Metode rad

metode rad

none I denne veilederen finner du anerkjente metoder for å beregne virkninger av planer og tiltak på klima og miljø. Veilederen er utarbeidet til bruk ved konsekvensutredning av alle planer og tiltak. Veilederen angir metoder for å kartlegge klima- og miljøtema, sette verdier og vurdere påvirkning og konsekvens.

Mer om kapitlene i veilederen Generell veiledning om bruk av forskrift om konsekvensutredninger finner du i kapittel 1 K rav til prosess og innhold og kapittel 2 K unnskapsgrunnlaget. Her veiledes det om kravene i konsekvensutredningsf orskrif t en som gjelder for konsekvensutredning av alle planer og tiltak. Kapittel 3 Vurdere miljøkonsekvensene av planen eller tiltaket angir anerkjent metode for å utrede klima- og miljøtema som hører inn under Klima- og metode rad sine arbeidsområder.

Konsekvensutredning av andre fagtema som hører inn under andre departementer, er ikke inkludert i denne veilederen. Kapittel 4 Finne gode miljøløsninger, gir råd om hvordan kunnskap fra konsekvensutredninger kan brukes til å ta miljøhensyn ved ny eller endret arealbruk.

Lukk Avgrensning av temaområder for veilederen En oversikt over alle tema som skal vurderes for en plan eller et tiltak, finner du i forskrift om konsekvensutredninger § 21.

For å lage en fullstendig konsekvensutredning som ivaretar alle tema i § 21, må du supplere denne veilederen om klima og miljø, med fagveiledere som er utgitt av andre direktorater og departementer. Statens vegvesen sin Håndbok V712 kan inntil videre benyttes for konsekvensanalyser av veg - og transport prosjekter.
This article needs additional metode rad for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Find sources: "Dynamic systems development method" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( October 2008) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) • v • t • e Dynamic systems development method ( DSDM) is an agile project delivery framework, initially used as a software development method. [1] [2] First released in 1994, DSDM originally sought to provide some discipline to the rapid application development (RAD) method.

[3] In later versions the DSDM Agile Project Framework was revised and became a generic approach to project management and solution delivery rather than being focused specifically on software development and code creation [ clarification needed] [ citation needed] and could be used for non-IT projects.

[4] The DSDM Agile Project Framework covers a wide range of activities metode rad the whole project lifecycle and includes strong foundations and governance, which set it metode rad from some other Agile methods. [5] The DSDM Agile Project Framework is an iterative and incremental approach that embraces principles of Agile development, including continuous user/customer involvement.

metode rad

DSDM fixes cost, quality and time at the outset and uses the Metode rad prioritisation of scope into musts, shoulds, coulds and will not haves to adjust the project deliverable to meet the stated time constraint.

DSDM is one of a number of agile methods for developing software and non-IT solutions, and it forms a part of the Agile Alliance. In 2014, DSDM released the latest version of the method in the 'DSDM Agile Project Framework'. At the same time the new DSDM manual recognised the need to operate alongside other frameworks for service delivery (esp. ITIL) PRINCE2, Managing Successful Programmes, and PMI. [6] The previous version (DSDM 4.2) had only contained guidance on how to use DSDM with extreme programming.

Contents • metode rad History of DSDM • 2 DSDM • 2.1 Principles • 2.2 Core techniques • 2.3 Roles • 2.4 Critical success factors • 3 Comparison to other development frameworks • 4 See also • 5 References • 6 Further reading • 7 External links History of DSDM [ edit ] In the early 1990s, rapid application development (RAD) was spreading across the IT industry. The user interfaces for software applications were moving from the old green screens to the graphical user interfaces that are used today.

New application development tools were coming on the market, such as PowerBuilder. These enabled developers to share their proposed solutions much more easily with their customers metode rad prototyping became a reality and the frustrations of the classical, sequential ( waterfall) development methods could be put to one side. However, the RAD movement was very unstructured: there was no commonly agreed definition of a suitable process and many organizations came up with their own definition and approach.

metode rad

Many major corporations were very interested in the possibilities but they were also concerned that they did not lose the level of quality in the end deliverables that free-flow development could give rise to The DSDM Consortium was founded in 1994 by an association of vendors and experts in the field of software engineering and was created with the objective of "jointly developing and promoting an independent RAD framework" by combining their best practice experiences.

The origins were an event organized by the Butler Group in London. People at that meeting metode rad worked for blue-chip organizations such as British Airways, American Express, Oracle, and Logica (other companies such as Data Sciences and Allied Domecq have since been absorbed by other organizations). In July 2006, DSDM Public Version 4.2 [7] was made available for individuals to view and use; however, anyone reselling DSDM must still be a member of the not-for-profit consortium.

In 2014, the DSDM handbook was made available online and public. [8] Additionally, templates for DSDM can be downloaded.

[9] In October 2016 the DSDM Consortium rebranded as the Agile Business Consortium (ABC). [10] The Agile Business Consortium is a not-for-profit, vendor-independent organisation which owns and administers the DSDM framework.

[11] DSDM [ edit ] DSDM is a vendor-independent approach that recognises that more projects fail because of people problems than technology. DSDM’s focus is on helping people to work effectively together to achieve the business goals.

DSDM is also independent of tools and techniques enabling it to be used in any business and technical environment without tying the business to a particular vendor. [8] Principles [ edit ] There are eight principles underpinning DSDM. [12] These principles direct the team in the attitude they must take and the mindset they must adopt to deliver consistently. • Focus on the business need • Deliver on time • Collaborate • Never compromise quality • Build incrementally from firm foundations • Develop iteratively • Communicate continuously and clearly • Demonstrate control Core techniques [ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ( March 2016) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) • Timeboxing: is the approach for completing the project incrementally by breaking it down into splitting the project in portions, each with a fixed budget and a delivery date. For each portion a number of requirements are prioritised and selected. Because time and budget are fixed, the only remaining variables are the requirements.

So if a project is running out of time or money the requirements with the lowest priority are omitted. This does not mean that an unfinished product is delivered, because of the Pareto principle that 80% of the project comes from metode rad of the system metode rad, so as long metode rad those most important 20% of requirements are implemented into the system, the system therefore meets the business needs and that no system is built perfectly in the first try.

metode rad

• MoSCoW: is a technique for prioritising work items or requirements. It is an acronym that stands for: • Must have • Should have • Could have • Won't have • Prototyping: refers to the creation of prototypes of the system under development at an early stage of the project.

It enables the early discovery of shortcomings in the system and allows future users to ‘test-drive’ the system. This way good user involvement is realised, one of the key success factors of DSDM, or any system development project for that matter.

• Testing: helps ensure a solution of good quality, DSDM advocates testing throughout each iteration. Since DSDM is a tool and technique independent method, the project team is free to choose its own test management method. • Workshop: brings project stakeholders together to discuss requirements, functionalities and mutual understanding. • Modeling: helps visualise a business domain and improve understanding. Produces a diagrammatic representation of specific aspects of the system or business area that is being developed.

• Configuration management: with multiple deliverables under development at the same time and being delivered incrementally at the end of each time-box, the deliverables need to be well managed metode rad completion. Roles [ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ( March 2016) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) There are some roles introduced within DSDM environment. It is important that the project members need to be appointed to different roles before they commence the project.

Each role has its own responsibility. The roles are: • Executive sponsor: So metode rad the project champion. An important role from the user organisation who has the ability and responsibility to commit appropriate funds and resources.

This role has an ultimate power to make decisions. • Visionary: The one who has the responsibility to initialise the project by ensuring that essential requirements are found early on. Visionary has the most accurate perception of the business objectives of the system and the project.

Another task is to supervise and keep the development process in the right track. • Ambassador user: Brings the knowledge of the user community into the project, ensures that metode rad developers receive enough user feedback during metode rad development process.

• Advisor user: Can be any user that represents an important viewpoint and brings daily knowledge of the project. • Project manager: Can be anyone from the user community or IT staff who manages the project in general. • Technical co-ordinator: Responsible in designing the system architecture and control the technical quality of the project.

• Team leader: Leads their team and ensures that the team works effectively as a whole. • Solution developer: Interpret the system requirements and model it including developing the deliverable codes and build the prototypes. • Solution tester: Checks the correctness in a technical extent by performing some testing, raise defects where necessary and retest once fixed. Tester will have to provide some comment and documentation.

• Scribe: Responsible for gathering and recording the requirements, agreements, and decisions made in every workshop.

• Facilitator: Responsible for managing metode rad workshops' progress, acts as a motivator for preparation and communication. • Specialist roles: Business architect, quality manager, system integrator, etc. Critical success factors [ edit ] Within DSDM a number of factors are identified as being of great importance to ensure successful projects.

metode rad

• Factor 1: First there is the acceptance of DSDM by senior management and other employees. This ensures that the different actors of the metode rad are motivated from the start and remain involved throughout the project. • Factor 2: Directly derived from factor 1: The commitment of the management to ensure end-user involvement.

The prototyping approach requires a strong and dedicated involvement by end users to test and judge the functional prototypes. • Factor 3: The project team has to be composed of skillful members that form a stable union.

An important issue is the empowerment of the project team. This means that the team metode rad one or more of its members) has to possess the power and possibility to make important decisions regarding the project without having to write formal proposals to higher management, which metode rad be very time-consuming.

In order to enable the project team to run a successful project, they also need the appropriate technology to conduct the project.

This means a development environment, project management tools, etc. • Factor 4: Finally, DSDM also states that a supportive relationship between customer and vendor is required.

This goes for both projects that are realised internally within companies or by external contractors. An aid in ensuring a supporting relationship could be Metode rad. Comparison to other development frameworks [ edit ] DSDM can be considered as part of a broad range of iterative and incremental development frameworks, especially those supporting agile and object-oriented methods. These include (but are not limited to) scrum, extreme programming (XP), disciplined agile delivery (DAD), and Rational Unified Process (RUP).

Like DSDM, these share the following characteristics: • They all prioritise requirements and work though them iteratively, building a system or product in increments. • They are metode rad frameworks. This allows users to fill in the specific steps of the process with their own techniques [5] and software aids of choice. • The variables in the development are not time/resources, but the requirements.

This approach ensures the main goals of DSDM, namely to stay within the deadline and the budget. • A strong focus on communication between and the involvement of all the stakeholders in the system. Although this is addressed in other methods, DSDM strongly believes in commitment to the project to ensure a successful outcome.

See also [ edit ] • Lean software development • Agile software development References [ edit ] • ^ Keith Richards, Agile project management: running PRINCE2 projects with DSDM Atern. OGC – Office of Government Commerce. The Stationery Office, 31 jul.

2007. • ^ Plonka, Laura, et al. "UX Design in Agile: A DSDM Case Study." Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming.

metode rad

Springer International Publishing, 2014. 1-15. • ^ Abrahamsson, Pekka, et al. " New directions on agile methods: a comparative analysis." Software Engineering, 2003. Proceedings. 25th International Conference on.

Ieee, 2003. • ^ Stapleton, Jennifer (January 2003). Business Focused Development. Pearson Education. p. 113. ISBN 9780321112248. • ^ a b Moran, Alan (March 2015). Managing Agile. Springer. pp. 21–24. ISBN 9783319162614. • ^ The DSDM Agile Project Framework manual, 2014 pages 4, 16 • ^ ( Archived 2016-10-02 at the Wayback Machine) • ^ a b "The DSDM Agile Project Framework (2014 Onwards)". Agile Business Consortium. February 4, 2016. • ^

{{ cite web}}: Missing or empty -title= metode rad help) • ^ "Agile's DSDM Consortium evolves into Agile Business Consortium". Press Dispensary. • ^ "Terms and Conditions of Community Membership" (PDF). DSDM Consortium. Retrieved 7 March 2013. • ^ Agile Business Consortium. The DSDM Agile Project Framework (2014 Onwards) Handbook metode rad Principles.

Further reading [ edit ] • Coleman and Verbruggen: A quality software process for rapid application development, Software Quality Journal 7, p. 107-1222 (1998) • Beynon-Davies and Williams: The diffusion of information systems development methods, Journal of Strategic Information Systems 12 p. 29-46 (2003) • Sjaak Brinkkemper, Saeki and Harmsen: Assembly Techniques metode rad Method Engineering, Advanced Information Systems Engineering, Proceedings of CaiSE'98, Springer Verlag (1998) • Abrahamsson, Salo, Ronkainen, Warsta Agile Software Development Methods: Review and Analysis, VTT Publications 478, p.

metode rad

61-68 (2002) • Tuffs, Stapleton, West, Eason: Inter-operability of DSDM with the Rational Unified Process, DSDM Consortium, Issue 1, p. 1-29 (1999) • Rietmann: DSDM in a bird’s eye view, DSDM Consortium, p.

metode rad

3-8 (2001) • Chris Barry, Kieran Conboy, Michael Lang, Gregory Wojtkowski and Wita Wojtkowski: Information Systems Development: Challenges in Practice, Theory, and Education, Volume 1 • Keith Richards: Agile Project Management: running PRINCE2 projects with DSDM Atern, TSO (2007) • The DSDM Agile Project Framework (2014) • DSDM Agile Project Management Framework (v6, 2014) interactive mind map External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dynamic Systems Development Method.

• The Agile Business Consortium (formerly, DSDM Consortium) • AgilePM wiki Hidden categories: • Webarchive template wayback links • CS1 errors: missing title • CS1 errors: bare URL • Articles lacking reliable references from March 2016 • All articles lacking reliable references • Articles needing additional references from October 2008 • All articles needing additional references • Articles with multiple maintenance issues • Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2014 • All articles with unsourced statements • Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014 • Articles needing additional references from March 2016 • Commons category link is on Wikidata Edit links • This page was last edited on 13 February 2022, at 02:56 (UTC).

• Text metode rad available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers metode rad Statistics • Cookie statement • • Cilj svake laboratorijske analize je dobijanje tačnog i pouzdanog nalaza koji će pokazati da li su u fiziološkim funkcijama i procesima nastupile promene.

Kada je reč o laboratorijskom ispitivanju krvi, ono podrazumeva dve vrste analiza: • Usmerene na ispitivanje vrste, broja, odnosa i izgleda ćelijskih elemenata krvi (krvna slika, hematološki parametri) i • One kojima se proverava biohemijski sastav krvi i na osnovu toga ustanovljava rad ili stanje pojedinih organa i tkiva.

Kompletna krvna slika (KKS) Kompletna krvna slika se radi zbog procene opšteg zdravstvenog stanja i otkrivanja raznovrsnih poremećaja poput anemija, infekcija, stanja uhranjenosti organizma i izloženosti otrovnim materijama.

KKS uključuje broj eritrocita, leukocita i trombocita, eritrocitne konstante (MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW), trombocitne konstante (MPV, PDW), diferencijalnu krvnu sliku (podvrste leukocita: neutrofili, eozinofili, bazofili, monociti, limfociti), hemoglobin i hematokrit. Eritrociti - Hemoglobin - Hemoglobin - Hematokriti - Eritrocitne konstante - Leukociti - Trombociti - Sedimtentacija eritrocita - Eritrociti Metode rad - crvena krvna zrnca (RBC), su najzastupljenije ćelije a uloga im je da transportuju kiseonik vezan za hemoglobin iz pluća do drugih tkiva.

Normalne vrednosti su od 3,86 x 1012/l do 5,08 x 1012/l za ženu i od 4,34 x 1012/l do 5,72 x 1012/l za muškarce). Snižene vrednosti su najčešće znak anemije ili gubitka krvi usled krvarenja. Povišene vrednosti mogu biti povećane u stanjima hemokoncentracije organizma, kod policitemija, ali i kod zdravih ljudi.

Hemoglobin Hemoglobin (HGB) je sastojak crvenih krvnih zrnaca eritrocita. On prenosi kiseonik iz pluća u tkiva i ugljen dioksid iz tkiva nazad u pluća. Svakim udahom krv u plućima dobija kiseonik i zahvaljujući upravo hemoglobinu distribuira ga do svih tkiva i organa.

Kada se oslobodi kiseonik prekopotreban metode rad nesmetani rad ćelija, za hemoglobin se umesto njega vezuje ugljen dioksid. Ovaj ciklus se zatvara vraćanjem krvi u pluća, oslobađanjem ugljen dioksida i novim vezivanjem kiseonika.

Normalna koncentracija je 110-180 g/L. Koncentracija hemoglobina je snižena kod anemija. Povećan je u stanjima hemokoncentracije organizma i kod policitemija Hematokrit Hematokrit (HCT) predstavlja volumen eritrocita u jedinici pune krvi.

Normalne vrednosti su za žene 0.356 - 0.470 l/l i kod muškaraca 0.41 - 0.53 l/l. Kod akutnog krvarenja hematokrit može da bude normalan, a u fazi oporavka se smanjuje. Kod anemije usled nedostatka gvožđa hematokrit je smanjen, jer eritrociti imaju manju zapreminu iako sam broj eritrocita ne mora da bude smanjen. Hematokrit je smanjen u trudnoći, a smanjuje se i sa godinama života. Takođe je smanjen kod anemija, leukemija, povećane funkcije štitaste žlezde (hipertireoze), ciroze jetre, opekotina i infekcija.

Povećane vrednosti hematokrita se viđaju kod dehidratacije i šoka. Eritrocitne konstante Eritrocitne konstante se izračunavaju iz broja eritrocita, koncentracije hemoglobina i hematokrita i daju informaciju o kvalitetu eritrocita. • MCV(mean cell volume) – prosečni volumen eritrocita - daje informaciju o veličini eritrocita.

Normalne vrednosti su 81 - 99 fl • MCH (mean cell hemoglobin) - prosečna količina hemoglobina u eritrocitu. Normalne vrendosti su 29-32.9 pg • MCHC (mean cell hemoglobin concentration) – prosečna koncentracija hemoglobina na litar eritrocita. Normalne vrednosti su 310 - 350 g/l • RDW (red cell distribution width) – mera varijabilnosti veličine eritrocita. Normalne vrednosti su 11,5-16,5 %. RDW specifično ukazuje na postojanje jedne ili više populacija eritrocita što je karakteristika pojedinih hematoloških bolesti eritrocitne loze, a ujedno je i važan prognostički pokazatelj efikasnosti lečenja i ekvivalentan podatak o metode rad koja se uočava u krvnom razmazu.

Promene vrednosti pojedinih eritrocitnih konstanti, naročito MCV parametra, dijagnostički su značajne u klasifikaciji pojedinih anemija i uvek se posmatraju u korelaciji sa dobijenim vrednostima broja eritrocita i koncentracije hemoglobina.

Povećane vrednosti eritrocitnog indeksa MCHC sreću se kod bolesnika sa teškim oblikom dehidratacije, dok se povećane vrednosti MCV mogu naći kod megaloblastne anemije (nedostatak vitamina B12 ili folne kiseline), bolesnika sa hroničnom opstruktivnom bolešću pluća (hronični opstruktivni bronhitis i emfizem), smanjenom funkcijom štitaste žlezde (hipotireozom), oboljenjem jetre (ciroza) i kod teških alkoholičara.

Normalne vrednosti su 3.9 - 10x10 9/l. Kada je njihov broj uvećan (leukocitoza), to ukazuje da telo proizvodi veći broj ovih ćelija, odnosno da je napadnuto, na primer bakterijama. Ako je njihov broj manji, povećava se rizik od infekcije.

Nekontrolisana produkcija belih ćelija (leukemija) nastaje usled kancerozne mutacije mijelogenih ili limfogenih ćelija. Leukopenija, smanjenje broja belih krvnih zrnaca, javlja se kod virusnih infekcija, u stresnim situacijama, kod opšte slabosti organizma, kao i kod pacijenata na radioterapiji.

Uzimanje pojedinih lekova takođe može da dovede do smanjenja broja belih krvnih zrnaca i zato se kod takvih pacijenata moraju sprovoditi redovne laboratorijske analize. • Neutrofilni granulociti (NEU) su najzastupljeniji fagocitni leukociti. Neutrofilni granulociti su zrele ćelije koje mogu da napadaju i razaraju bakterije i viruse čak i u krvnoj cirkulaciji. Normalne vrednosti su 40-70% • Monociti (MONO) zajedno sa neutrofilnim granulocitima čine osnovu fagocitnog odbrambenog sistema u organizmu.

Monociti su nezrele ćelije čija je sposobnost da se bore mala, međutim, kada jednom uđu u tkiva, počinju da bubre i postaju makrofagi koji su izvanredno sposobni da se bore sa infektivnim agensima. Normalne vrednosti su 1-10% • Eozinofilni granulociti metode rad učestvuju u obrani organizma od alergijskih agenasa i parazitarnih infekcija.

Normalne vrednosti su 0 - 6% • Limfociti (LYM) predstavljaju populaciju leukocita metode rad uključuje dve metode rad subpopulacije: T limfocite, koji učestvuju u ćelijskom imunitetu i B limfocite koji se transformišu u plazma ćelije koje proizvode antitela i tako učestvuju u humoralnom imunitetu.

metode rad

Normalne vrednosti su 20 - 50 % • Bazofilni granulociti (BASO) su najmanje zastupljena populacija leukocita u perifernoj krvi i učestvuju u alergijskom odgovoru. Normalne vrednosti su 0-1% Trombociti Trombociti (PLT) su ćelije koje učestvuju u koagulaciji (zgrušavanju) krvi.

Normlane vrednosti su 140-450 x 10 9/l. Manjak trombocita (trombocitopenija) izaziva sklonost krvarenju, trombociti su sniženi kod hemioterapija, malignih oboljenja, hepatitisa Metode rad. Višak izaziva pojačano zgrušavanje krvi i može da dovede do stvaranja krvnog ugruška u kardiovaskularnom sistemu.

Normalne vrednosti su 2-12 mm/h. Normalna brzina sedimentacije ne isključuje mogućnost postojanja bolesti, ali ubrzana sedimentacija je indikator za dalja ispitivanja. Sedimentacija je ubrzana kod upala, razaranja ćelija, masivnih trovanja, u trudnoći i posle porođaja, kod TBC, reumatskih bolesti npr. akutne reumatske groznice i reumatoidnog artritisa, akutnog infarkta miokarda, nefroze, svim vrstama šoka, kod postoperativnih stanja, tumora, oboljenja jetre, menstruacija (neznatno ubrzanje).

Usporena je kod novorođenčeta, policitemije, kongestivne srčane insuficijencije, alergijskih stanja, pojedinih vrsta anemija. Pitanje je: gledajuci vashe referente vrednosti čak i% se uklapam u normalne rezultate, tj.

nalaz se metode rad u normalne referente vrednosti ali u medlab gde sam radio analizu gledajuci u% odnos, za neu ref vred je (50-75%kod vas je 40% -70) a lymph referenta vrednost u medlab je 20% -40%kod vas je 20% -50% ), sve ostalo, wbc, mono, eo, baso, ig uklapa se perfektno, takodje celokupna crvene krvna zrnca su ok, u izveshtaju zbog odstupanja lymph i neut u% mi je napisana neutropenia ali gledajuci vashe referente vrednosti moji nalazi su ok, molim vas posavetujete.

Pored tih nalaza sam napravio i analizu za štitnu žlezdu koja je takodje ok, jedino što imam uvećane limfne čvorove na vratu ali takodje imam dosta zuba koji bi trebali da se poprave, očiste od karijesa i česte zubobolje.

Poštovani, molim vas za tumačenje laboratorijskih rezultata. Leukociti 9, 3 granulociti 53, 3 limfociti 39, 9 monociti 6, 8 granulociti 5, 00 limfociti 3, 70 (1, 20-3, 40) monociti 0, 60 eritrociti 4, 59 hemoglobin 124 hematokrit 0, 355 (0, 356-0, 470) mcv 77 (83-97) mch 27 metode rad mchc 350 rdw 14, 8 (11, 6-14, 5) trombociti 321 mpv 8 pct 0, 241 pdw 16, 6 sedimentacija 6 bilirubin ukupni 8, 0 ast (sgot) 17 alt (sgpt) 24 gvožđe 14, 3 hvala Dobar dan imam jednu molbu prverijo sam krnu sliku trombociti i leokociti su mi na granici metode rad 426 a leokociti 10, 3 jel mozrvte mi objasnit stvarno sta se desava moj doktor kaze nije opasno nista metode rad u medju vremenu sam napipo 2 limfna cvora sa leve strane i jedan sa metode rad molim vas za odgovor hvala Dobila sam rezultat iz labaratorije za mog sina koji ima nepune 6 godine.

Koji pokazuje ovakve rezultate kod leukocita -monociti 9. 5 (povecani a referentna vrednost je od 1-6; limfociti 5. 0 referentna vrednost je 1. 4-3. 2; monociti 1. 2, a referentna vrednost je od 0. 3-0. 8, zatim trombociti su povecani 568. 0 a referentna vrednost je od 181-521; mpv je smanjen 4. 0, a referentna vrednost je od 6. 5-11. 0; pdw je 16. 0, a referentna vrednost je 12. 0-19. 5; crp je 3. 47. Molila bih vas da mi objasnite stanje zasto je toliko velika vrdnost trombocita.

On je do pred 3 dana pio ospen antibiotik zbog velike infekcije grla - gnojna angina. Molim vas da mi odgovorite sta je posredi ovov se desava prvi put da pokaze ovecanost trombocite i podvrsta. Dali je zbog antibiotika, infekcije ili ako su nepravilno uzeli krv zbog stiskanja prsta. . Hvala puno ceka vas odgovor. Zabrinuta majka. Volela bih da ste metode rad malo detaljniji opis, u smislu da ste naglasili sta znaci povisen ili snizen nivo limfocita ili monocita u smislu postojanja infekcije i npr kada se radi o virusnoj a kada o bakterijskoj infekciji.

Takodje me zanima sta je tacno crp i kakvo je znacenje retikulocita prilikom tumacenja krvne slike?
AKDSH - Aplikacija za digitalno potpisivanje datoteka HZZO pametnom karticom • Data signer and verifier (zip) (objavljeno 01.10.2013.) • Upute (pdf) (objavljeno 27.09.2013.) Obavijest • Digitalno potpisivanje datoteka računa (objavljeno 23.07.2013.) VPN - potpune klijentske aplikacije s ugrađenim pcf-om • Produkcija_64-bitna_verzija (zip) (objavljeno 17.06.2011.) • Certifikacija_64-bitna_verzija (zip) (objavljeno 17.06.2011.) • Produkcija_32-bitna_verzija (zip) (objavljeno 23.08.2010.) • Certifikacija_32-bitna_verzija (zip) (objavljeno 23.08.2010.) Klijentska aplikacija za Windows 8, 8.1 i 10 • anyconnect-win-4.4.03034-core-vpn-predeploy-k9.msi (objavljeno 06.07.2017.) Aplikacija AKDSHCard • liječnici primarne zdravstvene zaštite, kojima su dodijeljene pametne kartice HZZO-a, mogu preuzeti i instalirati na računalo programsku podršku za rad s navedenom karticom koja je potrebna za pristupanje portalu: AKDSHCard_1.20 (exe) - 21.12.2012.

(verzija 1.20) • Uputa za korištenje aplikacije AKDSHCard_1.20 za promjenu PIN-a (pdf) Popis kontaktnih osoba • Telekom metode rad Upozorenje • Ukoliko u VPN klijentu umjesto DNS imena imate unesenu IP adresu sustava, molimo da zamijenite svoju postojeću .PCF konfuguracijsku datoteku novom .PCF datotekom (vidjeti dolje). U suprotnom se nećete moći spojiti na sustav ako se promijeni IP adresa • Za korištenje aplikacije potrebno je imati postavljeno računalo s operacijskim sustavom Windows XP ili Windows 2000, instaliran vpnClient i čitač pametne kartice te Web preglednik Internet Explorer 6.0 ili noviji • detaljne upute za postavljanje gore navedenih komponenti možete pogledati ovdje: • VPN klijent - upute: VPN klijent - 03.09.2010.

• Spajanje na primarnu lokaciju: Cezih.pcf - 15.02.2010. • Metode rad na certifikacijsku lokaciju: Certifikacija.pcf - 15.02.2010.
Proses pengembangan perangkat lunak ( Software development process) adalah suatu struktur yang diterapkan pada pengembangan suatu produk perangkat lunak yang bertujuan untuk mengembangkan sistem dan memberikan panduan yang bertujuan untuk menyukseskan proyek pengembangan sistem melalui tahap demi tahap. [1] Proses ini memiliki beberapa model yang masing-masing menjelaskan pendekatan terhadap berbagai tugas atau aktivitas yang terjadi selama proses.

Contoh model proses pengembangan perangkat lunak antara lain adalah proses iteratif, Extreme Programming, serta proses air terjun ( waterfall). Daftar isi • 1 Metode SDLC • 2 Prototyping • 3 Metodologi • 3.1 Waterfall • 3.2 Rapid Aplication Development ( RAD) • 3.3 Pengembangan agile • metode rad Integrasi berkelanjutan • 4 Referensi Metode SDLC [ sunting - sunting sumber ] SDLC (System Development Life Cycle) adalah metode yang populer dikalangan analisis maupun Programmer.

Berikut merupakan tahapannya: [2] • Analisis dan definisi kebutuhan. Layanan, batasan, dan tujuan sistem ditentukan melalui konsultasi dengan user atau pemakai • Perancangan sistem dan Perangkat Lunak.

Proses perancangan sistem membagi persyaratan dalam sistem perangkat keras atau Perangkat Lunak. Kegiatan ini menentukan arsitektur sistem secara umum maupun secara keseluruhan. Perancangan melibatkan identifikasi dan deskripsi abstraksi sistem Perangkat Lunak yang mendasar serta memasukan dalam bahasa Pemrograman • Metode rad dan pengujian unit.

Pada tahap ini, perancangan Perangkat Lunak direalisasikan dengan Program atau unit Program.

metode rad

Pengujian ini melibatkan verifikasi bahwa setiap unit telah memenuhi spesifikasinya. • Integrasi dan pengujian Sistem. Unit Program atau Program individual diintegrasikan dan diuji sebagai sistem yang lengkap untuk menjamin bahwa kebutuhan sistem telah dipenuhi • Operasi dan pemeliharaan, yaitu mengoperasikan Program di lingkungannya dan melakukan pemeliharaan. Biasanya ini merupakan fase siklus hidup yang paling lama. Pemeliharaan mencakup koreksi dari berbagai error yang tidak ditemukan pada tahap-tahap sebelumnya, melakukan perbaikan atas implementasi unit sistem dan pengembangan layanan sistem, dan persyaratan-persyaratan baru ditambahkan Prototyping [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Model prototyping merupakan model pengembangan sistem yang kompleks pihak pengembang akan melakukan identifikasi kebutuhan pemakai dan Pengembang akan mengerjakan bersama-sama dengan pengguna dan hanya mendefinisikan objektif umum dari perangkat lunak tanpa merinci kebutuhan input, pemrosesan dan outputnya, Berikut Tahapan Pengembangannya • Tahap Pengumpulan Kebutuhan yaitu pelanggan dan pengembang saling berinteraksi dalam mendefinisikan kebutuhan sistem garis besar dari sistem yang akan dirancang • Tahap Quick design yaitu membangun rancangan umum contoh acuan atau contoh yang diberikan kepada user • Tahap Pembangunan Prototype yaitu proses perancangan sementara di fokuskan kepada user atau pelanggan termasuk pengujian dan penyempurnaan metode rad Tahap Evaluasi Pelanggan (User) yaitu pemakai atau user melakukan pengujian terhadap prototipe yang sudah dibuat sehingga pengembang dapat menganalisis kembali kebutuhan user atau pemakai Metodologi [ sunting metode rad sunting sumber ] Waterfall [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Model Waterfall adalah model klasik yang bersifat sistematis, berurutan dalam membangun software.

Nama model ini sebenarnya adalah “Linear Sequential Model”. Model ini sering disebut juga dengan “classic life cycle” atau metode waterfall.

metode rad

Model ini termasuk ke dalam model generic pada rekayasa perangkat lunak dan pertama kali diperkenalkan oleh Winston Royce sekitar tahun 1970 sehingga sering dianggap kuno, tetapi merupakan model yang paling banyak dipakai dalam Software Engineering (SE). Model ini melakukan pendekatan secara sistematis dan berurutan. Disebut dengan waterfall karena tahap demi tahap yang dilalui harus menunggu selesainya tahap sebelumnya dan berjalan berurutan [3] • Communication (Project Initiation & Requirements Gathering) Sebelum memulai pekerjaan yang bersifat teknis, sangat diperlukan adanya komunikasi dengan customer demi memahami dan mencapai tujuan yang ingin dicapai.

Hasil dari komunikasi tersebut adalah inisialisasi proyek, seperti menganalisis permasalahan yang dihadapi dan mengumpulkan data-data yang diperlukan, serta membantu mendefinisikan fitur dan fungsi software. Pengumpulan data-data tambahan bisa juga diambil dari jurnal, artikel, dan internet. • Planning (Estimating, Scheduling, Tracking) Tahap berikutnya adalah tahapan perencanaan yang menjelaskan tentang estimasi tugas-tugas teknis yang akan dilakukan, risiko- risiko yang dapat terjadi, sumber daya yang diperlukan dalam membuat sistem, produk kerja yang ingin dihasilkan, penjadwalan kerja yang akan dilaksanakan, dan tracking proses pengerjaan sistem • Modeling (Analysis & Design) Tahapan ini adalah tahap perancangan dan permodelan arsitektur sistem yang berfokus pada perancangan struktur data, arsitektur software, tampilan interface, dan algoritma program.

Tujuannya untuk lebih memahami gambaran besar dari apa yang akan dikerjakan • Construction (Code & Test) Tahapan Construction ini merupakan proses penerjemahan bentuk desain menjadi kode atau bentuk/bahasa yang dapat dibaca oleh mesin.

Setelah pengkodean selesai, dilakukan pengujian terhadap sistem dan juga kode yang sudah dibuat. Tujuannya untuk menemukan kesalahan yang mungkin terjadi untuk nantinya diperbaiki • Deployment (Delivery, Support, Feedback) Tahapan Deployment merupakan tahapan implementasi software ke customer, pemeliharaan software secara berkala, perbaikan software, evaluasi software, dan pengembangan software berdasarkan umpan balik yang diberikan agar sistem dapat tetap berjalan dan berkembang sesuai dengan fungsinya.

Rapid Aplication Development ( RAD) [ sunting - sunting sumber ] GambarRAD Rapid Application Development (RAD) merupakan metode rad dari bermacam-macam teknik terstruktur dengan teknik prototyping dan teknik pengembangan joint application untuk mempercepat pengembangan sistem/aplikasi.

Model pengembangan RAD juga disebut metode rad pendekatan berbasis object, pengembangan aplikasi dengan menggunakan metode RAD ini dapat dilakukan dalam waktu yang relatif lebih cepat.

hanya membutuhkan waktu 30-90 hari untuk menyelesaikan sistem perangkat lunak tersebut, sangat mementingkan keterlibatan pengguna dalam proses analisis dan perancangannya. Metode RAD (Rapid Application Development) menggunakan metode iteratif (berulang) dalam mengembangkan sistem dimana model bekerja sistem dikonstruksikan di awal tahap pengembangan dengan tujuan menetapkan kebutuhan pengguna.

Metode RAD menekankan cakupan pemodelan bisnis (bussiness modelling), pemodelan data (data modelling), pemodelan proses (process modelling), pembuatan aplikasi ( application generation) dan pengujian (testing). Metode ini juga sering digunakan oleh developer aplikasi agar project dapat dikerjakan dalam waktu yang singkat sebagai acuan yang dipakai dalam metode pengembangan sistem.

Berikut merupakan tahapan RAD pada model pengembangan sistem: [4] • Rencana Kebutuhan (Requirement Planning): User dan analyst melakukan pertemuan untuk mengidentifikasi tujuan dari sistem dan kebutuhan informasi untuk mencapai tujuan. Pada tahap ini merupakan hal terpenting yaitu adanya keterlibatan dari kedua belah pihak. • Proses Desain Sistem (Design System): Pada tahap ini keaktifan user yang terlibat menentukan untuk mencapai tujuan karena pada proses ini melakukan proses desain dan melakukan perbaikan-perbaikan apabila masih metode rad ketidaksesuaian desain antara user dan analyst.

Seorang user dapat langsung memberikan komentar apabila terdapat ketidaksesuaian pada desain, merancang sistem dengan mengacu pada dokumentasi kebutuhan user yang dibuat pada tahap sebelumnya.

Keluaran dari tahapan ini adalah spesifikasi software yang meliputi organisasi sistem secara umum, struktur data dan yang lain.

• Implementasi (Implementation): Tahapan ini adalah tahapan programmer yang mengembangkan desain suatu program yang telah disetujui oleh user dan analyst. Sebelum diaplikasikan pada suatu organisasi terlebih dahulu dilakukan proses pengujian terhadap program tersebut apakah ada kesalahan atau tidak.

Pada tahap ini user biasa memberikan tanggapan akan sistem yang sudah dibuat serta mendapat persetujuan mengenai sistem tersebut. Pengembangan agile [ metode rad - sunting sumber ] • ^ Britton, Carol (2001). Object-Oriented Systems Development. McGraw-Hill. hlm. 27. ISBN 0-07-709544-8. Parameter -coauthors= yang tidak diketahui mengabaikan ( -author= yang disarankan) ( bantuan) • ^ Jogiyanto. (2008). Analisis dan Desain Sistem Informasi : Pendekatan Terstruktur Teori dan Praktek Aplikasi Bisnis (TH.2008).

Yogyakarta: Andi. • ^ Pressman, R.S. 2015. Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak: Pendekatan Praktisi Buku I. Andi.

Yogyakarta • ^ Safrian Aswati, Yessica Siagian, Model Rapid Application Development Dalam Rancang Sistem Informasi Pemasaran Rumah (Studi Kasus:Perum Perumnas Cabang Medan), Seminar Nasional Sistem Informasi Indonesia, 1 November 2016 • Pemodelan data • Arsitektur perusahaan • Spesifikasi fungsional • Bahasa pemodelan • Paradigma pemrograman • Perangkat lunak • Arsitektur perangkat lunak • Metodologi pengembangan perangkat lunak • Proses pengembangan perangkat lunak • Kualitas perangkat lunak • Jaminan kualitas perangkat lunak • Arkeologi perangkat lunak • Analisis terstruktur Orientasi • Kent Beck • Grady Booch • Fred Brooks • Barry Boehm • Peter Chen • Ward Cunningham • Ole-Johan Dahl • Tom DeMarco • Martin Fowler • C.

A. R. Hoare • Watts Humphrey • Michael A. Jackson • Ivar Jacobson • James Martin • Bertrand Meyer • David Parnas • Winston W. Royce • Colette Rolland • James Rumbaugh • Niklaus Wirth metode rad Edward Yourdon • Victor Basili Bidang terkait Kategori tersembunyi: • Halaman dengan rujukan yang menggunakan parameter yang tidak didukung • Semua artikel perlu dikembangkan • Artikel yang menggunakan kotak pesan kecil • Artikel yang perlu dikembangkan Desember 2021 • Semua artikel rintisan • Rintisan bertopik teknologi informasi • Semua artikel rintisan Desember 2021 • Halaman ini terakhir diubah pada 6 Desember 2021, pukul 01.24.

• Teks tersedia di bawah Lisensi Metode rad Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa; ketentuan tambahan mungkin berlaku. Lihat Ketentuan Penggunaan untuk lebih jelasnya. • Kebijakan privasi • Tentang Wikipedia • Penyangkalan • Tampilan seluler • Pengembang • Statistik • Pernyataan kuki • •

Paparan Metode Rapid Application Development (RAD)