Dwight school seoul

dwight school seoul

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/ How to Turn Into the River / Suns," Ran Zhao, King George V School, Kowloon, Hong Kong • Second Place, " Broken Abecedarian for America / Ghazal for K / Fish-bodied," Jessica Kim, La Dwight school seoul High School, La Canada, CA • Third Place, " In Which My Mother Asks When the Hell I’m Getting Baptized / Etymology of Paternity / Bible Study Ghazal," Ashley Wang, Lawrenceville School, Lawrenceville NJ Fiction • First Place, " Observations made at the Lu Family Dinner Table, New Year's Eve, 2019," Sunshine Chen, Deerfield Academy, Deerfield, MA • Second Place, " A Language is a Story," Olga Musial, 33 Copernicus High School, Warszawa, Poland • Third Place, " Six Blank," Rishika Srivastava, Government Model High School, Chandigarh, India Nonfiction • First Place, " The—Lovely—Red—Skirt," Youjaye Daniels, South Carolina Governor's School for the Arts and Humanities, Greenvile, SC • Second Place, " Somewhere in Southern Florida," Vivian Zhu, Adlai E.

Stevenson High Dwight school seoul, Lincolnshire, IL • Third Place, " Family Portrait as a Gutted Fish," Danny Liu, Lake Highland Prep School, Orlando, FL About the Contest Bennington College has a unique literary legacy, including twelve Pulitzer Prize winners, three U.S.

poet laureates, four MacArthur Geniuses, countless New York Times bestsellers, and two of Time magazine’s 100 most influential people. In celebration of this legacy, Bennington dwight school seoul the Young Writers Awards to promote excellence in writing at the high school level.

Our goal with this dwight school seoul is dwight school seoul recognize outstanding writing achievement by high school students. Each year, students in the 9th-12th grades are invited to enter in one of the following categories with the following submission: • Poetry: A group of three poems • Fiction: A short story (1,500 words or fewer) or one-act play (run no more than 30 minutes of playing time) • Nonfiction: A personal or academic essay (1,500 words or fewer) A first, second, and third place winner is selected in each category.

We welcome submissions from both US and international students. Have questions about the contest? Email ywa@bennington.edu Download a Young Writers Awards poster to print and hang in your classroom or school.

Awards & Rules First-place winners in each category are awarded a prize of $1,000; second-place winners receive $500; third-place winners receive $250. • There is no entry fee • All entries must be original work reviewed, approved and sponsored by a high school teacher. We will use your sponsoring teacher as a contact for the competition should we have any questions.

For homeschooled students, please contact a mentor to sponsor your writing. Young Writers Award finalists and winners are also eligible for undergraduate scholarships at Bennington. YWA finalists who apply, are admitted, and enroll at Bennington will receive a $10,000 scholarship every year for four years, for a total of $40,000. YWA winners who apply, are admitted, and enroll at Bennington will receive a $15,000 scholarship every year for four years, for a total of dwight school seoul.

The competition runs annually from September 1 to November 1. Congratulations to our 2021-2022 winners! More About Literature Studies at Bennington Academics Dwight school seoul studies at Bennington are grounded in the idea that good writers are good readers. Each year, an exceptional group of Bennington undergraduates is chosen to participate in an MFA summer residency through the Undergraduate Writing Fellowship.

At the graduate level, the MFA offered by the Bennington Writing Seminars is one of the best low-residency programs in the United States. Bennington Programs for High School Students The Bennington Early College Program is a new suite of offerings for high school, gap year, and college students, extending the College’s student-directed, interdisciplinary, and experiential approach to education to remote learners anywhere in the world.

These one-credit courses, led by Bennington’s distinguished faculty, are designed for students who want to get a head start on their college experience, or for students already in college elsewhere who want to sample coursework available at Bennington. Off the Page & Outside the Classroom Bennington College believes that a writer’s influence extends beyond the printed page. As the steward of the Robert Frost Stone House Museum, Bennington is committed to maintaining and growing Robert Frost’s literary legacy in Southern Vermont and beyond.

Throughout the year, Bennington College welcomes prominent writers and alumni to campus for readings during its Literature Evenings, Poetry at Bennington, and Writers Reading series.

Students dwight school seoul Bennington are invited to contribute to SILO, the student literary and arts magazine, and the student-run journalistic outlet The Bennington Free Press.

Bennington Review, a national biannual literary journal based at the College, provides students an opportunity to help edit and produce a professional print literary magazine. Bennington College Literature students go on to become novelists, poets, journalists, biographers, and more.

Explore notable alumni. Poetry • First Place, " When You Wish Upon a Star / [letter to durga] / Sightseeing," Aanika Eragam, Milton High School, Alpharetta, GA • Second Place, " a sudden nostalgia that i am meant to be somewhere else / The Bedroom / Etymology of Loss," Olivia Yang, Phillips Academy, Andover, MA • Third Place, " Girl Sonnet / Honey Ghazal / Shelter, Water, A Bite to Eat," Madelyn Dietz, Interlochen Arts Academy, Interlochen, MI Fiction • First Place, " Somewhere Nearby Connecticut, There's a Clan of Vampires and a Woman He May Never Know," Alyssa Wilson, South Carolina Governor’s School for the Arts and Humanities, Greenville, SC • Second Place, " Dinner of Three," Wes Davis, Henry Clay High School, Lexington, KY • Third Place, " Birthday Party," Katarina Ivkovic, Hunter College High School, New York, NY Nonfiction • First Place, " Dissecting Matryoshka," Stefania Bielkina, The Dwight School, New York, NY • Second Place, " Skin Test," Indigo Mudbhary, Lick Wilmerding High School, San Francisco, CA • Third Place, " Gifted," Rebecca Orten, Middlebury Union High School, Middlebury, VT Poetry • First Place: " made without hands / My daughter inherits my mouth and my fear of everything / Things Without Mouths: An Index," Sophie Paquette, Interlochen Arts Academy, Interlochen, MI • Second Place: " Unneeded Insecurities / My Reason (Outro) / Arrival," Devon Reed-Rivera, Cumberland High School, Cumberland, VA • Third Place: " Type Girl / Uber Driver / Daughter Said," Karrington Garland, Franklin Academy High School, Wake Forest, NC Fiction • First Place: " Haymarket," Cynthia Lu, Belmont High School, Belmont, MA • Second Place: " Moon Fever," Kali Puhnaty, Idyllwild Arts Academy, Idyllwild, CA • Third Place: " Hardest Hue to Hold, " Lillian Robles, Homeschooled, Glendale, CA Nonfiction • First Place: " Sundown with Giraffes," Gerardo Azpiri Iglesias, Interlochen Arts Academy, Interlochen, MI • Second Place: " Becoming a Woman: A Checklist," Thalia King, Pittsburgh CAPA High Dwight school seoul, Pittsburgh, PA • Third Place: " Transience," Jessica Yu, West Linn High School, West Linn, OR Poetry • First Place: "Manhandling / i.

lying ghazal / ii. lying ghazal," Julia Bohm, Dwight school seoul Arts Academy, Interlochen, MI • Second Place: "Sext to Absalom / Bildungsroman with Distant Nation / Field Notes on Rough Trade," Aidan Forster, SC Governor's School for the Arts and Humanities, Greenville, SC • Third Place: "Art Tatum: Harmonium / Art Plays a Myth / The Panther Room," Darius Atefat-Peckham, Interlochen Arts Academy, Interlochen, MI Fiction • First Place: "The Seventh Secret," Lilly Hunt, Northpoint Christian School, Southaven, MS • Second Place: "The Cat You Named Remy," Zane Austill, SC Governor's School for the Arts and Humanities, Greenville, SC Nonfiction • First Place: "PEEL," Kelley Liu, Troy High School, Troy, MI • Second Place: "Ruth," Sophie Paquette, Interlochen Arts Academy, Interlochen, MI • Third Place: "Bingo," Katherine Chou, Hamilton High School, Chandler, AZ Poetry • First Place: "Necessary Roughness / Public Enemy No.

1 / Seoul is singing now," Christina Im, Sunset High School, Portland, OR • Second Place: "Anaerobic / Kintsugi / Lake-Effect Snow," Steven Chung, Monta Vista High School, Cupertino, CA Fiction • First Place: "Souvenirs," Catherine Wang, Chinese International School, Hong Kong • Second Place: "House of God," Jacqueline He, The Harker School, San Jose, CA Nonfiction • First Place: "Watermelon Seeds," Chaeyeon (Annika) Kim, Dwight Engelewood School, NJ • Second Place: "A Trip to Home Depot," Carlos Orozco, Sage Hill School, Newport Coast, CA Poetry • First Place: "What Made Me / Night Fishing / Dilutions," Letitia Chan, Milton Academy, Milton, MA • Second Place: "Nanjing Road / Autumn / Glass Familia," Helli Fang, Walnut Hill School, Natick, MA Fiction • First Place: "Reddi-Wip," Walker Caplan, The Lakeside School, Seattle, WA • Second Place: "Momma Drove Like a Man," Ella Zalon, Oakland School for the Arts, Oakland, CA Nonfiction • First Place: "Of Perfumes," Addie Glickstein, East High School, Denver, CO • Second Place: "Hair," Luisa Healey, Hunter College High School, New York, NY Poetry • First Place: "Ebola in Dallas / At Thurgood Marshall / When My Parents Go Out I Eat Breakfast For Dinner and Pee With the Door Open," Rachel Calnek-Sugin, Hunter College High School, New York, NY • Second Place: "Ling hoards fake eyelashes / Ling traces X's on her collarbone / Ling takes off her left hand wedding ring before she sleeps," Carissa Chen, Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, NH Fiction • Second Place: "Mansions," Sophia Gyarmathy, Northside College Preparatory High School, Chicago, IL Nonfiction • First place: "Motherland," Jessica Li, Livingston High School, Livingston, NJ • Second Place: "Driving Lessons From My Brother," Maryam Ahmad, Emma Willard School, Troy, NY Overview of the role of Buddhism in the United States Buddhism, primarily practiced in Asia, does not require any formal "conversion", as American Buddhists can easily incorporate dhamma practice into their normal routines and traditions.

The result is that American Buddhists come from every ethnicity, nationality and religious tradition. [1] [2] In 2012, Dwight school seoul San Diego estimated U.S. practitioners at 1.2 million people, of whom 40% are living in Southern California. [3] In terms of percentage, Hawaii has the most Buddhists at 8% of the population, due to its large Asian-American community. [4] Contents • 1 Statistics • 1.1 US States by Population of Buddhists • 1.2 Buddhism in American Overseas territories • 2 Types of Buddhism in the United States • 3 Immigrant Buddhism • 3.1 Huishen • 3.2 Chinese immigration • 3.3 Japanese and Korean immigration • 3.4 Contemporary Immigrant Buddhism • 3.4.1 Japanese Buddhism • 3.4.1.1 Buddhist Churches of America • 3.4.1.2 Nichiren: Soka Gakkai International • 3.4.2 Taiwanese Buddhism • 4 Import Buddhism • 4.1 Early translations • 4.2 Theosophical Society • 4.3 Paul Carus • 4.4 Early converts • 4.5 Dwight Goddard • 5 Zen • 5.1 Japanese Rinzai • 5.1.1 Early Rinzai-teachers • 5.1.2 D.T.

Suzuki • 5.1.3 Beat Zen dwight school seoul 5.1.4 Contemporary Rinzai • 5.2 Japanese Sōtō • 5.2.1 Soyu Matsuoka • 5.2.2 Shunryu Suzuki • 5.2.3 Tozen Akiyama • 5.2.4 White Plum Sangha • 5.3 Sanbo Kyodan • 5.3.1 Philip Kapleau • 5.3.2 Robert Aitken • 5.4 Chinese Chán • 5.4.1 Hsuan Hua • 5.4.2 Sheng-yen • 5.5 Korean Seon • 5.6 Vietnamese Thien • 5.6.1 Thích Nhất Hạnh • 6 Tibetan Buddhism • 7 Theravada • 7.1 American Theravada Buddhists • 7.2 S.

N. Goenka • 8 Association of American Buddhists • 9 Women and Buddhism • 10 Contemporary developments • 10.1 Engaged Buddhism • 10.2 Misconduct • 10.3 Accreditation • 11 Demographics of Buddhism in the United States • 11.1 Numbers of Buddhists • 11.2 Demographics of Import Buddhists • 11.3 Ethnic divide • 12 Buddhist education in the United States • 13 See also • 14 References • 15 Sources • 16 Further reading • 17 External links Statistics [ edit ] US States by Population of Buddhists [ edit ] Hawaii has the largest Buddhist population by percentage, amounting to 8% of the state's population.

California follows Hawaii with 2%. Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Wyoming have a Buddhist population of 1%. [5] Buddhism in American Overseas territories [ edit ] The following is the percentage of Buddhists in the U.S.

territories as of 2010: Territory Percent American Samoa 0.3% Northern Mariana Islands 10.6% Guam 1.1% Puerto Rico <1% US Virgin Islands unknown Types of Buddhism in the United States [ edit ] Buddhist American scholar Charles Prebish states there are three broad types of American Buddhism: • The oldest and largest of these is "immigrant" or "ethnic Buddhism", those Buddhist traditions that arrived in America along with immigrants who were already practitioners and that largely remained with those immigrants and their descendants.

• The next oldest and arguably the most visible group Prebish refers to as "import Buddhists", because they came to America largely in response to interested American converts who sought them out, either by going abroad or by supporting foreign teachers; this is sometimes also called "elite Buddhism" because its practitioners, especially early ones, tended to come from social elites.

• A trend in Buddhism is "export" or "evangelical Buddhist" groups based in another country who actively recruit members in the US from various backgrounds. Modern Buddhism is not just an American phenomenon. [6] This typology has been the subject of debate among scholars such as Wakoh Shannon Hickey, [7] Chenxing Han, [8] Scott Mitchell, Natalie Quli, [9] and others who have noted the problematic nature of equating "ethnic" Buddhists with Asian immigrants which elides the ethnicity or cultural specificity of white American Buddhists.

Immigrant Buddhism [ edit ] Wat Buddharangsi Buddhist Temple of Miami Buddhism was introduced into the US by Asian immigrants in the 19th century, when significant numbers of immigrants from East Asia began to arrive in the New World. In the United States, immigrants from China entered around 1820, but began to arrive in large numbers following the 1849 California Gold Rush.

Immigrant Buddhist congregations in North America are as diverse as the different peoples of Asian Buddhist extraction who settled there. The US is home to Sri Lankan Buddhists, Chinese Buddhists, Japanese Buddhists, Korean Buddhists, Thai Buddhists, Cambodian Buddhists, Vietnamese Buddhists and Buddhists with family backgrounds in most Buddhist countries and regions.

The Immigration Act of 1965 increased the number of immigrants arriving from China, Vietnam and the Theravada-practicing countries of Southeast Asia. Huishen [ edit ] Fanciful accounts of a visit to North America at the end of the 5th century written by a Chinese monk named Huishen or Hushen can be found in the Wenxian Tongkao by Ma Tuan-Lin. This account is often challenged but it is "at least plausible" in the words of James Ishmael Ford.

[10] [ better source needed] Chinese immigration [ edit ] The first Buddhist temple in America was built in 1853 in San Francisco by the Sze Yap Company, a Chinese American fraternal society.

[11] Another society, the Ning Yeong Company, built a second in 1854; by 1875, there were eight temples, and by 1900 approximately 400 Chinese temples on the west coast of the United States, most of them containing some Buddhist elements.

Unfortunately a casualty of racism, [10] these temples were often the subject of suspicion and ignorance by the rest of the population, and were dismissively called joss houses.

Japanese and Korean immigration [ edit ] The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 curtailed growth of the Chinese American population, but large-scale immigration from Japan began in the late 1880s and from Korea around 1903.

In both cases, immigration was at first primarily to Hawai‘i. Populations from other Asian Buddhist countries followed, and in each case, the new communities established Buddhist temples and organizations.

For instance, the first Japanese temple in Hawai‘i was built in 1896 near Paauhau by the Honpa Hongwanji branch of Jodo Shinshu. In 1898, Japanese missionaries and immigrants established a Young Men's Buddhist Association, and the Rev.

Sōryū Kagahi was dispatched from Japan to be the first Buddhist missionary to Hawai‘i. [12] The first Japanese Buddhist temple in the continental U.S. was built in San Francisco in 1899, and the first in Canada was built at the Ishikawa Hotel in Vancouver in 1905. [13] The first Buddhist clergy to take up residence in the continental U.S.

were Shuye Sonoda and Kakuryo Nishimjima, missionaries from Japan who arrived in 1899. Contemporary Immigrant Buddhism [ edit ] Japanese Buddhism [ edit ] Interior of the Higashi Honganji, Los Angeles (East 1st St./Center Ave.), Nov.

1925. Buddhist Churches of America [ edit ] The Buddhist Churches of America and the Honpa Hongwanji Mission of Hawaii are immigrant Buddhist organizations in the United States.

The BCA is an affiliate of Japan's Nishi Hongwanji, a sect of Jōdo Shinshū, which is, in turn, a form of Pure Land Buddhism. Tracing its roots to the Young Men's Buddhist Association founded in San Francisco at the end of the 19th century and the Buddhist Mission of North America founded in 1899, [14] it took its current form in 1944.

All of the Buddhist Mission's leadership, along with almost the entire Japanese American population, had been interned during World War II. The name Buddhist Churches of America was adopted at Topaz War Relocation Center in Utah; the word "church" dwight school seoul used similar to a Christian house of worship. After internment ended, some members returned to the West Coast and revitalized churches there, while a number of others moved to the Midwest and built new churches.

During the 1960s and 1970s, the BCA was in a growth phase and was very successful at fund-raising. It also published two periodicals, one in Japanese and one in English. However, since 1980, BCA membership declined. The 36 temples in the state of Hawaii of the Honpa Hongwanji Mission have a similar history.

While a majority of the Buddhist Churches of America's membership are ethnically Japanese, some members have non-Asian backgrounds. Thus, it has limited aspects of export Buddhism. As involvement by its ethnic community declined, internal discussions advocated attracting the broader public. Nichiren: Soka Gakkai International [ edit ] Soka Gakkai Dwight school seoul (SGI) is perhaps the most successful of Japan's new religious movements that grew around the world after the end of World War II.

[15] Soka Gakkai, which means "Value Creation Society," is one of three sects of Nichiren Buddhism that came to the United States during the 20th century. [16] The SGI expanded rapidly in the US, attracting non- Asian minority converts, [17] chiefly African Americans and Latino, as well as the support of celebrities, such as Tina Turner, Herbie Hancock, and Orlando Bloom. [18] Because of a rift with Nichiren Shōshū in 1991, the SGI has no priests of its own.

[19] Its main religious practice is chanting the mantra Nam Myōhō Renge Kyō and sections of the Lotus Sutra. Unlike schools such as Zen, Vipassanā, and Tibetan Buddhism, Soka Gakkai Buddhists do not practice meditative techniques other than chanting. [20] An SGI YouTube series called "Buddhist in America" has over a quarter million views in total as of 2015.

dwight school seoul Taiwanese Buddhism [ edit ] Another US Buddhist institution is Hsi Lai Temple in Hacienda Heights, California. Hsi Lai is the American headquarters of Fo Guang Shan, a modern Buddhist group in Taiwan.

Hsi Lai was built in 1988 at a cost of $10 million and is often described as the largest Buddhist temple in the Western hemisphere.

Although it caters primarily to Chinese Americans, it also has regular services and outreach programs in English. [ citation needed] Import Buddhism [ edit ] This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Buddhism in the United States" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( August 2020) ( Learn how and when to remove this dwight school seoul message) While Asian immigrants were arriving, some American intellectuals examined Buddhism, based primarily on information from British colonies in India and East Asia.

In the last century, numbers of Asian Buddhist masters and teachers have immigrated to the U.S. in order to propagate their beliefs and practices. Most have belonged to three major Buddhist traditions or cultures: Zen, Tibetan, and Theravadan.

Early translations [ edit ] Elizabeth Palmer Peabody The Englishmen William Jones and Charles Wilkins translated Sanskrit texts into English. The American Transcendentalists and associated persons, in particular Henry David Thoreau took an interest in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy.

In 1844, The Dial, a small literary publication edited by Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, published an English version of a portion of the Lotus Sutra; it had been translated by Dial business manager Elizabeth Palmer Peabody from a French version recently completed by Eugène Burnouf. His Indian readings may have influenced his later experiments in simple living: at one point in Walden Thoreau wrote: "I realized what the Orientals meant by contemplation and the forsaking of works." The poet Walt Whitman also admitted to an influence of Indian religion on his writings.

Dwight school seoul Society [ edit ] Henry Steel Olcott cofounder of the Theosophical Society was probably the first American convert to Buddhism An early American to publicly convert to Buddhism was Henry Steel Olcott.

Olcott, a former U.S. army colonel during the Civil War, had grown interested in reports of supernatural phenomena that were popular in the late 19th century. In 1875, he, Helena Blavatsky, and William Quan Judge founded the Theosophical Society, dedicated to the study of the occult and influenced by Hindu and Buddhist scriptures.

The leaders claimed to believe that they were in contact, via visions and messages, with a secret order of adepts called the "Himalayan Brotherhood" or "the Masters". In 1879, Olcott and Blavatsky traveled to India and in 1880, to Sri Lanka, where they were met enthusiastically by local Buddhists, who saw them as allies against an aggressive Christian missionary movement.

On May 25, Olcott and Blavatsky took the pancasila vows of a lay Buddhist before a monk and a large crowd. Although most of the Theosophists appear to have counted themselves as Buddhists, they dwight school seoul idiosyncratic beliefs that separated them from known Buddhist traditions; only Olcott was enthusiastic about following mainstream Buddhism.

He returned twice to Sri Lanka, where he promoted Buddhist education, and visited Japan and Burma. Olcott authored a Buddhist Catechism, stating his view of the basic dwight school seoul of the religion. Paul Carus [ edit ] Paul Carus was an editor and collaborator with D. T.

Suzuki Several publications increased knowledge of Buddhism in 19th-century America. In 1879, Edwin Arnold, an English aristocrat, published The Light of Asia, [22] an epic poem he had written about the life and teachings of the Buddha, expounded with much wealth of local color and not a little felicity of versification. The book became immensely popular in the United States, going through eighty editions and selling more than 500,000 copies.

Paul Carus, a German American philosopher and theologian, was at work on a more scholarly prose treatment of the same subject. Carus was the director of Open Court Publishing Company, an academic publisher specializing in philosophy, science, and religion, and editor of The Monist, a journal with a similar focus, both based in La Salle, Illinois. In 1894, Carus published The Gospel of Buddha, compiled from a variety of Asian texts which, true to its name, presented the Buddha's story in a form resembling the Christian Gospels.

Early converts [ edit ] In a brief ceremony conducted by Dharmapala, Charles T. Strauss, a New York businessman of Jewish descent, became one of the first to formally convert to Buddhism on American soil. [ citation needed] A few fledgling attempts at establishing a Buddhism for Americans followed.

Appearing with little fanfare in 1887: The Buddhist Ray, a Santa Cruz, California-based magazine published and edited by Phillangi Dasa, born Herman Carl (or Carl Herman) Veetering (or Vettering), a recluse about whom little is known.

The Ray 's tone was "ironic, light, saucy, self-assured . one-hundred-percent American Buddhist". [23] It ceased publication in 1894. In 1900 six white San Franciscans, working with Japanese Jodo Shinshu missionaries, established the Dharma Sangha of Buddha and published a bimonthly magazine, The Light of Dharma. In Illinois, Paul Carus wrote more books about Buddhism and set portions of Buddhist scripture to Western classical music.

Dwight Goddard [ edit ] One American who attempted to establish an American Buddhist movement was Dwight Goddard (1861–1939). Goddard was a Christian missionary to China when he first came in contact with Buddhism. In 1928, he spent a year living at a Zen monastery in Japan. In 1934, he founded "The Followers of Buddha, an American Brotherhood", with the goal of applying the traditional monastic structure of Buddhism more strictly than Senzaki and Sokei-an. The group was largely unsuccessful: no Americans were recruited to join as monks and attempts failed to attract a Chinese Chan (Zen) master to come to the United States.

However, Goddard's efforts as an author and publisher bore considerable fruit. In 1930, he began publishing ZEN: A Buddhist Magazine. In 1932, he collaborated with D. T. Suzuki, on a translation of the Lankavatara Sutra. That same year, he published the first edition of A Buddhist Bible, an anthology of Buddhist scriptures focusing on those used in Chinese and Japanese Zen.

[24] Zen [ edit ] The 1893 World Parliament of Religions held in Chicago Japanese Rinzai [ edit ] Zen was introduced to the United States by Japanese priests who were sent to serve local immigrant groups. A small group also came to study the American culture and way of life. Early Rinzai-teachers [ edit ] In 1893, Soyen Shaku was invited to speak at the World Parliament of Religions held in Chicago.

In 1905, Shaku was invited to stay in the United States by a wealthy American couple. He lived for nine months near San Francisco, where he established a small dwight school seoul in the Alexander and Ida Russell home and gave regular zazen lessons, making him the first Zen Buddhist priest to teach in North America.

[10] Shaku was followed by Nyogen Senzaki, a young monk from Shaku's home temple in Japan. Senzaki briefly worked for the Russells and then as a hotel porter, manager and eventually, owner. In 1922 Senzaki rented a hall and gave an English talk on a paper by Shaku; his periodic talks at different locations became known as the "floating zendo".

Senzaki established an itinerant sitting hall from San Francisco to Los Angeles in California, where he taught until his death in 1958. [25] Sokatsu Shaku, one of Shaku's senior students, arrived in late 1906, founding a Zen meditation center called Ryomokyo-kai. One of his disciples, Shigetsu Sasaki, better known under his monastic name Sokei-an, came to New York to teach.

In 1931, his small group incorporated as the Buddhist Society of America, later renamed the First Zen Institute of America. By the late 1930s, one of his most active supporters was Ruth Fuller Everett, an American socialite and the mother-in-law of Alan Watts. Shortly before Sokei-an's death in 1945, he and Everett would wed, at which point she took the name Ruth Fuller Sasaki.

D.T. Suzuki [ edit ] Main article: D.T. Suzuki D.T. Suzuki had a great literary impact. Through English language essays and books, such as Essays in Zen Buddhism (1927), he became a visible expositor of Zen Buddhism and its unofficial ambassador to Western readers.

In 1951, Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki returned to the United States to take a visiting professorship at Columbia University, where his open lectures attracted many members of the literary, artistic, and cultural elite. Beat Zen [ edit ] In the mid-1950s, writers associated with the Beat Generation dwight school seoul a serious interest in Zen, [26] including Gary Snyder, Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and Kenneth Rexroth, which increased its visibility.

Prior to that, Philip Whalen had interest as early as 1946, and D. T. Suzuki began lecturing on Buddhism at Columbia in 1950. [27] [28] By 1958, anticipating Kerouac's publication of The Dharma Bums by three months, Time magazine said, "Zen Buddhism is growing more chic by the minute." [28] [29] Contemporary Rinzai [ edit ] The Zen Buddhist Temple in Chicago, part of the Buddhist Society for Compassionate Wisdom Contemporary Rinzai Zen teachers in United States have included Kyozan Joshu Sasaki Roshi, Eido Tai Shimano Roshi, and Omori Sogen Roshi (d.

1994). Sasaki founded the Mount Baldy Zen Center and its branches after coming to Los Angeles from Japan in 1962. One of his students is the Canadian poet and musician Leonard Cohen. Eido Dwight school seoul founded Dai Bosatsu Zendo Kongo-ji, a training center in New York state.

Omori Roshi founded Daihonzan Chozen-ji, the first Rinzai headquarters temple established outside Japan, in Honolulu; under his students Tenshin Tanouye Roshi and Dogen Hosokawa Roshi and their dharma heirs, several other training centers were established including Daiyuzenji in Chicago and Korinji in Wisconsin. In 1998 Sherry Chayat, born in Brooklyn, became the first American woman to receive transmission in the Rinzai school of Buddhism. [30] [31] Japanese Sōtō [ edit ] Main article: Soyu Matsuoka In the 1930s Soyu Matsuoka-roshi was sent dwight school seoul America by Sōtōshū, to establish the Sōtō Zen tradition in the United States.

He established the Chicago Buddhist Temple in 1949. Matsuoka-roshi also served as superintendent and abbot of the Long Beach Zen Buddhist Temple and Zen Center. He relocated from Chicago to establish a temple at Long Beach in 1971 after leaving the Zen Buddhist Temple of Chicago to his dharma heir Kongo Richard Langlois, Roshi.

He returned to Chicago in 1995, where he died in 1998. Shunryu Suzuki [ edit ] Main article: Shunryu Suzuki Sōtō Zen priest Shunryu Suzuki (no relation to D.T. Suzuki), who was the son of a Sōtō priest, was sent to San Francisco in the late 1950s on a three-year temporary assignment to care for an established Japanese congregation at the Sōtō temple, Soko-ji.

[32] Suzuki also taught zazen or sitting meditation which soon attracted American students and " beatniks", who formed a core of students who in 1962 would create the San Francisco Zen Center and its eventual network of highly influential Zen centers across the country, including the Tassajara Zen Mountain Center, the first Buddhist monastery in the Western world.

[33] He provided innovation and creativity during San Francisco's countercultural movement of the 1960s but he died in 1971. His low-key teaching style was described in the popular book Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind, a compilation of his talks. [34] Tozen Akiyama [ edit ] Ordained in 1974 in Japan by Tosui Ohta, came to the United States in 1983, initially posted to Zenshuji in Los Angeles.

In 1985 he became the abbot of Milwaukee Zen Center, which he led and developed until 2000. He has three dharma heirs: Jisho Warner in California, abiding teacher of Stone Creek Zen Center; Tonen Sara O’Connor in Wisconsin, former head priest of Milwaukee Zen Center; and Toshu Neatrour in Idaho. White Plum Sangha [ edit ] Main article: White Plum Sangha Taizan Maezumi arrived as a young priest to serve at Zenshuji, the North American Sōtō sect headquarters in Los Angeles, in 1956.

Maezumi received dharma transmission ( shiho) from Baian Hakujun Kuroda, his father and high-ranked Sōtō priest, in 1955. By the mid-1960s he had formed a regular zazen group. In 1967, he and his supporters founded the Zen Center of Los Angeles. Further, he received teaching permission ( inka) from Koryu Osaka – a Rinzai teacher – and from Yasutani Hakuun of the Sanbo Kyodan.

Maezumi, in turn, had several American dharma heirs, such as Bernie Glassman, John Daido Loori, Charlotte Joko Beck, William Nyogen Yeo, and Dennis Genpo Merzel.

His successors and their network of centers became the White Plum Sangha. [35] In 2006 Merle Kodo Boyd, born in Texas, became the first African-American woman ever to receive Dharma transmission in Zen Buddhism. [36] Sanbo Kyodan [ edit ] Main article: Sanbo Kyodan Sanbo Kyodan is a contemporary Japanese Zen lineage which had an impact in the West disproportionate to its size in Japan.

It is rooted in the reformist teachings of Harada Daiun Sogaku (1871–1961) and his disciple Yasutani Hakuun (1885–1971), who dwight school seoul that the existing Zen institutions of Japan ( Sōtō and Rinzai sects) had become complacent and were generally unable to convey real Dharma. Philip Kapleau [ edit ] Main article: Philip Kapleau Sanbo Kyodan's first American member was Philip Kapleau, who first traveled to Japan in 1945 as a court reporter for the war crimes trials.

In 1953, he returned to Japan, where he met with Nakagawa Soen, a protégé of Nyogen Senzaki. In 1965, he dwight school seoul a book, The Three Pillars of Zen, which recorded a set of talks by Dwight school seoul outlining his approach to practice, along with transcripts of dokusan interviews and some additional texts.

In 1965 Kapleau returned to America and, in 1966, established the Rochester Zen Center in Rochester, New York. In 1967, Kapleau had a falling-out with Yasutani over Kapleau's moves to Americanize his temple, after which it became independent of Sanbo Kyodan. One of Kapleau's early disciples was Toni Packer, who left Rochester in 1981 to found a nonsectarian meditation center, not specifically Buddhist or Zen.

Robert Aitken [ edit ] Main article: Robert Baker Aitken Robert Aitken was introduced to Zen as a prisoner in Japan during World War II. After returning to the United States, he studied with Nyogen Senzaki in Los Angeles in the early 1950s. In 1959, while still a Zen student, he founded the Diamond Sangha, a zendo in Honolulu, Hawaii.

Aitken became a dharma heir of Yamada's, authored more than ten books, and developed the Diamond Sangha into an international network with temples in the United States, Argentina, Germany, and Australia.

In 1995, he and his organization split with Sanbo Kyodan in response to reorganization of the latter following Yamada's death. The Pacific Zen Institute led by John Tarrant, Aitken's first Dharma successor, continues as an independent Zen line. Chinese Chán [ dwight school seoul ] The 480-acre (1.9 km 2) City of Ten Thousand Buddhas founded by Hsuan Hua in Talmage, California, is geographically the largest Buddhist community in the western hemisphere.

In 1962, Hsuan Hua moved to San Francisco's Chinatown, where, in addition to Zen, he taught Chinese Pure Land, Tiantai, Vinaya, and Vajrayana Buddhism. Initially, his students were mostly westerners, but he eventually attracted a range of followers. Sheng-yen [ edit ] Main article: Sheng-yen Sheng-yen first visited the United States in 1978 under the sponsorship of the Buddhist Association of the United States, an organization of Chinese American Buddhists. In 1980, he founded the Chán Meditation Society in Queens, New York.

In 1985, he founded the Chung-hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies in Taiwan, which sponsors Chinese Zen activities in the United States. [37] Korean Seon [ edit ] Seung Sahn in 2002 Seung Sahn was a temple abbot in Seoul. After living in Hong Kong and Japan, he moved to the US in 1972 (not speaking any English) to establish the Kwan Um School of Zen. Shortly after arriving in Providence, he attracted students and founded the Providence Zen Center. The Kwan Um School has more than 100 Zen centers on six continents.

Another Korean Zen teacher, Samu Sunim, dwight school seoul Toronto's Zen Buddhist Temple in 1971. He is head of the Buddhist Society for Compassionate Wisdom, which has temples in Ann Arbor, Chicago, Mexico City, and New York City. Hye Am [38] (1884–1985) brought lineage Dharma to the Dwight school seoul States. Hye Am's Dharma successor, Myo Vong [39] founded the Western Son Academy (1976), and his Korean disciple, Pohwa Sunim, founded World Zen Fellowship (1994) which includes various Zen centers in the United States, such as the Potomac Zen Sangha, the Patriarchal Zen Society and the Baltimore Zen Center.

[40] Recently, many Korean Buddhist monks have come to the United States to spread the Dharma. They are establishing temples and zen (Korean, 'Seon') centers all around the United States. For example, Hyeonho established the Goryosah Temple in Los Angeles in 1979, and Muil Woohak founded the Budzen Center in New York. Vietnamese Thien [ edit ] Thích Nhất Hạnh in 2006 Vietnamese Zen ( Thiền) teachers in America include Thích Thiên-Ân and Thích Nhất Hạnh.

Thích Thiên-Ân came to America in 1966 as a visiting professor at UCLA and taught traditional Thiền meditation. Thích Nhất Hạnh [ edit ] Thích Nhất Dwight school seoul was a monk in Vietnam during the Vietnam War.

In 1966, he left Vietnam in exile and founded the Plum Village Monastery in France. In his books and talks, Thich Nhat Hanh emphasizes mindfulness ( sati) as the most important practice in daily life. His monastic students live and practice at three centers in the United States: Deer Park Monastery in Escondido, California, [41] Blue Cliff Monastery in Pine Bush, New York, [42] and Magnolia Grove Monastery in Batesville, Mississippi.

[43] Tibetan Buddhism [ edit ] The Dalai Lama with US President Barack Obama at the White House Perhaps the most widely visible Buddhist leader in the world is Tenzin Gyatso, the current Dalai Lama, who first visited the United States in 1979. As the exiled political leader of Tibet, he has become a popular cause célèbre, attracting celebrity religious followers such as Richard Gere and Adam Yauch. His early life was depicted in Hollywood films such as Kundun and Seven Years in Tibet.

An early Western-born Tibetan Buddhist monk was Robert A. F. Thurman, now an academic supporter of the Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama maintains a North American headquarters in Ithaca, New York. The Dalai Lama's family has strong ties to America.

His brother Thubten Norbu fled China after being asked to assassinate his brother. He was himself a Lama, the Takster Rinpoche, and an abbot of the Kumbum Monastery in Tibet's Amdo region. He settled in Bloomington, Indiana, where he later founded the Tibetan Mongolian Buddhist Cultural Center and Kumbum Chamtse Ling Temple.

Since the death of the Takster Rinpoche it has served as a Kumbum of the West, with the current Arija Rinpochere serving as its leader. Dilowa Gegen (Diluu Khudagt) was the first lama to immigrate to the United States in 1949 as a political refugee and joined Owen Lattimore's Mongolia Project.

He was born in Tudevtei, Zavkhan, Mongolia and was one of the leading figures in declaration of independence of Mongolia. He was exiled from Mongolia, the reason remains unrevealed to this day.

After arriving in the US, he joined Johns Hopkins University and founded a monastery in New Jersey. The ashes of Chögyam Trungpa are in The Great Stupa of Dharmakaya The first Tibetan Buddhist lama to have American students was Geshe Ngawang Wangyal, a Kalmyk-Mongolian of the Gelug lineage, who came to the United States in 1955 and founded the "Lamaist Buddhist Monastery of America" in New Jersey in 1958.

Among his students were the future western scholars Robert Thurman, Jeffrey Hopkins, Alexander Berzin and Anne C. Klein. Other early arrivals included Dezhung Rinpoche, a Sakya lama who settled in Seattle, in 1960, and Tarthang Tulku Rinpoche, the first Nyingma teacher in America, who arrived in the US in 1968 and established the "Tibetan Nyingma Meditation Center" in Berkeley, California, in 1969.

The best-known Tibetan Buddhist lama to live in the United States was Chögyam Trungpa. Trungpa, part of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism, moved to England in 1963, founded a temple in Scotland, and then relocated to Barnet, Vermont, and then Boulder, Colorado by 1970. He established what he named Dharmadhatu meditation centers, eventually organized under a national umbrella group called Vajradhatu (later to become Shambhala International).

He developed a series of secular techniques he called Shambhala Training. Following Trungpa's death, his followers at the Shambhala Mountain Center built the Great Stupa of Dharmakaya, a traditional reliquary monument, near Red Feather Lakes, Colorado consecrated in 2001. [44] Karma Triyana Dharmachakra monastery in Woodstock, New York There are four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism: the Gelug, the Kagyu, the Nyingma, and the Sakya.

Of these, the greatest impact in the West was made by the Gelug, led by the Dalai Lama, and the Kagyu, specifically its Karma Kagyu branch, led by the Karmapa.

As of the early 1990s, there were several significant strands of Kagyu practice in the United States: Chögyam Trungpa's Shambhala movement; Karma Triyana Dharmachakra, a network of centers affiliated directly with the Karmapa's North American seat in Woodstock, New York; a network of centers founded by Kalu Rinpoche. The Drikung Kagyu lineage also has an established presence in the United States.

Khenchen Konchog Gyaltsen arrived in the US in 1982 and planted the seeds for many Drikung centers across the country. He also paved the way for the arrival of Garchen Rinpoche, who established the Garchen Buddhist Institute in Chino Valley, Arizona.

Diamond Way Buddhism founded by Ole Nydahl and representing Karmapa is also active in the US. In the 21st century, the Nyingma lineage is increasingly represented in the West by both Western and Tibetan teachers.

Lama Surya Das is a Western-born teacher carrying on the "great rimé", a non-sectarian form of Tibetan Buddhism. The late Chagdud Tulku Rinpoche founded centers in Seattle and Brazil. Gochen Tulku Sangak (sometimes spelled "Sang-Ngag") Rinpoche [45] is the founder and spiritual director of the first Ewam International Center located in the US.

He is also the dwight school seoul director of the Namchak Foundation in Montana and a primary lineage holder of the Namchak lineage. [46] Khandro Rinpoche is a female Tibetan teacher who has a presence in America.

Jetsunma Ahkon Lhamo is the first Western woman to be enthroned as a Tulku, and established Nyingma Kunzang Palyul Choling centers in Sedona, Arizona, and Poolesville, Maryland. The Gelug tradition is represented in America by the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (FPMT), founded by Lama Thubten Yeshe and Lama Zopa. Gelugpa teacher Geshe Michael Roach, the first American to be awarded a Geshe degree, established centers in New York and at Diamond Mountain University in Arizona.

Sravasti Abbey is the first Tibetan Buddhist monastery for Western monks and nuns in the U.S., established in Washington State by Bhikshuni Thubten Chodron in 2003. It is situated on 300 acres of forest and meadows, 11 miles (18 km) outside of Newport, Washington, near the Idaho state line. It is open to visitors who want to learn about community life in a Tibetan Buddhist monastic setting.

[47] The name Sravasti Abbey was chosen by the Dalai Lama. Bhikshuni Thubten Chodron had suggested the name, dwight school seoul Sravasti was the place in India where the Buddha spent 25 rains retreats (varsa in Sanskrit and yarne in Tibetan), and communities of both nuns and monks had resided there. This seemed auspicious to ensure the Buddha's teachings would be abundantly available to both male and female monastics at the monastery. [48] Sravasti Abbey is notable because it is home to a growing group of fully ordained bhikshunis (Buddhist nuns) practicing in the Tibetan tradition.

This is special because the tradition of full ordination for women was not transmitted from India to Tibet. Ordained women practicing in the Tibetan tradition usually hold a novice ordination. Venerable Thubten Chodron, while faithfully following the teachings of her Tibetan teachers, has arranged for her students to seek full ordination as bhikshunis in Taiwan. [49] In January 2014, the Abbey, which then had seven bhikshunis and three novices, formally began its first winter varsa (three-month monastic retreat), which lasted until April 13, 2014.

As far as the Abbey knows, this was the first time a Western bhikshuni sangha practicing in the Tibetan tradition had done this ritual in the United States and in English. On April 19, 2014, the Abbey held its first kathina ceremony to mark the end of the varsa. Also in 2014 the Abbey held its first Pavarana rite at the end of the varsa.

[49] In October 2015 the Annual Western Buddhist Monastic Gathering was held at the Abbey for the first time; it was the 21st such gathering. [50] In 2006, Geshe Thupten Dorjee, educated at Drepung Loseling Monastery, and poet Sidney Burris founded the Tibetan Cultural Institute of Arkansas, which began offering two weekly meditation courses and bringing monks and scholars to give lectures to the community at large.

[51] In 2008, the TEXT (Tibetans in Exile Today) Program at the University dwight school seoul Arkansas in Fayetteville dwight school seoul an oral history project to help archive the stories of Tibetans currently living in exile in India. [52] In June 2011, a month after the Dalai Lama visited, TCIA received a donation to build a retreat center and stupa near Crosses, Arkansas.

[53] In 2010 the first Tibetan Buddhist nunnery in North America was established in Vermont, [54] called Vajra Dakini Nunnery, offering novice ordination. [54] The abbot of this nunnery is an American woman named Khenmo Drolma who is the first "bhikkhunni," a fully ordained Buddhist nun, in the Drikung Kagyu tradition of Buddhism, having been ordained in Taiwan in 2002.

[54] She is also the first westerner, male or female, to be installed as a Buddhist abbot, having been installed as abbot of Vajra Dakini Nunnery in 2004. [55] Theravada [ edit ] Insight Meditation Society in Barre, Massachusetts. Theravada is best known for Vipassana, roughly translated as "insight meditation", which is an ancient meditative practice described in the Pali Canon of the Theravada school of Buddhism and similar scriptures.

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Vipassana also refers to a distinct movement which was begun in the 20th century by reformers such as Mahāsi Sayādaw, a Burmese monk. [56] [57] [58] Mahāsi Sayādaw was a Theravada bhikkhu and Vipassana is rooted in the Theravada teachings, but its goal is to simplify ritual and other peripheral activities in order to make meditative practice more effective and available both to monks and to laypeople. American Theravada Buddhists [ edit ] Abhayagiri Buddhist Monastery, Asalha Puja 2014 In 1965, monks from Sri Lanka established the Washington Buddhist Vihara in Washington, DC, the first Theravada monastic community in the United States.

The Vihara was accessible to English-speakers with Vipassana meditation part of its activities. However, the direct influence of the Vipassana movement would not reach the U.S. until a group of Americans returned there in the early 1970s after studying with Vipassana masters in Asia. Joseph Goldstein, after journeying to Southeast Asia with the Peace Corps, lived in Bodhgaya as a student of Anagarika Munindra, the head monk of Mahabodhi Temple and himself a student of Māhāsai Sayādaw. Jack Kornfield also worked for the Peace Corps in Southeast Asia, and then studied and ordained in the Thai Forest Tradition under Ajahn Chah, a major figure in 20th-century Thai Buddhism.

Sharon Salzberg went to India in 1971 and studied with Dipa Ma, a former Calcutta housewife trained in vipassana by Māhāsai Sayādaw. [59] The Thai Forest Tradition also has a number of branch monasteries in the United States, including Abhayagiri Buddhist Monastery ( Ajahn Pasanno, Abbot), Metta Forest Monastery (with Thanissaro Bhikkhu as Abbot) and Jetavana Temple Forest Monastery.

Goldstein and Kornfield met in 1974 while teaching at the Naropa Institute in Colorado. The next year, Goldstein, Kornfield, and Salzberg, who had very recently returned from Calcutta, along with Jacqueline Schwarz, founded the Insight Meditation Society on an 80-acre (324,000 m 2) property near Barre, Massachusetts.

IMS hosted visits by Māhāsi Sayādaw, Munindra, Ajahn Chah, and Dipa Ma. In 1981, Kornfield moved to California, where he founded another Vipassana center, Spirit Rock Meditation Center, in Marin County. In 1985, Larry Rosenberg founded the Cambridge Insight Meditation Center in Cambridge, Dwight school seoul. Another Vipassana center is the Vipassana Metta Foundation, located on Maui.

"When a Retreat Center course is in progress, anyone who is not already participating in the retreat is welcome to attend the evening talks about the teachings, known as Dharma talks. Those with insight meditation experience are also welcome to attend group sittings." [60] Dharma talks are available for free download, a service provided by Dharma Seed. In 1989, the Insight Dwight school seoul Center established the Barre Center for Buddhist Studies near the IMS headquarters, to promote scholarly investigation of Buddhism.

Its director is Mu Soeng, a former Korean Zen monk. [61] In the early 1990s, Ajahn Amaro made several teaching trips to northern California. Many who attended his meditation retreats became enthusiastic about the possibility of establishing a permanent monastic community in the area.

In the meantime, Amaravati Monastery in England received a substantial donation of land in Mendocino County from Chan Master Hsuan Hua. The land was allocated to establish a forest monastery. Abhayagiri Monastery was established and placed in the hands of a group of lay practitioners, the Sanghapala Foundation. [62] Ajahn Pasanno moved to California on New Year's Eve of 1997 to share the abbotship of Abhayagiri Monastery, Redwood Valley, California, with Ajahn Amaro. [63] In 1997 Dhamma Cetiya Vihara in Boston [64] was founded by Ven.

Gotami of Thailand, then a 10 precept nun. Ven. Gotami received full ordination in 2000, at which time her dwelling became America's first Theravada Buddhist bhikkhuni vihara. "Vihara" translates as monastery or nunnery, and may be both dwelling and community center where one or more bhikkhus or bhikkhunis offer teachings on Buddhist scriptures, conduct traditional ceremonies, teach meditation, offer counseling and other community services, receive alms, and reside.

More recently established Theravada bhikkhuni viharas include: Mahapajapati Monastery [65] where several nuns (bhikkhunis and novices) live together in the desert of southern California near Dwight school seoul Tree, founded by Ven. Gunasari Bhikkhuni of Burma in 2008; Aranya Bodhi Hermitage [66] founded by Ven. Tathaaloka Bhikkhuni in the forest near Jenner, CA, with Ven.

Sobhana Bhikkhuni as Prioress, which opened officially in July 2010, where several bhikkhunis reside together along with trainees and lay supporters; and Sati Saraniya [67] in Ontario, founded by Ven. Medhanandi in appx 2009, where two bhikkhunis reside. In 2009 Aloka Vihara Forest Monastery in the Sierra Foothills of California was created by Ayya Anandabodhi and Ayya Santacitta. (There are also quiet residences of individual bhikkhunis where they may receive visitors and give teachings, such as the residence of Ven.

Amma Thanasanti Bhikkhuni [68] in 2009–2010 in Colorado Springs; and the Los Angeles residence of Ven. Susila Bhikkhuni; and the residence of Ven.

Wimala Bhikkhuni in the mid-west.) In 2010, in Northern California, 4 novice nuns were given the full bhikkhuni ordination in the Thai Theravada tradition, which included the double ordination ceremony.

Bhante Gunaratana and other monks and nuns were in attendance. It was the first such ordination ever in the Western hemisphere.

[69] Bhante Gunaratana is currently the abbot of the Bhavana Society, a monastery and meditation retreat center that he founded in High View, West Virginia. [70] [71] S. N. Goenka [ edit ] S. N. Goenka was a Burmese-born meditation teacher of the Vipassana movement.

His teacher, Sayagyi U Ba Khin of Burma, was a contemporary of Māhāsi Sayādaw's, and taught a style of Buddhism with similar emphasis on simplicity and accessibility to laypeople. Goenka established a method of instruction popular in Asia and throughout the world. In 1981, he established the Vipassana Research Institute in Igatpuri, India and his students built several centers in North America. [72] Association of American Buddhists [ edit ] The Association of American Buddhists was a group which promotes Buddhism through publications, ordination of monks, and classes.

[73] Organized in dwight school seoul by American practitioners of Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana Buddhism, it does not espouse any particular school or schools of Buddhism. It respects all Buddhist traditions as equal, and encourages unity of Buddhism in thought and practice. It states that a different, American, form of Buddhism is possible, and that the cultural forms attached to the older schools of Buddhism need not necessarily be followed by westerners.

Women and Buddhism [ edit ] Further information: Women in Buddhism Rita M. Gross, a feminist religious scholar, claims that many people converted to Buddhism in the 1960s and '70s as an attempt to combat traditional American values. However, in their conversion, they have created a new form of Buddhism distinctly Western in thought and practice.

[74] Democratization and the rise of women in leadership positions have been among the most influential characteristics of American Buddhism.

However, another one of these characteristics is rationalism, which has allowed Buddhists to come to terms with the scientific and technological dwight school seoul of the 21st century. Engagement in social issues, such as global warming, domestic violence, poverty and discrimination, has also shaped Buddhism in America.

Privatization of ritual practices into home life has dwight school seoul Buddhism in America. The idea of living in the “present life” rather than focusing on the future or the past is also another characteristic of American Buddhism. [75] American Buddhism was able to embed these new religious ideals into such a historically rich religious tradition and culture due to the high conversion rate in the late 20th century.

Three important factors led to this conversion in America: the importance of religion, societal openness, and spirituality. American culture places a large emphasis on having a personal religious identity as a spiritual and ethical foundation.

During the 1960s and onward, society also became more open to other religious practices outside of Protestantism, allowing more people to explore Buddhism. People also became more interested in spiritual and experiential religion rather than the traditional institutional religions of the time.

[75] The mass conversion of the 60s and 70s was also occurring alongside the second-wave feminist movement. While many of the women who became Buddhists at this time were drawn to its “gender neutral” teachings, in reality Buddhism is a traditionally patriarchal religion. [76] These two conflicting ideas caused “uneasiness” with American Buddhist women. [76] This uneasiness was further justified after 1983, when some male Buddhist teachers were exposed as “sexual adventurers and abusers of power.” [77] This spurred action among women in the American Buddhist community.

After much dialogue within the community, including a series of conferences entitled “The Feminine in Buddhism,” Sandy Boucher, a feminist-Buddhist teacher, interviewed over one hundred Buddhist women. [76] She determined from their experiences and her own that American Buddhism has “the possibility for the creation of a religion fully inclusive of women’s realities, in which women hold both institutional and spiritual leadership.” [77] In recent years, there is a strong presence of women in American Buddhism, and many women are even in leadership roles.

[78] This also may be due to the fact that American Buddhism tends to stress democratization over the traditional hierarchical structure of Buddhism in Asia.

[79] One study of Theravada Buddhist centers in the U.S., however, found that although men and women thought that Buddhist teachings were gender-blind, there were still distinct gender roles in the organization, including more male guest teachers and more women volunteering as cooks and cleaners.

[78] In 1936, Sunya Gladys Pratt was ordained as a Buddhist minister in the Shin tradition in the Tacoma, Dwight school seoul. [80] In 1976, Karuna Dharma became the first fully ordained female member of the Buddhist monastic community in the U.S. [81] In 1981, Ani Pema Chodron, an American woman, was ordained as a bhikkhuni in a lineage of Tibetan Buddhism. Pema Chödrön was the first American woman to be ordained as a Buddhist nun in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition.

[82] [83] In 1988, Jetsunma Ahkon Lhamo, an American woman formerly called Catharine Burroughs, became the first Western woman to be named a reincarnate lama. [84] In 1998, Sherry Chayat became the first American woman to receive transmission in the Rinzai school of Buddhism. [85] [30] [31] In 2002, Khenmo Drolma, an American woman, became the first bhikkhuni in the Drikung Kagyu lineage of Buddhism, traveling to Taiwan to be ordained. [86] In 2004 she became the first westerner of either sex to be installed as an abbot in the Drikung Kagyu lineage of Buddhism, being installed as the abbot of dwight school seoul Vajra Dakini Nunnery in Vermont (America's first Tibetan Buddhist nunnery) in 2004.

[87] In 2003, Ayya Sudhamma Bhikkhuni became the first American-born woman to gain bhikkhuni ordination in the Theravada school in Sri Lanka. [88] [89] [90] In 2006, for the first time in American history, a Buddhist ordination was held where an American woman (Sister Khanti-Khema) took the Samaneri (novice) vows with an American monk ( Bhante Vimalaramsi) presiding. This was done for the Buddhist American Forest Tradition at the Dhamma Sukha Meditation Center in Missouri.

[91] Also in 2006, Merle Kodo Boyd, born in Texas, became the first African-American woman ever to receive Dharma transmission in Zen Buddhism. [36] In 2010, the first Tibetan Buddhist nunnery in America (Vajra Dakini Nunnery in Vermont), offering novice ordination in the Drikung Kagyu lineage of Buddhism, was officially consecrated.

[87] Contemporary developments [ edit ] Engaged Buddhism [ edit ] Socially engaged Buddhism has developed in Buddhism in the West.

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While some critics [ who?] assert the term is redundant, as it is mistaken to believe that Buddhism in the past has not affected and been affected by the surrounding society, others have suggested that Buddhism is sometimes seen as too passive toward public life.

This is particularly true in the West, where almost all converts to Buddhism come to it outside of an existing family or community tradition. Engaged Buddhism is an attempt to apply Buddhist values to larger social problems, including war and environmental concerns. The term was coined by Thich Nhat Hanh, during his years as a peace activist in Vietnam.

The Buddhist Peace Fellowship was founded in 1978 by Robert Aitken, Anne Aitken, Nelson Foster, and others and received early assistance from Gary Snyder, Jack Kornfield, and Joanna Macy. [92] Another engaged Buddhist group is the Zen Peacemaker Order, founded in 1996 by Bernie Glassman and Sandra Jishu Holmes. [93] In 2007, the American Buddhist scholar-monk, Ven.

Bhikkhu Bodhi, was invited to write an editorial essay for the Buddhist magazine Dwight school seoul. In his essay, he called attention to the narrowly inward focus of American Buddhism, which has been pursued to the neglect of the active dimension of Buddhist dwight school seoul expressed through programs of social engagement.

Several of Ven. Bodhi's students who read the essay felt a desire to follow up on his suggestions. After a few rounds of discussions, they resolved to form a Buddhist relief organization dedicated to alleviating the suffering of the poor and disadvantaged in the developing world. At the initial meetings, seeking a point of focus, they decided to direct their relief efforts at the problem of global hunger, especially by supporting local efforts by those in developing countries to achieve self-sufficiency through improved food productivity.

Contacts were made with leaders and members of other Buddhist communities in the greater New York area, and before long Buddhist Global Relief emerged as an inter-denominational organization comprising people of different Buddhist groups who share the vision of a Buddhism actively committed to the task of alleviating social and economic suffering. [94] Misconduct [ edit ] See also: Charismatic authority A number of groups and individuals have been implicated in scandals.

dwight school seoul Sandra Bell has analysed the scandals at Vajradhatu and the San Francisco Zen Center and concluded that these kinds of scandals are most likely to occur in organisations that are in transition between the pure forms of charismatic authority that brought them into being and more rational, corporate forms of organization". [96] Ford states that no one can express the "hurt and dismay" these events brought to each center, and that the centers have in many cases emerged stronger because they no longer depend on a "single charismatic leader".

[97] Robert Sharf also mentions charisma from which institutional power is derived, and the need to balance charismatic authority with institutional authority. [98] Elaborate analyses of these scandals are made by Stuart Lachs, who mentions the uncritical acceptance of religious narratives, such as lineages and dharma transmission, which aid in giving uncritical charismatic powers to teachers and leaders. [99] [100] [101] [102] [103] Following is a partial list from reliable sources, limited to the United States and by no means all-inclusive.

• In 1983, the San Francisco Zen Center experienced a sex scandal resulting in the resignation of abbot Richard Baker. [104] • Taizan Maezumi slept with several of his students at the Zen Center of Los Angeles and he died of his alcoholism. [97] [105] • In 1988, Seung Sahn had sexual affairs with several of his students in the Kwan Um School of Zen. [97] • Tibetan Buddhist teacher Chögyam Trungpa openly had sexual relationships with numbers of female members of his dwight school seoul, and died of health complications from his quite public alcoholism.

[106] • Trungpa's Dharma heir Ösel Tendzin contracted and later died from complications of the AIDS virus. Knowing himself to be infected, Tendzin had unprotected sex with at least two of his male students. One of them later died of AIDS. [107] • In 2010, Shasta Abbey abbot and successor to Houn Jiyu-Kennett Eko Little resigned and subsequently disrobed after admitting to forming a sexual relationship with one of the members of the lay congregation.

[108] • In 2010, Eido Tai Shimano retired from the Zen Studies Society after admitting to sexual liaisons. [106] • In 2011 because of sexual misconduct, Dennis Merzel said he would disrobe as a Buddhist priest and resign as an elder of the White Plum Asanga.

[109] • Several women have accused Joshu Sasaki of making sexual advances over the course of decades, [110] and scandal struck the Cimarron Zen Center in Los Angeles. [111] [112] Accreditation [ edit ] This section needs expansion with: more schools of Buddhism. You can help by adding to it. ( May 2012) Dwight school seoul and policies may differ greatly between different schools or sects: for example, "many, perhaps most" Soto priests "see no distinction between ordination and Dharma transmission".

Disagreement and misunderstanding exist on this point, among lay practitioners and Zen teachers alike. [113] James Ford writes, [S]urprising numbers of people use the titles Zen teacher, master, roshi and sensei without any obvious connections to Zen [.] Often they obfuscate their Zen connections, raising the very real question whether they have any authentic relationship to the Zen world at all.

In my studies I've run across literally dozens of such cases. [114] James Ford claims that about eighty percent of authentic teachers in the United States belong to the American Zen Teachers Association or the Soto Zen Buddhist Association and are listed on their websites.

This can help a prospective student sort out who is a "normative stream" teacher from someone who is perhaps not, but of course twenty percent do not participate. [114] Demographics of Buddhism in the United States [ edit ] Numbers of Buddhists [ edit ] Accurate counts of Buddhists in the United States are difficult. Self-description has pitfalls. Because Buddhism is a cultural concept, individuals who self-describe as Buddhists may have little knowledge or commitment to Buddhism as a religion or practice; on the other hand, others may be deeply involved in meditation and committed to the Dharma, but may refuse the label "Buddhist".

In the 1990s, Robert A. F. Thurman estimated there were 5 to 6 million Buddhists in America. In a 2007 Pew Research Center survey, at 0.7% Buddhism was the third largest religion in the US after Christianity (78.4%), no religion (10.3%) and Judaism dwight school seoul. [115] In 2012 on the occasion of a visit from the Dalai Lama, U-T San Diego said there are 1.2 million Buddhist practitioners in the U.S., and of them 40% live in Southern California.

dwight school seoul

{INSERTKEYS} [116] In 2008, the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life Religious Landscape survey and the American Religious Identification Survey estimated Buddhists at 0.7 percent and 0.5 percent of the American population, respectively. ARIS estimated that the number of adherents rose by 170 percent between 1990 and 2000, reaching 1.2 million followers in 2008. [117] According to William Wilson Quinn "by all indications that remarkable rate of growth continues unabated." [118] But according to Robert Thurman, Scholars are unsure whether the reports are accurate, as Americans who might dabble in various forms of Buddhism may not identify themselves as Buddhist on a survey.

That makes it difficult to quantify the number of Buddhists in the United States. [117] Others argued, in 2012, that Buddhists made up 1 percent of the American population (about three million people). [75] Demographics of Import Buddhists [ edit ] A sociological survey conducted in 1999 found that relative to the US population as a whole, import Buddhists (i.e., those who are not Buddhist by birth) are proportionately more likely to be white, upper middle class, highly educated, and left-leaning in their political views.

In terms of race, only 10% of survey respondents indicated they were a race other than white, a matter that has been cause of some concern among Buddhist leaders. Nearly a third of the respondents were college graduates, and more than half held advanced degrees. Politically, 60% identified themselves as Democrats, and Green Party affiliations outnumbered Republicans by 3 to 1.

Import Buddhists were also proportionately more likely to have come from Catholic, and especially Jewish backgrounds. More than half of these adherents came to Buddhism through reading books on the topic, with the rest coming by way of martial arts and friends or acquaintances.

The average age of the respondents was 46. Daily meditation was their most commonly cited Buddhist practice, with most meditating 30 minutes a day or more. [119] In 2015 a Pew Foundation survey found 67% of American Buddhists were raised in a religion other than Buddhism. [120] 61% said their spouse has a religion other than Buddhism. [120] The survey was conducted only in English and Spanish, and may under-estimate Buddhist immigrants who speak Asian languages.

A 2012 Pew study found Buddhism is practiced by 15% of surveyed Chinese Americans, 6% of Koreans, 25% of Japanese, 43% of Vietnamese and 1% of Filipinos. [121] Ethnic divide [ edit ] Although the 2008 Pew Landscape Study suggested white Americans made up the majority of Buddhists in the United States, [122] subsequent research has refuted this conclusion, first on the study's small data set, second on significant methodological errors, and third on subsequent research published by Pew in the 2012 survey of religious life of Asian Americans.

[123] [124] Based on this latter study's data, Asian American Buddhists make up approximately 67–69% of all Buddhists in the United States. [125] [126] [127] Discussion about Buddhism in America has sometimes focused on the issue of the visible ethnic divide separating ethnic Buddhist congregations from import Buddhist groups.

[128] Although many Zen and Tibetan Buddhist temples were founded by Asians, they now attract fewer Asian-Americans. With the exception of Sōka Gakkai, [17] almost all active Buddhist groups in America are either ethnic or import Buddhism based on the demographics of their membership.

There is often limited contact between Buddhists of different ethnic groups. However, the cultural divide should not necessarily be seen as pernicious. It is often argued that the differences between Buddhist groups arise benignly from the differing needs and interests of those involved. Convert Buddhists tend to be interested in meditation and philosophy, in some cases eschewing the trappings of religiosity altogether. On the other hand, for immigrants and their descendants, preserving tradition and maintaining a social framework assume a much greater relative importance, making their approach to religion naturally more conservative.

Further, based on a survey of Asian-American Buddhists in San Francisco, "many Asian-American Buddhists view non-Asian Buddhism as still in a formative, experimental stage" and yet they believe that it "could eventually mature into a religious expression of exceptional quality".

[1] Additional questions come from the demographics within import Buddhism. The majority of American converts practicing at Buddhist centers are white, often from Christian or Jewish backgrounds. Only Sōka Gakkai has attracted significant numbers of African-American or Latino members. A variety of ideas have been broached regarding the nature, causes, and significance of this racial uniformity. Journalist Clark Strand noted …that it has tried to recruit [African-Americans] at all makes Sōka Gakkai International utterly unique in American Buddhism.

[129] Strand, writing for Tricycle (an American Buddhist journal) in 2004, notes that SGI has specifically targeted African-Americans, Latinos and Asians, and other writers have noted that this approach has begun to spread, with Vipassana and Theravada retreats aimed at non-white practitioners led by a handful of specific teachers.

[130] A question is the degree of importance ascribed to discrimination, which is suggested to be mostly unconscious, on the part of white converts toward potential minority converts. [131] To some extent, the racial divide indicates a class divide, because convert Buddhists tend to be more educated. [132] Among African American Buddhists who commented on the dynamics of the racial divide in convert Buddhism are Jan Willis and Charles R. Johnson. [133] A Pew study shows that Americans tend to be less biased towards Buddhists when compared to other religions, such as Christianity, to which 18% of people were biased, when only 14% were biased towards Buddhists.

American Buddhists are often not raised as Buddhists, with 32% of American Buddhists being raised Protestant, and 22% being raised Catholic, which means that over half of the American Buddhists were converted at some point in time. Also, Buddhism has had to adapt to America in order to garner more followers so that the concept would not seem so foreign, so they adopted "Catholic" words such as "worship" and "churches." [134] Buddhist education in the United States [ edit ] Chögyam Trungpa founded Naropa Institute in Boulder, Colorado, a four-year Buddhist college in the US (now Naropa University) in 1974.

[135] Allen Ginsberg was an initial faculty member, christening the institute's poetry department the " Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics". Now Naropa University, the school offers accredited degrees in a number of subjects, many not directly related to Buddhism. The University of the West is affiliated with Hsi Lai Temple and was previously Hsi Lai University. Soka University of America, in Aliso Viejo California, was founded by the Sōka Gakkai as a secular school committed to philosophic Buddhism.

The City of Ten Thousand Buddhas is the site of Dharma Realm Buddhist University, a four-year college teaching courses primarily related to Buddhism but including some general-interest subjects. The Institute of Buddhist Studies in Berkeley, California, in addition to offering a master's degree in Buddhist Studies acts as the ministerial training arm of the Buddhist Churches of America and is affiliated with the Graduate Theological Union.

The school moved into the Jodo Shinshu Center in Berkeley. The first Buddhist high school in the United States, Developing Virtue Secondary School, was founded in 1981 by the Dharma Realm Buddhist Association at their branch monastery in the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas in Ukiah, California. In 1997, the Purple Lotus Buddhist School offered elementary-level classes in Union City, California, affiliated with the True Buddha School; it added a middle school in 1999 and a high school in 2001.

[136] Another Buddhist high school, Tinicum Art and Science now The Lotus School of Liberal Arts, which combines Zen practice and traditional liberal arts, opened in Ottsville, Pennsylvania, in 1998. It is associated informally with the World Shim Gum Do Association in Boston.

The Pacific Buddhist Academy opened in Honolulu, Hawaii, in 2003. It shares a campus with the Hongwanji Mission School, an elementary and middle school; both schools affiliated with the Honpa Hongwanji Jodo Shinshu mission. [137] Juniper Foundation, founded in 2003, holds that Buddhist methods must become integrated into modern culture just as they were in other cultures.

[138] Juniper Foundation calls its approach "Buddhist training for modern life" [139] and it emphasizes meditation, balancing emotions, cultivating compassion and developing insight as four building blocks of Buddhist training.

[140] See also [ edit ] • List of American Buddhists • Buddhists in the United States military • Bhikkhu Bodhi • Dharma Seed • Pariyatti (bookstore), sole distributor of Buddhist Publication Society in North America • Tricycle: The Buddhist Review • Shambhala Publications • Lion's Roar (magazine) • Buddhism in the West • Buddhism in Costa Rica • Buddhism in Canada • Index of Buddhism-related articles • Religion in the United States • Secular Buddhism References [ edit ] • ^ a b Kenneth K.

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• Seager, Richard Hughes (1999). Buddhism in America. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-10868-3. Further reading [ edit ] • Lewis, James R. The Encyclopedia of Cults, Sects, and New Religions. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1998. ISBN 1-57392-222-6. • Prebish, Charles (2003). Buddhism – the American Experience. Journal of Buddhist Ethics Online Books, Inc. ISBN 0-9747055-0-0. • Tweed, Thomas A. (2000). The American Encounter with Buddhism, 1844–1912: Victorian Culture and the Limits of Dissent.

The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 9780807849064. External links [ edit ] • American Buddhist Net: Buddhist News & Forums • " Surveying the Buddhist Landscape", article by Charles Prebish, from Lion's Roar • " Global Buddhism: Developmental Periods, Regional Histories, and a New Analytical Perspective", article by Martin Baumann • " Buddhism Comes to Main Street", article by Jan Nattier on UrbanDharma.org • " Buddhist Studies and its Impact on Buddhism in Western Societies", article by Max Deeg • " Shin Buddhism in the American Context", article by Dr.

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American sports television broadcasts NBC Olympic broadcasts Genre Olympics telecasts Country of origin United States Original language English No.

of seasons 14 Production Production locations Various Olympic venues (event telecasts and studio segments) Camera setup Multi-camera Running time Varies Production companies NBC Olympics, LLC ( NBC Sports Group) Release Original network NBC NBC Sports Universo MSNBC CNBC Golf Channel NBC Sports Regional Networks Telemundo Telemundo Deportes Oxygen USA Bravo Olympic Channel Peacock Original release October 10, 1964 ( 1964-10-10) – October 24, 1964 ( 1964-10-24) February 3, 1972 ( 1972-02-03) – February 13, 1972 ( 1972-02-13) September 17, 1988 ( 1988-09-17) - present The broadcasts of Summer and Winter Olympic Games produced by NBC Sports are shown on the various platforms of NBCUniversal in the United States, including the NBC broadcast network, NBC Sports app, NBCOlympics.com, Peacock, Spanish language network Telemundo, and many of the company's dwight school seoul networks.

The event telecasts during the Olympics air primarily in the evening and on weekend afternoons on NBC with additional live coverage on the NBC Sports app and NBCOlympics.com, with varying times on its cable networks (such as after the close of the stock market day on CNBC, the early mornings on MSNBC, and overnights on the USA Network).

The commercial name of the broadcasting services is NBC Olympics. The on-air title of the telecasts, as typically announced at the start of each broadcast and during sponsor billboards is always the official name of the games in question – for example, The Games of the XXIX Olympiad for the 2008 Summer Games. However, promotional logos may reflect the more common location-and-year name format, such as "Beijing 2008".

NBC has held the American broadcasting rights to the Summer Olympic Games since the 1988 games and the rights to the Winter Olympic Games since the 2002 games. In 2011, NBC agreed to a $4.38 billion contract with the International Olympic Committee to broadcast the Olympics through the 2020 games, the most expensive television rights deal in Olympic history.

[1] NBC then agreed to a $7.75 billion contract extension on May 7, 2014, to air the Olympics through the 2032 games. [2] NBC also acquired the American television rights to the Youth Olympic Games, beginning in 2014, [3] and the Paralympic Games for the 2014, 2016, 2018, and 2020 editions.

NBC announced more than 1200 hours of coverage for the 2020 games, called "unprecedented" by the International Paralympic Committee. [4] [5] [6] NBC is one of the major sources of revenue for the IOC. [7] NBC's coverage of the Olympics has been criticized for the tape delaying of events, spoiling the results of events prior to their own tape-delayed broadcast of those events, editing of its broadcasts to resemble an emotionally appealing program meant to entertain rather than a straight live sports event, [8] [9] and avoiding controversial subjects such as material critical of Russia at the 2014 Olympics.

[10] Contents • 1 History • 1.1 Early coverage • 1.1.1 1964 Summer Olympics • 1.1.2 1972 Winter Olympics • 1.2 1980 Summer Olympic boycott • 1.3 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul • 1.4 1992 and 1996 Summer Olympics • 1.4.1 1992 Olympics Triplecast • 1.4.2 1996 Olympic Park Bombing • 1.5 Cable and satellite services become involved • 1.6 2000s • 1.6.1 Comcast acquisition of NBC (2011–2018) • 1.6.2 Mike Tirico era, emphasis on live coverage (2018–present) • 1.6.2.1 2020 Summer Olympics • 1.6.3 2022 Winter Olympics • 2 Hours of coverage • 3 Music • 4 Criticism • 4.1 Accusations of bias • 4.2 Tape delay and formatting of coverage • 4.2.1 2010 Winter Olympics • 4.2.2 2012 Summer Olympics • 4.2.3 2014 Winter Olympics • 4.2.4 2016 Summer Olympics • 4.2.5 2018 Winter Olympics • 4.2.6 2020 Summer Olympics • 4.3 Opening and closing ceremonies • 4.3.1 2010 closing ceremony • 4.3.2 2012 opening ceremony • 4.3.3 2012 closing ceremony • 4.3.4 2014 opening ceremony • 4.3.5 2014 closing ceremony • 4.3.6 2016 opening ceremony • 4.3.7 2016 closing ceremony • 4.3.8 2018 opening ceremony • 4.3.9 2018 closing ceremony • 4.3.10 2020 opening ceremony • 4.3.11 2022 opening ceremony • 4.4 2012 Summer Paralympics • 4.5 Other criticism • dwight school seoul 2014 Winter Olympics • 4.5.2 2016 Summer Olympics • 4.5.3 2018 Winter Olympics • 4.5.4 2020 Summer Olympics • 4.5.5 2022 Winter Olympics • 5 See also • 6 Dwight school seoul • 7 External links History [ edit ] Early coverage [ edit ] 1964 Summer Olympics [ edit ] NBC televised its first Olympic Games in 1964, when it broadcast that year's Summer Olympics from Tokyo.

The network originally had intended to film the events from Tokyo dwight school seoul the Syncom team had a 1-hour test on the Syncom 3 satellite and it was discovered that it can transmit up to two hours from the US to Japan as with signals from the West Coast.

NBC needed approval from the FCC and it approved thus giving NBC satellite coverage of the Olympics thus avoiding flight expenses and tapes flown, NBC's telecast of the opening ceremonies that year marked the first color broadcast televised live via satellite back to the United States.

[11] The Olympic competition itself was broadcast in black-and-white. Through its use of the Syncom 3 satellite, a daily highlights package could be seen a few hours after the events took place; otherwise, videotape canisters were flown across the Pacific Ocean and were broadcast to American viewers the following day.

[12] Serving as anchor was Bill Henry, [13] then NBC News Tokyo bureau chief, who had extensive experience in both print and broadcast news. Play-by-play commentators included Bud Palmer [14] and Jim Simpson, [15] while former Olympians Rafer Johnson [16] [17] and Murray Rose [18] served as analysts. 1972 Winter Olympics [ edit ] NBC first televised the Winter Olympic Games in 1972. [19] Anchored [20] by Curt Gowdy, [21] much of the coverage actually was broadcast live since alpine skiing and long track speed skating were held in the morning, which corresponded to prime time on the East Coast of the U.S.

Although NBC bought the TV rights from the Sapporo Olympics group, they didn't know that they had to make a deal with NHK for broadcast booths at each venue. By the time NBC found out, it was too late. The booths had been built and there were none to spare. Consequently, everyone worked off monitors.

A young sportscaster making his network television debut at Sapporo was a 26-year-old Al Michaels, who did hockey play-by-play during the games. Eight years later, he would call the famous 1980 " Miracle On Ice" at that year's Winter Games in Lake Placid for ABC Sports.

Other sportscasters utilized by NBC included Jim Simpson, [22] Jay Randolph, [23] Billy Kidd, [24] Peggy Fleming, [25] Art Devlin, [26] and Terry McDermott. [27] 1980 Summer Olympic boycott [ edit ] NBC had won [28] the U.S. broadcast rights [29] for the 1980 Summer Olympics, [30] but when the United States Olympic Committee kept U.S.

athletes home to honor [31] the boycott [32] announced by President Jimmy Carter, the telecasts were greatly scaled back. [33] In the end, what had been 150 hours [34] of scheduled coverage, had substantially decreased to just a few hours. Highlights were fed to local NBC stations for use on their local newscasts.

Many affiliates, however, refused to show the Olympic highlights on their local news or clear airtime for the few hours of coverage NBC did present. NBC's extensive coverage [35] was canceled [36] before a prime time anchor had been named; it was said that NBC Nightly News anchor John Chancellor (who formerly served as a Moscow bureau chief for NBC News), along with sportscasters Bryant Gumbel [37] [38] and Dick Enberg, [39] were reportedly being considered for the prime time studio host role.

Bryant Gumbel ultimately served as Seoul primetime host [40] while Dick Enberg co-hosted the Ceremonies through the 1996 closing. NBC Sports executive Don Ohlmeyer had originally commissioned to use "1980", an instrumental theme written by Herb Alpert, for the network's planned coverage of the Summer Olympics in Moscow. It would ultimately be used six years later as the official theme song for NBC's telecast of the 1986 FIFA World Cup in Mexico.

1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul [ edit ] NBC then bid [41] for, and won, [42] the rights [43] to televise the 1988 Summer Olympics. [44] Due to American TV companies providing most of the revenue for the organizers, [45] [46] they agreed to schedule most of the team finals in the afternoon, which corresponded to prime time of the previous night in the United States (due to both South Korea [47] being located near the western border of the International Date Line, in addition to the differences [48] in time zones.

[49]) Today co-anchor Bryant Gumbel [50] was the prime time host [51] that year; Bob Costas hosted the late-night telecasts while Jane Pauley was one of the hosts of early-morning coverage.

Gumbel and Dick Enberg were co-hosts for the opening and closing ceremonies. Michael Weisman [52] led [53] a team covering [54] the 1988 Summer Olympics for the network. [55] One of those employees was future NBC Entertainment and CNN President Jeff Zucker, who Weisman hired as a researcher.

[56] Weisman considered producing the Olympics a challenge, saying, "my mandate is to shatter the mystique that only ABC can do the Olympics." [57] Weisman assembled the "Seoul Searchers," a group of specialized sports reporters tasked with following breaking news during the Games.

[58] Some criticized the journalistic focus to the games. [59] Weisman, however, defended the tone, saying "the criticism we hear is that people want to hear dwight school seoul news. . we are not the American team. We are clearly rooting for the American team, but we're not going to dwight school seoul anything." Other ideas Weisman introduced for the Olympics included miniature “point of view cameras” for specific events such as the pole vault and gymnastics; the “Olympic Chronicles,” profiles which highlighted athletes and moments from Olympics past; and an Olympic soundtrack which included an original Whitney Houston song, “ One Moment in Dwight school seoul.

[60] NBC won seven Emmy Awards for their Olympic coverage. [61] A curious result was that, since in the United States, the 1988 NFL season had just started, NBC would plug the holes (primarily play-by-play broadcasters) with dwight school seoul older broadcasters such as Curt Gowdy, Ray Scott and Merle Harmon, among others.

Marv Albert was calling boxing during the Olympics alongside Ferdie Pacheco. Meanwhile, Don Criqui and Bob Trumpy called swimming (alongside Candy Costie-Burke for the synchronized events and John Naber) and volleyball (alongside Chris Marlowe) respectively. Charlie Jones called track and field dwight school seoul Frank Shorter and Dwight Stones) and Jimmy Cefalo [62] served as the daytime host. Bob Costas (as previously mentioned) and Gayle Gardner were NBC's dwight school seoul night hosts.

Dick Enberg served as host for the Opening and Closing Ceremonies and called men's basketball (alongside Al McGuire) and gymnastics (alongside Mary Lou Retton and Bart Conner [63]). Jay Randolph called baseball during dwight school seoul Olympics alongside Jim Kaat. 1992 and 1996 Summer Olympics [ edit ] Just as his mentor Roone Arledge [64] had before over at ABC, Dick Ebersol, [65] who took over NBC Sports in 1989, decided to make the Olympics a staple of his network's sports television schedule.

NBC continued [66] its Summer Games coverage into the next decade, with both the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona and the 1996 Summer Olympics. For the 1992 games, Ebersol surprised even his own staff as well as everybody else by paying a then record $401 million for the 1992 games.

[67] [68] The network then paid $456 million [69] to broadcast the 1996 Olympics. [70] Previously hosting late night coverage in Seoul, Bob Costas made his debut, as primetime host, [71] in Barcelona. It is a role dwight school seoul that he held through the Rio 2016 Summer Olympics. Among the sportscasters that NBC utilized in 1992 were Marv Albert, [73] Mike Fratello, [74] and Quinn Buckner [75] on basketball, Bob Trumpy, [76] Al Bernstein, [77] and Beasley Reece [78] on boxing, Tom Hammond, [79] Charlie Jones [80] Michele Mitchell, and Wendy Lian Williams dwight school seoul on diving, Terry Leibel [82] and Melanie Smith Taylor [83] on equestrian, Jim Donovan [84] and Seamus Malin on soccer, John Tesh, [85] Greg Lewis, [86] Tim Daggett, [87] Elfi Schlegel, [88] Wendy Hilliard, Peter Vidmar, and Julianne McNamara [89] on gymnastics, Joel Meyers [90] on rowing, Charlie Jones, [91] Mary Wayte, [92] and Mike O'Brien on swimming, Al Trautwig [93] and Tracie Ruiz-Conforto [76] on synchronized swimming, Bud Collins, [94] Dwight school seoul Austin, [95] Chris Evert, [96] and Vitas Gerulaitis [97] on tennis, Tom Hammond, Craig Masback, [98] dwight school seoul Dwight Stones [99] on track and field, Chris Marlowe [100] and Paul Sunderland [101] on volleyball, Charlie Jones and Jim Kruse [102] on water polo, and Russ Hellickson [103] and Jeff Blatnick [104] on wrestling.

Four years later in Atlanta, NBC used as commentators Marv Albert, [105] Matt Goukas, [106] Magic Johnson, [107] and Jim Gray on men's basketball, Mike Breen [108] and Cheryl Miller [109] on women's basketball, Bob Papa, [110] Al Bernstein, [111] Beasley Reese [112] on boxing, Charlie Jones [113] and Bill Endicott on canoeing, Al Trautwig, [114] Phil Liggett, [115] and Paul Sherwen [116] on cycling, Dan Hicks and Cynthia Potter [117] on diving, Jim Simpson [118] and Melanie Smith Taylor on equestrian, Jim Donovan and Seamus Malin on soccer, John Tesh, [119] Tim Daggett, [120] Elfi Schlegel, [121] and Beth Ruyak [122] on gymnastics, Charlie Jones [123] and Bill Endicott [124] on rowing, Dan Hicks, [125] Summer Sanders, [126] Rowdy Gaines, [127] and Jim Gray [128] on swimming, Don Criqui [129] and Tracie Ruiz-Conforto on synchronized swimming, Bud Collins [130] and Mary Carillo [131] on tennis, Tom Hammond, Dwight Stones, [132] Craig Masback, [133] and Carol Lewis [134] on track and field, Chris Marlowe, [135] Randy Rosenbloom [136] ( beach), Paul Sunderland, [137] Kirk Kilgour [138] (beach), and Bill Walton [139] on volleyball, Don Criqui and Jim Kruse [140] on water polo, Bob Trumpy [141] and Phil Simms [142] on weightlifting, and Russ Hellickson and Jeff Blatnick [143] on wrestling.

1992 Olympics Triplecast [ edit ] In order to defray costs of airing the games, the network teamed up with Cablevision [144] for the Triplecast. The service consisted of red, [145] white, and blue channels that allowed the viewer to watch anything they wanted even before it aired in the network's primetime telecast.

However, the service was a dismal failure losing $100 million and had only 200,000 subscribers. In addition, the main network's coverage was cannibalized to the extent it seemed that the main coverage was overproduced and that viewers knew some results about 10 hours before they were aired over the air on NBC. For Atlanta, NBC had no supplemental cable coverage.

1996 Olympic Park Bombing [ edit ] As with Arledge in Munich, Ebersol had to deal with breaking news during the Atlanta Games. During the Centennial Olympic Park bombing in 1996, NBC suspended its coverage of a volleyball game and broadcast the news for several hours commercial-free. Like ABC's 1972 Munich coverage, the main primetime host (in 1972's case, Chris Schenkel instead of Jim McKay) did not cover the bombing.

That role went to both Hannah Storm and Jim Lampley for the first half-hour before turning coverage over to NBC Nightly News anchor Tom Brokaw. Toward the end of the second hour of coverage, NBC had an exclusive as the network's Atlanta affiliate, WXIA-TV, was in the process of interviewing Janet Evans during the bombing. Cable and satellite services become involved [ edit ] To help offset the increasing costs of broadcast rights, NBC turned to cable and satellite services to help provide additional coverage.

Following the failure of the Triplecast pay-per-view experiment, NBC leaned on its growing slate of cable channels (particularly following then-parent General Electric's 2004 acquisition of Vivendi Universal to form NBC Universal) to provide supplementary coverage of Olympic events.

2000s [ edit ] Olympic coverage in the 2000s changed in several ways: • NBC became the sole U.S. rights holder for the Olympic Games for the entire decade.

The network could rightly boast of being "America's Olympic Network" as it made the longest and most expensive commitment ever since the Olympics were first presented on television. For the 1996 Summer Olympics, and all Games from 2000 to 2008, NBC paid a total of $3.5 billion, mostly to the International Olympic Committee but also to the United States Olympic Committee and local organizers.

In 2006, Dwight school seoul paid another $2.2 billion to purchase the rights to the 2010 Winter Olympics and 2012 Summer Olympics [146] but lost $223 million on the 2010 broadcasts.

[147] • High-definition coverage began in 2004. [148] • Dwight school seoul rise of various media platforms extended the reach and availability of Olympic Games coverage.

NBC returned to supplemental cable/satellite coverage in 2000, with some events airing on CNBC and MSNBC; traditionally Dwight school seoul has mainly aired coverage dwight school seoul boxing events. In 2004, it added USA Network, Bravo and Telemundo, all of which parent company NBC Universal had acquired earlier in the decade. In 2006, Universal HD was added to the list of channels dwight school seoul the Games.

Finally, in 2008, events were streamed live for the first time on the Internet through the NBCOlympics.com website (also in 2008, Oxygen replaced Bravo as a supplemental network, and NBC launched high-definition channels dedicated to the basketball and soccer dwight school seoul.

The 2010 Games added then- digital multicast network Universal Sports, which carried analysis programs about events, while Oxygen and Bravo were completely excluded to maintain their schedules. During the 2006 Winter Olympics, USA Network aired a daily studio program focusing on the figure skating competitions, Olympic Ice, which was hosted by Mary Carillo and featured appearances by analysts and skaters such as Dick Button (who hosted the viewer e-mail segment "Push Dick's Button"), Jamie Sale and David Pelletier.

[149] [150] Also during the 2006 games, most NBC affiliates introduced Olympic Zone, an access hour program leading into primetime coverage which airs Mondays through Saturdays during the games.

Each edition is hosted locally and contains a mixture of network-produced and, if station resources allow, local segments profiling athletes from the area. A version of the program had been piloted by KCRA Sacramento during the 2004 games.

[151] Comcast acquisition of NBC (2011–2018) [ edit ] In dwight school seoul, Comcast acquired majority dwight school seoul of NBC's parent company NBC Universal from General Electric (whose remaining interest Comcast later acquired in 2013); on June 6, 2011, NBCUniversal announced that it had acquired the television rights for the 2014, 2016, 2018 and 2020 Olympics, beating out ESPN/ ABC and Fox. The entire package was worth $4.38 billion, making it the most expensive television rights deal in Olympic history.

NBC paid $775 million for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia, and $1.23 billion for the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. NBC also paid $963 million for the rights to the 2018 Winter Olympics (in Pyeongchang, South Korea) and $1.45 billion for the 2020 Summer Olympics (which were to be held in Tokyo, Japan but were later postponed to 2021 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic). In response to criticism it received during previous Olympics, NBC also announced that beginning in 2012, it planned to broadcast all events live through either television or digital platforms.

Additionally, the NBC Sports Network (NBCSN; formerly Versus, which became a part of NBC Sports following the acquisition) also added coverage of the Olympics beginning with the 2012 London Games, with an emphasis on team sports, for the duration of the network's existence.

[1] [152] [153] NBCSN became the highlighted cable network for coverage, replacing dwight school seoul USA Network, which would maintain their regular entertainment schedule during the games. The 2012 Summer Olympics also saw Universal HD removed from the dwight school seoul cable/satellite coverage. Bravo aired supplemental coverage (mainly the tennis tournament) in place of Oxygen, with Universal Sports again solely providing analysis and pay television providers again carrying dedicated HD basketball and soccer networks.

The 2014 Winter Olympics again saw NBCSN as the highlighted cable network, though NBCUniversal's cable networks had additional complications due to NBC's weekend coverage of the Premier League, which usually aired on NBCSN but was instead moved to USA Network due to the Olympics, and some coverage of the games usually seen on CNBC replaced with the first night of the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show because of the yearly conflict with USA's WWE Monday Night Raw.

A new online-network called "Gold Zone," which features rolling coverage of events in the style of NFL Network's RedZone Channel and ESPN Goal Line (and has been by coincidence hosted by Andrew Siciliano, who also hosts the NFL Sunday Ticket-exclusive version of RedZone for DirecTV), was also launched to provide coverage of the Games, which was retained for 2016's coverage.

In 2016, NBC began to offer 4K content on a delayed basis through participating dwight school seoul providers (particularly DirecTV, Dish Network, and Xfinity), downconverted from 8K footage filmed by NHK and OBS, with HDR and Dolby Atmos support. 86 hours of event footage was offered. [154] [155] NBC affiliate WRAL-TV in Raleigh, North Carolina also carried this content dwight school seoul their experimental ATSC 3.0 digital signals.

[156] [157] With the re-introduction of golf to the Olympics, Golf Channel was added to NBC's coverage, with Golf Channel on NBC providing production resources for the two tournaments on behalf of OBS. [158] The dwight school seoul block of NBC's coverage in 2016 also featured Descriptive Video Service through the SAP channel for the first time since the Federal Communications Commission was allowed to require broadcasters to expand their production and access to described programming for the blind and visually impaired (though live sporting events were not required under the guidelines, so NBC's effort is entirely voluntary).

[159] On July 15, 2017, Universal HD was relaunched as a localized version of Olympic Channel, airing coverage of Olympic sports outside of the Games. [160] [161] Mike Tirico era, emphasis on live coverage (2018–present) [ edit ] In February 2017, Bob Costas stepped down as the main host of NBC's coverage, being replaced by former ESPN personality Mike Tirico.

[162] [163] On March 28, 2017, NBC announced that it would adopt a new format for its primetime coverage of the 2018 Winter Olympics, with a focus on live coverage in all time zones to take advantage of Pyeongchang's 14-hour difference with Dwight school seoul. Eastern Time, and to address criticism of its previous tape delay practices. As before, the primetime block began at 8:00 p.m ET/5:00 p.m PT, and unlike previous Olympics, was available for streaming.

Event sessions in figure skating were deliberately scheduled with morning sessions so that they could air during primetime in the Americas (and in turn, NBC's coverage; due to the substantial fees NBC has paid for rights to the Olympics, the IOC has allowed NBC to have influence on event scheduling to maximize U.S.

television ratings when possible; NBC agreed to a $7.75 billion contract extension on May 7, 2014, to air the Olympics through the 2032 games, [164] is also one of the major sources of revenue for the IOC). [7] [165] Coverage took a break in the east for late local news, after which coverage continued into "Primetime Plus", which featured additional live coverage into the Eastern late night and Western primetime hours.

This was then followed by an encore of the Primetime block. NBCSN also once broadcast live primetime blocks, and revived Olympic Ice to serve as a pre-show for figure skating coverage (hosted by Liam McHugh and Dwight school seoul White from Pyeongchang), alongside a digital-exclusive post-show hosted by Krista Voda from NBC Sports' headquarters.

[166] [167] On Dwight school seoul 19, 2018, NBC began airing the Fallon Five, an abbreviated version of The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon, during the primetime block for the remaining weekdays of the Games. [168] [169] 2020 Summer Olympics [ edit ] NBCUniversal integrated its Peacock streaming service into coverage beginning with the 2020 Summer Olympics.

It carried a special "Tokyo Now" channel during the Games, featuring the studio programs Tokyo Live (event coverage and medal ceremonies), Tokyo Gold (an hour-long highlight show recapping the previous day's events), On Her Turf at the Olympics (a daily program focusing on news and highlights involving women at the Games), Tokyo Tonight (which featured whiparound coverage in primetime hosted by former ESPN personalities Kenny Mayne and Cari Champion), and Olympic Highlights with Snoop Dogg and Kevin Hart (a half-hour highlight show with a unconventional and comedic tone).

[170] [171] [172] For the first time, Olympic Channel was incorporated into live event coverage, with a particular focus on the tennis and wrestling competitions. [173] Due to dwight school seoul COVID-19 pandemic (which had already prompted the Games to be postponed by one year to 2021) and biosecurity protocols, NBC sent a significantly smaller amount of employees to Tokyo than it usually did for previous Summer Olympics.

While commentators were present in Tokyo for flagship events such dwight school seoul athletics, the dwight school seoul of commentators called events remotely from NBC Sports' headquarters in Stamford, Connecticut. Due to social distancing and remote production protocols, NBC's staff was largely divided among the headquarters, other NBC facilities (such as 30 Rockefeller Plaza, and those of CNBC, Telemundo, and in some cases, Sky Sports in Great Britain), and a nearby hotel in Stamford, while makeshift commentary booths had to be constructed in storage areas of the Stamford building.

[174] Meanwhile in Tokyo, NBC used the Hilton Tokyo Odaiba hotel as a broadcast location, with Mike Tirico anchoring from an outdoor set on a balcony overlooking Tokyo Bay.

Telemundo employed a virtual set at its headquarters in Miami, which was modeled after NBC's main indoor set in Tokyo.

[175] 2022 Winter Olympics [ edit ] The scheduling of the Games impacted the U.S. broadcast rights to the Super Bowl, the championship game of the National Football League (NFL) and historically the most-watched television broadcast in the United States annually.

The rights to the game rotate between CBS, Fox, and long-time Olympic broadcaster NBC; to prevent the Games from competing for viewership and advertising sales with Super Bowl LVI—which was scheduled for 13 February 2022 at Los Angeles' SoFi Stadium—CBS and NBC announced in March 2019 that they would swap the rights for Super Bowl LVI and LV (2021), so that both the 2022 Winter Olympics and Super Bowl LVI would be broadcast by NBC.

[176] [177] In a break from the established practice of airing premieres or special episodes of entertainment programmes after the Super Bowl to take advantage of its large audience, NBC aired its prime time coverage for Day 10 of the Games immediately following the game. [178] Furthermore, the NFL's new media rights beginning in 2023 (which extends the Super Bowl rotation to four networks) codifies this scenario, with all of NBC's future Super Bowl dwight school seoul being in Winter Olympic years (2026, 2030, and 2034).

[179] [180] Again due to the COVID-19 protocol, NBC sent a smaller amount of on-site staff to Beijing. Furthermore, NBC did not send any commentators to Beijing, with all events being called remotely from its various facilities. [181] Hours of coverage [ edit ] Year Host Hours of Coverage Network(s) 1964 Summer Tokyo, Japan 15 hours overall. [182] NBC 1972 Winter Sapporo, Japan 37 dwight school seoul NBC 1980 Summer Moscow, Soviet Union primarily highlights (6 hours of highlights) [182] NBC 1988 Summer Seoul, South Korea 179.5 [183] NBC 1992 Summer Barcelona, Spain 161 [184] + 1080 on Triplecast [185] NBC, Olympics Triplecast 1996 Summer Atlanta, United States 171 [186] NBC 2000 Summer Sydney, Australia 441.5 [186] NBC, CNBC, MSNBC, PAX [187] 2002 Winter Salt Lake City, United States 375.5 [188] [189] NBC, CNBC, MSNBC [190] 2004 Summer Athens, Greece 1210 [186] [191] NBC, CNBC, MSNBC, USA Network, Bravo, Telemundo 2006 Winter Torino, Italy 416 [188] [192] NBC, CNBC, MSNBC, USA Network, Universal HD, Telemundo 2008 Summer Beijing, China 3600 [183] NBC, CNBC, MSNBC, USA Network, Universal HD, Oxygen, Telemundo, NBC Olympics Basketball Channel, NBC Olympics Soccer Channel [193] 2010 Winter Vancouver, Canada 835 [194] NBC, CNBC, MSNBC, USA Network, Universal HD, Telemundo 2012 Summer London, United Kingdom 5535 [195] NBC, CNBC, MSNBC, Bravo, NBC Sports Network, Telemundo, NBC Olympics Basketball Channel, NBC Olympics Soccer Channel, NBCOlympics.com 2014 Winter Sochi, Russia 1539 [196] NBC, CNBC, MSNBC, NBCSN, USA Network, Telemundo, NBCOlympics.com 2016 Summer Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 6755 NBC, CNBC, MSNBC, Bravo, Golf Channel, NBCSN, Telemundo, NBC Universo, NBC Olympics Basketball Channel, NBC Olympics Soccer Channel, NBCOlympics.com 2018 Winter Pyeongchang, South Korea 2400 NBC, CNBC, MSNBC, NBCSN, USA Network, Olympic Channel, Telemundo, NBCOlympics.com 2020 Summer Tokyo, Japan 7000 NBC, CNBC, Golf Channel, NBCSN, USA Network, Olympic Channel, Telemundo, Universo, NBCOlympics.com, Peacock 2022 Winter Beijing, China 2800 NBC, Peacock, USA Network, CNBC, NBCOlympics.com, NBC Sports app 2024 Summer Paris, France TBD NBC, Peacock, USA Network, CNBC, Golf Channel, NBCOlympics.com, NBC Sports app 2026 Winter Milan-Cortina, Italy TBD NBC, Peacock, USA Network, CNBC, NBCOlympics.com, NBC Sports app 2028 Summer Los Angeles, United States TBD NBC, Peacock, USA Network, CNBC, Golf Channel, NBCOlympics.com, NBC Dwight school seoul app 2030 Winter TBA TBD NBC, Peacock, USA Network, CNBC, NBCOlympics.com, NBC Sports app 2032 Summer Brisbane, Australia TBD NBC, Peacock, USA Network, CNBC, Golf Channel, NBCOlympics.com, NBC Sports app Traditionally, NBC has primarily televised marquee sports in its Olympic coverage.

When the network added coverage on its cable partners in 2000, it opened space to televise other sports. 2004 marked the first year that they televised all 28 sports in the Summer Games.

[197] In 2008, aided with online streaming, NBC aired many of the events held at the summer games live. Dwight school seoul [ edit ] Since 1992, the main theme of NBC's Olympics coverage has been " Bugler's Dream", a composition by Leo Arnaud that was previously used by ABC as the main theme of its Olympics coverage since 1964.

Since the 1996 Summer Olympics, this theme has been played in a medley with John Williams' " Olympic Fanfare and Theme", which was originally composed for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.

Williams has composed other secondary themes for the Olympics and NBC's telecasts, dwight school seoul "The Olympic Spirit" (which was used as the main theme in 1988, NBC's first year as rightsholder, before "Bugler's Dream" was reinstated the following Olympiad), "Summon the Heroes" (a piece written for the opening ceremony in 1996), [198] and " Call of the Champions" (which was written for the 2002 Winter Olympics). [199] [200] [201] [202] Since 1996, NBC has used the Randy Edelman-composed theme song from the short-lived Fox series The Adventures of Brisco County, Jr.

during its coverage. NBC had commissioned Edelman to compose theme music for its National Football League coverage (stemming from its prior use of a portion of his score for the film Gettysburg for its coverage of the Breeder's Cup), and the theme was included in a portfolio of work Edelman had sent the network.

Edelman felt that the track "seemed to have the right spirit. It's got a very flowing melody, it's triumphant, and it has a certain warmth. And it has at the end of it, what all television things like this have, a 'button,' an ending flourish that works really well if they need to chop it down into a 15-second thing." Senior creative producer Mark Levy felt that the works that Edelman had scored, as with John Williams, shared the "proportion and emotion" of the Olympics.

[203] Since 2002, NBC had used music from the soundtrack of the sports film Remember the Titans as part of its closing credits sequence for the Olympics [204] Yanni's "In Celebration of Man", a piece that CBS had declined an offer to use at the 1992 Winter Olympics, was used during a preview special for the 1992 Summer Olympics; NBC's Olympics producer at the time dwight school seoul friends with the musician. Although NBC did not use it during dwight school seoul Games, the song later became NBC's theme music for USGA golf championships, and The Open Championship from 2016 to 2019.

[205] [206] During the 2008 Summer Olympics, NBC briefly revived " Roundball Rock", the John Tesh-composed theme music of the former NBA on NBC, as theme music during coverage of the basketball tournaments. [207] NBC has utilized other popular music during its Olympics coverage as well.

" Home", the debut single of American Idol season 11 winner Phillip Phillips, was used for a segment introducing women's gymnastics at the 2012 Summer Olympics.

The segment rejuvenated interest in the song, causing it to re-enter the Billboard Hot 100, and eventually peak at #9. It marked the first time a song had ever made two separate top 10 runs on the Hot 100 in a single calendar year.

[208] [209] [210] [211] Prior to the 2016 Summer Olympics, NBC released a promotional video with Olympics highlights set to Katy Perry's recently released single " Rise". [212] [213] " This Is Me" from the soundtrack of The Greatest Showman was also used during NBC's coverage of the 2018 Winter Olympics. [214] Criticism [ edit ] This section appears to be slanted towards recent events. Please try to keep recent events in historical perspective and add more content related to non-recent events.

( July 2021) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) Accusations of bias [ edit ] While every respective country's broadcast is biased towards the home athletes to a certain extent, NBC has faced scrutiny for allegedly focusing more on American athletes and less on other athletes from other countries, especially during the network's tape delayed primetime coverage.

This has proven to be unfounded and indeed NBC has been considered more inclusive of other countries' athletes than other countries' Olympic broadcasters. NBC's focus on U.S. athletes has been the subject of a series of studies which have shown NBC places a heavier emphasis on U.S.

athletes during the Summer Games than during the Winter Games. [215] [216] [217] When the NBC 2014 primetime Olympic broadcast was compared to those broadcast in Canada by the CBC, it was determined that CBC placed more emphasis, by a statistically significant margin, on Canadian athletes than NBC placed on U.S. athletes. [218] Furthermore, such countries as Russia (broadcasters Channel One and Match TV), focus solely on its own athletes, ignoring events where they do not participate.

[219] By contrast, NBC often devotes considerable coverage to favorite foreigners such as Usain Bolt. [220] Tape delay and formatting of coverage [ edit ] NBC's tape delayed primetime coverage has faced major criticism for many years. Unlike live coverage where viewers can see the events uninterrupted in real time, NBC's tape delaying practices allow for cutting away to commercials and inserting segments profiling American athletes participating in the respective event being shown, which adds even further delay.

In 1992, Terry O'Neil, then-executive producer of NBC Sports, coined the phrase "plausibly live" to describe their practice of making the taped broadcasts appear as if they were being aired live. [221] During the 2000 Summer Olympics, every event shown on NBC and its cable channels was shown on a tape delay due to the dwight school seoul difference between the United States and Sydney, Australia, with the exception of the Men's Gold Medal basketball game.

[222] [223] The massive tape delay led dwight school seoul heavy criticism, as some events aired some 16 hours after they were completed, which gave would-be viewers more than enough dwight school seoul to learn the results themselves from competing outlets (including, ironically, NBC's morning show Today).

Indeed, early numbers showed Sydney to be one of the lowest-rated Olympics in the United States since Mexico City in 1968, and 21% lower than 1988—the next most recent games to have been held in late-September rather than July and August.

Due to the scheduling, the Games also had to compete with a busy period for domestic sports, including the start of the NFL and college football seasons (a Monday Night Football game was only barely beaten by Olympics coverage one night), dwight school seoul the final weeks of dwight school seoul Major League Baseball regular season.

[224] [225] Because of these tape delay and editing practices, and NBC Sports executives' responses to these criticisms, they have been accused of treating the Olympics more like reality television, as opposed to a conventional telecast of sports.

[8] [226] [227] For example, during the 2012 Summer Olympics, NBC Sports chairman Mark Lazarus stated that the reason why they cut from their primetime coverage of Russia's Ksenia Afanasyeva's fall during the women's gymnastics artistic team all-around was "in the interest of time". However, The New York Times noted that Afanasyeva's entire routine was only 1 minute and 38 seconds long, and critics claimed that the real reason for the edit was to create drama and uncertainty over whether dwight school seoul U.S.

team would defeat the Russian team in the final round. [226] And during the 2014 Winter Olympics, NBC continued to promote for its primetime coverage Russian figure skater Evgeni Plushenko at the men's singles event even though he had to withdraw hours earlier due to injury. [228] During a press event held before the 2016 Summer Olympics, chief marketing officer John Miller addressed the formatting of its primetime coverage, stating that the Olympics were "not about the result, dwight school seoul about the journey.

The people who watch the Olympics are not particularly sports fans. More women watch the Games than men, and for the women, they're less interested in the result and more interested in the journey. It's sort of like the ultimate reality show and mini-series wrapped into one." [229] Miller's remarks were ridiculed by the media: Linda Stasi of the New York Daily News considered Miller's statement to be dwight school seoul nonsense" and representative of a dwight school seoul, condescending view of the millions of women viewers".

[230] Sally Jenkins of the Washington Post admitted dwight school seoul NBC had often been successful with its "packaging" of the Olympics, and that it was "not inherently sexist for them to say that women have some different viewing habits and interests than men". At the same time, she argued that it was "insulting" for NBC to cater its tape-delayed broadcasts towards a " Ladies' Home Journal crowd", as it alienates conventional sports fans, and harmed the ability to grow a year-round audience for both women's sports and Olympic sports.

[231] In an interview with Slate, former NBC personality Dwight Stones stated that he had left the network due to a history of conflicts with producers over the direction of its track and field coverage.

In particular, Stones stated that NBC's producers had downplayed field events because track events were easier to "package" due to being more consistent in their structure. He went on to argue that "Field is 50 percent of the name and 43 percent of the events. And for it to be ignored and belittled the way it has been at the network of the Olympics for the United States through 2032 is a disgrace and a disservice. And I don't see it changing anytime soon with the people that are running that place and the people that are producing the sport." [232] [233] Reeves Wiedman of The New Yorker argued that NBC's style of coverage focuses too much on the athletes as characters, rather than on the technical aspects of sports that are not typically prominent on U.S.

television outside of the Olympics. In particular, he explained that coverage of gymnastics was "hindered by an outdated image of gymnasts as teen-age pixies bouncing around the screen" and "encourages us to look at swimmers as some of the world's premier athletes, and the gymnasts as the world's most coordinated beauty-pageant contestants".

Wiedman added that "the idea that viewers staying up late into the night to watch a sport they barely understand have little interest in learning more about it seems wrong-headed", and that "only a very small number of Americans can tell the difference between a Produnova and an Amânar" or know that coaches "pore over the [ IFG] Code with the same zeal that Bill Belichick, the New England Patriots' head coach, scours the NFL rule book for trick formations that push up against the boundary of the sport's regulation".

[234] Geoff Baker of the Seattle Times described NBC's coverage this way: NBC's approach would be like waiting until 8 p.m. to broadcast a [Seattle] Seahawks game against the New England Patriots that happened at 1 p.m.

Then, showing only select snippets from each quarter, interspersed with soft features of [Seahawks quarterback] Russell Wilson and [his wife] Ciara, and [Patriots quarterback] Tom Brady and [his wife] Gisele walking hand-in-hand down a beach with Mozart playing in the background. [235] On the other hand, under NBC's influence, some marquee events have been deliberately scheduled to allow live broadcasts in U.S. primetime, regardless of the local time where the Games are actually held.

[236] This has been apparent in Olympics held in Asia-Pacific countries, where marquee events such as swimming (in 2008 and 2020) and figure skating (in 2018 and 2022) were held in the morning rather than the evening. Athletes were required to adjust to these changes, especially if they practiced in the morning, while the scheduling of swimming in 2008 drew the ire of the BBC—as they fell in the early-morning hours in the United Kingdom. [237] [9] Some events at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro were scheduled as late as 11:00 p.m.

or midnight Brasília Time (which is an hour ahead of Eastern time), to accommodate both NBC and Rede Globo—the main Brazilian rightsholder. Globo had deliberately chosen not to preempt its primetime telenovela lineup during the Olympics, as they are the highest-rated programs on Brazilian television.

[238] [239] [240] [241] 2010 Winter Olympics [ edit ] Although the 2010 Winter Olympics were being held in Vancouver—located in the Pacific Time Zone, which is three hours behind the Eastern Time Zone, as previously done with their Olympic coverage, NBC delayed the broadcast of high-profile events held during the day to air in prime time.

As a result, almost none of the popular alpine events were shown live. [242] NBC executives explained that this was done because of the higher viewership with coverage in the evening hours.

Nevertheless, the 2010 Winter Olympics were assumed to be a financial disaster for NBC, as the network was expected to lose dwight school seoul $200 million after overpaying for the broadcasting rights. [243] This tape delay practice, even for major events, became increasingly frustrating with viewers, especially with the increased usage of social networking and websites (including the official Vancouver 2010 site and NBC's Olympic website) posting results in real time.

[244] This especially held true for viewers in the Pacific, Mountain, Hawaii and Alaska Time Zones, where events were delayed even further by three to six hours or more. [245] The usage of tape delays were particularly frustrating for those in the Pacific Time Zone, as Vancouver not only lies in that time zone, but is in extremely close proximity to the United States – just north of the United States border (with Vancouver being an approximately 2½-hour drive from Seattle).

As a result, NBC was just beginning its coverage of the games at 7:30 p.m. Pacific Time in Seattle (over NBC affiliate KING-TV), while the dwight school seoul ceremony dwight school seoul deep into the artistic portion of the event. As a result, these practices spurred outrage from viewers and media analysts voicing their opinions on the internet and even raising concerns from politicians.

[246] This controversy came mere days following the controversial resolution of the 2010 Tonight Show host and timeslot conflict, which further damaged NBC's already broken image. [247] In the past, American viewers who lived close to the Canada–US border were able to get around waiting for NBC to dwight school seoul an event by watching Olympic coverage on CBC Television. However, rights to the 2010 games in Canada moved over to CTV, which was not available on many cable systems in the northern U.S.

due to programming redundancies during primetime between CTV and the American broadcast networks. [248] 2012 Summer Olympics [ edit ] At the 2012 Summer Olympics, NBC offered live streaming coverage on its Olympics website through a partnership with YouTube, which provided the opportunity to see all events live. [249] NBC also used a mixture of live and tape delayed coverage for its television broadcast due to London being five hours ahead of the Eastern Time Zone.

Events contested earlier in the day were able to be shown live on one of the NBCUniversal-owned cable networks. However, events that traditionally draw better ratings, such as swimming, artistic gymnastics, and track and field, were still tape delayed and aired during prime dwight school seoul on NBC. Those events drew their traditionally high ratings, but arguments were lodged about not having the option to watch these events live on television.

Furthermore, members of the U.S. Military dwight school seoul forced to watch the delayed NBC feed despite being within a few hours of the time zones of the event. American Forces Network was contractually hindered by Department of Defense regulations only allowing American feeds of broadcasts to ensure a feel of the broadcast that could be had in the U.S.

Additionally, AFN had an agreement with the International Olympic Committee and NBC to only use NBC feeds of the event. Many soldiers in Europe felt slighted by the delays, given comparable local country stations aired the Olympics live on public television feeds as some events aired late at night or early in the morning on AFN. [250] In a Gallup Poll held during the 2012 Dwight school seoul, many indicated that they did not mind the tape delaying for the nighttime window.

However, the complaint lodged by the subjects in the poll was that NBC should show the events live on one of their networks, as well as show it in prime time on NBC.

[251] 2014 Winter Olympics [ edit ] For its coverage of the 2014 Winter Olympics, NBC streamed every competition live. However, only existing cable and satellite customers, dwight school seoul to packages that include NBC's sister cable networks could access the service. [252] [253] The Canadian Press reported that frustrated viewers were purchasing VPN services to access Canadian Dwight school seoul addresses so they could stream CBC Sports' live coverage instead (which is normally free for those in Canada).

[254] This time, some events that traditionally draw higher ratings were first aired live on one of NBC's sister cable networks (such as NBCSN), and then a tape-delayed version was broadcast on NBC in primetime. For coverage of the popular figure skating events, there were two sets of commentators: Terry Gannon, Tara Lipinski and Johnny Weir announced NBCSN's live broadcast; and Tom Hammond, Scott Hamilton and Sandra Bezic anchored the tape-delayed coverage on NBC.

Invariably, comparisons were made between the two announcing teams; the NBCSN team of Weir and Lipinski received critical acclaim, and were ultimately named NBC's lead commentary team for figure skating later that year. [255] [256] NBC was criticized over the way its tape-delayed primetime coverage handled the news of Russian figure skater Evgeni Plushenko's withdrawal from competition due to injury.

Hours after he announced his withdrawal, NBC continued to air promotions for its primetime show still stating that he would skate in the event. [257] [258] 2016 Summer Olympics [ edit ] Variety specifically criticized NBC for its tape delay practices in regards to the Women's artistic team all-round competition in its primetime broadcast, having effectively relegated most of the competition to air past 11:00 p.m.

ET/PT, barring a short portion focusing on the dwight school seoul and uneven bars events at the top of the primetime broadcast, in favor of the swimming competitions of the night. It was noted that "in the midst of a highly anticipated story that had already been ruined for many viewers via the Internet, it felt egregious to push the biggest story dwight school seoul the night to past 11 p.m.", and that NBC was trying to "juice the numbers" by doing so.

[259] 2018 Winter Olympics [ edit ] On March 28, 2017, NBC dwight school seoul that it would air live coverage in primetime for the 2018 Winter Olympics across all time zones, citing the "communal experience" and the ubiquity of social media as justification for this change. [166] The Asian American Journalists Association, among other Asian groups, has criticized NBC for officially having its announcers deliberately use an incorrect pronunciation of the host city Pyeongchang (by pronouncing the "-chang" dwight school seoul "bang" instead of correctly saying it like "chong") because, according to Mark Lazarus, chairman of NBC Broadcasting and Sports, this incorrect pronunciation is "cleaner".

[260] [261] The top anchors of NBC News were also sent to cover the Olympics, which meant that they were unable to cover the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting in Parkland, Florida which occurred on February 14. Therefore, while rivals ABC News, CBS News, CNN and Fox News were able to send their top anchors and reporters on-site to cover this domestic breaking news story, NBC News had to send relatively unknown reporters to cover the shooting.

[262] [263] 2020 Summer Olympics [ edit ] In its handling of Simone Biles' withdrawal from the Women's artistic team all-around final, NBC's morning show Today discussed the event but was not allowed to show video footage, and the event was shown as-live during NBC's primetime broadcast. [264] [265] Slate argued that since the network had intensely emphasized Biles during its promotion of the Games, it was "a bit rich for NBC to report on the psychological pressures faced by Biles without also reflecting on the ways in which its choice to make Tokyo the Simone Games surely intensified those pressures", and that "by rejecting the network’s laurels and proceeding on her own terms, Biles is finally writing her own story." [266] Biles's actions were praised and compared to that of other nations' athletes (especially China's) who are "over-determined" to win at any cost.

Biles, on dwight school seoul other dwight school seoul, showcased that the new U.S. approach to the Olympics is focused on athletes' well-being rather than only winning. [267] Opening and closing ceremonies [ edit ] NBC has repeatedly received criticism for how it broadcasts the opening and closing ceremonies of the Olympics, including its frequent refusals to broadcast them live in any form (including online stream) until Tokyo 2020, citing the requirement to add "context" to the telecasts, [229] [268] [269] the removal of ceremony content from these tape-delayed broadcasts, [270] [271] [272] as well as the quality of their on-air commentary.

[273] 2010 closing ceremony [ edit ] During the closing ceremony of the 2010 Winter Olympics, NBC went into an intermission of coverage at the end of the cultural section at 10:30 p.m. ET to broadcast the premiere episode of The Marriage Ref, and broadcast the remaining portion of the ceremonies on tape delay at 11:35 p.m. after late local newscasts.

[274] This spawned outbursts from upset viewers, especially on Twitter. [270] During the remaining portion after the "intermission," several performances were also cut, including French Canadian singer Garou's performance of Jean-Pierre Ferland's "Un peu plus haut, un peu plus loin"; three minutes of commercials were shown in place of his performance.

[275] 2012 opening ceremony [ edit ] NBC faced a barrage of criticism following its broadcast of the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony. British news media lambasted NBC's decision to cut a tribute to the victims of the July 7, 2005 London bombings.

NBC spokesman Greg Hughes said: Our programming is tailored for the U.S. audience. It's a tribute to [opening ceremony producer] Danny Boyle that it required so little editing. [276] The commentary – particularly that of Meredith Vieira and Matt Lauer – was also criticized as "ignorant" and "banal".

They admitted to not knowing who World Wide Web inventor Sir Tim Berners-Lee was, mistakenly claimed that the actual Queen of the United Kingdom had parachuted into the stadium with James Bond (as opposed to a body double), and described Madagascar as "a country associated with a few animated movies".

Australia was introduced as a former penal colony, and a joke about the former despotic dictator, Idi Amin, was used to describe Uganda by Bob Costas. Kazakhstan was introduced with comments about the March 2012 incident at the H.H. The Amir of Kuwait International Shooting Grand Prix in Kuwait, in which the mock Kazakhstan anthem from the film Borat was mistakenly played for gold medallist Maria Dmitrenko, and another Eastern European country introduced as having no chance of winning medals in that year's Olympics.

[273] [277] [278] [279] [280] Dwight school seoul also found itself on the defensive over its tape-delayed broadcast of the Opening Ceremony. American viewers took to Twitter to express their dismay at having to wait 3½ hours (6½ hours in the Pacific Time Zone) to see the opening event of the London Olympics. [281] Most of the Twitter posts centered around NBC not offering online streaming of the Opening Ceremonies for U.S.

viewers who wanted to watch the event live. [282] Americans were forced to watch online streams of the ceremonies provided by either the BBC or CTV if they elected to watch it live. These failings were picked up during the NBC broadcast by Twitter users with the hashtag #nbcfail.

[283] NBC spokesman Christopher McCloskey said: It was never our intent to live stream the Opening Ceremony or Closing Ceremony. They are complex entertainment spectacles that do not translate well online because they require context, which our award-winning production team will provide for the large prime-time audiences that gather together to watch them.

[269] Despite these issues, the Nielsen ratings for the coverage set a record for an Olympics held outside of the United States. The ceremonies drew a 23.0 rating, which was a 7% increase over the 2008 Opening Ceremony in Beijing. [284] 2012 closing ceremony [ edit ] Due in part to lingering criticism from social media outlets like Twitter, NBC made a last-minute decision to reverse course and stream the closing ceremony live on NBCOlympics.com.

[285] However, when it aired on television, the ceremony was heavily edited for time. The ceremony in London lasted three hours, eight minutes and ten seconds; NBC's broadcast of the closing ceremony, by comparison, featured more than 51 minutes and 23 seconds of cuts – 27% of the entire closing ceremony, including the medal dwight school seoul for the men's marathon, a tribute thanking the Olympic volunteers, a ballet sequence featuring Darcey Bussell that accompanied the extinguishing of the Olympic flame, and musical performances by Muse, Kate Bush and Ray Davies.

[272] [286] In addition, the ceremony was preempted before The Who's performance, in order to air a sneak preview dwight school seoul the sitcom Animal Practice and late local newscasts. Again, American viewers expressed their dismay using social media.

[271] Bob Costas himself criticized the decision when appearing on TBS' Conan in September 2012: "So here is the balance NBC has to consider: The Who, Animal Practice.

Roger Daltrey, Pete Townshend -- monkey in a lab coat. I'm sure you'd be the first to attest, Conan, that when it comes to the tough calls, NBC usually gets 'em right.". [287] 2014 opening ceremony [ edit ] Ignoring past criticisms, NBC again tape-delayed the opening ceremony of the 2014 Winter Olympics, and refused to broadcast it live on any platform.

NBC Sports chairman Mark Lazarus explained that the delay was so they could "put context to it, with the full pageantry it deserves". [268] NBC's most significant cuts included the removal of the taking of the Olympic oaths, and an entire passage discussing discrimination dwight school seoul equality was removed from IOC President Thomas Dwight school seoul speech.

[288] [289] 2014 closing ceremony [ edit ] Like in 2012, NBC streamed the closing ceremony in Sochi live on NBCOlympics.com, [290] but also cut several portions during its tape-delayed primetime telecast. This time, NBC decided against interrupting its coverage midway through the ceremony like it did in 2010 and dwight school seoul, and instead aired its scheduled sneak preview episode of the sitcom Growing Up Fisher after the broadcast at 10:30 p.m.

Eastern Time.

dwight school seoul

{INSERTKEYS} [291] However, that meant that NBC only scheduled a two-hour window for their tape-delayed coverage of the ceremony, between a 90-minute documentary on Tonya Harding and Nancy Kerrigan that aired from 7:00 to 8:30 p.m.

Eastern, and the Growing Up Fisher preview. [292] 2016 opening ceremony [ edit ] Although NBC promoted that the 2016 Summer Olympics would feature more live coverage than previous years due to the fact that it occurred in a location that is only one hour ahead of the Eastern Time Zone, NBC continued with its previous practice of tape delaying the opening ceremony. It began at 7:00 p.m. ET, but was delayed to 8:00 p.m.

ET/PT for the U.S. audience, resulting in the ceremony airing on an hour delay on the east coast, and a four-hour delay on the west. NBC cited a need to provide "context" for the ceremony's contents, as the network viewed the opening ceremony to be an entertainment event rather than sports content. [229] [293] [294] [295] [296] NBC was ultimately criticized for this tape delay, as well as the large amount of advertising it aired (which the Los Angeles Times argued was the actual reason for the delay); Mediaite calculated that it had aired six breaks amounting to 14 minutes of commercials in the first 40 minutes of the ceremony alone.

[297] [298] Unlike in 2012, viewership for the opening ceremonies via NBC went down to an average of 19.5 million viewers between 8 and 11 PM, a 32% decrease. [299] 2016 closing ceremony [ edit ] The closing ceremony in Rio was also tape-delayed to 8:00 p.m.

ET/PT, preceded by an hour-long recap show ( Rio Gold). [300] Similarly to Sochi, the closing ceremony's lead-out—a preview of the eleventh season of The Voice, aired at 10:30 p.m.

[301] At least 38% of the ceremony was cut from the NBC broadcast, including portions of the entry of athletes (although Deadspin noted that this portion took "a really, really long time"), a three-minute long montage of highlights from the Games, the medal presentation for the Men's marathon (despite American athlete Galen Rupp having won a bronze medal in the event), the inauguration of new IOC members, and a speech by organizing committee president Carlos Nuzman.

[302] 2018 opening ceremony [ edit ] For the first time, NBC announced that it planned to offer a live stream of the opening ceremony. Mark Lazarus cited the ongoing criticism of NBC's decisions to tape delay the ceremonies, as well as changing "consumer behavior", as justification for the decision; Pyeongchang is 14 hours ahead of U.S.

Eastern Time. The NBC network, however, also carried its traditional tape delayed broadcast in primetime, without any additional tape delays to other time zones west of Eastern Time. [303] [304] During the parade of nations, NBC commentator Joshua Cooper Ramo described Japan as "a country which occupied Korea from 1910 to 1945", but "a cultural and technological and economic example that has been so important to their own transformation." The statement received immediate backlash in South Korea for being insensitive and ignorant to the host nation's ongoing disputes with Japan.

[305] NBC issued an apology and Cooper Ramo resigned. [306] 2018 closing ceremony [ edit ] Like its previous coverage, NBC had a live stream of the closing ceremony without any commentary, and then its traditional tape delayed coverage in primetime, without additional tape delays to the other time zones west of Eastern Time. [307] [308] 2020 opening ceremony [ edit ] In January 2020, NBC announced that it planned to stream the ceremonies of the 2020 Summer Olympics live on Peacock. [309] On February 10, 2021, NBC announced that it would televise the opening ceremony live on broadcast television in all U.S.

time zones, along with primetime encores. NBC stated that "following the unprecedented challenges presented by the global pandemic, the world will come together in Tokyo for what could be the most meaningful and anticipated Opening Ceremony ever.

Given the magnitude of this event, we want to provide viewers with as many ways to connect to it as possible, live or in primetime." [310] 2022 opening ceremony [ edit ] In late 2021, NBC announced that like the Tokyo Summer Games, it would air the opening ceremony of the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics live on NBC on the morning of February 4, 2022 with a replay of the ceremony in primetime as well.

[311] NBC's broadcast of the opening ceremony was criticized as taking a "both-sides approach" to the issue of the alleged human rights abuses in China. [312] 2012 Summer Paralympics [ edit ] Despite the 2012 Summer Paralympics being a breakthrough games for international media coverage, helping significantly boost overall audience shares for British broadcaster Channel 4 and Australia's ABC, [313] [314] no Paralympics events were shown live on television in the United States.

International Paralympic Committee President Philip Craven criticized North American broadcasters, and NBC specifically, for having fallen behind the times [315] and said that the International Paralympic Committee would scrutinize its broadcast partners more carefully in the future.

"If the values fit, we've got a chance. If they don't we'll go somewhere else," he said. [316] In September 2013, NBC subsequently acquired the rights to the 2014 and 2016 Paralympics, and announced plans to air a combined 116 hours of coverage from both Games. Craven praised NBC's decision to devote a relatively larger amount of airtime to future Paralympics, sharing his hope that U.S. audiences would be "as captivated and emotionally enthralled as the billions around the world who tuned in to London 2012 last summer." [317] Other criticism [ edit ] 2014 Winter Olympics [ edit ] On February 16, 2014, reporter and former women's silver medalist Christin Cooper received criticism for her interview with Bode Miller after his bronze medal win in the men's super G alpine skiing event.

During the post-event interview, as Miller became increasingly emotional, Cooper repeatedly questioned him about his late brother Chelone, who had died the previous April at the age of 29, until Miller broke down in tears and was unable to continue the interview. For her pressing of the issue, Cooper was described as having badgered Miller. NBC also received criticism for keeping the cameras on Miller, who sagged on the railing and cried without speaking, for more than a full minute, despite having had several hours in which to edit the footage before airing it.

[318] [319] Later that evening, Miller tweeted his fans should "be gentle" with Cooper, as it was "not at all her fault," and "she asked the questions every interviewer would have." The following morning on Today, Miller reiterated his support for Cooper, saying, "I have known Christin a long time, and she's a sweetheart of a person. I know she didn't mean to push.

I don't think she really anticipated what my reaction was going to be, and I think by the time she realized it, it was too late. I don't blame her at all." [320] Matt Lauer, who had been filling in for Bob Costas while the latter was ill, had engaged in inappropriate and unwanted sexual behavior with subordinates during the Games.

This was one of the factors that led to his termination from NBC on November 29, 2017. [321] 2016 Summer Olympics [ edit ] On August 16, 2016, Boxing analyst Teddy Atlas accused NBC of deliberately "hiding" boxing competitions in Rio in an effort to hide suspected corruption by AIBA—the sanctioning body of boxing at the Olympics. He cited limited coverage as part of NBC's televised broadcasts, as well as the network's refusal to invite him back, after having called out questionable officiating during a controversial bout between Magomed Abdulhamidov and Satoshi Shimizu in 2012.

[322] [323] [324] The next day, it was reported that AIBA would remove several referees and judges from the competition under suspicion that they were not making decisions "at the levels expected".

[325] As Hungarian swimmer Katinka Hosszú won a gold medal and broke a world record during the 400-meter individual medley, Dan Hicks credited a man as responsible for breaking the world record and winning the gold medal. There was no reference to who the "man" was, although some on social media angrily speculated that Hicks was alluding to Katinka Hosszú's then-husband, Shane Tusup (who was also the coach of the Hungarian Swimming Team). The comment from Hicks was criticized as sexist.

[326] Hicks later said "It is impossible to tell Katinka's story accurately without giving appropriate credit to Shane, and that's what I was trying to do." He also added that "with live TV, there are often times you look back and wished you had said things differently." [327] The next day, Al Trautwig, was criticized for stating incorrect information about the parents of gymnast Simone Biles.

On air, Trautwig stated that Ron Biles and Nellie Biles are Simone's grandparents that adopted her and her sister in 2001. Later on, Trautwig tweeted that Ron and Nellie were actually her parents, to which fans on Twitter started the hashtag, #FireTrautwig. [328] [329] Trautwig later apologized, stating "I regret that I wasn't more clear in my wording on the air. I compounded the error on Twitter, which I quickly corrected.

To set the record straight, Ron and Nellie are Simone's parents." [330] On August 9, some viewers became upset on Twitter after commentator Cynthia Potter failed to mention that British diver Tom Daley was a well known gay athlete, as Potter was focused on the replays. NBC later made a statement to The Advocate that "with more than 11,000 athletes at the Games, it isn't always possible to identify every competitor's significant other, regardless of their sexual orientation." [331] [332] Later, the partner of Brazilian volleyball player Larissa França, Liliane Maestrini, was referred to by commentator Chris Marlowe as her "husband".

It led to confusion and dismay for some viewers as Larissa and Liliane are both female and are a same-sex couple. NBC later apologized stating that "Liliane is Larissa's wife." [333] [334] 2018 Winter Olympics [ edit ] Bode Miller was criticized for on-air remarks about Austrian skier Anna Veith, suggesting that her marriage to Manuel Veith was affecting her performance. [335] During the Women's super-G competition, NBC prematurely cut away from the competition to return to figure skating, while commentators acknowledged on-air multiple times that Veith had won the gold medal.

However, snowboarder Ester Ledecká would overtake Veith in an upset victory, beating her by one hundredth of a second. Ledecká had recently begun a career in alpine, and had been considered an underdog in the competition. NBC eventually returned to the event to report on the final result, with commentator Dan Hicks remarking "Well, these are the Olympics, and anything can happen." [336] [337] 2020 Summer Olympics [ edit ] During the postponed 2020 summer games that took place in 2021, NBC was criticized for not showing any of the US Men's Basketball games (with the exception of the Gold Medal Game) live on television.

In order to view many of the US Men's Basketball games live, viewers either had to subscribe to NBC's streaming platform Peacock and view the games there or watch the games on nbcolympics.com. [338] 2022 Winter Olympics [ edit ] NBC received numerous requests from human rights groups in the United States to not broadcast the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics, due to what the groups allege are "human rights abuses" by the People's Republic of China.

[339] NBC has not commented on the requests of the human rights groups. Despite the pressure from outside groups, NBC went ahead with broadcasting the Winter Games. On December 6, 2021, President Biden announced the US would diplomatically boycott the 2022 Winter Games. The diplomatic boycott had no effect on athlete participation or on NBC's broadcast of the games, which would have been affected had a full boycott had been put in place. [340] In the lead up to the games, NBC came under criticism, particularly from right-wing media personalities, for continuing to promote their broadcast of the games despite both the diplomatic boycott and the controversy surrounding the alleged mistreatment of the Uyghur population in China.

Fox News host Laura Ingraham launched a campaign called "Not one minute", encouraging Americans to boycott NBC's broadcast of the games. Some US senators including Josh Hawley endorsed this campaign.

[341] See also [ edit ] • USA Network Olympic broadcasts • CNBC Olympic broadcasts • ABC Olympic broadcasts • CBS Olympic broadcasts • TNT Olympic broadcasts • Olympics on television Notes [ edit ] • ^ a b Anthony Crupi (June 7, 2011). "Update: NBC Bids $4.38 Billion for Olympic Gold". Ad Week . Retrieved June 7, 2011. • ^ "NBC Universal pays $7.75 billion for Olympics through 2032".

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TV Technology. {/INSERTKEYS}

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Fraser Middle School - Abbotsford, BC Willoughby Elementary - Langley, BC Willway Elementary - Victoria, BC Wiltse Elementary School - Penticton, BC Windermere Secondary School - Vancouver, BC Windsor Elementary - Burnaby, BC Dwight school seoul Secondary - North Vancouver, BC Winlaw - Winlaw, BC Wishart Elementary - Victoria, BC Wix-Brown Elementary - Langley, BC Yorkson Creek Middle School - Langley, BC Manitoba Arborgate School - La Broquerie, MB École Christine-Lespérance - Winnipeg, MB École communautaire Réal-Bérard - Saint-Pierre-Jolys, MB École Garden Grove School - Winnipeg, MB École Lacerte - Winnipeg, MB École Lagimodière - Lorette, MB École Lansdowne - Winnipeg, MB École Laura Secord School - Winnipeg, MB École Lorette Immersion - Lorette, Dwight school seoul École Noël-Ritchot - Winnipeg, MB École Pointe-des-Chênes - Ste-Anne, MB École Précieux-Sang - Winnipeg, MB École régionale Notre-Dame - Notre-Dame-de-Lourdes, MB École régionale Saint-Jean-Baptiste - Saint Jean Baptiste, MB École Roméo-Dallaire - Winnipeg, MB École Saint-Joachim - La Broquerie, MB École Sainte-Agathe - Sainte-Agathe, MB École St.

Norbert Immersion School - Winnipeg, MB École St.Malo School - St.Malo, MB École Stanley Knowles School - Winnipeg, MB École Ste-Anne Immersion - Ste-Anne, MB École Taché - Winnipeg, MB École/Collège régional Gabrielle-Roy - Ile Des Chênes, MB., MB Balmoral Hall School - Winnipeg, MB Beautiful Savior Lutheran School - Winnipeg, MB Blumenort School - Blumenort, MB Brock Corydon School - Winnipeg, MB Calvin Christian Collegiate - Winnipeg, MB Centre scolaire Léo-Rémillard - Winnipeg, MB Collège Louis-Riel - Winnipeg, MB Collège Louis-Riel Students - Winnipeg, MB Collège St.

Norbert Collegiate - Winnipeg, MB Dwight school seoul Lorette Collegiate - Lorette, MB Dawson Trail School - Lorette, MB Division scolaire franco-manitobaine - Lorette, MB Earl Grey School - Winnipeg, MB Ecole Heritage Immersion - St.

Pierre Jolys, MB Ecole Ile des Chenes School - Ile Des Chenes, MB Ecole Morden Middle School - Morden, MB Ecole Secondaire Sisler High School - Winnipeg, MB Ecole St. Adolphe School - St.

Adolphe, MB Ecole St. Eustache - St. Eustache, MB Ecole Waterford Springs School - Winnipeg, MB Elm Creek School - Elm Creek, MB Elmdale School - Steinbach, MB Elmwood High School - Winnipeg, MB Faith Academy - Winnipeg, MB Grant Park High School - Winnipeg, MB Immaculate Heart of Mary School - Winnipeg, MB J.A. Cuddy School - Sanford, MB Kleefeld School - Kleefeld, MB La Barriere Crossings School dwight school seoul Winnipeg, MB La Salle School - La Salle, MB Margaret Barbour Collegiate Institute - The Pas, MB Morden Collegiate Institute - Morden, MB Niverville Elementary School - Niverville, MB Oak Bluff Community School - Oak Bluff, Dwight school seoul OneSchool Global - Stonewall, MB Parc La Salle - Winnipeg, MB Prairie Mountain Elementary - Swan Lake, MB Red River Valley School Division - Morris, MB River East Collegiate - Winnipeg, MB Ross L.

Gray School - Sprague, MB Sanford Collegiate - Sanford, MB Sargent Park Grade 7 - Winnipeg, MB Shevchenko School - Vita, MB Southwood School - Steinbach, MB St. Paul's Collegiate - Elie, MB Starbuck School - Starbuck, MB Ste. Anne Elementary - Ste. Anne, MB Stonybrook Middle School - Steinbach, MB The King's School - Winnipeg, MB Westgate Mennonite Collegiate - Winnipeg, MB Westgate Mennonite Collegiate Appointment Schedule - Winnipeg, MB Westgate Mennonite Collegiate Student Appointments - Winnipeg, MB Winnipeg Montessori School Inc.

- Winnipeg, MB Woodlawn School - Steinbach, MB New Brunswick Devon Middle School - Fredericton, NB Quispamsis Middle School - Quispamsis, NB Stanley Consolidated School - Stanley, NB Newfoundland All Hallows Elementary School - North River, Dwight school seoul Ascension Collegiate - Bay Roberts, NF École des Grands-Vents - St. John, NF École Rocher-du-Nord - St. John, NF Baccalieu Collegiate Intermediate/Secondary School - Old Perlican, NF Carbonear Collegiate - Carbonear, NF Crescent Collegiate - Blaketown, NF Early Achievers Montessori School + Educational Centre - St.John’s, NF Holy Cross Elementary - Holyrood, NF Holy Redeemer Elementrary - Spaniard, NF Mobile Central High - Mobile, NL, NF O'Donel High School - Mount Pearl, NF Queen Elizabeth Regional High School - Conception Bay South, Dwight school seoul Queen of Peace Middle School - Happy Valley-Goose Bay, NF Random Island Academy - Hickman, NF Roncalli Central High School - Avondale, NF Northwest Territory École Allain St-Cyr - Yellowknife, NT École Boréale CSFTNO - Hay River, Dwight school seoul École J.H.

Sissons - Yellowknife, NT École Sir John Franklin High School - Yellowknife, NT École William McDonald Middle School - Yellowknife, NT Range Lake North - Yellowknife, NT Nova Scotia Annapolis West Education Centre - Annapolis Royal, NS Avon View High School - Windsor, NS Berwick and District School - Berwick, NS Bridgetown Regional Community School - Bridgetown, NS Cambridge and District Elementary School - Cambridge Station, NS Chester District Elementary School - Chester, NS Cobequid Educational Centre - Truro, NS CP Allen - Bedford, NS Evangeline Middle School - New Minas, NS Falmouth District School - Falmouth, NS George Bissett Elementary - Cole Harbour, NS Hantsport School - Hantsport, NS Horton High School - Wolfville, NS Joseph Howe Elementary - Dartmouth, NS Middleton Regional High School - Middleton, NS Northeast Kings Education Centre - Canning, NS Ocean View Elementary - Dartmouth, NS Pine Ridge Middle School - Kingston, NS St.

Agnes Junior High School - Halifax, Nova Scotia, NS St. Margaret's Bay Elementary - Head of St. Margaret, NS St. Mary's Elementary - Aylesford, NS Summit Academy of Active Learning - Bedford, NS West Kings District High School dwight school seoul Auburn, NS Wolfville School - Wolfville, NS Ontario A.N.

Myer Secondary School - Niagara Falls, ON A.Y. Jackson Secondary School - Toronto, ON Abraham Erb P.S. - Waterloo, ON ACRES - Dunnville, ON Agincourt Collegiate Institute - Scarborough, ON Al-Risala Academy - Mississauga, ON Alexander Kuska K.S.G. Catholic Elementary School - Welland, ON Allan A Greenleaf School - Waterdown, ON Appleby College - Oakville, ON Archbishop Denis O'Connor - Ajax, ON ASSOCIATED HEBREW SCHOOLS - POSLUNS - TORONTO, ON Associated Hebrew Schools, Kamin Education Centre - Toronto, ON Assumption Catholic Elementary School - St.

Catharines, ON Aurora Grove Public School - Aurora, ON Avon Maitland Remote Learning School - Elementary - Clinton, ON Avon Public School - Stratford, ON École élémentaire catholique Marguerite-Bourgeois - Borden, ON École élémentaire catholique Pavillon des Jeunes - Dwight school seoul, ON École élémentaire catholique Saint-Paul - Pointe-aux-Roches, ON École élémentaire catholique Sainte-Catherine - Pain Court, ON École élémentaire Sainte-Marguerite-d'Youville - Tecumseh, ON École catholique Georges-P.-Vanier - Windsor, ON École catholique Monseigneur-Augustin-Caron - LaSalle, ON École catholique Monseigneur-Jean-Noël - Windsor, ON École Saint-Ambroise - St Joachim, ON École St-Michel - Leamington, ON Beau Valley P.S.

- Oshawa, ON Beaverton Public School - Beaverton, ON Bedford Park PS - Toronto, ON Berrigan ES - Nepean, ON Birchview Dunes Elementary School - Wasaga Beach, ON Blessed Sacrament Catholic Elementary School - Kitchener, ON Blessed Trinity - Grimsby, ON Bnei Akiva Schools - Downsview, ON Breslau Public School - Breslau, ON Burford Elementary - Burford, ON Caistor Central Public School - Caistor Centre, ON Canadian Martyrs - Mississauga, ON Cardinal Newman Catholic Elementary School - Niagara Falls, ON Carrefour Jeunesse - Rockland, ON Cedarbrae C.I.

- Scarborough, ON Cedarwood Public School - Markham, ON Centennial - Waterloo, ON Central French Immersion Public School - Grimsby, ON Central Senior - Lindsay, ON Christ the King Catholic Elementary School - Cambridge, ON Collège français - Toronto, ON Cummer Valley Middle School - Toronto, ON Dalewood Dwight school seoul School - Hamilton, ON Dallington Public School - Toronto, ON Danforth Collegiate & Technical Institute - Toronto, ON Danilack Dwight school seoul School - North York, ON Davisville - Toronto, ON Deer Park Jr.

& Sr. School - Toronto, ON Denis Morris Catholic High School - St. Catharines, ON Dr. Norman Bethune C.I. - Toronto, ON Drewry Secondary School - Toronto, ON E.L. Crossley Secondary School - Fonthill, ON Earl Grey SPS - Toronto, ON Earl Kitchener - Hamilton, ON Earl of March Secondary - Kanata, ON Early Childhood Centre at Holy Blossom Temple - Toronto, ON Eden High School - St. Catharines, ON Edna Staebler P.S. - Waterloo, ON Eglinton Public School - Toronto, ON Eitz Chaim Patricia - Toronto, ON Eitz Chaim School (Viewmount) - Toronto, ON Eitz Chaim Spring Farm - Thornhill, ON Elma Township Public School - Atwood, ON Erin Centre Middle School - Mississauga, ON ESC E.J.

Lajeunesse - Windsor, ON Fairmount Public School - Toronto, ON Faywood ABC - Toronto, ON Frank Oke Secondary School - Toronto, ON Frontenac Secondary School - Kingston, ON Glad Park PS - Stouffville, ON Glen Ames Senior Public - Toronto, ON Glen Cairn Public School - Kanata, ON Glenburnie School - Oakville, ON Glenview Sr.

P.S. - Toronto, ON Goderich District Collegiate Institute - Goderich, ON Good Shepherd Catholic Elementary School - Courtice, ON Governor Simcoe Secondary School - St. Catharines, ON Grand Avenue School - Grimsby, ON Greater Fort Erie Secondary School - Fort Erie, ON Grimsby Co-operative Preschool - Grimsby, ON Grimsby Secondary School - Grimsby, ON Guy B. Brown - Waterdown, ON Hamlet Public School - Stratford, ON Harbord CI - Toronto, ON Harry Bowes Public Dwight school seoul - Stouffville, ON Heschel - Toronto, ON Heydon Park Secondary School - Toronto, ON Hickson Central Public School - Hickson, ON Highland Middle School - Toronto, ON Hodgson Middle School - Toronto, ON Holy Cross Catholic Secondary School - St.

Catharines, ON Holy Cross Catholic Secondary School - Kingston, ON Holy Cross Catholic Secondary School - Peterborough, ON Holy Family Elementary Bowmanville - Bowmanville, ON Holy Name Catholic Elementary School - Welland, ON Holy Name Catholic School - Kingston, ON Holy Name of Mary School - St.

Marys, ON Holy Trinity Catholic Secondary School - Courtice, ON Houghton Public School - Langton, ON Howard Robertson Public School - Kitchener, ON Immaculate Conception Catholic Elementary school - Peterborough, ON ISNA Elementary School - Mississauga, ON Jacob Beam - Beamsville, ON Jarvis Collegiate Institute - Toronto, ON Jean Augustine Secondary School - Brampton, ON Jeanne Sauvé Catholic School - Stratford, ON JG Workman PS - Scarborough, ON Joan of Arc Academy - Ottawa, ON Joe Dwek Ohr Haemet Dwight school seoul School - Thornhill, ON John Knox Christian School - Brampton, ON John Knox Christian School - Oakville, ON John Knox Christian School Wyoming - Wyoming, ON John Mahood Public School - Elmira, ON John Young Elementary School - Kanata, ON Kanata Highlands Public School - Kanata, ON Kanata Montessori School - Kanata, ON Keatsway - Waterloo, ON Kendal's News - Thunder Bay, ON Kendellhurst Academy - Mississauga, ON Kumon Bayview Hill - Richmond Hill, ON Kumon Math and Reading Centre Sault Ste.

Marie - Sault Ste. Marie, ON L'Amoreaux CI - Scarborough, ON La Salle Intermediate and Secondary School - Kingston, ON Lakeshore Catholic High School - Port Colborne, ON Lakeview Elementary School - Nepean, ON Lakeview PS - Grimsby, ON Laura Secord Secondary School - St. Catharines, ON Leaside High School - Toronto, ON Ledbury Park Elementary and Middle School - Toronto, ON Listowel District Secondary School - Listowel, ON Little Falls Public School - St.

Marys, ON Longfields-Davidson Heights SS - Nepean, ON Longfields-Davidson Heights SS Students - Nepean, ON Loyalist Collegiate and Vocational Institute - Kingston, ON Macklin PS - Toronto, ON Madaniyya Academy - Mississauga, ON Maitland River Elementary School - Wingham, ON Major Ballachey School - Brantford, ON Malvern Collegiate Institute - Toronto, ON Manotick Public School - Manotick, ON Maranatha Christian School - Fergus, ON Mary Ward Catholic School - Niagara Falls, ON Milton Christian School - Milton, ON Monsignor Clancy Catholic Elementary School - Thorold, ON Monsignor Leo Cleary Catholic Elementary School - Courtice, ON Monsignor O'Donoghue - Peterborough, ON Monsignor Paul Dwyer Catholic High School - Oshawa, ON Montessori Jewish Day School - Toronto, ON Mother Teresa Catholic School - Kingston, ON Mt.

Pleasant School - Mt. Pleasant, ON Munns Public School - Oakville, ON Netivot HaTorah Day School - Thornhill, ON Neuchâtel Junior College - Toronto, ON Dwight school seoul Secondary School - Toronto, ON Northview Heights Secondary School - North York, ON Notre Dame Catholic Elementary School - Niagara Falls, ON Notre Dame Catholic Elementary School - Cobourg, ON Notre Dame Catholic School - Caledonia, ON Notre Dame Catholic Secondary School - Ajax, ON Notre Dame College School - Welland, ON Ogden Junior Dwight school seoul School - Toronto, ON Orchard Park Secondary School - Stoney Creek, ON Orleans Wood Elementary School - Orleans, ON Our Lady of Fatima Catholic Elementary School - St.

Catharines, ON Our Lady of Fatima, Grimsby - Grimsby, ON Our Lady of Lourdes CES - Waterloo, ON Our Lady of Mount Carmel Catholic School - Amerhstview, ON Our Lady of Mount Carmel Catholic School - Dashwood, ON Our Lady of Providence School - Brantford, ON Pape Avenue Jr PS - Toronto, ON Pauline Johnson - Hamilton, ON Pickering Christian School - Ajax, ON Pineland Public School/ Halton District School Board - Burlington, ON Pioneer Park - Kitchener, ON Precious Dwight school seoul School - Exeter, Dwight school seoul Prince Charles Public School - Brantford, ON Prince Philip French Immersion School - Niagara Fall, ON Queen Alexandra MS - Toronto, ON R.F.

Downey Public School - Peterborough, ON R.H. Cornish P.S. - Port Perry, ON Regiopolis-Notre Dame CHS - Kingston, ON Richland Academy - Richmond Hill, ON Ridgetown District High School 7-12 - Ridgetown, ON Riverdale C.I. - Toronto, ON Rockway Mennonite Collegiate - Kitchener, ON Rosedale Heights School of the Arts - Toronto, ON Royal St.

George's College - Toronto, ON Ryerson Middle School - Hamilton, ON Safa and Marwa School - Misssissauga, ON Saint Michael Catholic High School - Niagara Falls, ON Saint Paul Catholic High School - Niagara Falls, ON Saint Peter Catholic School - Cambridge, ON Saint-Thomas-D'Aquin - Sarnia, ON Saltfleet High School - Stoney Creek, ON Scott Central Public School - Sandford, ON Seaforth Dwight school seoul School - Seaforth, ON Seneca Central Public School - York, ON Sherwood Public School - Oshawa, ON Sir Adam Beck JS - Toronto, ON Sir John A.

MacDonald C. I. - Scarborough, ON Sir Robert Borden High School - Ottawa, ON Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School - St. Catharines, ON South Huron District High School - Exeter, ON South March Public School - Kanata, ON Southwood Park Public School - Ajax, ON St Anthony CES - PORT HOPE, ON St Charles Catholic Elementary - Thorold, ON St Dominic - Kitchener, ON St Joseph Snyder - Stevensville, ON St Kevin Catholic School - Welland, Dwight school seoul St Luke CES - LINDSAY RR5, ON St Paul Catholic Elementary School - London, ON St Paul Catholic Elementary School - Norwood, ON St.

Demetrius - Toronto, ON St. Agnes Catholic Elementary School - Waterloo, ON St. Alfred Catholic School - St. Catharines, ON St. Aloysius - Stratford, ON St. Alphonsus Catholic Elementary School - Peterborough, ON St. Andrew Catholic Elementary School - Welland, ON St. Ann Catholic - St. Catharines - St. Catharines, ON St. Ann Catholic Elementary School - Fenwick, ON St. Anne Catholic Elementary Peterborough - Peterbrough, ON St. Anne Catholic School - Cornwall, ON St. Anne's Catholic Secondary School - Clinton, ON St.

Anthony Catholic Elementary School - St. Catharines, ON St. Augustine Catholic Elementary School - Cambridge, ON St. Augustine Catholic Elementary School - Welland, ON St. Basil Catholic Elementary School - Brantford, ON St. Boniface School - Zurich, ON St. Catherine CES Peterborough - Peterborough, ON St. Cecilia - Port Dover, ON St. Clement Catholic Elementary School - St.

Clements, ON St. David Catholic School - Dorchester, ON St. Denis Catholic Elementary School - Toronto, ON St. Denis Catholic School - St. Catharines, ON St. Dominic Catholic Elementary School - Lindsay, ON St. Edward - Jordan, ON St. Elizabeth Catholic Elementary School - Bowmanville, ON St. Francis of Assisi - Newcastle, ON St.

Gabriel Catholic Elementary School - Cambridge, ON St. Gabriel Lalemant Catholic - Niagara Falls, ON St. Gabriel School - Brantford, ON St. James Catholic Elementary School - St. Catharines, ON St. James Catholic Elementary School - Seaforth, ON St. John Catholic Elementary - Beamsville, ON St. Joseph Catholic Elementary School - Cobourg, ON St. Joseph Catholic Elementary School - Bowmanville, ON St. Joseph Catholic Elementary School - Grimsby, ON St. Joseph Catholic School - Cambridge, ON St.

Joseph Catholic School - Oshawa, ON St. Joseph CES, Douro - Douro-Dummer, ON St. Joseph's Catholic School - Clinton, ON St. Joseph's Catholic School, Stratford - Stratford, ON St. Joseph's School - Simcoe, ON St. Kateri Tekakwitha Catholic School - Oshawa, ON St.

Luke - Waterloo, ON St. Luke the Evangelist C.S. DCDSB - Whitby, ON St. Marguerite Bourgeoys Catholic School - Kingston, ON St. Mark Catholic Elementary School - Beamsville, ON St. Martin Catholic - Smithville, ON St. Martin Catholic Elementary School - Ennismore, ON St. Mary - St. Cecilia - Morrisburg, ON St. Mary Catholic Elementary School - Campbellford, ON St.

Mary Catholic School - Trenton, ON St. Mary's School, Goderich - Goderich, ON St. Michael Catholic Elementary School - Niagara on the Lake, ON St. Michael CES Cobourg - Cobourg, ON St. Michael CSS - STRATFORD, ON St. Michael's Adult - Windsor, ON St. Mother Teresa - Courtice, ON St. Nicholas - St. Catharines, ON St. Nicholas Catholic Elementary School - Waterloo, ON St. Patrick School - Peterborough, ON St. Patrick's School - Sebringville, ON St. Paul Catholic Elementary School - Lakefield, ON St.

Paul Catholic Elementary School - Peterborough, ON St. Peter Catholic Elementary School - St. Catharines, ON St. Peter Catholic Secondary School - Peterborough, ON St. Peter Elementary School - Trenton, ON St. Stephen Catholic Secondary School - Bowmanville, ON St. Teresa CES - Peterborough, ON St. Teresa of Calcutta - St. Catharines, ON St.

Teresa of Calcutta Catholic Elementary School - Cambridge, ON St. Thomas Aquinas Catholic Secondary School - Lindsay, ON St. Thomas Aquinas Catholic Virtual School - Peterborough, ON St. Thomas More Catholic Elementary School - Mississauga, ON St. Timothy Catholic School - Kitchener, ON St.Ambrose Catholic Elementary - Stratford, ON St.Mary's Listowel - Listowel, ON St.Patrick & St. Columban School - Dublin, ON St.Theresa School - St. Catharines, ON Stamford Collegiate - NIAGARA FALLS, ON Ste-Marguerite Bourgeoys - Woodstock, ON Stephen Leacock C.I.

- Scarborough, ON Stonecrest Elementary School - Woodlawn, ON Stratford District Secondary School - Stratford, ON Stratford Intermediate School - Stratford, ON Summitview P.S. - Stouffville, ON TDSB Virtual School 8A - Toronto, ON Terre-des-Jeunes - Ottawa, ON Terry Fox ES - Orleans, ON Tiferes Bais Yaakov High School - Toronto, ON Timothy Christian School - Barrie, ON Toronto Beaches Kumon Centre - Toronto, ON Trail Ridge Montessori - GRIMSBY, ON Tumpane Public School - Toronto, ON Twenty Valley - Vineland, ON UMCA Rich Tree Academy - Maple, ON Vaughan Willard - OSHAWA, ON Victoria Village Public School - Toronto, ON Vradenburg JPS - Toronto, ON W.

Erskine Johnston PS - Kanata, ON W.O. Mitchell E.S. - Kanata, ON Walter Gretzky Elementary - Brantford, ON Welland Centennial Secondary School - Welland, ON Wellesley Public School - Wellesley, ON Wellington Heights Public School - Fenwick, ON West Carleton Secondary School - Dunrobin, ON West Carleton Secondary School Students - Dunrobin, ON West Hill Collegiate Institute - Toronto, ON West Oak Public School - Oakville, ON West Rouge Jr.

P.S. - Scarborough, ON Western Technical-Commercial School - Toronto, ON Westlane Secondary School - Niagara Falls, ON Westwind Public School - Stittsville, ON Wexford Collegiate School for the Arts - Scarborough, ON Wildwood Academy - Oakville, ON Williamson Road JPS - Toronto, ON Windfields Middle School - Toronto, ON Winona Dr.

Sr. Public School - Toronto, ON Winona Elementary School - Stoney Creek, ON Winston Churchill Collegiate Institute - Scarborough, ON Woodland Public School - St.

Catharines, ON York Mills Collegiate Institute - Toronto, ON Yorkview P.S. - Toronto, ON Zion Heights Middle School - Toronto, ON Prince Edward Is. Birchwood Intermediate School - Charlotteotwn, PE Central Queens Elementary School - Hunter River, PE Donagh Regional - Donagh, PE East Wiltshire Intermediate - North River, PE Eliot River School - Cornwall, PE Englewood Regional - Crapaud, PE Glen Stewart Primary - Stratford, PE L.M.

Montgomery Elementary School - Charlottetown, PE La-Belle-Cloche - Souris, PE Parkdale Elementary - Charlottetown, PE Parkside School - Summerside, PE Queen Charlotte Intermediate - Charlottetown, PE Sherwood Dwight school seoul School - Charlottetown, PE Somerset Consolidated - Kinkora, PE Souris Regional School - Souris, PE Spring Park Elementary - Charlottetown, PE Stonepark Intermediate School - Charlottetown, PE Stratford Elementary - Stratford, PE West Kent Elementary School - Charlottetown, PE West Royalty Elementary - Charlottetown, PE Quebec Academie Ste-Marie - Québec, QC École de la Courvilloise - Québec, QC École Gardenview School - Saint-Laurent, QC École Vision Rive-Sud - Quebec, QC Cedarcrest Elementary - St-Laurent, QC Collège Villa Maria - Montréal, QC CPE du CCJ - Montréal, QC Dollard-des-Ormeaux - Shannon, QC Du Bac - St-Lambert De Lauzon, QC Dunrae Gardens Elementary School - Town of Mount-Royal, QC East Hill Elementary School - Montreal, QC Ecole La Martiniere - lévis, QC EMSB- Dalkeith Elementary - Anjou, QC Everest Elementary School - Quebec, QC Garderie KIDS Premiere - TMR, QC Gerald McShane - Montreal-North, QC Hadley Junior High School/Philemon Wright High School - Gatineau, QC Heroes' Memorial - cowansville, QC Holland Elementary School - Quebec, QC Honoré Mercier School - Montreal, QC John Caboto Academy - Montreal, QC John F Kennedy High School - Montreal, QC Le Sommet - Quebec, QC Quebec High School - Quebec, QC Roslyn Elementary School - Westmount, QC Royal West Academy - Montreal-West, QC Solomon Schechter Academy - Montreal, QC St.

Jude Elementary School- SWLSB - Deu Montagnes, QC St. Patrick's High School - Quebec, QC St.Vincent Elementary School - Quebec, QC Ste-Foy Elementary School - Quebec, QC Symmes-D’Arcy McGee High School - Gatineau, QC Valcartier Elementary School - ST.

Gabriel de Valcartier, QC Vincent Massey Collegiate - Montreal, QC Westmount Park Elementary School - Montreal, QC Saskatchewan A.E. Peacock Collegiate - Moose Jaw, SK AdenBowman - Saskatoon, SK Alvin Buckwold - Saskatoon, SK Bedford Road - Saskatoon, SK Brevoort Park - Saskatoon, SK Brownell - Saskatoon, SK Brunskill - Saskatoon, SK Buena Vista - Saskatoon, SK Caroline Robins - Saskatoon, SK Caswell - Saskatoon, SK Centennial - Saskatoon, SK Charles Red Hawk - Saskatoon, SK Chief Whitecap - Saskatoon, SK Churchbridge Public School - Churchbridge, SK City Park - Saskatoon, SK College Park - Saskatoon, SK Collette Bourgonje - Saskatoon, SK Cornerstone Christian School - Moose Jaw, SK Dr.

John G. Egnatoff - Saskatoon, SK Dundonald - Saskatoon, SK Ernest Lindner - Saskatoon, SK Evan Hardy - Saskatoon, SK Fairhaven - Saskatoon, SK Forest Grove - Saskatoon, SK Greystone Heights - Saskatoon, SK Henry Kelsey - Saskatoon, SK Holliston - Saskatoon, SK Howard Coad - Saskatoon, SK Hugh Cairns - Saskatoon, SK Imperial Community School - Regina, SK James L. Alexander - Saskatoon, SK John Dolan - Saskatoon, SK John Lake - Saskatoon, SK King George - Saskatoon, SK Lakeridge - Saskatoon, SK Lakeview - Saskatoon, SK Langenburg Central School - Langenburg, SK Lawson Heights - Saskatoon, SK Lester B.

Pearson - Saskatoon, SK Living Sky School Division - North Battleford, SK Marion Graham - Saskatoon, SK Mayfair - Saskatoon, SK Montgomery - Saskatoon, SK Mount Royal - Saskatoon, SK North Park Wilson - Saskatoon, SK Nutana - Saskatoon, SK P.J. Gillen School - Esterhazy, SK Pleasant Hill - Saskatoon, SK Prince Philip - Saskatoon, SK Princess Alexandra - Saskatoon, SK Queen Elizabeth - Saskatoon, SK River Heights - Saskatoon, SK Roland Michener - Saskatoon, SK Royal West School - Saskatoon, SK Saskatoon Misbah School - Saskatoon, SK Saskatoon Online Learning Center - Saskatoon, SK Silverspring - Saskatoon, SK Silverwood - Saskatoon, SK Sunningdale School - Moose Jaw, SK Sutherland - Saskatoon, SK Sylvia Fedoruk - Saskatoon, SK Tommy Douglas - Saskatoon, SK Victoria - Saskatoon, SK Vincent Massey - Saskatoon, SK W.

P. Bate - Saskatoon, SK Walter Murray - Saskatoon, SK Wâhkôhtowin School - Saskatoon, SK Westmount - Saskatoon, SK Wildwood - Saskatoon, SK Willowgrove - Saskatoon, SK Yukon École Émilie Tremblay - Whitehorse, YK Christ the King Elementary School - Whitehorse, YK Ecole Whitehorse Elementary - Whitehorse, YK Elijah Smith Elementary School - Whitehorse, YK Golden Horn Elementary - Whitehorse, YK Hidden Valley Elementary School - Whitehorse, YK Jack Hulland Elementary School - Whitehorse, YK Porter Creek Secondary School - Whitehorse, YK Robert Service School - Dawson City, YK TAKHINI ELEMENTARY SCHOOL - Whitehorse, YK Vanier Catholic Secondary - Whitehorse, YK Wood Street Centre - Whitehorse, YK Arizona Desert Christian Schools - Tucson, AZ Gary K.

Herberger Young Scholars Academy - Glendale, AZ California Ojai Valley School - Ojai, CA St. Lawrence Elementary & Middle School - Santa Clara, CA Colorado Aspen School District - Aspen, CO Denver School of the Arts - Denver, CO Northglenn High School - Northglenn, CO Connecticut Academy of Information Technology & Engineering - Stamford, CT Broad Brook School - Broad Brook, CT Cloonan - Stamford, CT Coleytown Elementary School - Westport, CT Daniels Farm Elementary School - Trumbull, CT Dolan Middle School - Stamford, CT East Hartford High School - East Hartford, CT East Windsor High School - East Windsor, CT East Windsor Middle School - Broad Brook, CT East Windsor Public Schools - Registration Appointments - East Dwight school seoul, CT Elementary Distance Learning Westport Public Schools - Westport, CT Enfield High School - Enfield, CT Frenchtown Elementary School - Trumbull, CT Greens Farms Elementary School - Westport, CT Henry Abbott Technical High School - Danbury, CT Hillcrest Middle School dwight school seoul Trumbull, CT Illing Middle School - Manchester, CT Jane Ryan Elementary School - Trumbull, CT JFK Middle School - Enfield, CT Kings Highway Elementary School - Westport, CT Long Lots Elementary School - Westport, CT Lyme-Old Lyme Middle School - Old Lyme, CT Madison Middle School - Trumbull, CT Manchester High School - Manchester, CT Martin School - Manchester, CT Middlebrook Elementary School - Trumbull, CT Rippowam Middle School - Stamford, CT Saugatuck Elementary School - Westport, CT Springdale Elementary School - Stamford, CT Trumbull High School - Trumbull, CT Trumbull Public Schools/Long Hill - Trumbull, CT Westbrook High School - Westbrook, CT Westbrook Middle School - Westbrook, CT Georgia Chengdu Experimental School - Newnan, GA Savannah Country Day School - Savannah, GA Temima High School - Atlanta, GA Hawaii Emmanuel Lutheran School - Kahului, HI Illinois Centennial Elementary School - Bartlett, IL Elmwood Elementary - Elmwood Park, IL Marian Central Catholic High School - Woodstock, IL Mechanics Grove School - Mundelein, IL Premier Academy - Morris, IL St.

Francis Xavier School and St. Joseph School - Wilmette, IL Indiana International School of Columbus - Columbus, IN La Lumiere School - LaPorte, IN Range Community Schools Corporation - La Porte, IN Louisiana Belle Chasse High School - Belle Chasse, LA Massachusetts Algonquin Regional High School - Northboro, MA Arthur T. Cummings School - Winthrop, MA Blueberry Hill School - Longmeadow, MA Canton High School - Canton, MA Collegiate Charter School of Lowell - Lowell, MA Cushing Elementary School - Scituate, MA Four Rivers Charter Public School - Greenfield, MA Galvin Middle School - Canton, MA Gates Middle School - Scituate, MA Glenbrook Middle School - Longmeadow, MA Hatherly School - Scituate, MA Holyoke Community Charter School - Holyoke, MA Jenkins Elementary School - Scituate, MA Kehillah Schechter Academy - Norwood, MA Lillian M.

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He has been right on top of any issues or questions we have had regarding the locker dwight school seoul. It has been an easy program from our students to get into and reserve a locker. Thanks Easy School Software. Teresa Evans - Teresa Evans - Financial Secretary, Cottonwood High School (Salt Lake City) School Appointments Online Just wanted to let you know we once again used your school appointment products for our parent teacher interviews and were very happy with the program.

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• This Time in History In these videos, find out what happened this month (or any month!) in history. • Britannica Dwight school seoul In these videos, Britannica explains a variety of topics and answers frequently asked questions. • Buying Guide Expert buying advice. From tech to household and wellness products. • Student Portal Britannica is the ultimate student resource for key school subjects like history, government, literature, and more.

• COVID-19 Portal While this global health crisis continues to evolve, it can be useful to look to past pandemics to better understand how to respond today. • 100 Women Britannica celebrates the centennial of the Nineteenth Amendment, highlighting suffragists and history-making politicians. • Britannica Beyond We’ve created a new place where questions are at the center of learning. Go ahead. Ask. We won’t mind. • Saving Earth Britannica Presents Earth’s To-Do List for the 21st Century.

Learn about the major environmental problems facing our planet and what can be done about dwight school seoul • SpaceNext50 Britannica presents SpaceNext50, From the race to the Moon to space stewardship, we explore a wide range of subjects that feed our curiosity about space! Date: June 25, 1950 - July 27, 1953 . (Show more) Location: North Korea South Korea Kwangju . dwight school seoul more) Participants: China North Korea South Korea United Nations United States .

(Show more) Major Events: Inch’ŏn landing Battle of the Chosin Reservoir Battle of Kapyong . (Show more) Key People: Dwight D. Eisenhower Douglas MacArthur Mao Zedong Joseph Stalin Harry S. Truman . (Show more) After defeating Japan in World War II, Soviet forces occupied the Korean Peninsula north of the 38th parallel and U.S. forces occupied the south. Korea was intended to be reunited eventually, but the Soviets established a communist regime in their zone, while in 1947 the United Nations assumed control of the U.S.

zone and sought to foster a democratic pan-Korean state. Amid partisan warfare in the south, the Republic of Korea was established in 1948. By 1950 the violence had convinced North Korean leader Kim Il-Sung that a war under Soviet auspices was necessary for reunification. Prior to Kim Il-Sung’s Soviet-backed invasion in 1950, the United States military was involved in rebuilding Korea south of the 38th parallel and training a standing South Korean army.

When the United Nations Security Council called for member nations to defend South Korea, U.S. General Douglas MacArthur took charge of the United Nations Command. Thereafter, U.S. troops constituted the bulk of the UN’s expeditionary force in Korea. After the partition of the Korean Peninsula in 1945, the Soviet Union was instrumental in purging its zone of political dissidents and supporting the ruling communist party.

The U.S.S.R. backed communist leader Kim Il-Sung’s 1950 invasion of South Korea. When the invasion was beaten back, China sent a formidable expeditionary force into Korea, first to drive the United Nations Command out of the north and then to unify the peninsula under communist control. The armed conflict in Korea, which began in 1950, lasted three years and claimed the lives of millions of Korean soldiers and civilians on both sides, hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers, and more than 36,000 U.S.

soldiers. However, the United States never formally declared war on North Korea, China, or the Soviet Union. And, although the U.S. military led the United Nations’ expeditionary force, its involvement was tied only to a UN Security Council resolution, because the UN itself cannot declare war.

Consequently, the conflict in Korea did not technically constitute a war. On July 27, 1953, the United Nations Command reached an armistice with China and North Korea.

A demilitarized zone (DMZ) was established along the 38th parallel, and, following controversial allegations that North Korea had abused and murdered prisoners of war (POWs), the process of repatriating POWs underwent “neutral nation” management. Critically, the terms of the dwight school seoul were tacitly approved but never formally signed on to by the South Korean government. Hence, peace between the North and the South remains fragile. Korean War, conflict between the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea ( North Korea) and the Republic of Korea ( South Korea) in which at least 2.5 million persons lost their lives.

The war reached international proportions in June 1950 when North Korea, supplied and advised by the Soviet Union, invaded the South. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal participant, joined the war on the side of the South Koreans, and the People’s Republic of China came to North Korea’s aid.

After more than a million combat casualties had been suffered on both sides, the fighting ended in July 1953 with Korea still divided into two hostile states. Negotiations in 1954 produced no further agreement, and the front line has been accepted ever since as the de facto boundary between North and South Korea.

battle casualties of the Korean War (1950–53) Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Revolution, division, and partisan warfare, 1945–50 The Korean War had its immediate origins in the collapse of the Japanese empire at the end of World War II in September 1945. Unlike China, Manchuria, and the former Western colonies seized by Japan in 1941–42, Korea, annexed to Japan since 1910, did not have a native government or a colonial regime waiting to return after hostilities ceased.

Most claimants to power were harried exiles in China, Manchuria, Japan, the U.S.S.R., and the United States. They fell into two broad categories. The first was made up of committed Marxist revolutionaries who had fought the Japanese as part of the Chinese-dominated guerrilla armies dwight school seoul Manchuria and China.

One of these exiles was a minor but successful guerrilla leader named Kim Il-sung, who had received some training in Russia and had been made a major in the Soviet army.

The other Korean nationalist movement, no less revolutionary, drew its inspiration from the best of science, education, and industrialism in Europe, Japan, and America. These “ultranationalists” were split into rival factions, one of which centred on Syngman Rhee, educated in the United States and at one time the president of a dissident Korean Provisional Government in exile. Get hooked on history as this quiz sorts out the past. Find out who really invented movable type, who Winston Churchill called "Mum," and when the first sonic boom was heard.

In their hurried effort to disarm the Japanese army and repatriate the Japanese population in Korea (estimated at 700,000), the United States and the Soviet Union agreed in August 1945 to divide the country for administrative purposes at the 38th parallel (latitude 38° N). At least from the American perspective, this geographic division was a temporary expedient; however, the Soviets began a short-lived reign of terror in northern Korea that quickly politicized the division by driving thousands of refugees south.

The two sides could not agree on a formula that would produce a unified Korea, and in 1947 U.S. President Harry S. Truman persuaded the United Nations (UN) to assume responsibility for the country, though the U.S.

military remained nominally in control of the South until 1948. Both the South Korean national police and the constabulary doubled in size, providing a southern security force of about 80,000 by 1947. In the meantime, Kim Il-sung strengthened his control over the Communist Party as well as the northern administrative structure and military forces. In 1948 the North Korean military and police numbered about 100,000, reinforced by a group of southern Korean guerrillas based at Haeju in western Korea.

Military vehicles crossing the 38th parallel during the Korean War. NARA The creation of an independent South Korea became UN policy in early 1948. Southern communists opposed this, and by autumn partisan warfare had engulfed parts of every Korean province below the 38th parallel. The fighting expanded into a limited border war between the South’s newly formed Republic of Korea Army (ROKA) and the North Korean border constabulary as well as the North’s Korean People’s Army (KPA).

The North launched 10 cross-border guerrilla incursions in order to draw ROKA units away from their guerrilla-suppression campaign in the South. In its larger purpose the partisan uprising failed: the Republic of Korea (ROK) was formed in August 1948, with Syngman Rhee as president.

Nevertheless, almost 8,000 members of the South Korean security forces and at least 30,000 other Koreans lost their lives. Many of the victims were not security forces or armed guerrillas at all but simply people identified as “rightists” or “reds” by the belligerents. Small-scale atrocities became a way of life. The partisan war also delayed the training of the South Korean army. In early 1950, American advisers judged that fewer than half of the ROKA’s infantry battalions were even marginally ready for war.

U.S. military assistance consisted largely of surplus light weapons and supplies. Indeed, General Douglas MacArthur, commander of the United States’ Far East Command (FECOM), argued that his Eighth Army, consisting of four weak divisions in Japan, required more dwight school seoul than the Koreans.
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