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There are many types of dermatitis. Some, such as diaper rash, are characterized by red skin on a specific area of the body. Others involve blisters or breakouts that resemble acne. Dandruff is considered a mild form of dermatitis that affects the scalp.

Because most types of dermatitis have a distinctive appearance, they often can be diagnosed based on a physical exam, although other testing, such as patch testing to determine if a specific allergen is to blame for dermatitis, sometimes is necessary. Treatment for dermatitis depends on the type and includes measures to relieve dry skin, itching, and other symptoms. • Allergic contact dermatitisis a delayed reaction to touching something you're allergic to (such as nickel) or certain ingredients in personal care products.

• Irritant contact dermatitis is a non-allergic reaction to having direct contact with an item or substance that irritates the skin. Detergents, solvents, and other chemicals are common causes of irritant contact dermatitis. • Atopic dermatitis is itchy, red, and/or dermatitis skin that is most common in early life but can affect a person at any age. This rash often occurs in people who have a variety of allergies, although the rash can occur in susceptible people even without exposure to any particular allergen.

A specific allergen is not always involved • Stasis dermatitisresults from poor circulation in the ankles and lower legs, causing the skin in these areas to become dry, itchy, scaly, and discolored. Severe statis dermatitis can result in complications such as cracks in the skin oozing sores, or an infection called cellulitis. • Diaper dermatitis, more commonly known as diaper rash, is a common condition of infancy characterized by a red dermatitis on a baby's bottom and nearby skin caused by extended exposure dermatitis a wet and/or soiled diaper.

• Dyshidrotic dermatitis (pompholyx)affects the palms, dermatitis of fingers, soles of feet, and the area between the toes. It starts as a rash made up of small, itchy blisters that eventually become scaly spots. This rash can lead to cracked skin and be painful. Outbreaks tend to recur. • Nummular dermatitis is also known as nummular eczema or discoid eczema. This condition appears as itchy, red, scaly, coin-shaped patches anywhere on the body.

Potential causes include an allergic reaction such as a burn or insect bite. • Seborrheic dermatitisis characterized by yellow, greasy scales on the scalp and hair-bearing areas of the head, neck, and upper chest. Dermatitis is a mild form of seborrheic dermatitis. In babies, this condition is known as infantile seborrheic dermatitis or cradle cap. • Autosensitization dermatitis is characterized by itchy, water-filled blisters that develop in response to an intense inflammatory process somewhere else on the body, such as a fungal infection.

This response is known as an ID reaction. • Perioral dermatitis is a rash caused by a variety dermatitis triggers, including irritants and/or allergens. It affects the skin around the mouth and can sometimes dermatitis mistaken for an acne breakout. Many times, the cause is never identified.

A Word From VeryWell Dermatitis is a common skin condition. Though it can be uncomfortable, dermatitis, or embarrassing at times to have an itchy rash on your body, once correctly diagnosed most types of dermatitis can be effectively treated and prevented. This is why it's important to see a doctor about any rash or other skin change you develop. The dermatitis you start treatment, the sooner your symptoms may subside. • Ferree SD, Yang C, Kourosh AS. Autosensitization dermatitis: A case of rosacea-like id reaction. JAAD Case Rep.

2019;5(5):410–412. doi:10.1016/j.jdcr.2019.02.029 • Nedorost ST, Stevens Dermatitis. Diagnosis and treatment of allergic skin disorders in the elderly. Drugs Aging. 2001;18(11):827-35. doi:10.2165/00002512-200118110-00004 • Poudel RR, Belbase B, Kafle NK. Nummular eczema. J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect. dermatitis Jun 2015;5(3):27909. doi:10.3402/jchimp.v5.27909 • Purnamawati S, Indrastuti N, Danarti R, et al. The role of moisturizers in addressing various kinds of dermatitis: A review. Clin Med Res.

2017;15(3-4):75–87. doi:10.3121/cmr.2017.1363 • Rathi SK, D'Souza P. Rational and ethical use of topical corticosteroids based on safety and efficacy. Indian J Dermatol.

2012;57(4):251–259. doi:10.4103/0019-5154.97655 • Å ikić pogačar M, Maver U, Marčun varda N, Mičetić-turk D. Diagnosis and management of diaper dermatitis in infants with emphasis on skin microbiota in the diaper area. Int J Dermatol. 2018;57(3):265-275. • Sundaresan S, Migden MR, Silapunt S. Stasis dermatitis: pathophysiology, evaluation, and management. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2017;18(3):383-390.

doi:10.1007/s40257-016-0250-0 • Wollina U. Pompholyx: a review of clinical features, differential diagnosis, and management. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2010;11(5):305-14. Sign Up You're in! Thank you, {{}}, for signing up. There was an error. Please try again. • Health A-Z • Prevention & Treatment • Health Care • News • Medical Expert Board • About Us • Editorial Process • Anti-Racism Pledge • Privacy Policy • In the News • Cookie Policy • Advertise • Terms of Use • Careers • California Privacy Notice • Contact • EU Privacy When you visit this site, it may store or retrieve information on your browser, mostly in the form of cookies.

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Dermatitis is a general term for conditions that cause inflammation of the skin. Examples include atopic dermatitis (eczema), contact dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff). These conditions cause red rashes, dry skin and itchiness among other symptoms. Your dermatitis can be managed by your regular healthcare provider or by a dermatologist.

Overview What is dermatitis and what does it look like? “Dermatitis” is a word used to describe a number of skin irritations and rashes caused by genetics, an overactive immune system, infections, allergies, irritating substances and more.

Common symptoms include dry skin, redness and itchiness. In the word “dermatitis,” “derm” means “skin” and “itis” means “inflammation.” The word as a whole means “inflammation of the skin.” The rashes range from mild to severe and can cause a variety of problems, depending on their cause. Dermatitis causes no serious harm to your body. It is not contagious, and it does not mean that your skin is unclean or infected.

There are treatment methods and medications that can manage your symptoms. What are the types of dermatitis? The types of dermatitis include, but are not limited to: • Atopic dermatitis (eczema). • Contact dermatitis. • Diaper dermatitis (rash). • Dyshidrotic dermatitis. • Neurodermatitis. • Nummular dermatitis. • Perioral/Periorificial dermatitis. • Seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff, cradle cap).

• Dermatitis dermatitis. See the “Causes and Symptoms” section for more details about the types of dermatitis. Who gets dermatitis? Anyone – young and old – can get dermatitis. Some examples include: • Your baby can get cradle cap and diaper rash. • Atopic dermatitis (eczema) usually begins in childhood, but anyone at any age can get it. • Anyone can get contact dermatitis as it just involves skin to substance contact. • Individuals with celiac disease are prone to dermatitis herpetiformis. There are several factors that put you at risk of getting dermatitis.

Some examples include: Atopic dermatitis risk factors include: • A family history of dermatitis, hay fever or asthma. • Being female. • Being African-American. Contact dermatitis risk factors include: • If you work around chemicals such as in a factory, restaurant or garden.

Periorificial dermatitis risk factors include: • Being female. • Being ages 15 to 45. Dyshidrotic dermatitis risk factors include: • If you dermatitis a lot.

• Prolonged exposed to water and/or irritants. • If you live dermatitis a warmer climate. What’s the first sign of dermatitis? Itchiness and redness are commonly the first signs of dermatitis. Where does dermatitis form on the body? The location of your dermatitis depends on the type. For example, atopic dermatitis can appear anywhere on your skin.

But, in teens and adults, it’s typically on the hands, inner elbows, dermatitis, knees, ankles, feet and around the eyes. Seborrheic dermatitis and cradle cap are typically on your scalp, face and ears. Periorificial dermatitis is found around your eyes, mouth, dermatitis and sometimes the genitals.

How common is dermatitis? Some types of dermatitis are very common while others are less common. Atopic dermatitis affects two percent to three percent of adults and 25% of children. Contact dermatitis happens at some point to 15% to 20% of people. Is dermatitis contagious? No type of dermatitis is contagious. What’s the difference between dermatitis and psoriasis? Psoriasis and dermatitis – especially seborrheic dermatitis – can look similar. Both look like patches of red skin with dermatitis of skin on top of and around the redness.

However, in psoriasis, the scales are often thicker and the edges of those scales are well-defined. Seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis do overlap in a condition called “sebopsoriasis.” Dermatitis is when you have the symptoms of both.

Discuss your questions with your healthcare provider regarding which type of skin condition you have. You can have more than one skin condition at a time. Treatments for one may not work for the other.

What’s the difference between dermatitis and eczema? Eczema is actually a type of dermatitis. It is also known as atopic dermatitis. What’s the dermatitis between dermatitis and rosacea? Rosacea can cause red skin that looks like dermatitis.

However, rosacea can also cause pimples, and the redness is typically found on your forehead, nose, chin and cheeks. Have your healthcare provider take a look at your skin to determine if your condition is dermatitis, rosacea, or something else. Does dermatitis hurt? Dermatitis can cause pain for some people. The symptoms can be different depending on the dermatitis of dermatitis. Does dermatitis burn? Some people feel a burning sensation.

Others feel itchiness or both itchiness and a burning feeling. The sensations vary from person to person, and from type to type. Symptoms and Causes What causes dermatitis? Dermatitis is caused by a combination of immune system activation, genetics and environmental triggers. • Immune system. Sometimes your immune system overreacts. If you have atopic dermatitis, your immune system reacts to seemingly small irritants or allergens. This causes inflammation.

• Genetics. Researchers have observed that if others in your family have dermatitis, you’re more likely to have it. Additionally, experts have identified changes to genes that control a protein that helps your dermatitis maintain healthy skin. Your skin cannot remain healthy without normal levels of that protein.

• Environment. Your environment may make your immune system change the protective barrier of your skin. That causes more moisture to escape, and that can lead to dermatitis. Possible environmental factors include exposure to tobacco smoke and some types of air pollutants. Fragrances in some skin products and soap are also possible. dermatitis Exposure.

Some types of dermatitis are caused by exposure to chemicals and other irritants. Perioral dermatitis, for example, may be caused by exposure to fluoride in water or toothpaste. If dermatitis have dermatitis, you might also have another condition that doesn’t cause it, but is often found alongside it: • Sleep loss.

• Depression. • Dermatitis. • Asthma. • Allergies. What are the signs and symptoms of dermatitis? The symptoms depend on the type of dermatitis.


You may have one type, or you may have several. Each type may have one or more of the following symptoms: • Itching. • Red rashes and bumps. • Rashes that dermatitis and/or feel like a burn. • Dry skin. • Fluid-filled blisters. • Thickening, hardening and swelling skin.

• Crusting, scaling and creasing skin. • Painful ulcers. • When scratched, dermatitis rashes may ooze fluid dermatitis bleed. Here are examples of signs and symptoms of common types of dermatitis: • Atopic dermatitis (eczema). Atopic dermatitis happens when there is damage to the skin barrier.

This causes the skin to become inflamed, red, dry, bumpy and itchy. • Contact dermatitis. Contact dermatitis is an allergic or irritant reaction that causes a painful or itchy skin rash. As the name suggests, you get contact dermatitis from coming into contact with an allergen.

Examples include an allergen like poison ivy and an irritant like a chemical. • Dermatitis cap (infant seborrheic dermatitis). Dermatitis cap is a harmless skin condition on the scalp of a baby that appears as yellow scaly patches surrounded by a red rash. • Diaper dermatitis (rash). As the name suggests, diaper dermatitis is when a rash appears on any part of a baby’s skin covered by a diaper. The skin gets broken down by dermatitis, movement and waste products.

• Dyshidrotic dermatitis. This type of dermatitis causes itchy blisters on the edges of your fingers, palms, toes and the soles of your feet. The blisters can be painful. • Neurodermatitis.

This type of dermatitis is caused by intense itching that irritates the nerve endings of the skin. • Dermatitis dermatitis. If you have circular, itchy spots on your skin, you might have nummular dermatitis. Your skin gets dry and itchy and you may get open sores. • Periorificial dermatitis: Periorificial dermatitis looks like acne or rosacea. It develops around your mouth, eyes and nose.

• Seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff). Dermatitis dermatitis (called dandruff when it’s on your head) appears as red, dry, flaky, itchy skin on your scalp and other parts of your body. • Stasis dermatitis. Dermatitis of this type is caused by a problem with blood flow in your veins. Your ankles may swell and there may be scaling, itching, pain and open sores.

Does stress cause dermatitis? Yes. Stress can cause and/or aggravate some skin conditions including dermatitis. There are mental/emotional signs of stress and physical signs of stress. They include: Mental/emotional signs: • Constant worry, anxiety, feeling overwhelmed.

• Difficulty concentrating. • Irritability, mood swings, or a short temper. • Depression. • Low self-esteem. • Difficulty relaxing, or using alcohol, tobacco, or illegal drugs dermatitis relax. Physical signs: • Dermatitis tension and aches and pains. • Diarrhea and constipation. • Sleeping more, or less. • Loss dermatitis sex drive.

• Feeling nauseated or dizzy. Try these tips to reduce your stress: • Take deep breaths. Count to ten. • Don’t aim for perfection. Accept that you dermatitis control everything. • Exercise every day. • Get plenty of sleep. • Limit caffeine and alcohol. • Eat healthy meals. • Laugh a lot and try to have a positive attitude. • Journal. • Talk to friends and family, and to a therapist. What worsens dermatitis? What triggers it? Try your best to figure out what triggers your dermatitis.

It’s important to remember that it can affect people differently. Is your dermatitis triggered by a chemical you clean with? Do you get it every time you go to your uncle’s house, because he’s a smoker? Does your scalp feel itchy since you started that new shampoo? Did that rash on the inside of your wrist appear after you tried that new perfume? Does excessive sunlight make your dermatitis better or worse? Do you feel itchy every time you wear that wool sweater?

Remember what else worsens dermatitis: stress, hot showers, allergens like pollen and pet dander, etc. Find out what worsens your dermatitis and do your best to avoid it.

Diagnosis and Tests How is dermatitis diagnosed? Your healthcare provider will take a close look at your skin. They will look for classic signs of dermatitis dermatitis as a rash, redness, scales, dryness and dermatitis. They will ask about the symptoms you’re experiencing. Are you itchy? Does your skin feel like it’s burning?

Is your skin dry? Have you come into contact with anything that might irritate your skin? What other questions might my healthcare provider ask to diagnose dermatitis? The conversation with your healthcare provider will need to cover a lot of information.

Be sure to be specific about your symptoms. • Where is your dermatitis located? • What have you dermatitis to try to treat your dermatitis? • What medical conditions do dermatitis have? Allergies? Asthma? Celiac disease? • How long have you had symptoms of dermatitis? • Do you take hot showers? dermatitis Is there anything that makes your symptoms worse? • Are you around chemicals?

• Have you noticed that something triggers or worsens your dermatitis? Soaps? Detergents? Cigarette smoke? • Is there so much pain or itchiness that you have trouble sleeping? Working? Just living your normal life? What tests are done to diagnose dermatitis?

Usually your healthcare provider will be able to diagnose dermatitis based on examining your skin. However, when there is doubt, they may perform the following tests: • Blood tests to check for causes of the rash that might be unrelated to dermatitis.

• A skin biopsy to distinguish one type of dermatitis from another. • An allergy dermatitis test. Management and Treatment How is dermatitis treated? What medications are used? The type of treatment depends on the type of dermatitis and its location. Step number one is to avoid whatever triggers the dermatitis. That may be stress, a chemical, tobacco smoke and/or a dermatitis of other irritants that cause or dermatitis your dermatitis. Step number two is to try remedies on your own.

Step number three is medication prescribed by your healthcare provider. What are the at-home remedies I can try? There some treatments you can do at home, but you should only do them with instructions and permission from your healthcare provider: • Ultraviolet light. Ultraviolet A or B dermatitis waves can help your skin. • Wet wrap therapy. This therapy increases moisture dermatitis your skin. • Bleach baths.

The amount of bleach is diluted. You shouldn’t do this more than twice a week. Check with your healthcare provider before you try this therapy. There are some other treatments you can do at home with no supervision: • Use moisturizer.

Right after you shower or bathe, apply moisturizer to your skin. This helps keep your skin hydrated. • Don’t overheat. Keep your space at a cool dermatitis and avoid dermatitis humidity. • Protect your skin. Stay away from anything that could irritate it. This includes rough clothing like wool.

• Decrease your stress. Take steps to keep your stress levels down. If you need to, see a therapist for dermatitis and a psychiatrist for medication. • Bathe in lukewarm water. Be sure to use lukewarm water instead of hot. Take no more than one bath or shower per day. • Use a mild soap. Use soap or cleanser that is unscented. • Avoid scratching.

Scratching at your dermatitis irritates it. You could break the skin, risking infection. Your healthcare provider may prescribe one or more of the following medications: • Moisturizing creams. Creams that hydrate and help restore the skin barrier. • Calcineurin inhibitors. These topical medications dermatitis inflammation. • Corticosteroid creams and ointments. Corticosteroids decrease inflammation.

dermatitis Phosphodieterase-4 inhibitors. This also helps with inflammation. • Biologics. This injection blocks functions of the immune system that affect dermatitis. • Oral medications. Pills that reduce immune responses that affect dermatitis.

• Antihistamines. These are used, sometimes, for contact dermatitis. • Antibiotics: These can be used for people who have perioral dermatitis. Is there a dermatitis for dermatitis? No treatment can claim to eliminate the symptoms of dermatitis 100% of the time. Treatments manage symptoms with varying degrees of success. Talk to your healthcare provider about the best treatments for you. Should I see a dermatologist? Yes, if your usual healthcare provider is unable to help with your dermatitis.

Dermatologists specialize in skin conditions. How long does it take to recover? The length of recovery time depends on dermatitis type of dermatitis and the treatment you get. Even with treatment, it can take several weeks or months to improve. Atopic dermatitis can be with you lifelong, but you can reduce the symptoms with treatment. Can dermatitis damage my skin permanently?

If you scratch your skin too much and too hard, you could possibly leave scars. Prevention How can I prevent or reduce my risk of dermatitis? Do your best to avoid what triggers your dermatitis. That might be foods you’re sensitive or allergic to, chemicals that irritate your skin and/or soaps that do the same. Moisturize your skin regularly. Don’t overheat. Use a humidifier to keep the air from getting too dry.

Try not to scratch. Reduce your stress. What foods can I eat or avoid to reduce my risk of dermatitis? If you have food allergies, then one of the reasons why you must avoid dermatitis food is that it may cause or worsen dermatitis. Up to 25% of people with dermatitis herpetiformis have celiac disease, a sensitivity to gluten. Examples of common allergies include peanuts, dairy, eggs, sugar and alcohol.

Pay attention to what you eat. If your dermatitis flares up after you eat a certain food, then you might have an allergy. Discuss diet changes with your healthcare provider. It may also be helpful to see a dietician. Dieticians can help you create new meal plans. Outlook / Prognosis How long will I have dermatitis? Dermatitis can be with you lifelong.

It can start in infancy and continue through adulthood. It can start in the teenage years and disappear by young adulthood. Each possibility depends on the person and on the type of dermatitis they have.

Are there complications of dermatitis? There are complications that come with dermatitis. The following do not apply to all types, and do not apply to all people, but are still common: • Viral skin infections. Try not to scratch because that can worsen the infection. • Bacterial skin infections.

Try not to scratch because that can worsen the infection. • Sleep loss. • Conjunctivitis (pink eye). • Blepharitis (inflammation and redness of your eyelid). Will dermatitis cause scars? Scratching your skin can sometimes lead to infections and scars. Try to get treatment as soon as you notice dermatitis symptoms so that you can avoid this.

Living With What is it like living with dermatitis Dermatitis is both common and normal. Many people live with it. Managing your symptoms is important for living with dermatitis. Do your best to keep your dermatitis “under control.” You can do this by following your healthcare provider’s instructions. Try your at-home remedies and take any prescribed medications.

You may find that there are times when your dermatitis disappears. This is known as a “remission” period. Other times you may have a “flare up,” which is when your dermatitis gets worse. Do your best not to scratch your dermatitis as this can lead to infections and scars. When should I see my healthcare provider? Don’t wait until you’re so uncomfortable that you can’t sleep before seeing your healthcare provider about your skin. See them as soon as symptoms start so that you can get treatment.

Dermatitis them especially soon if you think there’s an infection, or if you’re in a lot of pain. What questions should I ask my dermatitis provider? • What type of dermatitis do I have? • How can you tell that it’s that type of dermatitis?

• If I don’t have dermatitis, what other skin condition might I have? • Is there a specific brand of moisturizer that you recommend? • Is there a prescription shampoo, cream or lotion that you can prescribe? • How often should I see a dermatologist regarding this condition? • What soaps, lotions, makeup, etc. should I avoid? • What medications dermatitis you recommend? • What at-home treatments do you recommend? A note from Cleveland Clinic Dermatitis your healthcare provider as soon as you start to see symptoms of dermatitis.

Feeling itchy and/or in pain all the time affects your quality of life. It’s distracting, uncomfortable and can even keep you from having a good night’s sleep. Dermatitis is very normal, dermatitis it may make you feel self-conscious in public. It can affect your self-esteem and your social life or relationships.

But remember that as many as 15% to 20% of people experience some form of dermatitis at some point in time, so know that you’re not alone! • National Eczema Association. Contact Dermatitis. ( Accessed 10/20/2020.

• National Eczema Association. An Overview of the Different Types of Eczema. ( Accessed 10/20/2020. • The Society for Pediatric Dermatology. What is Perioral Dermatitis? ( Accessed 10/20/2020.

• The Society for Pediatric Dermatology. What is Diaper Rash? ( Accessed 10/20/2020.

• MedlinePlus. Eczema. ( Accessed 10/20/2020. • NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Atopic Dermatitis. ( Accessed 10/20/2020.

• NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal dermatitis Skin Diseases. Rosacea. ( Accessed 10/20/2020. • National Eczema Association. Everything you need to know dermatitis eczema and food allergies. ( Accessed dermatitis. • Eichenfield LF, Wynnis LT, Chamlin SL, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of atopic dermatitis: Section 1. Journal of the American academy of Dermatology.

2014;70:388. Accessed 10/20/2020. • Merck Manual. Contact Dermatitis. ( Accessed 10/20/2020. • Merck Manual. Perioral Dermatitis. ( Accessed 10/20/2020.

• Anxiety and Depression Association of America. Tips to Manage Anxiety and Stress. ( Accessed 10/20/2020. • National Eczema Association. Eczema Causes and Triggers. ( Accessed 10/20/2020. • Mental Health Foundation. How to Manage and Reduce Stress. dermatitis Accessed 10/20/2020.

• Celiac Disease Foundation. Dermatitis Herpetiformis. ( Accessed 10/20/2020. • DermNet NZ. What is Periorificial Dermatitis? ( Accessed 10/20/2020. • NHS. Pompholyx (Dyshidrotic Dermatitis.

(,seen%20in%20adults%20under%2040.) Accessed 10/20/2020. • National Eczema Association. Nummular Eczema – Nummular Dermatitis dermatitis Discoid Eczema. ( Accessed 10/20/2020. • Katta R, Schlichte M. Diet and Dermatitis: Food Triggers. The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology.

2014;7(3)-30-36. Accessed 10/20/2020. Dermatitis Medically reviewed by Last updated on May 2, 2022. • Care notes • Dermatitis • Ambulatory • Español • Overview • Symptoms • Diagnosis • Treatment • Management What is dermatitis? Dermatitis is skin inflammation. Dermatitis may be caused by allergens such as dust mites, pet dander, pollen, and certain foods.

Dermatitis can also develop when something touches your skin and irritates it or causes an allergic reaction. Examples include soaps, chemicals, latex, and poison ivy. What are the signs and symptoms of dermatitis? You may have any of the following, depending on the cause: • An itchy rash • Redness • Bumps or blisters dermatitis crust over or ooze clear fluid • Swelling How is dermatitis diagnosed? Your healthcare provider will examine your skin. He or she will ask about your rash and any other symptoms you have.

Tell him or her if you noticed anything trigger your rash, such as a certain food or activity. Tell him or her about any medicines you are taking or any allergies or medical conditions you have. How is dermatitis treated? Treatment depends on the cause of dermatitis rash. You may need medicines to help decrease itching and inflammation or treat a bacterial infection.

They may be given as a topical cream, shot, or a pill. Treatment options The following list of medications are in some way related to or used in the treatment of this condition. • triamcinolone • Kenalog • Clobex • Elocon • Diprolene View more treatment options How can I manage dermatitis?

• Apply a cool compress to your rash. This will help soothe your skin. • Apply lotions or creams to the area. These help keep your skin moist and decrease itching. Apply the lotion or cream right after a lukewarm bath or shower when your skin is still damp. Dermatitis products that do not contain dye or a scent. • Avoid skin irritants. Examples include makeup, hair products, soaps, and cleansers.

Use products that do not contain a scent or dye. Call your local emergency number (911 in the US) or have someone call if: • You have symptoms of anaphylaxis, such as sudden trouble breathing, throat swelling, or feeling dizzy or lightheaded. When should I seek immediate care? • You develop a dermatitis or have red streaks going up your arm or leg. • Dermatitis rash gets more swollen, dermatitis, or hot.

When should I call my doctor? • Your skin blisters, oozes white or yellow pus, or has a foul-smelling discharge. • Your rash spreads or does not get better, even after treatment. • You have questions or concerns about your condition or care. Care Agreement You have the right to help plan your care. Learn about your health condition and how it may be dermatitis. Discuss treatment options with your healthcare providers to decide what care you want to receive.

You always have the right to refuse treatment. The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2022 Information is for End User's use only and may not be sold, dermatitis or otherwise used for commercial purposes. All illustrations and images included in CareNotes® are the copyrighted property of A.D.A.M., Inc.

or IBM Watson Health Learn more about Dermatitis • Contact Dermatitis Treatment options • Medications for Atopic Dermatitis • Medications for Dermatitis Dermatitis guides • Blister • Itchy Skin • Jock Itch • Skin Tear Symptoms and treatments • Atopic Dermatitis Health Guide guides (external) • Dermatitis Guide Further information Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this dermatitis applies to your personal circumstances.

Medical Disclaimer provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription dermatitis, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. This dermatitis is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended dermatitis medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 3 May 2022), Cerner Multum™ (updated 28 Apr 2022), ASHP (updated 11 Apr 2022) and others.
• Care at Mayo Clinic • Appointments • Locations • Patient & Visitor Guide • International Services • Medical Departments & Centers • Doctors & Medical Staff • Patient Online Services • Billing & Insurance • Clinical Trials • International Business Collaborations • About Mayo Clinic • Contact Us • Health Information Overview Dermatitis is a general term that describes a common skin irritation.

It has many causes and forms and usually involves itchy, dry skin dermatitis a rash. Dermatitis it might cause the skin to blister, ooze, crust or flake off. Three common types of this condition are atopic dermatitis (eczema), seborrheic dermatitis and contact dermatitis. Seborrheic dermatitis on the face Seborrheic dermatitis causes a rash with yellowish dermatitis somewhat "oily" scales.

In addition to the scalp, seborrheic dermatitis can occur on the sides of the nose, in and between the eyebrows, and in other oil-rich dermatitis.

Each type of dermatitis tends to occur on a different part of your body. Signs and symptoms dermatitis include: • Itchiness (pruritus) • Dry skin • Rash on swollen skin that varies in color depending on your skin color • Blisters, perhaps with oozing and crusting • Flaking skin (dandruff) • Thickened skin • Bumps in hair follicles Dermatitis to see a doctor See your doctor if: • You're so uncomfortable that you're losing sleep or are distracted from your daily routines • Your skin becomes painful • You suspect that your skin is infected • You've tried self-care steps but your signs and symptoms persist There is a problem with information submitted for this request.

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You may opt-out of email communications at any time by clicking on the unsubscribe link in the e-mail. A common cause of dermatitis is contact with something that irritates your skin or triggers an allergic reaction — for example, poison ivy, perfume, lotion and jewelry containing nickel. Other causes of dermatitis include dry skin, a viral infection, bacteria, stress, genetic dermatitis and a problem with the immune system. Risk factors Common risk factors for dermatitis include: • Age.

Dermatitis can occur at any age, but atopic dermatitis (eczema) is more common in children than adults, and it usually begins in infancy. • Allergies and asthma. People who have a personal or family history of eczema, allergies, hay fever or asthma are more likely to develop atopic dermatitis. • Occupation. Jobs that put you in contact with certain metals, solvents or cleaning supplies increase your risk of contact dermatitis.

Being a health care worker is linked to hand eczema. • Health conditions. Health conditions that put you at increased dermatitis of seborrheic dermatitis include congestive heart failure, Parkinson's disease and HIV/AIDS. Complications Scratching the itchy rash associated with dermatitis can cause open sores, which may become infected.

These skin infections can spread and may very rarely become life-threatening. In people with brown and Black skin, dermatitis might cause the affected area to darken or dermatitis (post-inflammatory dermatitis or hypopigmentation). It might take months or years to return to your usual skin color.

Prevention Wear protective clothing if you are doing a task that involves irritants or caustic chemicals. Avoid dry skin by adopting these habits when bathing: • Take shorter baths and showers. Limit your baths and showers to 5 to 10 minutes. Use warm, rather than hot, water.

Bath oil also may be helpful. • Use a gentle, nonsoap cleanser. Choose unscented nonsoap cleansers. Some soaps can dry your skin. • Dry yourself gently. After bathing, gently pat your skin dry with a soft towel. • Moisturize your skin. While your skin is still damp, seal in moisture with an oil, cream or lotion. Try different products to find one dermatitis works for you.

Ideally, the best one for you will be safe, effective, affordable and unscented. Two small studies showed that applying a protective moisturizer to the skin of infants at high risk of dermatitis dermatitis reduced the incidence of the condition by up to 50%. dermatitis Wolff K, et al. Eczema/dermatitis. In: Fitzpatrick's Color Atlas and Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology.

8th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2017. Accessed April 29, 2019. • Goldsmith LA, et al., eds. Atopic dermatitis. In: Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. 9th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2019. Accessed April 29, 2019. • Eichenfield LF, dermatitis al. Guidelines of care for the management of atopic dermatitis: Section 1. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

2014;70:338. dermatitis Eichenfield LF, et al. Current guidelines for the evaluation and management of atopic dermatitis: A comparison of the Joint Task Force Practice Parameter and American Academy of Dermatology guidelines. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2017;139:S49. • AskMayoExpert. Atopic dermatitis. Rochester, Minn.: Dermatitis Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2019.

• Rice bran. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Accessed April 30, 2019. • Dermatitis tree oil. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Accessed April 30, 2019. • Aloe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Accessed April 30, 2019. • Warner KJ. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.


April 29, 2019. • Ash Dermatitis, et al. Comparison of dermatitis, acetic acid, and other topical anti-infective treatments in pediatric atopic dermatitis: A retrospective cohort study on antibiotic exposure. Pediatric Dermatology. 2019;36:115. • Eczema and bathing. National Eczema Association. Accessed April 30, 2019. • Ibler KS, et al. Hand eczema: Prevalence and dermatitis factors of hand eczema in a population of 2,274 health care workers.

Contact Dermatitis. 2012;67:200. • Over the counter. National Eczema Association. Accessed April 30, 2019. • Nguyen HL, et al. Contact dermatitis to medications and skin products.

Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology. 2019;56:41. • Nguyen GH, et al. Climate change and atopic dermatitis: Is there a link. International Journal of Dermatology. 2019;58:279. • Stander S. Atopic dermatitis. New England Journal of Medicine. 2021; doi:10.1056/NEJMra2023911. • Bruce AJ (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic. April 14, 2021. • High WA. Special considerations in skin of color. In: Dermatology Secrets.

Elsevier; 2021. Accessed May 5, 2021. • Eczema in skin of color: What you need to know. Accessed May 5, 2021. • Kelly AP, et al. Pediatrics. In: Taylor and Kelly's Dermatology for Skin of Color. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill Education; 2016. Accessed May 27, 2021. Mayo Clinic Press Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic Press.

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Medical condition Atopic dermatitis Other names Eczema A moderate case of dermatitis of the hands Specialty Dermatology Symptoms Itchiness, red skin, rash [1] Complications Skin infection [2] Causes Atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis, stasis dermatitis [1] [2] Diagnostic method Based on symptom [1] Differential diagnosis Scabies, psoriasis, dermatitis herpetiformis, lichen simplex chronicus [3] Prevention Essential fatty acids [4] Treatment Moisturizers, steroid creams, antihistamines [2] [5] Frequency 245 million in 2015 [6] (3.34% of world population) Dermatitis is inflammation dermatitis the skin, typically characterized by itchiness, redness and a dermatitis.

[1] In cases of short duration, there may be small blisters, while in long-term cases the skin may become thickened. [1] The area of skin involved can vary from small to covering the entire body. [1] [2] Dermatitis is often called eczema, and the difference between those terms is not standardized. The exact cause of the condition is often unclear. [2] Cases may involve a combination of allergy and poor venous return. [1] The type of dermatitis is generally determined by the person's history and the location of the rash.

[1] For example, irritant dermatitis often occurs on the hands of those who frequently get them wet. [1] Allergic contact dermatitis occurs upon exposure to an allergen, causing a hypersensitivity reaction in the dermatitis.

[1] Prevention of atopic dermatitis is typically with essential fatty acids, [4] and may be treated with moisturizers and steroid creams. [5] The steroid creams should generally be dermatitis mid- to high strength and used for less than two weeks at a time, as side effects can occur. [7] Antibiotics may be required if dermatitis are signs of skin infection. [2] Contact dermatitis is typically treated by avoiding the allergen or irritant.

[8] [9] Antihistamines may help with sleep and decrease nighttime scratching. [2] Dermatitis was estimated to affect 245 million people globally in 2015, [6] or 3.34% of the world population.

Atopic dermatitis is the most common type and generally starts in childhood. [1] [2] In the United States, it affects about 10–30% dermatitis people.

[2] Contact dermatitis is twice as common in females as males. [10] Allergic contact dermatitis affects about 7% of people at some point in their lives. [11] Irritant contact dermatitis is common, especially among people with certain occupations; exact rates are unclear. [12] Contents • 1 Types • 2 Signs and symptoms • 2.1 Dermatitis • 3 Cause • 3.1 Environmental • 3.1.1 Malnutrition • 3.2 Genetic • 4 Prevention • 4.1 Healthy diet • 4.1.1 Fatty acids • 5 Management • 5.1 Lifestyle • dermatitis Moisturizers • 5.3 Medications • 5.3.1 Corticosteroids • 5.3.2 Antihistamines • 5.3.3 Immunosuppressants • 5.3.4 Others • 5.4 Light therapy • 5.4.1 Narrowband UVB • 5.5 Alternative medicine • 5.5.1 Topical • dermatitis Supplements • 6 Pathophysiology • 7 Diagnosis • 7.1 Classification • 7.1.1 Histopathologic classification • 7.2 Terminology • 7.3 Common types • 7.3.1 Atopic • 7.3.2 Contact • 7.3.3 Seborrhoeic • 7.4 Less common types • 7.4.1 Dyshidrosis • 7.4.2 Discoid • 7.4.3 Venous • 7.4.4 Herpetiformis • 7.4.5 Neurodermatitis • 7.4.6 Autoeczematization • 7.4.7 Viral • 8 Prognosis • 9 Epidemiology • dermatitis History • 11 Society and culture • 12 Research • 13 See also • 14 References • 15 External links Types [ edit ] Dermatitis includes: [1] [2] • Atopic dermatitis • Allergic contact dermatitis • Irritant contact dermatitis • Seborrhoeic dermatitis • Stasis dermatitis Signs and symptoms [ edit ] Dermatitis of the hand Dermatitis symptoms vary with all different forms of the condition.

Although every type of dermatitis has different symptoms, there are certain signs that are common for all of them, including redness dermatitis the skin, swelling, itching and skin lesions with sometimes oozing and scarring. Also, the area of the skin on which the symptoms appear tends to be different with every type of dermatitis, whether on the neck, wrist, forearm, thigh or ankle. Dermatitis the location may vary, the primary symptom of this condition is itchy skin. More rarely, it may appear on the genital area, such as the vulva or scrotum.

[13] [14] Symptoms of this type of dermatitis may be very intense and may come and go. Irritant contact dermatitis is usually more painful than itchy. Although the symptoms of atopic dermatitis vary from person to person, the most common symptoms are dry, itchy, red skin.

Typical affected skin areas include the folds of the arms, dermatitis back of the knees, wrists, face and hands. Perioral dermatitis refers to a red bumpy rash around the mouth. [15] Dermatitis herpetiformis symptoms include itching, stinging and a burning sensation.

Papules and vesicles are commonly present. [16] The small red dermatitis experienced in this type of dermatitis are usually about 1 cm in size, red in color and may be found symmetrically grouped or distributed on the upper or lower back, buttocks, elbows, knees, neck, shoulders and scalp. The symptoms of seborrhoeic dermatitis, on the other hand, tend to appear gradually, from dry or greasy scaling of the scalp ( dandruff) to scaling of facial areas, sometimes with itching, but without hair loss.

[17] In newborns, the condition causes a thick and yellowish scalp rash, often accompanied by a diaper rash. In severe cases, symptoms may appear along the hairline, behind the ears, on the eyebrows, on the bridge of the nose, around the nose, on the chest, and on the upper back. [18] • Complex dermatitis Complications [ edit ] People with eczema should not receive the smallpox vaccination due to risk of developing eczema vaccinatum, a potentially severe and sometimes fatal complication.

[19] Other major health risks for people with dermatitis are viral and bacterial infections because atopic dermatitis patients have deficiencies in their proteins dermatitis lipids that have barrier functions dermatitis with defects in dendritic cells and as a result are unable to keep foreign dermatitis out leading to recurring infections. [20] If left untreated, these infections may be life threatening, so skin barrier improvement (such as daily moisturizing to minimize transepidermal water loss) and anti-inflammatory therapy are recommended as preventative measures.

[20] Cause [ edit ] The cause of dermatitis is unknown but is presumed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. [2] Environmental [ edit ] The hygiene hypothesis postulates that the cause of asthma, eczema, and other allergic diseases is an unusually clean environment in childhood which leads to an insufficient human microbiota.

It is supported by epidemiologic studies for asthma. [21] The hypothesis states that exposure to bacteria and other immune system modulators is important during dermatitis, and missing out on this exposure increases the risk for asthma and allergy. [22] One systematic review of literature on eczema found that urban areas have an increased prevalence of eczema compared to rural areas.

[23] While it has been suggested that eczema may sometimes be an allergic reaction to the excrement from house dust mites, [24] with up to 5% of people showing antibodies to the mites, [25] the overall role this plays awaits further corroboration.

[26] Malnutrition [ edit ] Essential fatty acid deficiency results in a dermatitis similar to that seen in zinc or biotin deficiency. [4] Genetic [ edit ] A number of genes have dermatitis associated with eczema, one of which is filaggrin. [5] Genome-wide studies found three new genetic variants associated with eczema: OVOL1, ACTL9 and IL4-KIF3A.

[27] Eczema occurs about three times more frequently in individuals with celiac disease and about two times more frequently in relatives of those with celiac disease, potentially indicating a genetic link between the conditions. [28] [29] Prevention [ edit ] Exclusive breastfeeding of infants during at least the first few months may decrease the risk.

[30] There is no good evidence that a mother's diet during pregnancy or breastfeeding affects the risk, [30] nor is there evidence that delayed introduction of certain foods is useful. [30] There is tentative evidence that probiotics in infancy may reduce rates but it is dermatitis to recommend its use. [31] There is moderate certainty evidence that the use of skin care interventions such as emollients within the first year of life of an infant's life is not effective in preventing eczema. [32] In fact, it may increase the risk of skin infection and of unwanted effects such as allergic reaction to certain moisturizers and a stinging sensation.

[32] Healthy diet [ edit ] See also: Healthy diet There has not been adequate evaluation of changing the diet to reduce eczema.

[33] [34] There is some evidence that infants with an established egg allergy may have a reduction in symptoms if eggs are eliminated from their diets. [33] Benefits have dermatitis been shown for other elimination diets, though the studies are small and poorly executed. [33] [34] Establishing that there is a food allergy before dietary change could avoid unnecessary lifestyle changes.

[33] Fatty dermatitis [ edit dermatitis Oils with fatty acids that has been studied to prevent dermatitis includes: [35] [36] • Corn oil: Linoleic acid (LA) • Fish oil: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) • Hemp seed oil: Linoleic acid (LA), and alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA) In the 1950s Arild Hansen showed that in humans: dermatitis fed skimmed milk developed the essential fatty acid deficiency.

It was characterized by an increased food intake, poor growth, and a scaly dermatitis, and was cured by the administration of corn oil. Management [ edit ] There is no known cure for some types of dermatitis, with treatment aiming to control symptoms by reducing dermatitis and relieving itching.

Contact dermatitis is treated by avoiding what is causing it. Lifestyle [ edit ] Bathing once or more a day is recommended, usually for five to ten minutes in warm water. [5] [37] Soaps should dermatitis avoided, as they tend to strip the skin of natural oils and lead dermatitis excessive dryness.


{INSERTKEYS} [38] The American Academy of Dermatology suggests using a controlled amount of bleach diluted in a bath to help with atopic dermatitis. [39] People can wear clothing designed to manage the itching, scratching and peeling.

[40] House dust mite reduction and avoidance measures have been studied in low quality trials and have not shown evidence of improving eczema. [41] Moisturizers [ edit ] Low-quality evidence indicates that moisturizing agents ( emollients) may reduce eczema severity and lead to fewer flares. [42] In children, oil–based formulations appear to be better, and water–based formulations are not recommended. [5] It is unclear if moisturizers that contain ceramides are more or less effective than others.

[43] Products that contain dyes, perfumes, or peanuts should not be used. [5] Occlusive dressings at night may be useful. [5] Some moisturizers or barrier creams may reduce irritation in occupational irritant hand dermatitis, [44] a skin disease that can affect people in jobs that regularly come into contact with water, detergents, chemicals or other irritants.

[44] Some emollients may reduce the number of flares in people with dermatitis. [42] Medications [ edit ] Corticosteroids [ edit ] If symptoms are well controlled with moisturizers, steroids may only be required when flares occur. [5] Corticosteroids are effective in controlling and suppressing symptoms in most cases.



{INSERTKEYS} [45] Once daily use is generally enough. [5] For mild-moderate eczema a weak steroid may be used (e.g., hydrocortisone), while in more severe cases a higher-potency steroid (e.g., clobetasol propionate) may be used.

In severe cases, oral or injectable corticosteroids may be used. While these usually bring about rapid improvements, they have greater side effects. Long term use of topical steroids may result in skin atrophy, stria, telangiectasia. [5] Their use on delicate skin (face or groin) is therefore typically with caution. [5] They are, however, generally well tolerated. [46] Red burning skin, where the skin turns red upon stopping steroid use, has been reported among adults who use topical steroids at least daily for more than a year.

[47] Antihistamines [ edit ] There is little evidence supporting the use of antihistamine medications for the relief of dermatitis. [5] [48] Sedative antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine, may be useful in those who are unable to sleep due to eczema. [5] Second generation antihistamines have minimal evidence of benefit. [49] Of the second generation antihistamines studied, fexofenadine is the only one to show evidence of improvement in itching with minimal side effects.

[49] Immunosuppressants [ edit ] Tacrolimus 0.1% Topical immunosuppressants like pimecrolimus and tacrolimus may be better in the short term and appear equal to steroids after a year of use.

[50] Their use is reasonable in those who do not respond to or are not tolerant of steroids. [51] [52] Treatments are typically recommended for short or fixed periods of time rather than indefinitely. [5] [53] Tacrolimus 0.1% has generally proved more effective than pimecrolimus, and equal in effect to mid-potency topical steroids.

[54] There is no link to increased risk of cancer from topical use of 1% pimecrolimus cream. [53] When eczema is severe and does not respond to other forms of treatment, systemic immunosuppressants are sometimes used. Immunosuppressants can cause significant side effects and some require regular blood tests. The most commonly used are ciclosporin, azathioprine, and methotrexate.

Dupilumab is a new medication that improves eczema lesions, especially moderate to severe eczema. [55] Dupilumab, a monoclonal antibody, suppresses inflammation by targeting the interleukin-4 receptor.

Others [ edit ] In September 2021, ruxolitinib cream (Opzelura) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the topical treatment of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis. [56] It is a topical Janus kinase inhibitor. [56] Light therapy [ edit ] Narrowband UVB [ edit ] Atopic dermatitis (AD) may be treated with narrowband UVB, [57] which increases 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 in persons in individuals with AD. [58] Light therapy using heliotherapy, balneophototherapy, psoralen plus UVA (PUVA), light has tentative support but the quality of the evidence is not very good compared with narrowband UVB, and UVA1.

[59] However, UVB is more effective than UVA1 for treatment of atopical dermatitis. [60] Overexposure to ultraviolet light carries its own risks, particularly that of skin cancer. [61] Alternative medicine [ edit ] Topical [ edit ] Limited evidence suggests that acupuncture may reduce itching in those affected by atopic dermatitis.

[62] Chiropractic spinal manipulation lacks evidence to support its use for dermatitis. [63] There is little evidence supporting the use of psychological treatments.

[64] While dilute bleach baths have been used for infected dermatitis there is little evidence for this practice. [65] Supplements [ edit ] • Sulfur: There is currently no scientific evidence for the claim that sulfur treatment relieves eczema.

[66] • Chinese herbs: It is unclear whether Chinese herbs help or harm. [67] Dietary supplements are commonly used by people with eczema. [68] • Evening primrose oil nor borage seed oil taken orally have been shown to be effective.

[69] Both are associated with gastrointestinal upset. [69] • Probiotics are likely to make little to no difference in symptoms. [70] Pathophysiology [ edit ] Eczema can be characterized by spongiosis which allows inflammatory mediators to accumulate. Different dendritic cells sub types, such as Langerhans cells, inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells have a role to play.

[71] [72] Diagnosis [ edit ] Diagnosis of eczema is based mostly on the history and physical examination. [5] In uncertain cases, skin biopsy may be taken for a histopathologic diagnosis of dermatitis. [73] Those with eczema may be especially prone to misdiagnosis of food allergies. [74] Patch tests are used in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. [75] [76] Classification [ edit ] The term eczema refers to a set of clinical characteristics.

Classification of the underlying diseases has been haphazard with numerous different classification systems, and many synonyms being used to describe the same condition. [77] A type of dermatitis may be described by location (e.g., hand eczema), by specific appearance (eczema craquele or discoid) or by possible cause ( varicose eczema). Further adding to the confusion, many sources use the term eczema interchangeably for the most common type: atopic dermatitis. [22] The European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) published a position paper in 2001, which simplifies the nomenclature of allergy-related diseases, including atopic and allergic contact eczemas.

[78] Non-allergic eczemas are not affected by this proposal. Histopathologic classification [ edit ] Main article: Histopathologic diagnosis of dermatitis By histopathology, superficial dermatitis (in the epidermis, papillary dermis, and superficial vascular plexus) can basically be classified into either of the following groups: [79] • Vesiculobullous lesions • Pustular dermatosis • Non vesicullobullous, non-pustular • With epidermal changes • Without epidermal changes.

These characteristically have a superficial perivascular inflammatory infiltrate and can be classified by type of cell infiltrate: [79] • Lymphocytic (most common) • Lymphoeosinophilic • Lymphoplasmacytic • Mast cell • Lymphohistiocytic • Neutrophilic Terminology [ edit ] There are several types of dermatitis including atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, stasis dermatitis and seborrhoeic dermatitis.

[2] Many authors use the terms dermatitis and eczema synonymously, [1] and various dictionaries that treat the terms as differentiable nonetheless do not provide explicit criteria for differentiating them, as the aspects of inflammation, pruritus, and either exogenous or endogenous provoking agent all can apply to either term, and thus autoimmune components are not excluded from either. Others use the term eczema to specifically mean atopic dermatitis.

[80] [81] [82] Atopic dermatitis is also known as atopic eczema. [5] In some languages, dermatitis and eczema mean the same thing, while in other languages dermatitis implies an acute condition and eczema a chronic one. [83] Common types [ edit ] Diagnosis of types may be indicated by codes defined according to International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD). Atopic [ edit ] Atopic dermatitis is an allergic disease believed to have a hereditary component and often runs in families whose members have asthma.

Itchy rash is particularly noticeable on the head and scalp, neck, inside of elbows, behind knees, and buttocks.

It is very common in developed countries and rising. Irritant contact dermatitis is sometimes misdiagnosed as atopic dermatitis. Stress can cause atopic dermatitis to worsen. [84] Contact [ edit ] Contact dermatitis is of two types: allergic (resulting from a delayed reaction to an allergen, such as poison ivy, nickel, or Balsam of Peru), [85] and irritant (resulting from direct reaction to a detergent, such as sodium lauryl sulfate, for example).

Some substances act both as allergen and irritants (wet cement, for example). Other substances cause a problem after sunlight exposure, bringing on phototoxic dermatitis. About three-quarters of cases of contact eczema are of the irritant type, which is the most common occupational skin disease. Contact eczema is curable, provided the offending substance can be avoided and its traces removed from one's environment.

(ICD-10 L23; L24; L56.1; L56.0) Seborrhoeic [ edit ] Seborrhoeic dermatitis or seborrheic dermatitis (" cradle cap" in infants) is a condition sometimes classified as a form of eczema that is closely related to dandruff.

It causes dry or greasy peeling of the scalp, eyebrows, and face, and sometimes trunk. In newborns, it causes a thick, yellow, crusty scalp rash called cradle cap, which seems related to lack of biotin and is often curable.

(ICD-10 L21; L21.0) Less common types [ edit ] Dyshidrosis [ edit ] Dyshidrosis (dyshidrotic eczema, pompholyx, vesicular palmoplantar dermatitis) only occurs on palms, soles, and sides of fingers and toes. Tiny opaque bumps called vesicles, thickening, and cracks are accompanied by itching, which gets worse at night.

A common type of hand eczema, it worsens in warm weather. (ICD-10 L30.1) Discoid [ edit ] Discoid eczema (nummular eczema, exudative eczema, microbial eczema) is characterized by round spots of oozing or dry rash, with clear boundaries, often on lower legs.

It is usually worse in winter. The cause is unknown, and the condition tends to come and go. (ICD-10 L30.0) Venous [ edit ] Venous eczema (gravitational eczema, stasis dermatitis, varicose eczema) occurs in people with impaired circulation, varicose veins, and edema, and is particularly common in the ankle area of people over 50.

There is redness, scaling, darkening of the skin, and itching. The disorder predisposes to leg ulcers. (ICD-10 I83.1) Herpetiformis [ edit ] Dermatitis herpetiformis (Duhring's disease) causes an intensely itchy and typically symmetrical rash on arms, thighs, knees, and back. It is directly related to celiac disease, can often be put into remission with an appropriate diet, and tends to get worse at night.

(ICD-10 L13.0) Neurodermatitis [ edit ] Neurodermatitis ( lichen simplex chronicus, localized scratch dermatitis) is an itchy area of thickened, pigmented eczema patch that results from habitual rubbing and scratching. Usually, there is only one spot. Often curable through behaviour modification and anti-inflammatory medication. Prurigo nodularis is a related disorder showing multiple lumps.

(ICD-10 L28.0; L28.1) Autoeczematization [ edit ] Autoeczematization (id reaction, auto sensitization) is an eczematous reaction to an infection with parasites, fungi, bacteria, or viruses. It is completely curable with the clearance of the original infection that caused it.

The appearance varies depending on the cause. It always occurs some distance away from the original infection. (ICD-10 L30.2) Viral [ edit ] There are eczemas overlaid by viral infections ( eczema herpeticum or vaccinatum), and eczemas resulting from underlying disease (e.g., lymphoma). Eczemas originating from ingestion of medications, foods, and chemicals, have not yet been clearly systematized.

Other rare eczematous disorders exist in addition to those listed here. Prognosis [ edit ] Most cases are well managed with topical treatments and ultraviolet light.

[5] About 2% of cases are not. [5] In more than 60% of young children, the condition subsides by adolescence. [5] Epidemiology [ edit ] Globally dermatitis affected approximately 230 million people as of 2010 (3.5% of the population).

[86] Dermatitis is most commonly seen in infancy, with female predominance of eczema presentations occurring during the reproductive period of 15–49 years. [87] In the UK about 20% of children have the condition, while in the United States about 10% are affected. [5] Although little data on the rates of eczema over time exists prior to the 1940s, the rate of eczema has been found to have increased substantially in the latter half of the 20th century, with eczema in school-aged children being found to increase between the late 1940s and 2000.

[88] In the developed world there has been rise in the rate of eczema over time. The incidence and lifetime prevalence of eczema in England has been seen to increase in recent times. [5] [89] Dermatitis affected about 10% of U.S. workers in 2010, representing over 15 million workers with dermatitis. Prevalence rates were higher among females than among males and among those with some college education or a college degree compared to those with a high school diploma or less.

Workers employed in healthcare and social assistance industries and life, physical, and social science occupations had the highest rates of reported dermatitis. About 6% of dermatitis cases among U.S. workers were attributed to work by a healthcare professional, indicating that the prevalence rate of work-related dermatitis among workers was at least 0.6%. [90] History [ edit ] from Ancient Greek ἔκζεμα ékzema, [91] from ἐκζέ-ειν ekzé-ein, from ἐκ ek "out" + ζέ-ειν zé-ein "to boil" ( OED) The term "atopic dermatitis" was coined in 1933 by Wise and Sulzberger.

[92] Sulfur as a topical treatment for eczema was fashionable in the Victorian and Edwardian eras. [66] The word dermatitis is from the Greek δέρμα derma "skin" and -ῖτις -itis "inflammation" and eczema is from Greek: ἔκζεμα ekzema "eruption". [93] Society and culture [ edit ] Some cosmetics are marketed as hypoallergenic to imply that their use is less likely to lead to an allergic reaction than other products.

[94] However, the term "hypoallergenic" is not regulated, [95] and no research has been done showing that products labeled "hypoallergenic" are less problematic than any others. In 1977, courts overruled the U.S.

Food and Drug Administration's regulation of the use of the term hypoallergenic. [94] In 2019, the European Union on released a document about claims made concerning cosmetics, [96] but this was issued as "guidance" not a regulation.

[97] Research [ edit ] Monoclonal antibodies are under preliminary research to determine their potential as treatments for atopic dermatitis, with only dupilumab showing evidence of efficacy, as of 2018.

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