. Momiyama, N.; Kanan, M. W.; Liu, D.

R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 2230-2231 (2007). PDF - SI 41. Solving Chemical Problems through the Application of Evolutionary Principles. Rozenman, M. M.; McNaughton, B. R.; Liu, D. R. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol., 11, 259-268 (2007). PDF 42. Directed Evolution Can Rapidly Improve the Activity of Chimeric Liu xue yi Enzymes. Fischbach, M. A.; Lai, J. R.; Roche, E. D.; Walsh, C. T.; Liu, D.

R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 11951-11956 (2007). PDF 43. Supercharging Proteins Can Impart Extraordinary Resilience.

liu xue yi

Lawrence, M. S.; Phillips, K. J.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 2230-2231 (2007). PDF - SI This work is featured in a Research Highlight in Nature 448 973 (2007) PDF and as a News and Views article in Nature 449, 555 (2007).

PDF 44. Identification of Eukaryotic Promoter Regulatory Elements Using Nonhomologous Random Recombination. Doyon, J. B.; Liu, D. R. Nucleic Acids Res. 35, 5851-5860 (2007). PDF 45. Dissecting Protein Structure and Function using Directed Evolution. Yuen, C.M.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Methods 4, 995-997 (2007). PDF 46. Discovery of a mRNA Mitochondrial Localization Element in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Nonhomologous Random Recombination and In Vivo Selection. Liu, J. M.; Liu xue yi, D. R. Nucleic Acids Res.

35, 6750-6761 (2007). PDF 47. Development and Initial Application of a Hybridization-Independent, DNA-Encoded Reaction Discovery System Compatible with Organic Solvents. Rozenman, M. M.; Kanan, M. W.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 14933-14938 (2007). PDF - SI This work is featured in a Science and Technology Concentrate in Chem. & Eng. News 85 (47), 43. 48. Effects of Template Sequence and Secondary Structure on DNA-Templated Reactivity. Snyder, T.M.; Tse, B.N.; Liu, D.

R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1392-1401 (2008). PDF - SI 49. DNA-Templated Polymerization of Side-Chain-Functionalized Peptide Nucleic Acid Aldehydes. Kleiner, R. E.; Brudno, Y.; Birnbaum, M. E.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 4646-4659 (2008). PDF - SI 50. Translation of DNA into a Library of 13,000 Synthetic Small-Molecule Macrocycles Suitable for In Vitro Selection.

Tse, B. N.; Liu xue yi, T. M.; Shen, Y.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 15611-15626 (2008). PDF - SI 51. Recent Progress Towards the Templated Synthesis and Directed Evolution of Sequence-Defined Synthetic Polymers.

Brudno, Y.; Liu, D. R. Chem. Biol 16, 265-276 (2009). PDF 52. Mammalian Cell Penetration, siRNA Transfection, and DNA Transfection by Supercharged Proteins. McNaughton, B. R.; Cronican, J. J.; Thompson, Liu xue yi. B.; Liu, D. R. Proc. Natl.

Acad. Sci. USA 106, 6111-6116 (2009) PDF - SI - Supplemental Protocol. This work was featured as a Research Highlight in Nat. Methods 6, 322 (2009) 53. A Chemical Screen for Biological Small Molecule-RNA Conjugates Reveals CoA-Linked RNA. Kowtoniuk, W. E.; Shen, Y.; Heemstra, J. M.; Agarwal, I.; Liu, D. R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 7768-7773 (2009). PDF SI This work was featured in a news story in Chemistry World (PDF) (April 20, 2009), in a news story in Chem.

& Eng. News 87[17] 9 (2009) PDF, in a Research Highlight in Nat. Chem. Biol. 5, 380-381 (2009) PDF, and in a Highlight in ChemBioChem 10, 2145-2146 (2009). 54. Conversion of 5-Methylcytosine to 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Mammalian DNA by the MLL Fusion Partner, TET1. Tahiliani, M.; Koh, K. P.; Shen, Y.; Pastor, W.

A.; Bandukwala, H.; Brudno, Y.; Liu xue yi, S.; Iyer, L. M.; Liu, D. R.; Aravind, L.; Rao, A. Science 324, 930-935 (2009). PDF - SI This work was featured in a Spotlight in ACS Chem. Biol. 4, 315 (2009) PDF, in a Research Highlight in Nature 458, 1080 (2009) PDFand in a Cover Story in C&E News 87 [37], 11 (2009).

55. Reactivity-Dependent PCR: Direct, Solution-Phase In Vitro Selection for Bond Formation. Liu xue yi, D. J.; Kamlet, A.

S.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 9189-9191 (2009) PDF - SI This work was featured in a news story in Chemistry World (June 18, 2009). 56. Templated Synthesis of Peptide Nucleic Acids via Sequence-Selective Base-Filling Reactions.

Heemstra, J. M.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc 131, 11347-11349 (2009) PDF 57. LC/MS Analysis of Cellular RNA Reveals NAD-Linked RNA. Chen, Y. G.; Kowtoniuk, W. E.; Agarwal, I.; Shen, Y.; Liu, D.

R. Nat. Chem. Biol. 5, 879-881 (2009) PDF - SI 58. Photoswitching Mechanism of Cyanine Dyes. Dempsey, G. T.; Bates, M.; Kowtoniuk, W. E.; Liu, D. R.; Tsien, R. Y.; Zhuang, X. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 18192-18193 (2009) PDF. This work was featured in a Science and Technology Concentrate in C&E News 87 [50], 34 (2009) PDF 59. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of TGF-β Signaling Replaces Sox2 in Reprogramming by Inducing Nanog.

Ichida, J. K.; Blanchard, J.; Lam, K.; Son, E. Y.; Chung, J. E.; Egli, D.; Loh, K. M.; Carter, A. C.; Gi Giorgio, F. P.; Koszka, K.; Huangfu, D.; Akutsu, H.; Liu, D. R.; Rubin, L. L.; Eggan, K. Cell Stem Cell 5, 491-503 (2009) PDF 60. An In Vitro Translation, Selection and Amplification System for Peptide Nucleic Acid. Brudno, Y.; Birnbaum, M. E.; Kleiner, R.

E.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Chem. Biol. 6, 148-155 (2010) PDF - SI This work was featured in a News and Views article in Nat. Chem. Biol. 6, 87-88 (2010) PDF, and was also featured in an article highlighting Nat. Chem.

liu xue yi

Biol. papers over the five-year history of the journal in Nat. Chem. Biol. 6, 387-389 (2010) PDF. 61. The Behavior of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Bisulfite Sequencing. Huang, Y.; Pastor, W. A.; Shen, Y.; Tahiliani, M.; Liu, D.

R.; Rao, A. PLoS ONE 5, e8888 (2010) PDF 62. Enhanced Functional Potential of Nucleic Acid Aptamer Libraries Patterned to Increase Secondary Structures. Ruff, K. M., Snyder, T. M., Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 9453-9464 (2010). PDF - SI 63. Potent Delivery of Functional Proteins into Mammalian Cells in Vitro and in Vivo Using a Supercharged Protein. Cronican, J. J.; Thompson, D. B.; Beier, K. T.; McNaughton, B. R.; Cepko, C. L.; Liu, D. R. ACS Chem. Biol. 5, 747-752 (2010).

PDF 64. In Vitro Selection of a DNA-Templated Small-Molecule Library Reveals a Class of Macrocyclic Kinase Inhibitors. Kleiner, R. E.; Dumelin, C.; Tiu, G.; Sakurai, K.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 11779-11791 (2010). PDF 65. Autonomous Multistep Organic Synthesis in a Single Isothermal Solution Mediated by a DNA Walker.

He, Liu xue yi. and Liu, D. R. Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 778-782 (2010). PDF - SI This work was featured in a news story in Chemistry World (October 10, 2010) PDF in a News and Views article in Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 760-761 (2010) PDF, and in a Research Highlight in Nat. Methods 7, 952 (2010) PDF.

66. Interaction-Dependent PCR Identified Target-Ligand Pairs from Libraries of Targets and Ligands. McGregor, L. M.; Gorin, D. J.; Dumelin, C. E.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 15522-15524 (2010). PDF - SI 67. Molecules of Life: A General Education Approach to the Science of Living Systems.

Tse, B. N.; Clardy, J.; Liu, D. R. in Science and the Educated American: A Core Component of Liberal Education, Meinwald, J. and Hildebrand, J.G. (Eds) Washington, DC: American Academy of Arts and Science pp 180-217 (2010) 68. A Biomolecule-Compatible Visible Light-Induced Azide Reduction from a DNA-Encoded Reaction Discovery System. Chen, Y.; Kamlet, A. S.; Steinman, J. B.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Chem. 3, 146-153 (2011). PDF - SI 69.

A De Novo Protein binding Pair by Liu xue yi Design and Directed Evolution. Karanicolas, J.; Corn, J. E.; Chen, I.; Joachimiak, L. A.; Dym, O.; Peck, S.; Albeck, S.; Unger, T.; Hu, W.; Liu, G.; Delbecq, S.; Monelione, G.; Spiegel, C.; Liu, D. R.; Baker, D. Mol. Cell 42 (2), 250-260 (2011). PDF 70. A System for the Continuous Directed Evolution of Biomolecules. Esvelt, K. M.; Carlson, J. C.; Liu, D.

R. Nature 472, 499-503 (2011). This work was featured in a news story in C&E News 89 (April 14, 2011), as a news story in the MIT Technology Review (April 18, 2011), in a News and Views article in Nat. Chem. Biol. 7, 252-253 (2011), in a feature article in BioTechniques, as a liu xue yi highlight in Nat.

Methods, as a news story in SciBX 4, 5 (2011), and as a news story in Ars Technica (May 15, 2011). PDF, SI 71. Directed Evolution of a Small Molecule-Triggered Intein with Improved Splicing Properties in Mammalian Cells. Peck, S.; Chen, I.; Liu, D. R. Chem. Biol. 18 (5), 619-630 (2011). PDF, SI 72. Inhibition of Bacterial Conjugation by Phage M13 and Its Protein g3p: Quantitative Analysis and Model.

Lin, A; Jimenez, J.; Derr, J.; Vera, P.; Manapat, M. L.; Esvelt, K. M.; Villanueva, L.; Liu, D. R.; Chen, I. A. PLoS One 6 (5), e19991 (2011). PDF, SI 73. Opposing Effects if Tcf3 abd Tcf1 Control Wnt-Stimulation of Embryonic Stem Cell Self Renewal. Yi, F.; Pereira, L.; Hoffman, J. A.; Shy, B.; Yuen, C. M.; Liu, D. R.; Merrill, B. J. Nat. Cell Biol. 13, 762-770 (2011). PDF, SI 74. A Sequential Strand-Displacement Strategy Enables Efficient Six-Step DNA-Templated Synthesis.

He, Y.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 9972-9975 (2011). PDF, SI 75. A Class of Human Proteins that Deliver Functional Proteins into Mammalian Cells In Vitro and In Vivo. Cronican, J. J.; Beier, K. T.; Davis, T. N.; Tseng, J.; Li, W.; Thompson, D.

B.; Shih, A. F.; Cepko, C. L.; Kung, A. L.; Zhou, Q.; Liu, D. R. Chem. Biol. 18, 833-838 (2011). This work was featured in SciBX 4 [31] (2011) [Bioworld]. PDF, SI 76. A General Strategy for the Evolution of Bond-Forming Enzymes Using Yeast Display. Chen, I.; Dorr, B. M.; Liu, D. R. Proc. Natl. Acad.

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Sci. Liu xue yi 108 (28), 11399-11404 (2011). PDF, SI This work was highlighted in a technology feature in Nat. Methods 8, 623 (2011). 77. Small-Molecule Discovery from DNA-Encoded Chemical Libraries. Kleiner, R. E.; Dumelin, C. E.; Liu, D. R. Chem. Soc. Rev. 40, 5707-5717 (2011). PDF 78. Revealing Off-Target Cleavage Specificities of Zinc Finger Nucleases by In Vitro Selection.

Pattanayak, V.; Ramirez, C. L.; Joung, J. K.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Methods 8, 765-770 (2011). PDF, SI. This work was featured in a news story in the August 7, 2011 issue of Nature, in a Highlight in Nat.

Genet., in a news story in C&E News, 89 [33], 8 (2011), in a news story in the August 7, 2011 issue of The Scientist, in a News and Views article in Nat. Methods 8, 725 (2011), and as a news story in the August 10, 2011 issue of BioWorld Today. 79. DNA-Enabled Self-Assembly of Plasmonic Nanoclusters. Fan, J. A.; He, Y.; Bao, K.; Wu, C.; Bao, J.; Schade, N.

B.; Manoharan, V. N.; Shvets, G.; Nordlander, P.; Liu, D. R.; Capasso, F. Nano Lett. 11, 4859-4864 (2011). PDF, SI 80. Engineering, Identifying, and Applying Supercharged Proteins for Macromolecule Delivery into Mammalian Cells. Thompson, D. B.; Cronican, J. J.; Liu, D. R. Methods Enzymol. 503, 293-319 (2012). PDF 81. Highly Specific Bisubstrate-Competitive Src Inhibitors from DNA-Templated Macrocycles.

Georghiou, G.; Kleiner, R. E.; Pulkoski-Gross, M.; Liu, D. R.; Seeliger, M. A. Nat. Chem. Biol. 8, 366-374 (2012). PDF, SI 82. Cellular Uptake Mechanisms and Endosomal Trafficking of Supercharged Proteins. Thompson, D. B.; Villaseñor, R.; Dorr, B. M.; Zerial, M.; Liu, D. R. Chem. Biol. 19 (7), 831-843 (2012). PDF, SI 83. Discovery and Biological Characterization of Geranylated RNA in Bacteria. Dumelin, C. E.; Chen, Y.; Leconte, A. M.; Chen, Y. G.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Chem. Biol. 8 (11), 913-919 (2012).

PDF, SI This work was featured in a Science and Technology Concentrate in C&E News and in Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 10, 731 (2012). 84. DNA Ligase-Mediated Translation of DNA Into Densely Functionalized Nucleic Acid Polymers. Hili, R.; Niu, J.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc liu xue yi, 98-101 (2013). PDF, SI. This work was featured in a Spotlight in J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 1627 (2013). 85.

A Population-Based Experimental Model for Protein Evolution: Effects of Mutation Rate and Selection Stringency on Evolutionary Outcomes. Leconte, A. M.; Dickinson, B. C.; Yang, D. D.; Chen, I. A.; Allen, B.; Liu, D. R. Biochemistry 52, 1490-1499 (2013). PDF, SI 86. Enzyme-Free Translation of DNA into Sequence-Defined Synthetic Polymers Structurally Unrelated to Nucleic Acids.

Niu, J.; Hili, R.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Chem. 5, 282-292 (2013). PDF, SI. This work was featured in a News & Views article in Nat. Chem. 5, 252-253 (2013), in a Science and Technology Concentrate in C&E News 91 [9], 45 (2013), in a news story in Chemistry World (March 3, 2013), and in a News & Views article in Nat. Biotechnol. 31, 613 (2013) 87. Discovery of Widespread GTP-Binding Motifs in Genomic DNA and RNA.

Curtis, E. A.; Liu, D. R. Chem. Biol. 20, 521-532 (2013). PDF, SI 88. Experimental interrogation of the path dependence and stochasticity liu xue yi protein evolution using phage-assisted continuous evolution.

Dickinson, Liu xue yi. C.; Leconte, A. M.; Allen, B.; Esvelt, K. M.; Liu, D. R. Liu xue yi. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 9007-9012 (2013).

PDF. SI 89. Sequence-Controlled Polymers. Lutz, J.-F.; Ouchi, M.; Liu, D. R.; Sawamoto, M. Science 341, 628 (1238149-1 to 1238149-8 online) (2013). PDF 90. High-Throughput Profiling of Off-Target DNA Cleavage Reveals RNA-Programmed Cas9 Nuclease Specificity. Pattanayak, V.; Lin, S.; Guilinger, J. P.; Ma, E.; Doudna, J. A.; Liu, D.

R. Nat. Biotechnol. 31, 839-843 (2013). PDF, SI This work was featured in a News & Views article in Nat. Biotechnol.

31, 807-809 (2013). 91. In Silico Abstractions of Zing Finger Nuclease Cleavage Profiles Reveals an Expanded Landscape of Off-Target Mutations. Sander, J.; Ramirez, C.; Linder, S.; Pattanayak, V.; Shoresh, N.; Ku, M.; Foden, J.; Reyon, D.; Bernstein, B.; Liu, D. R.; Joung, J. K. Nucleic Acids Res. 41, e181 (2013). PDF 92. Negative Selection And Stringency Modulation Enable Phage-Assisted Continuous Evolution (PACE) of Enzymes With Altered Specificity.

Carlson, J. C.; Badran, A. H.; Nilo, D. A.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Chem. Biol. 10, 216-222 (2014). PDF 93. Immobilization of Actively Thromboresistant Assemblies on Sterile Blood-Contacting Surfaces. Qu, Z.; Krishnamurthy, V.; Haller, C. A.; Dorr, B.

M.; Marzec, U. M.; Hurst, S.; Hinds, M. T.; Hanson, S. R.; Liu, D. R.; Chaikof, E. L. Adv. Healthcare Mat. 3, 30-35 (2014). PDF 94. Broad Specificity Profiling of TALENs Results in Engineered Nucleases With Improved DNA Cleavage Specificity. Guilinger, J. P.; Pattanayak, V.; Reyon, D.; Tsai, S. Q.; Sander, J. D.; Joung, J. K.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Methods 11, 429-435 (2014). PDF, SI 95. Identification of Ligand-Target Pairs from Combined Libraries of Small Molecules and Unpurified Protein Targets in Cell Lysates.

McGregor, L. M.; Jain, T.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 3264-3270 (2014). PDF 96. Using DNA to Program Chemical Synthesis, Discover New Reactions, and Detect Ligand Binding. McGregor, L. M.; Liu, D. R. In A Handbook for DNA-Encoded Chemistry: Theory and Applications for Exploring Chemical Space and Drug Discovery. Goodnow, R.A., Ed.; Wiley: Hoboken pp. 377-415 (2014). 97. Fusion of Catalytically Inactive Cas9 to FokI Nuclease Improves the Specificity of Genome Modification.

Guilinger, J. P.; Thompson, D. B.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Biotechnol. 32, 577-582 (2014). PDF, SI 98. Anti-Diabetic Activity of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Inhibitors Mediated by Multiple Hormones. Maianti, J. P.; McFedries, A.; Foda, Z. H.; Kleiner, R. E.; Du, X.-Q.; Leissring, M. A.; Tang, W.-J.; Charron, M. J.; Seeliger, M. A.; Saghatelian, A.; Liu, D. R.

Nature 511, 94-98 (2014). PDF, SI This work was featured in the Boston Globe, Nature News, Nat. Endocrinol., Cell Metabolism, C&E News, the MIT Technology Review, Endocrine News, Healthline, and other media outlets. 99. A Naturally Occurring, Non-Canonical GTP Aptamer Made of Simple Tandem Repeats.

Curtis, E.A. and Liu, D.R. RNA Biol. 11:6 1-11 (2014). PDF 100. Reprogramming the Specificity of Sortase Enzymes. Dorr, B. M.; Ham, H. O.; An, C.; Chaikof, E. L.; Liu, D. R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 13343-13348 (2014). PDF, SI 101. Electrophilic activity-based RNA probes reveal a self-alkylating RNA for RNA labeling. McDonald, R. I.; Guilinger, J. P.; Mukherji, S.; Curtis, E. A.; Lee, W. I.; Liu, D.

R. Nat. Chem. Biol. 10, 1049-1054 (2014). PDF, SI 102. A System For the Continuous Directed Evolution of Proteases Rapidly Reveals Drug-Resistance Mutations. Dickinson, B. C.; Packer, M. S.; Badran, A. H.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Commun. 5, 5352 (2014). PDF, SI 103. A DNA-Based Molecular Probe for Optically Reporting Cellular Traction Forces.

Blakely, B. L.; Dumelin, C. E.; Choi, C. K.; Anthony, P. C.; Nguyen, V. K.; Baker, B. M.; Block, S. M.; Liu, D. R.; Chen, C. S. Nat. Methods 11, 1229-1232 (2014). PDF, SI 104. Targeted Antithrombotic Protein Micelles. Kim, W.; Haller, C; Dai, E.; Wang, X.; Hagemeyer, C. E.; Liu, D. R. ; Peter, K.; Chaikof, E. L. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 54, 1461-1465 (2014). PDF 105. Determining the Specificities of TALENs, Cas9, and Other Genome Editing Enzymes. Pattanayak, V.; Guilinger, J.

P.; Liu, D. R. Methods Enzymol. 546 47-78 (2014). PDF 106. Cationic Lipid-Mediated Delivery of Proteins Enables Efficient Protein-Based Genome Editing In Vitro and In Vivo. Zuris, J. A.; Thompson, D. B.; Shu, Y.; Guilinger, J. P.; Bessen, J. L.; Hu, J. H.; Maeder, M. L.; Joung, J. K.; Chen, Z.-Y.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Biotechnol. 33, 73-80 (2014). PDF, SI 107. In Vivo Continuous Directed Evolution. Badran, A. H.; Liu, D. R. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 24, 1-10 (2014). PDF 108. Novel Selection Methods for DNA-Encoded Chemical Libraries.

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Chan, A. I.; McGregor, L. M.; Liu, D. R. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 26, 55-61 (2015). PDF 109. Small Molecule-Triggered Cas9 Protein With Improved Genome-Editing Specificity.

Davis, K. M.; Pattanayak, V.; Thompson, D. B.; Zuris, J. A.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Chem. Biol. 11,316-318 (2015). PDF, SI 110. Methods for the Directed Evolution of Proteins. Packer, M. S. and Liu, D. R. Nat.

Rev. Genetics 16 379-394 (2015). PDF 111. Continuous Directed Evolution of DNA-Binding Domains Generates TALENs With Improved DNA Cleavage Specificity. Hubbard, B. P.; Badran, A. H.; Zuris, J. A.; Guilinger, J. P.; Davis, K. M.; Tsai, S. Q.; Sander, J. D.; Joung, J. K.; Liu, D.

R. Nat. Methods 12, 939-942 (2015). PDF, SI 112. Development of Potent In Vivo Mutagenesis Plasmids with Broad Mutational Spectra. Badran, A. H. and Liu, D. R. Nat. Commun. 6 8425 (2015). PDF, SI 113. Discovery and Characterization of a Peptide That Enhances Endosomal Escape of Delivered Proteins In Vitro And In Vivo. Li, M.; Tao, Y.; Shu, Y.; Liu xue yi, J. R. ; Thompson, D.; Schepartz, A.; Chen., Z.-Y.; Liu, D.

R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2015). PDF 114. Analytical Devices Based on Direct Synthesis of DNA on Paper. Glavan, A. C.; Niu, J.; Chen, Z.; Guder, F.; Cheng, C.-M.; Liu, D. R.; Whitesides, G. M. Anal. Chem. 88, 725-731 (2015). PDF 115. Chemical Biology Approaches to Genome Editing: Understanding, Controlling, and Delivering Programmable Nucleases.

Hu, J. H.; Davis, K. M.; Liu, D. R. Cell Chem. Biol. 23, 57-73 (2015). PDF 116. In Situ Regeneration of Bioactive Coatings Enabled By An Evolved Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A. Qu, Z.; Dorr, B. M.; Dai, E.; Haller, C. A.; Kim, W.; Ham, H. O.; Liu, D. R.; Chaikof, E. L. Nat. Commun. 7, 11140 (2016). PDF 117. Efficient Delivery of Genome-Editing Proteins using Bioreducible Lipid Nanoparticles. Wang, M.; Zuris, J. A.; Meng, F.; Rees, H.A.; Deng, P.; Gao, X.; Pouli, D.; Wu, Q.; Georgakoudi, I.; Liu, D.

R.; Xu, Q. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 113, 2868-2873 (2016). PDF 118. Programmable Editing of a Target Base in Genomic DNA Without Double-Stranded DNA Cleavage. Komor, A. C.; Kim, Y. B.; Packer, M. S.; Zuris, J. A.; Liu, D. R. Nature 533, 420-424 (2016). PDF, SI, Expanded Extended Data Figure 6 119.

Continuous Evolution of B. thuringiensis Toxins Overcomes Insect Resistance. Badran, A. H.; Guzov, V. M.; Liu xue yi, Q.; Kemp, M. M.; Vishwanath, P.; Kain, W.; Evdokimov, A.; Moshiri, F.; Turner, K. H.; P.; Malvar, T.; Liu, D. R. Nature 533,58-63 (2016). PDF, SI 120. Sequence Determinants of Intracellular Phase Separation by Complex Coacervation of a Disordered Protein.

Pak, C. W.; Kosno, M.; Holehouse, A. S.; Padrick, S. B.; Mittal, A.; Ali, R.; Yunus, A. A.; Liu, D. R.; Pappu, R. V.; Rosen, M. K. Mol. Cell 63, 72-85 (2016). PDF 121. Structural and Biochemical Basis for Inhibition of Breast Cancer Cell Migration and Drug-Resistance Mutations by Liu xue yi Macrocyclic Inhibitors.

Aleem, A.; Georghiou, G.; Kleiner, R.; Guja, K.; Garcia-Diaz, M.; Miller, W. T.; Liu, D. R.; Seeliger, M. A. Cell Chem. Biol. 23, 1-10 (2016). PDF 122. A Programmable Cas9-Serine Liu xue yi Fusion Protein That Operates on DNA Sequences in Mammalian Cells. Chaikind, B.; Bessen, J. L.; Thompson, D. B.; Hu, J. H.; Liu, D. R. Nucleic Acids Res. 44, 9758- 9770 (2016). PDF, SI 123. CRISPR-Based Technologies for the Manipulation of Eukaryotic Genomes.

Komor, A.; Badran, A. H.; Liu, D. R. Cell 168, 20-36 (2017). PDF 124. Increasing the Genome-Targeting Scope and Precision of Base Editing With Engineered Liu xue yi Deaminase Fusions. Kim, Y. B.; Komor, A. C.; Levy, J. M.; Packer, M. S.; Zhao, K. T.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Biotechnol. 35 371-376 (2017). PDF 125. Improving the DNA Specificity and Applicability of Base Editing Through Protein Engineering and Protein Delivery In Vitro and In Vivo.

Rees, H. A.; Komor, A. C.; Yeh, W.-H.; Edge, A. S. B.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Commun. 8, 15790 (2017). PDF 126. Aptazyme-Embedded Guide RNAs Enable Ligand-Responsive Genome Editing and Transcriptional Activation. Tang, W.; Hu, J. H.; Liu, D. R Nat. Commun. 8, 15939 (2017). PDF 127. Discovery of a Covalent Kinase Inhibitor from a DNA-Encoded Small-Molecule Library x Protein Library Selection.

Chan, A. I.; McGregor, L. M.; Jain, R.; Liu, D. R. J. Am. Chem. Soc 139, 10192-10195 (2017). PDF, SI 128. Improved Base Excision Repair Inhibition and Bacteriophage Mu Gam Protein Yields C:G-to-T:A Base Editors With Higher Efficiency and Product Purity.

Komor, A. C.; Zhao, K. T.; Packer, M. S.; Gaudelli, N. M.; Waterbury, A. L.; Koblan, L. W.; Kim, Y. B.; Badran, A. H., Liu, D. R. Science Advances 3, eaao4774 (2017). PDF 129. Phage-Assisted Continuous Evolution of Proteases with Altered Substrate Specificity.

Packer, M. S.; Rees, H. A.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Commun. 8, 956 (2017). PDF, SI 130. Nucleic Acid-Templated Synthesis liu xue yi Sequence-Defined Synthetic Polymers. Chen, Z. and Liu, D. R. in Sequence-Controlled Polymers, ed. J. F. Lutz (Wiley) (2017). 131. Continuous directed evolution of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Bryson, D. I.; Fan C.; Guo, L.-T.; Miller, C.; Söll, D.; Liu, D.

R. Nat. Chem. Biol. 13, 1253-1260 (2017). PDF. 132. Crystal Structures Reveal an Elusive Functional Domain of Pyrrolysyl-tRNA Synthetase. Suzuki, T.; Miller, C.; Guo, L.-T.; Ho, J. M. L.; Bryson, D. I.; Wang Y.-S.; Liu, D.

R., and Söll, D. Nat. Chem. Biol. 13, 1261-1266 (2017). PDF 133. Programmable Base Editing of A*T to G*C in Genomic DNA Without DNA Cleavage. Gaudelli, N. M.; Komor, A. C.; Rees, H. A.; Packer, M. S.; Badran, A.

H.; Bryson, D. I.; Liu, D. R. Nature 551, 464-471 (2017). Liu xue yi, SI 134. Development of a Formaldehyde Biosensor with Application to Synthetic Methylotrophy. Woolston, B. M.; Roth, T.; Kohale, I.; Liu, D. R.; Stephanopoulos, G. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 115, 206-215 (2017). PDF 135. Editing the Genome Without Double-Stranded DNA Breaks.

Komor, A. C.; Badran, A. H.; Liu, D. R. ACS Chem. Biol. 13, 383-388 (2018). PDF. 136. Treatment of Autosomal Dominant Hearing Loss by In Vivo Delivery of Genome Editing Agents. Gao, X.; Tao, Y.; Lamas, V.; Huang, M.; Yeh, W.-H.; Pan, B.; Hu, Y.-J.; Hu, J. H.; Thompson, D. B.; Shu, Y.; Li, Y.; Wang, H.; Yang, S.; Xu, Q.; Polley, D. B.; Liberman, M. C.; Kong, W.-J.; Holt, J. R.; Chen, Z.-Y.; Liu, D. R. Nature 553, 217-221 (2018). PDF, SI 137. Evolution of Sequence-Defined Highly Functionalized Nucleic Acid Polymers.

Chen, Z.; Lichtor, P. A.; Berliner, A. P.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Chem. 15, 419-426 (2018). PDF, Nature Chem News and Views 138. Rewritable Multi-Event Analog Recording in Bacterial and Mammalian Cells. Tang, W.; Liu, D. R. Science 360, eaap8992 (2018). PDF 139. Evolved Cas9 Variants with Broad PAM Compatibility and High DNA Specificity. Hu, J. H.; Miller, S. M.; Geurts, M. H.; Tang, W.; Chen, L.; Sun, N.; Zeina, C.; Gao, X.; Rees. H. A.; Lin, Z.; Liu, D. R.

Nature 556, 57-63 (2018). PDF, SI 140. Ensemble CryoEM Elucidates the Mechanism of Insulin Capture and Degradation by Human Insulin Degrading Enzyme. Zhang, Z.; Liang, W. G.; Bailey, L. J.; Tan, Y. Z.; Wei, H.; Wang, A.; Farcasanu, M.; Woods, V. A.; McCord, L. A.; Lee, D.; Shang, W.; Deprez-Poulain, R.; Deprez, B.; Liu, D.

R.; Koide, A.; Koide, S.; Kossiakoff, A. A.; Li, S.; Carragher, B.; Potter, C. S.; Tang, W.-J. eLife 7, e33572 (2018). PDF 141. Second-Generation DNA-Templated Macrocycle Libraries for the Discovery of Bioactive Small Molecules.

Usanov, D. L.; Chan, A. I.; Maianti, J. P.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Chem. 10, 704-714 (2018). PDF, SI 142. In Vivo Base Editing of Post-Mitotic Sensory Cells. Yeh, W.-H.; Chiang, H.; Rees, H. A.; Edge, A. S.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Commun. 9, 2184 (2018). PDF 143. Improving Cytidine and Adenine Base Editors by Expression Optimization and Ancestral Reconstruction.

Koblan, L. W.; Doman, J. L.; Wilson, C.; Levy, J. M.; Tay, T.; Newby, G. A.; Maianti, J. P.; Raguram, A.; Liu, D. R. Liu xue yi. Biotechnol. 36, 843-846 (2018). PDF, SI 144. Continuous Directed Evolution of Proteins with Improved Soluble Expression.

Wang, T.; Badran, A. H.; Huang, T. P.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Chem. Biol. 14, 972-980 (2018). PDF SI 145. Green Fluorescent Proteins Engineered for Cartilage-Targeted Drug Delivery: Insights for Transport into Highly Charged Avascular Tissues. Krishnan, Y.; Rees, H. A.; Rossitto, C. P.; Kim, S.-E.; Hung, H.-H.; Frank, E. H.; Olsen, B. D.; Liu, D. R.; Hammond, P. T.; Grodzinsky, A. J. Biomaterials 183, 218-233 (2018).

PDF, SI 146. One-Pot Dual Labeling of IgG 1 and Preparation of C-to-C Fusion Proteins Through a Combination of Sortase A and Butelase 1. Harmand, T. J.; Bousbaine, D.; Chan, A.; Zhang, X.; Liu, D. R.; Tam, J. P.; Ploegh, H. L. Bioconj. Chem. 29, 3245-3249 (2018). PDF, SI 147. Predictable and Precise Template-Free CRISPR Editing of Pathogenic Variants. Shen, M. W.; Arbab, M.; Hsu, J. Y.; Worstell, D.; Culbertson, S. J.; Krabbe, O.; Cassa, C. A.; Liu, D. R.; Gifford, D. K.; Sherwood, R.I.

Nature 563, 646-651. (2018). PDF, SI 148. Base Editing: Precision Chemistry on the Genome and Transcriptome of Living Cells.

Rees, H. A. and Liu, D. R. Nat. Rev. Genet. 19, 770-788. (2018). PDF 149. Targeting Fidelity of Adenine and Cytosine Base Editors in Mouse Embryos.

Lee, H. K.; Willi, M.; Miller, S. M.; Kim, S.; Liu, C; Liu xue yi, D. R.; Hennighausen, L. Nat. Commun. 9: 4804. 1-5 (2018). PDF, SI 150. Adenine Base Editing in an Adult Mouse Model of Tyrosinemia. Song, C.-Q.; Jiang, T.; Richter, M.; Rhym, L. H.; Koblan, L. W.; Zafra, M. P.; Schatoff, E. M.; Cao, Y.; Doman, J.L.; Dow L. E.; Zhu, L. J.; Anderson, D. G.; Liu, D. R.; Ying, H.; Xue, W.

Nat. Biomed. Eng. 36, 536-539 (2018). PDF Liu xue yi & Views 151. Simultaneous Targeting of Linked Loci in Mouse Embryos Using Base Editing. Lee, H. K.; Willi, M.; Smith, H. E.; Miller, S.

M.; Liu, D. R.; Liu, C.; Hennighausen, L. Sci. Rep. 9, 1662 (2019). PDF 152. Liu xue yi Accurate and Rapid Analysis of Genome Liu xue yi Data from Nucleases and Base Editors.

Clement, K.; Rees, H.A; Canver, M. C.; Gehrke, J. M.; Farouni, R.; Hsu, J. Y.; Cole, M. A.; Liu, D. R.; Joung, J. K.; Bauer, D. E.; Pinello, L. Nat. Biotechnol. 37: 224-226 (2019). PDF 153. Adopt a moratorium on heritable genome editing. Lander, E.S.; Baylis, F; Zhang, F; Charpentier, E; Berg, P; Bourgain, C; Friedrich, B; Joung, J.K; Li, J; Liu, D; Naldini, L; Nie, J-B; Qui, R; Schone-Seifer, B; Shao, F; Terry, S; Wei, W; Winnacker, E. Nature 567, 165-168 (2019). PDF 154. Side-Chain Determinants of Biopolymer Liu xue yi During Iterated Selection and Replication.

Lichtor, P. A.; Chen, Z.; Elowe, N. H.; Chen, J. C.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Chem. Biol. 15, 419-426 (2019). PDF 155. Phage-Assisted Evolution of Bacillus methanolicus Methanol Dehydrogenase 2. Roth, T. B.; Woolston, B. M.; Stephanopoulos, G.; Liu, D. R. ACS Syn. Biol. 8: 796-806 (2019). PDF 156. A High-Throughput Platform to Identify Small-Molecule Inhibitors of CRISPR-Cas9. Maji, B.; Gangopadhyay, S. A.; Lee, M.; Shi, M.; Wu P.; Heler, R.; Mok, B.; Lim, D.; Paul, B.; Dančík, V.; Vetere, A.; Liu xue yi, M.

F.; Marraffini, L. A.; Liu, D. R.; Clemons, P. A.; Wagner, B. K.; Choudhary, A. Cell 177, 1067–1079 (2019). PDF 157. High-Resolution Specificity Profiling and Off-Target Prediction for Site-Specific DNA Recombinases. Bessen, J. L.; Afeyan, L. K.; Dančík, C.; Koblan, L. W.; Thompson, D. B.; Leichner, C.; Clemons, P. A.; Liu, D. R. Commun. 10, 1937 (2019).

PDF SI 158. Analysis and Minimization of Cellular RNA Editing by DNA Adenine Base Editors. Rees, H.A.; Wilson, C.; Doman, J.L.; Liu, D.R. Science Adv. 5, eaax5717 (2019).

PDF 159. Substrate-Selective Inhibitors that Reprogram the Activity of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme. Maianti, J. P.; Tan, G. A.; Vetere, A.; Welsh, A.; Wagner, B. K.; Seeliger, M. A.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Chem. Biol. 15, 565-574 (2019).

PDF. 160. Circularly Permuted and PAM-Modified Cas9 variants broaden the targeting scope of base editors. Huang, T. P.*; Zhao, K. T.*; Miller, S. M.; Gaudelli, N. M.; Oakes, B. L.; Fellmann, C.; Savage, D. F.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Biotechnol.

37, 626-631 (2019). PDF SI 161. Development of hRad51-Cas9 Nickase Fusions that Mediate HDR Without Double-Stranded Breaks. Rees, H. A.; Yeh, W.-H.,; Liu, D. R. Nat Commun. 10, 2212 (2019). PDF 162. An Anionic Human Protein that Mediates Potent Cationic Liposome Delivery of Genome Editing Proteins into Mammalian Cells.

Kim Y. B.; Zhao, K. T.; Thompson, D. B.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Commun. 10, 2905 (2019). PDF 163. Continuous evolution of base editors with expanded target compatibility and improved activity. Thuronyi, B.W.; Koblan, L.W.; Levy, J.M.; Yeh, W.; Zheng, C.; Newby, G.A.; Wilson, C.; Bhaumik, M.; Shubina-Oleinik, O.; Holt, J.R.; Liu, D.R.

Nat. Biotechnol. 37, 1070-1079 (2019). PDF, SI 164. Search-and-replace genome editing without double-strand breaks or donor DNA. Anzalone, A.V.; Randolph, P.B.; Davis, J.R.; Sousa, A.A.; Koblan, L.W.; Levy, J.M.; Chen, P.J.; Wilson, C.; Newby, G.A.; Raguram, A.; Liu, D.R. Nature, 576, 149– 157 (2019). PDF SI 165. Base Editor Correction of COL7A1 in Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa Patient-Derived Fibroblasts and iPSCs. Osborn, M. J.; Newby, G.

A.; Knipping, D.; McElroy, A. N.; Riddle, M.; Xia, L.; Nielsen, S. C.; Eide, C.; Dabelsteen, S.; Wandall, H. H.; Blazar, B. R.; Liu, D. R.; Tolar, J. Invest. Derm. 140, 338-347 (2020). PDF. 166. High-Throughput Analysis of the Activities of xCas9, SpCas9-NG, and SpCas9 at Matched and Mismatched Target Sequences in Human Cells.

Kim, H. K.; Lee, S.; Kim, Y.; Park, J.; Min, S.; Choi, J. W.; Huang, T. P.; Yoon, S.; Liu, D. R.; Kim, H. H. Biomol. Eng. 4, 111-124 (2020). PDF 167. Cytosine and Adenine Base Editing of the Brain, Liver, Retina, Heart and Skeletal Muscle of Mice Via Adeno-Associated Viruses. Levy, J. M.; Yeh, W.-H.; Pendse, N.; Davis, J.

R.; Hennessey, E.; Butcher, R.; Koblan, L. W.; Comander, J.; Liu, Q.; Liu, D. R. Biomed. Eng. 1, 97-110 (2020). PDF SI 168. Evaluation and Minimization of Cas9-Independent Off-Target DNA Editing by Cytosine Base Editors. Doman, J. L.*; Raguram, A.*; Newby, G. A.; Liu xue yi, D. R. Nat. Biotechnol. 38, 620-628 (2020). PDF SI 169. Continuous evolution of SpCas9 variants compatible with non-G PAMs. Miller, S. M.; Wang, T; Randolph, P.B.; Arbab, M; Shen, M.W.; Huang, T.P.; Matuszek, Z; Newby, G.A.; Rees, H.A; Liu, D.R.

Nat. Biotechnol. 38, 471-481 (2020). PDF SI 170. Prime Genome Editing in Rice and Wheat. Lin, Q.; Zong, Y.; Liu xue yi, C.; Wang, S.; Jin, S.; Zhu, Z.; Wang, Y.; Anzalone, A. V.; Raguram, A.; Doman. J. L.; Liu, D. R.; Gao, C. Nat Biotechnol. 38, 582-585 (2020). PDF SI 171. The Developing Toolkit of Continuous Directed Evolution. Morrison, M. S; Podracky, C. J.; Liu, D. R. Chem Bio. 16, 610-619 (2020). PDF 172. Glucose Response by Stem Cell-Derived β Cells In Vitro is Inhibited by a Bottleneck in Glycolysis.

Davis, J. C.; Alves, T. C.; Helman, A.; Chen, J. C. ; Kenty, J. H.; Cardone, R. L.; Liu, D. R.; Kibbey, R .G.; Melton, D. A. Cell Rep. 31, 107623 (2020). PDF 173. Chemical Modifications of Adenine Base Editor mRNA and Guide RNA Expand Its Application Scope.

Jiang, T.; Henderson, J. M.; Coote, K.; Cheng, Y.; Valley, H. C.; Zhang, X.-O.; Wang, Q.; Rhym, L. H.; Cao, Y.; Newby, G. A.; Bihler, H.; Mense, M.; Weng, Z.; Anderson, D.

G.; McCaffrey, A. P., Liu, D. R.; Xue, W. Nat. Commun. 11, 1979 (2020). PDF 174. Phage-Assisted Evolution of an Adenine Base Editor with Enhanced Cas Domain Compatibility and Activity.

Richter, M. F.*; Zhao, K. T.*; Eton, E.; Lapinaite, A.; Newby, G. A.; Thuronyi, B. W.; Wilson. C.; Koblan L. W.; Zeng, J.; Bauer, D. E.; Doudna, J. A.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Biotechnol. 38, 883-891 (2020). PDF SI 175. In Vivo Postnatal Base Editing Restores Sensory Transduction and Transiently Improves Auditory Function in a Mouse Model of Recessive Deafness.

Yeh, W.-H.; Shubina-Olenik, O.; Levy, J. Liu xue yi Pan, B.; Newby, G. A.; Wornow, M.; Burt, R.; Chen, J.C.; Holt, J. R.; Liu, D.

R. Sci Trans. Med. 12, eaay9101 (2020). PDF. SI. 176. Determinants of Base Editing Outcomes from Target Library Analysis and Machine Learning Arbab, M.; Shen, M. W.; Mok, Liu xue yi Wilson, C.; Matuszek, Z.; Cassa, C. A.; Liu, D. R. Cell. 182, 463-480 (2020).

PDF SI 177. Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas Nucleases, Base Editors, Transposases, and Prime Editors. Anzalone, A. V.; Koblan, L. W.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Biotechnol. 38, 824-844 (2020).

PDF SI 178. A Bacterial Cytidine Deaminase Toxin Enables CRISPR-Free Mitochondrial Base Editing. Mok, B. Y; de Moraes, M. H; Zeng, J; Bosch, D. E; Kotrys, A. V; Raguram, A.; Hsu, F; Radley, M.C; Peterson, S. B; Mootha, V.K; Mougous, J.D; Liu, D.

R. Nature. 583, 631-637 (2020). PDF, SI 179. DNA Capture by a CRISPR-Cas9 Guided Adenine Base Editor Lapinaite, A.; Knott, G. J.; Palumbo, C. M.; Lin-Shiao, E.; Richter, M. F.; Zhao, K. T.; Beal, P. A.; Liu, D. R.; Doudna, J. A. Science 369, 566-571 (2020). PDF SI 180. Programmable m6A modification of cellular RNAs with a Cas13-directed methyltransferase.

Wilson, C*; Chen, P.J.;* Miao, Z; Liu, D.R. Nat. Biotechnol 381431-1440 (2020). PDF SI 181. Phage-assisted continuous and non-continuous evolution.

Miller, S. M.; Wang, T; Liu, D. R. Nature Protocols. 15, 4101-4127 (2020). PDF SI 182. In Vivo Adenine Base Editing Corrects Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome. Koblan L. W.; Erdos, M. R.; Wilson, C.; Cabral, W. A.; Levy, J. M.; Xiong, Z.-M.; Taarez, U. L.; Davison, L.; Gete, Y. G.; Mao, X.; Newby, G. A.; Doherty, S.

P.; Lin, C. Y.; Gordon, L. B.; Cao, K.; Collins, F. S.; Brown, J. D.; Liu, D. R. Nature 589, 608-614 (2021). PDF SI “Base Editing in Progeria” NEJM Companion Paper 183. Precision Genome Editing Using Cytosine and Adenine Base Editors. Huang, Liu xue yi. P.; Newby, G. A.; Liu, D. R. Nature Protocols 16, 1089-1128 (2021). Liu xue yi SI Supplementary Data & Tables. 184. Laboratory Evolution of a Sortase Enzyme that Modifies Amyloid β-protein.

Podracky, C. J.; An. C.; DeSousa, A.; Dorr, B. M.; Walsh, D. M; Liu D. R. Nat. Chem. Biol. 317-325 (2021). PDF SI 185. Phage-Assisted Evolution of Selective Botulinum Neurotoxin Proteases with Reprogrammed Substrate Specificity. Blum, T. R.; Liu, H.; Packer, M. S.; Xiong, X.; Lee, P.-G.; Zhang, S.; Richter, M.; Dong, M.; Liu, D. R. Science 371, 803-810 (2021) PDF SI Insights:Perspectives 185. Multimodal Small-Molecule Screening for Human Prion Protein Binders.

Reidenbach, A. G.; Mesleh, M. F.; Casalena, D.; Vallabh, S. M.; Dahlin, J. L.; Leed, A. J.; Chan, A. I.; Usanov, D. L.; Yehl, J. B.; Lemke, C. T.; Campbell, A, J.; Shah, R.

N.; Shrestha, O. K.; Sacher, J. R.; Rangel, V. L.; Moroco, J. A.; Sathappa, M.; Nonato, M. C.; Nguyen, K. T.; Wright, S. K.; Liu, D. R.; Wagner, F. F.; Kaushik, V. K.; Auld, D. S.; Schreiber, S. L.; Minikel, E. V. Biol. Chem. 295, 13516-13531 (2020). PDF SI 186. Restoration of Visual Function in Adult Mice with an Inherited Retinal Disease via Adenine Base Editing. Suh, S.; Choi, E. H.; Leinonen H.; Foik, A. T.; Newby, G. A.; Yeh, W.-H.; Dong, Z.; Kiser, P. D.; Lyon, D.

C.; Liu, D. R.; Palczewski, K. Nat. Biomed. Eng. 5, 169-178 (2021). PDF SI 187. PrimeDesign Software for Rapid and Simplified Liu xue yi of Prime Editing Guide RNAs. Hsu, J. Y.; Anzalone, A. V.; Grünewald, J.; Lam, K. C.; Shen. M. W.; Liu, D. R.; Joung, J. K.; Pinello, L. Nat.

Commun. 12, 1034 (2021). PDF 188. Massively Parallel Assessment of Human Variants with Base Editor Screens. Hanna, R.; Hegde, M.; Fagre, C.; DeWeirdt, P.; Sangree, A.; Szegletes, Z.; Griffith, A.; Feeley, M.; Sanson, K.; Baidi, Y.; Liu xue yi, L.; Liu, D. R.; Neal, J.; Doench, J. Cell 184, 1064-1080 (2021). PDF 189. Prime Editing in Mice Reveals the Essentiality of a Single Base in Driving Tissue-Specific Gene Expression. Gao, P.; Lyu, Q.; Ghanam, A.

R.; Lazzarotto, C. R.; Newby G. A.; Zhang, W.; Choi, M.; Holden, K.; Walker II, J. A.; Kadina, A. P.; Munrow, R. J.; Abratte, C. M.; Schimenti, J. C.; Liu, D. R.; Tsai, S. Q.; Long, X.; Miano, J. M. Genome Biol. 22, 83 (2021). PDF 190. The NIH Somatic Cell Genome Editing Program.

Saha, K.; Sontheimer, E. J.; Brooks, P. J.; Dwinell, M. R.; Gersbach, C. A.; Liu, D.R.; Murray, S. A.; Tsai, S. Q.; Wilson, R. C.; Anderson, D. G. et al. Nature 592, 195-204 (2021). PDF 191. Base Editing of Hematopoietic Stem Cells Rescues Sickle Cell Disease in Mice. Newby, Liu xue yi. A.; Yen. J. S.; Woodard, K. J.; Mayuranathan, T.; Lazzarotto, C. R.; Li, Y.; Sheppand-Tillman, H.; Porter, S. N.; Yao, Y.; Mayberry, K.; Everette, K. A.; Jang, Y.; Podracky, C. J.; Thaman, E.; Lechauve, C.; Sharma, A; Henderson, J.

M.; Richter, M. F.; Zhao, K. T.; Miller, S. M.; Wang, T.; Koblan, L. W.; McCaffrey, A. P.; Tisdale, J. F.; Kalfa, T. A.; Pruett-Miller, S.

M.; Tsai, S. Q.; Weiss, Liu xue yi. J.; Liu, Liu xue yi. R. Nature 595, 295-302 (2021). PDF SI 192. Liu xue yi of Angiogenic Incompetence in iPSC-Derived Endothelial Cells of Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome via Downregulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase. Gete, Y. G.; Koblan, L. W.; Mao, X.; Trappio, M.; Mahadik, B.; Fisher, J. P.; Liu, D. R.; Cao, K. Aging Cell 20, e13388 (2021).

PDF 193. Efficient C•G-to-G•C Transversion Base Editors Developed Using CRISPRi Screens, Target-Library Analysis and Machine Learning. Koblan, L. W.; Arbab, M.; Shen, M. W.; Hussmann, J. A.; Anzalone, A. V.; Doman, J. L.; Newby, G. A.; Yang, D.; Mok, B.; Replogle, J. M.; Xu, A.; Sisley, T. A.; Weissman, J. S.; Adamson, B.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Biotechnol. in press, available online (2021). PDF 194. Functional Correction of CFTR Mutations in Human Airway Epithelial Cells using Adenine Base Editors.

Krishnamurthy, S.; Traore, S.; Liu xue yi, A. L.; Brommel, C. M.; Kulhankova, K.; Sinn, P. L.; Newby, G. A.; Liu, D. R.; McCray, P. B. Nucl. Acids Res. in press, available online (2021). PDF 195. In vivo Somatic Base Editing and Prime Editing. Newby, G. A.; Liu, D. R. Molecular Therapy. in press, available online (2021). PDF 196. Engineered pegRNAs Improve Prime Editing Efficiency. Nelson, J.W.; Randolph, P.B.; Shen, S.P.; Everette, K.A.; Chen, P.J.; Anzalone, A.V.; An, M.; Newby, G.A.; Chen, J.C.; Hsu, A.; Liu, D.R.

Nat. Biotechnol. 40, 402-410 (2022). PDF SI 197. Reconstruction of evolving gene variants and fitness from short sequencing reads. Shen, M.W.; Zhao, K.T.; Liu, D.R. Nat. Chem Bio. 17, 1188–1198 (2021). PDF SI 198. Disulfide-compatible phage-assisted continuous evolution in the periplasmic space. Morrison, M.S.; Wang, T; Raguram, A; Hemez, C.; Liu, D.R.

Nat. Commun. 12, 5959 (2021). PDF SI 199. Enhanced Prime Editing Systems by Manipulating Cellular Determinants of Editing Outcomes. Chen, P. J.; Hussmann, J. A.; Yan, J.; Knipping, D.; Ravisankar, P.; Chen, P.-F.; Chen, C.; Nelson, J.

W.; Newby G. Liu xue yi Sahin, M.; Osborn, M. J.; Weissman, J. S.; Adamson, B.; Liu, D. R. Cell. 22, 5635–5652 (2021). PDF SI 200. Programmable deletion, replacement, integration, and inversion of large DNA sequences with twin prime editing. Anzalone, A.V.; Gao, X.D.; Podracky, C.J.; Nelson, A.T.; Koblan, L.

W.; Raguram, A.; Levy, J.M. Mercer, J.A.; Liu, D.R. Nat. Biotechnol. (2022) in press, available online. PDF 201. Engineered virus-like particles for efficient in vivo delivery of therapeutic proteins. Banskota, S.; Raguram, A.; Suh, S.; Du, S.W.; Davis, J.R.; Choi, E.H. Wang, X.; Nielsen, S.C.; Newby, G.A.; Randolph, P.B.; Osborn, M.J.; Musunuru, K.; Palczewski, K.; Liu, D. R. Cell. 185, liu xue yi. (2022). PDF 202. CRISPR-free base editors with enhanced activity and expanded targeting scope in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

Mok, B. Y.; Kotrys, A. V.; Raguram, A.; Huang, T. P.; Mootha, V. K.; Liu, D. R. Nat Biotechnol. (2022).

in press, available online PDF SI 203. Disruption of HIV-1 Co-Receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 in Primary Human T Cells and Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Using Base Editing.

Knipping, F.; Newby, G. A.; Eide, C. R.; McElroy, A. Liu xue yi Neilsen, S. C.; Smith, K.; Fang, Y.; Cornu, T. I.; Costa, C.; Gutierrez-Guerrero, A.; Bingea, S.

P.; Feser, C. J.; Steinbeck, B.; Hippen, K. L.; Blazar, B. R.; McCaffrey, A.; Mussolino, C.; Verhoeyen, E.; Tolar, J., Liu, D. R.; Osborn, M. J. Mol. Ther. 30, 130-144 (2022). 204. Experimental and Machine-Learning Discovery of Sequence-Defined Highly Functionalized Nucleic Acid Polymers that Bind a Target Small Molecule. Chen, J. C.; Chen, J.

P.; Shen M. W.; Wornow, M.; Bae, M.; Ywh, W.-H.; Hsu, A.; Liu, D. R. in revision (2022). 205. In Vivo Base Editing Rescues Cone Photoreceptors in a Mouse Model of Early-Onset Inherited Retinal Degeneration. Choi, E. H.; Suh, Liu xue yi Foik, A. T.; Leinonen, H.; Newby, G. A.; Gao, X. D.; Banskota, S.; Hoang, T.; Du, S.; Dong Z.; Raguram, A.; Kohli, S.; Blackshaw, S.; Lyon, D. C.; Liu, D. R.; Palczewski, K. Nat. Commun. in press, available online (2022). 206. Therapeutic In Vivo Delivery of Gene Editing Agents.

Raguram, A.; Banskota, S.; Liu, D. R. Cell in press (2022). 207. Designing Prime Editing Experiments in Mammalian Cells. Doman, J. L.; Sousa, A. A.; Randolph, Liu xue yi. B.; Chen, P. J.; Liu, D. R. Nat. Protocols in press (2022).
Light Sheet Microscopy ​ We design and implement various form of light sheet microscopy for observing life in 3D across different length scales from cells to whole body of small organisms.

Harnessing rich light-tissue interaction and advanced imaging technology, we aim to observe life in its native form in 3D in real time and reveal the connection among structure, function, genomics and phenotypes. Visible Light Optical Coherence Tomography ​ We pioneer visible light OCT for three distinct advantages.

First, the shorter wavelength in vis-OCT results in ultra-high image resolution. Second, hemoglobin has strong absorption in the visible light rage, which allows oxygen sensing.

Third, the expansion of the wavelength range enhances the capability of elastic light spectroscopy, for detecting early structural changes in diseases. By utilizing motion contrast, label-free microangiography down to single capillary can be achieved. Imaging oxygen ​ Oxygen is essential to life. The importance of how human body reacts to oxygen change is recognized by the 2019 Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine.

We developed several cutting-edge techniques (label-free vis-OCT, phosphorescence oxygen sensor) to map oxygen in 3D to quantify the metabolic function of living tissue. Retinal and neuroimaging ​ We develop retinal imaging techniques to quantify the vascular dysfunction, ultra-structural alterations for blinding pathologies (e.g. diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, ad AMD). As the retina shares many similarities with the cerebral cortex and yet has less neuronal cell types and simpler anatomy, the retina is an excellent target for studying neural circuitry and neurovascular coupling.

Crossing modalities with deep learning ​ Multimodal, multi-dimensional, real-time imaging generates large amount of data. We are interested in using deep learning network to transform different imaging modalities, for example, transform label-free reflectance to immunofluorescent images, to ultimately eliminate the staining process.

Holistically, deep learning may hold advantage to identify hidden phenotypical features that is hard to perceive or quantitate using analytical model. Description: Modern optical microscopy is one of the most exciting frontiers in biomedical engineering. It visualizes and studies the 3D complex structures of biological systems, by implementing and engineering the physics of light and optics. This course will teach the fundamental theory in optical image formation, microscopy, propagation of light wave and Fourier optics.

The theoretical framework will be reinforced through hand-on projects and labs. By the end of the course, the students will know how to design and build their own advanced microscopes, such as light sheet microscopy for 3D imaging and reconstruction.

Style: Lab/design style (50% in class lecture, and 50% lab). The ratio will be scaled more towards lectures and discussion during COVID.

The emphasis is that the student learn the fundamental theory and practice by hands-on experiments. Ideally, the lecture and lab should be well coordinated, such that the optical theory is reinforced in lab class. The goal is that student will develop understanding of the optical physics, and be able to design and implement microscopy platforms. 62. Wenjun Shao, Kivilcim Kilic, Wenqing Yin, Gregory Wirak, Xiaodan Qin, Hui Feng, David Boas, Christopher V Gabel, Ji Yi “ Wide field-of-view volumetric imaging by a mesoscopic scanning oblique plane microscopy with switchable objective lens", Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery (QMIS), vol 11, No 3, 2021.

Pre-print version is here. 54. Weiye Song, Sipei Fu, Shangshang Song, Sui Zhang, Lei Zhang, Steven Ness, Manishi Desai, Ji Yi “Longitudinal detection of retinal alteration by visible and near-infrared optical co-herence tomography (vnOCT) in a dexamethasone-induced ocular hypertension mouse model”, Neurophotonics, 6(4), 041103.

2019 Preprint version is here. 37. Yunxiao Zhu, Ryan Hoshi, Siyu Chen, Liu xue yi Yi, Chongwen Duan, Robert D Galiano, Hao F Zhang,Guillermo A. Ameer, “Sustained release of stromal cell derived factor-1 from an antioxidant thermoresponsive hydrogel enhances dermal wound healing in diabetes”, Journal of Controlled Release, 238(28),114-122. 2016 30. Samira M. Azarin, Ji Yi, Robert M. Gower, Brian A. Aguado, Megan E. Sullivan, Ashley G.

Goodman, Eric J. Jiang, Shreyas S. Rao, Yinying Ren, Susan L. Tucker, Vadim Backman, Jacqueline S. Jeruss, and Lonnie D Shea, "In vivo capture and label-free detection of early metastatic cells", Nat.

Commun. 6:8094 doi: 10.1038/ncomms9094. 2015 20. Wei Song, Qing Wei, Wenzhong Liu, Tan Liu, Ji Yi, Nader Sheibani, Amani A. Fawzi, Robert A. Linsenmeier, Shuliang Jiao, Hao F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography”, Scientific Report 4, 6525.

2014 18. Ji Yi, Andrew J. Radosevich, Yolanda Stypula-Cyrus, Nikhil N. Mutyal, Samira Michelle Azarin, Elizabeth Horcher, Michael J. Goldberg; Laura K. Bianchi; Shailesh Bajaj; Liu xue yi K. Roy; Vadim Backman, “Spatially-resolved optical and ultra-structural properties of colorectal and pancreatic field carcinogenesis observed by inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Journal of Biomedical Optics 19, 036013.

2014




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