Martial master episode 173 sub indo

martial master episode 173 sub indo

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Characters of the Marvel Cinematic Universe" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( October 2021) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article does not follow Wikipedia's guidelines on the use of different tenses.

Please consider copy editing to use past tense if historic, present tense if not time-based (e.g. fiction), or future tense if upcoming. ( November 2021) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) DVD artwork displaying various Infinity Saga protagonists with Thanos in the martial master episode 173 sub indo The Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) is an American media franchise and shared universe that involves productions of superhero films and television series.

These productions star various titular superheroes; they are independently produced by Marvel Studios and are based on characters that appear in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The shared universe, much like the original Marvel Universe in comic books, was established by crossing over common plots, settings, casts, and characters.

Contents • 1 Central characters • 1.1 Bruce Banner / Hulk • 1.2 Bucky Barnes / Winter Soldier / White Wolf • 1.3 Clint Barton / Hawkeye / Ronin • 1.4 Peggy Carter • 1.5 Phil Coulson • 1.6 Carol Danvers / Captain Marvel • 1.7 Drax • 1.8 Nick Fury • 1.9 Gamora • 1.10 Groot • 1.11 Ikaris • 1.12 Scott Lang / Ant-Man • 1.13 Loki • 1.14 Mantis • 1.15 Wanda Maximoff / Scarlet Witch • 1.16 Nebula • 1.17 Okoye • 1.18 Peter Parker / Spider-Man • 1.19 Pepper Potts • 1.20 Peter Quill / Star-Lord • 1.21 James Rhodes / War Machine • 1.22 Rocket • 1.23 Steve Rogers / Captain America • 1.24 Natasha Romanoff / Black Widow • 1.25 Sersi • 1.26 Shang-Chi • 1.27 Shuri • 1.28 Marc Spector / Moon Knight • 1.29 Tony Stark / Iron Man • 1.30 Doctor Stephen Strange • 1.31 T'Challa / Black Panther • 1.32 Thanos • 1.33 Thor • 1.34 Valkyrie • 1.35 Hope van Dyne / Wasp • 1.36 Vision • 1.37 Watcher • 1.38 Sam Wilson / Falcon / Captain America • 1.39 Wong • 2 Supporting characters • 2.1 Ajak • 2.2 Liz Allan • 2.3 Ancient One • 2.4 Ayo • 2.5 Quentin Beck / Mysterio • 2.6 Yelena Belova / Black Widow • 2.7 Kate Bishop • 2.8 Emil Blonsky / Abomination • 2.9 Sharon Carter / Agent 13 / Power Broker • 2.10 America Chavez • 2.11 Darren Cross / Yellowjacket • 2.12 Max Dillon / Electro • 2.13 Antonia Dreykov / Taskmaster • 2.14 Druig • 2.15 Ego • 2.16 Layla El-Faouly / Scarlet Scarab • 2.17 Fandral • 2.18 Jane Foster • 2.19 Frigga • 2.20 Gilgamesh • 2.21 Grandmaster • 2.22 Justin Hammer • 2.23 Agatha Harkness • 2.24 Arthur Harrow • 2.25 Heimdall • 2.26 Hela • 2.27 Maria Hill • 2.28 Happy Hogan • 2.29 Hogun • 2.30 J.

Jonah Jameson • 2.31 Michelle "MJ" Jones-Watson • 2.32 Kaecilius • 2.33 Katy • 2.34 Aldrich Killian • 2.35 Kingo • 2.36 Ulysses Klaue • 2.37 Korg • 2.38 Cassie Lang • 2.39 Laufey • 2.40 Ned Leeds • 2.41 Darcy Lewis • 2.42 Maya Lopez • 2.43 Luis • 2.44 Makkari • 2.45 Malekith • 2.46 Ebony Maw • 2.47 Pietro Maximoff • 2.48 M'Baku • 2.49 Mobius M.

Mobius • 2.50 Karl Mordo • 2.51 Karli Morgenthau • 2.52 Nakia • 2.53 N'Jadaka / Erik "Killmonger" Stevens • 2.54 Kraglin Obfonteri • 2.55 Otto Octavius / Doctor Octopus • 2.56 Odin • 2.57 Norman Osborn / Green Goblin • 2.58 Christine Palmer • 2.59 May Parker • 2.60 Peter Parker / Spider-Man / "Peter-Two" • 2.61 Peter Parker / Spider-Man / "Peter-Three" • 2.62 Phastos • 2.63 Alexander Pierce • 2.64 Hank Pym / Ant-Man • 2.65 Monica Rambeau • 2.66 Ramonda • 2.67 Ronan the Accuser • 2.68 Everett K.

Ross • 2.69 Thaddeus Ross • 2.70 Brock Rumlow • 2.71 Johann Schmidt / Red Skull • 2.72 Erik Selvig • 2.73 Sif • 2.74 Trevor Slattery • 2.75 Sprite • 2.76 Obadiah Stane • 2.77 Howard Stark • 2.78 Ava Starr / Ghost • 2.79 Wolfgang von Strucker • 2.80 Sylvie • 2.81 Talos • 2.82 T'Chaka / Black Panther • 2.83 Thena • 2.84 Flash Thompson • 2.85 Taneleer Tivan / Collector • 2.86 Adrian Toomes / Vulture • 2.87 Yondu Udonta • 2.88 Ultron • 2.89 Janet van Dyne / Wasp • 2.90 Ivan Vanko / Whiplash • 2.91 Volstagg • 2.92 John Walker / Captain America / U.S.

Agent • 2.93 Wenwu • 2.94 Jimmy Woo • 2.95 Xu Xialing • 2.96 Yon-Rogg • 2.97 Helmut Zemo • 2.98 Arnim Zola • 3 Minor characters • 3.1 Introduced in Phase One • 3.2 Introduced in Phase Two • 3.3 Introduced in Phase Three • 3.4 Introduced in Phase Four • 3.5 Introduced in Marvel Television series • 4 Teams and organizations • 5 Species • 6 Marvel Television characters • 7 Reception • 8 See also • 9 Notes • 10 References Central characters [ edit ] (top, L to R) Chris Pratt, Zoe Saldaña, Dave Bautista, (bottom, L to R) Vin Diesel, and Bradley Cooper, portray the first five Guardians of the Galaxy in the MCU and play a central role in the films.

[1] The film and television series of the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) feature numerous central characters across its phases. The first three phases are collectively known as "The Infinity Saga", and are followed by Phase Four. Phase One is centered on six individuals who become the Avengers— – Tony Stark, Steve Rogers, Thor, Bruce Banner, Natasha Romanoff, and Clint Barton. Other central characters include Nick Fury, the leader of S.H.I.E.L.D., Phil Coulson, a high-ranking S.H.I.E.L.D.

agent, and Loki, Thor's adopted brother whose plans to achieve world domination prompt Fury to assemble the Avengers. [2] Phase Two centers on the six original Avengers and Fury once again, though this time along with new members James Rhodes (introduced in Phase One as a supporting character), Sam Wilson and Wanda Maximoff (both introduced in Captain America and the Winter Soldier), and the Vision (created by Tony Stark and Bruce Banner in Avengers: Age of Ultron).

This phase also introduces Scott Lang (Ant-Man) and the Guardians of the Galaxy, which include Peter Quill, Gamora, Rocket, Groot, and Drax. [2] Phase Three brings back every central character of Phase One and Phase Two. It begins with a civil war between the Avengers caused by the ideological differences between Captain America and Iron Man; they are joined by Bucky Barnes (introduced in Phase One), Scott Lang, T'Challa (Black Panther), and Peter Parker (Spider-Man).

Nick Fury's origin is revealed while Loki's antagonistic role shifts to a more neutral one, with Thanos (introduced in Phase One) becoming this phase's main antagonist. Hope van Dyne (introduced in Phase Two) joins Scott Lang as his superhero partner ( Ant-Man and the Wasp), Stephen Strange and Wong are introduced as members of the Masters of the Mystic Arts ( Doctor Strange), and Mantis and Nebula join the Guardians of the Galaxy ( Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.

2). Female characters are given more screen time, particularly in the phase's penultimate film Avengers: Endgame, which gives a heroic role to supporting character Pepper Potts (as Rescue), Okoye (introduced in Black Panther), Shuri (introduced in Black Panther), Valkyrie (introduced in Thor: Ragnarok), and Carol Danvers (introduced in Captain Marvel).

[2] [3] Meanwhile, Steve Rogers returns to the martial master episode 173 sub indo and reunites with Peggy Carter (introduced in Captain America: The First Avenger).

This phase concludes the story arcs of Stark, Rogers, Romanoff, Loki, Gamora, and Thanos. Alternate and past versions of those characters return in the next phase to varying degrees. Phase Four deals with the fallout of the Infinity Saga on the lives of the remaining Avengers, while introducing new heroes such as Shang-Chi, Marc Spector and Steven Grant (Moon Knight and Mr. Knight), and the Eternals (including Sersi and Ikaris). Natasha Romanoff's backstory ( Black Widow) and Peter Parker facing the consequences of Spider-Man's secret identity being publicly revealed are explored ( Spider-Man: No Way Home), Wanda Maximoff learns to unlock her full power as the Scarlet Witch and the consequences of doing so ( WandaVision) which eventually leads her into conflict with Strange ( Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness), Sam Wilson grapples with the difficulties of becoming the next Captain America accompanied by Bucky Barnes ( The Falcon and the Winter Soldier), and Clint Barton passes the mantle of Hawkeye on to a young protégé named Kate Bishop martial master episode 173 sub indo Hawkeye).

The 2012 variant of Loki introduced in Endgame is given an eponymous series, which further explores the concept of the Multiverse, as presented in What If.? by the Watcher.

Bruce Banner / Hulk [ edit ] Main article: Bruce Banner (Marvel Cinematic Universe) Dr. Bruce Banner (initially portrayed by Edward Norton and subsequently by Mark Ruffalo) [4] is a founding member of the Avengers and a genius physicist who, because of exposure to gamma radiation, transforms into a green monster—known as the Hulk—when enraged or agitated.

When transformed he demonstrates superhuman strength and endurance. [5] [6] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in nine films: The Incredible Hulk, The Avengers, Iron Man 3 (post-credits cameo), Avengers: Age of Ultron, Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, Captain Marvel (mid-credits cameo), Avengers: Endgame and Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings (mid-credits cameo); as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage) and the animated series What If.?.

[7] [8] He will return in the upcoming Disney+ series She-Hulk. [9] Bucky Barnes / Winter Soldier / White Wolf [ edit ] Sebastian Stan in 2019 James Buchanan "Bucky" Barnes (portrayed by Sebastian Stan), also known as the Winter Soldier and White Wolf, is Steve Rogers' childhood best friend and confidant. [10] During World War II, Barnes serves as a sergeant in the United States Army and as a member of Rogers' squad of commandos, where he is supposedly killed in action.

Captured by and experimented on by Hydra scientists, Barnes is kept in suspended animation, reemerging in the modern world as an enhanced brainwashed assassin, known as the Winter Soldier. [11] In 2016, he befriends Rogers' new friend Sam Wilson and eventually finds refuge in Wakanda where he gets cured from his brainwashing. In 2024, he becomes Wilson's partner. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in seven films: Captain America: The First Avenger, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Ant-Man (post-credits cameo), Captain America: Civil War, Black Panther (post-credits cameo), Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier [12] and the animated series What If.?.

[9] Clint Barton / Hawkeye / Ronin [ edit ] Main article: Clint Barton (Marvel Cinematic Universe) Clinton Francis "Clint" Barton (portrayed by Jeremy Renner), [13] also known by his alter ego Hawkeye and briefly as the Ronin, [14] is a former S.H.I.E.L.D. agent and a founding member of the Avengers with the abilities of an expert marksman and hand-to-hand combatant, with his preferred weapon being a compound bow and a variety of trick arrows.

[15] [16] [17] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in five films: Thor (cameo), The Avengers, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage) and the animated series What If.?. [9] Renner reprises the character in the eponymous Disney+ series Hawkeye, which sees him eventually pass the mantle of Hawkeye to Kate Bishop.

[18] [19] [20] Peggy Carter [ edit ] Hayley Atwell in 2017 Margaret "Peggy" Carter (portrayed by Hayley Atwell) is a high-ranking officer and agent of the Strategic Scientific Reserve and one of the co-founders of S.H.I.E.L.D.

This version is depicted as a brunette British agent rather than a blonde American. She is depicted as Steve Rogers' romantic interest and later stars in her own short film and TV series. [21] [22] [23] She dies off-screen in Captain America: Civil War, while an alternate version of her from the 1940s and the 1970s appears in Avengers: Endgame. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in five films: Captain America: The First Avenger, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Ant-Man (cameo), and Avengers: Endgame; one Marvel One-Shot: Agent Carter; and two TV series: Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

and Agent Carter. An alternate version of the character appears in the Disney+ animated series What If.?, during which she receives the Super Soldier Serum and becomes a super soldier known as Captain Carter. [9] A similar variant also appeared in Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness as a member of the Illuminati in Earth-838, before being killed by the Scarlet Witch. Phil Coulson [ edit ] Clark Gregg in 2019 Phillip J. "Phil" Coulson (portrayed by Clark Gregg) is an original character created for the MCU.

Coulson was created by Mark Fergus, Hawk Ostby, Art Marcum and Matt Holloway and first appears in the MCU in the film Iron Man. [24] [25] Coulson is the first S.H.I.E.L.D. agent introduced in the MCU. Throughout the films, Coulson is generally depicted as a supporting figure used to represent S.H.I.E.L.D.'s presence. He plays prominent roles in some of the Marvel One-Shots short films.

[26] Coulson then becomes the leading character in Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Though he is killed by Loki in The Avengers, it is revealed that he was brought back to life using the T.A.H.I.T.I. project. [27] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in five films: Iron Man, Iron Man 2, Thor, The Avengers and Captain Marvel; two Marvel One-Shots: The Consultant and A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to Thor's Hammer; three TV series: Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D., Loki (archival footage), and the animated series What If.?; and a web series: Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: Slingshot.

Carol Danvers / Captain Marvel [ edit ] Brie Larson in 2018 Carol "Avenger" Danvers (portrayed by Brie Larson), also known as Vers and Captain Marvel, is a former Air Force test pilot who acquires cosmic energy force powers from the Tesseract after an explosion that wipes out her memory.

The Kree decide to keep her as their own as a weapon against the Skrulls. In 1995, she traces her true origins to Earth where she meets and befriends Nick Fury before leaving for space with the Skrulls. In 2018, following the Blip, she returns to Earth and by 2023, has joined the Avengers.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Captain Marvel, Avengers: Endgame, and Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings (mid-credits); as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?, voiced by Alexandra Daniels. She martial master episode 173 sub indo return in the upcoming film The Marvels. [28] Drax [ edit ] Main article: Drax (Marvel Cinematic Universe) Drax (portrayed by Dave Bautista), also known as Drax the Destroyer, is a Kylosian [29] warrior and member of the Guardians of the Galaxy who seeks vengeance for the loss of his family, based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

Originally he seeks to avenge his family by killing Ronan, but after Ronan's death, his mission becomes defeating Thanos. Despite his rough exterior and tragic backstory, he commonly serves as comedic relief, and his lines within the franchise have often been used as internet memes. [30] [31] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in four films: Guardians of the Galaxy, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?, voiced by Fred Tatasciore.

[32] [28] He will return in the upcoming films Thor: Love and Thunder and Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 3, as well as The Guardians of the Galaxy Holiday Special.

Nick Fury [ edit ] Samuel L. Jackson in 2017 Nicholas Joseph "Nick" Fury (portrayed by Samuel L. Jackson) is the former director of S.H.I.E.L.D. and is responsible for the formation of the Avengers. Fury first appears in the MCU in the film Iron Man in a martial master episode 173 sub indo scene cameo. [33] [34] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in eleven films: Iron Man (post-credits cameo), Iron Man 2, Thor, Captain America: The First Avenger (cameo), The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Avengers: Infinity War (post-credits cameo), Captain Marvel, Avengers: Endgame (cameo), and Spider-Man: Far From Home; as well as two episodes of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: " 0-8-4" and " Beginning of the End" and the animated series of What If.?.

[9] He will return in the upcoming films The Marvels and Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania, as well as in the Disney+ live-action series Secret Invasion. Gamora [ edit ] Main article: Gamora (Marvel Cinematic Universe) Gamora (portrayed by Zoe Saldaña) is a Zehoberei assassin and member of the Guardians of the Galaxy, who was forcibly adopted by Thanos after he eliminated half of her planet's race, including her mother.

She appears as a member of the Guardians of the Galaxy, eventually finding love with Quill as seen in Guardians of the Galaxy and Guardians of the Galaxy: Vol. 2. [35] She is later captured by Thanos and taken to Vormir where she is killed so Thanos can receive the Soul Stone. Ariana Greenblatt portrays a young Gamora in Infinity War in a flashback, as well as when she is with Thanos in the Soul Stone's 'Soul World'.

A version of the character from the 2014 alternate timeline, also played by Saldaña, travels with her father Thanos to 2023 to fight the Avengers. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in four films: Guardians of the Galaxy, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.

2, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as in the Disney+ animated series What If.?, voiced by Cynthia McWilliams. She will return in the upcoming film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.

3, as well as The Guardians of the Galaxy Holiday Special. [28] Groot [ edit ] Main article: Groot (Marvel Cinematic Universe) Groot (voiced by Vin Diesel and portrayed [via motion capture] by Diesel, Krystian Godlewski, Sean Gunn, James Gunn, and Terry Notary) is the name of a tree-like humanoid ( Flora colossus) and member of the Guardians of the Galaxy.

[36] He has a limited vocabulary, using only his popular catchphrase "I am Groot", although he later managed to say the phrase "We are Groot" before sacrificing his life for the Guardians of the Galaxy in the battle with Ronan for the Power Stone. He was then "reborn" as a different version of Groot in Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 and has a role in Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in four films: Guardians of the Galaxy, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.

2, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame. He will return in the upcoming films Thor: Love and Thunder and Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 3, as well as The Guardians of the Galaxy Holiday Special.

He will also star in a series of shorts titled I Am Groot on Disney+. Ikaris [ edit ] See also: Ikaris Ikaris (portrayed by Richard Madden) is an Eternal who can fly, project cosmic energy beams from his eyes, and has superhuman strength.

He was also Sersi's romantic partner before leaving her thousands of years ago. In 2024, he feeds Ajak to the Deviants before reuniting with the rest of the Eternals on Earth, betraying the team in order to uphold Arishem's instructions. However, he is unable to bring himself to kill Sersi and fails to prevent the Eternals from stopping Tiamut's "emergence". Guilt-ridden, he commits suicide by flying into the Sun. [37] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Eternals.

Scott Lang / Ant-Man [ edit ] Paul Rudd in 2018 Scott Lang (portrayed by Paul Rudd), also known as Ant-Man, is an Avenger and former petty criminal who acquired a suit from Hank Pym that allows him to shrink or grow in scale while also increasing in strength, as well as the ability to communicate with different species of ants.

He is also the father of Cassie Lang. In 2018, he helps Pym and his daughter Hope van Dyne (his love interest) release Janet van Dyne from the Quantum Realm. He is later stranded in the Realm. In 2023, he is released and joins the Avengers to reverse the Blip. [38] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in four films: Ant-Man, Captain America: Civil War, Ant-Man and the Wasp, and Avengers: Endgame, as well as the WHIH Newsfront viral marketing campaign and in the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

He will return in the upcoming film Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania. [9] Loki [ edit ] Tom Hiddleston at the 2017 San Diego Comic-Con International. Loki Laufeyson [39] (portrayed by Tom Hiddleston), known by adoption as Loki Odinson and by his title as the God of Mischief, [40] [41] is an Asgardian prince and warrior inspired by the Norse mythological deity of the same name.

As in the comics, Loki has generally been a villain in martial master episode 173 sub indo MCU, variously attempting to conquer Asgard or Earth, and allying himself martial master episode 173 sub indo more powerful villains to achieve his aims.

He has particular antagonism for his brother Thor, and is known to variously ally with and then betray Thor and others, and regularly return from apparent death. Later on in his development in the films, he becomes less of a supervillain and more of an anti-hero. [42] Following his death at the hands of Thanos in 2018, an alternate version of him from 2012 first appears in Avengers: Endgame and reappears as the main character in Loki.

The character is often noted as being a fan favorite. [43] [44] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in six films: Thor, The Avengers, Thor: The Dark World, Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ series Loki and the animated series What If.?.

[12] [9] Mantis [ edit ] Pom Klementieff in 2019 Mantis (portrayed by Pom Klementieff) is a member of the Guardians of the Galaxy with empathic powers.

The character is introduced in Guardians of the Galaxy: Vol. 2 as an alien ward of Ego with the power to sense and control the emotions of people by touch.

She is commonly depicted as having a naive and innocent personality. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Guardians of the Galaxy: Vol. 2, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame, as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [45] She will return in the upcoming films Thor: Love and Thunder and Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 3, as well as The Guardians of the Galaxy Holiday Special.

Wanda Maximoff / Scarlet Witch [ edit ] Elizabeth Olsen in 2019 Wanda Maximoff (portrayed by Elizabeth Olsen), also known as the Scarlet Witch, is a member of the Avengers with hypnosis and telekinesis abilities obtained from the Mind Stone, and chaos magic powers that she has had since birth.

She is the twin sister of Pietro Maximoff and was the lover of Vision. [46] [47] [48] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in six films: Captain America: The Winter Soldier (mid-credits cameo), Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Avengers: Infinity War, Avengers: Endgame and Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Martial master episode 173 sub indo as well as the Disney+ series WandaVision and the animated series What If.?.

[28] [47] Nebula [ edit ] Karen Gillan in 2019 Nebula (portrayed by Karen Gillan) is an Avenger, member of the Guardians of the Galaxy and martial master episode 173 sub indo lieutenant of Thanos, who raised her as his daughter along with Gamora. Nebula was created by Roger Stern and John Buscema and first appears in the film Guardians martial master episode 173 sub indo the Galaxy as Ronan's accomplice.

Eventually, Nebula teams up with the Guardians of the Galaxy and then joins the Avengers to defeat her foster father. Though the current version of her joins the Avengers, a past version allies with Thanos to stop the Avengers. This is due to fear, causing the present Nebula to have to kill her past counterpart.

[49] [2] As of 2022 [update], the character martial master episode 173 sub indo appeared in four films: Guardians of the Galaxy, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.

2, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame. An alternate version of the character sometimes dubbed " Heist Nebula" appears in the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [9] She will return in the upcoming films Thor: Love and Thunder and Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 3, as well as The Guardians of the Galaxy Holiday Special.

Okoye [ edit ] Danai Gurira in 2019 Okoye (portrayed by Danai Gurira) is a Wakandan warrior and the general of the Dora Milaje. She fights on T'Challa's martial master episode 173 sub indo when N'Jadaka plots to usurp the throne and fights alongside the Avengers to combat Thanos and his army. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Black Panther, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

[50] : 2 She will return in the upcoming film Black Panther: Wakanda Forever. Peter Parker / Spider-Man [ edit ] Tom Holland in 2018 Peter Parker (portrayed by Tom Holland), also known by his alias Spider-Man, is an Avenger and high school teenager who received spider-like abilities after being bitten by a radioactive spider.

He first appears in Captain America: Civil War, although his introduction is later retconned as a child who wears an Iron Man helmet mask in Iron Man 2. He is depicted as a protégé of Tony Stark. Portrayed as a student at Midtown School of Science and Technology alongside Ned Leeds and MJ and being raised originally by May Parker, Parker's role within the cinematic universe is depicted as struggling to maintain a double life as the superhero, Spider-Man, and living his normal life as Parker.

Holland is the third to portray Spider-Man in live-action theatrical films; preceding him was Tobey Maguire in Sam Raimi's film series and Andrew Garfield in The Amazing Spider-Man film series. In Spider-Man: No Way Home, the other Peter Parkers enter the MCU, as they exist in a parallel universe within the multiverse.

He is referred to as "Peter-One" during the film to help distinguish himself from the other characters named Peter Parker. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in seven films: Iron Man 2 ( retroactive cameo), [51] Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War, Avengers: Endgame, Spider-Man: Far From Home, and Spider-Man: No Way Home; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?, voiced by Hudson Thames, and the web series The Daily Bugle.

[52] [53] The character will appear in the Disney+ animated series Spider-Man: Freshman Year. [54] Holland makes a cameo appearance as Parker in Sony's Spider-Man Universe (SSU) film Venom: Let There Be Carnage (2021).

Pepper Potts [ edit ] Gwyneth Paltrow in 2011 Virginia "Pepper" Potts (portrayed by Gwyneth Paltrow) is the wife of Tony Stark and the mother of Morgan Stark. [55] [56] [57] She is initially the assistant to Tony Stark, later in the franchise being instated as CEO of Stark Industries.

She is friends with fellow supporting characters in the Iron Man series James Rhodes and Happy Hogan. Potts and Stark's relationship is initially professional in Iron Man, but develops romantically throughout the series and they are engaged by the time of Avengers: Infinity War. The two are married and have a child during the events of Avengers: Endgame, where she is also later widowed.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in seven films: Iron Man, Iron Man 2, The Avengers, Iron Man 3, Spider-Man: Homecoming (cameo), Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?, voiced by Beth Hoyt. [28] Peter Quill / Star-Lord [ edit ] Main article: Peter Quill (Marvel Cinematic Universe) Peter Jason Quill (portrayed by Chris Pratt [58]) is the half-human, half-celestial leader of the Guardians of the Galaxy who is abducted from Missouri as a child by a group of alien mercenaries called the Ravagers, where he adopts the self-proclaimed outlaw identity known as Star-Lord.

He later discovers his long lost father, Ego, whom he and the rest of the Guardians must defeat after learning of his plan to eliminate all life. [59] He and the rest of the Guardians join with the Avengers to battle Thanos in Avengers: Infinity War and Avengers: Endgame. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in four films: Guardians of the Galaxy, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.

2, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?, voiced by Brian T. Delaney. [32] He will return in the upcoming films Thor: Love and Thunder and Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 3, [60] [61] as well as The Guardians of the Galaxy Holiday Special. James Rhodes / War Machine [ edit ] Don Cheadle in 2019 James "Rhodey" Rhodes (initially portrayed by Terrence Howard and subsequently by Don Cheadle) is an Avenger and lieutenant colonel in the United States Air Force where he operates the War Machine armor and acts as the military's chief liaison to Stark Industries' weapons division.

[62] [63] [64] Rhodes is a close confidant of Tony Stark's and from that relationship, he eventually becomes a major member of the Avengers. During the events of Iron Man 3, the War Machine armor is briefly renamed Iron Patriot. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in eight films: Iron Man, Iron Man 2, Iron Man 3, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Avengers: Infinity War, Captain Marvel (mid-credits cameo), and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier and the animated series What If.?.

[50] : 2 He will return in the upcoming Disney+ series Armor Wars and Secret Invasion. Rocket [ edit ] Main article: Rocket (Marvel Cinematic Universe) Rocket (voiced by Bradley Cooper) is an Avenger and member of the Guardians of the Galaxy who is a hot-tempered Halfworlder mercenary and master of weapons. [65] Rocket is based on movement from Sean Gunn and also real-life behavior of an actual raccoon called Oreo.

[66] In 2018, he survives the Blip and due to his friendship with Thor, becomes a member of the Avengers. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in four films: Guardians of the Galaxy, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.

2, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame, as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [45] He will return in the upcoming films Thor: Love and Thunder and Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 3, as well as The Guardians of the Galaxy Holiday Special. Steve Rogers / Captain America [ edit ] Main article: Steve Rogers (Marvel Cinematic Universe) Steven Grant "Steve" Rogers (portrayed by Chris Evans [67]) is a founding member of the Avengers and World War II-era U.S.

Army soldier who, after being enhanced to the peak of human physiology by an experimental "super soldier" serum, becomes known as Captain America. During his service in the European Theatre of the war against Hydra, Rogers is frozen in suspended animation and wakes up in the modern world, 70 years later, becoming a formative member and leader of the Avengers.

At the end of Avengers: Endgame, he retires and passes his shield to Sam Wilson. He is implied to have died after Endgame in Spider-Man: Far From Home. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in eleven films: Captain America: The First Avenger, The Avengers, Thor: The Dark World (cameo), Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Ant-Man (post-credits cameo), Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming (cameo), Avengers: Infinity War, Captain Marvel (mid-credits cameo), and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage).

An alternate version of the character appears in the Disney+ animated series What If.?, voiced by Josh Keaton. [68] This version does not take the Super Soldier Serum and dons a suit of armor made by Howard Stark dubbed the " Hydra Stomper". [28] Natasha Romanoff / Black Widow [ edit ] Main article: Natasha Romanoff (Marvel Cinematic Universe) Natalia Alianovna "Natasha" Romanoff (portrayed by Scarlett Johansson), [69] known by her alter ego Black Widow, is a founding member of the Avengers and spy highly trained in hand-to-hand combat.

She trained in the Red Room in Russia from childhood, until she joined the counter-terrorism agency S.H.I.E.L.D. In 2011, she is sent to spy on Tony Stark by Nick Fury under the alias Natalie Rushman, and the next year, she is recruited by Fury to become one of the formative members of the Avengers. In 2023, she sacrifices herself on Vormir in order for Hawkeye to retrieve the Soul Stone.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in ten films: Iron Man 2, The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Thor: Ragnarok (archival footage), Avengers: Infinity War, Captain Marvel (mid-credits cameo), Avengers: Endgame, and Black Widow; as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage) and What If.?, in which she is voiced by Lake Bell.

[70] [28] Sersi [ edit ] Gemma Chan in 2018 Sersi (portrayed by Gemma Chan) is an Eternal with an affinity for humankind who is very empathetic and has the ability to manipulate matter. She has been in love with Ikaris for centuries and poses as a museum curator on Earth.

Chan previously portrays Minn-Erva in the film Captain Marvel. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Eternals. Shang-Chi [ edit ] Letitia Wright at the 2017 San Diego Comic-Con Shuri (portrayed by Letitia Wright) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Reginald Hudlin and John Romita Jr. She first appears in the film Black Panther, portrayed as T'Challa's courageous and brilliantly tech-savvy younger sister of Wakanda.

She is responsible for the weapons and other tech that T'Challa uses to battle his opponents, and in charge of deprogramming Bucky Barnes. In 2018, when Thanos' forces attack, she meets a few of the Avengers and is tasked to remove the Mind Stone from Vision. However, she is unable to complete the removal in time and falls victim to the Blip. In 2023, she is restored to life and fights in the final battle against Thanos and his army.

She attends Tony Stark's funeral and returns home to Wakanda, reuniting with her mother. Shuri has been widely compared to the James Bond character Q. [71] [72] [73] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Black Panther, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?, voiced by Ozioma Akagha. [28] She will return in the upcoming film Black Panther: Wakanda Forever.

Marc Spector / Moon Knight [ edit ] Oscar Isaac at the 2015 San Diego Comic-Con Marc Spector (portrayed by Oscar Isaac) is an American mercenary with dissociative identity disorder (DID) who becomes Moon Knight, the avatar of the Egyptian moon god Khonshu to violently protect "the travellers of the night." Among his various identities are a British museum worker named Steven Grant, who becomes Mr.

Knight when serving as Khonshu's avatar, and the rich Spanish-speaking Jake Lockley, Khonshu's favored avatar and friend. He is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Doug Moench and Don Perlin.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in the Disney+ series Moon Knight. Tony Stark / Iron Man [ edit ] Main article: Tony Stark (Marvel Cinematic Universe) Anthony Edward "Tony" Stark (portrayed by Robert Downey Jr. [74]) is a founding member of the Avengers and self-described genius, billionaire, playboy, and philanthropist with electromechanical suits of armor of his own invention, and is commonly known by his alter ego Iron Man.

Stark is introduced as an egotistical industrialist, CEO of Stark Industries, and chief weapons manufacturer for the U.S. military, until he has a change of heart and redirects his technical knowledge into the creation of mechanized suits of armor which he uses to defend against those that would threaten peace around the world. [2] Stark then becomes an major formative member and benefactor of the Avengers. He dies at the end of Avengers: Endgame after using the Infinity Gauntlet to defeat Thanos.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in eleven films: Iron Man, The Incredible Hulk (cameo), Iron Man 2, The Avengers, Iron Man 3, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War, Avengers: Endgame and Spider-Man: Far From Home (archival footage); the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage) and the animated series What If.?, in which he is voiced by Mick Wingert; [28] as well as the Marvel One-Shot The Consultant.

Doctor Stephen Strange [ edit ] Benedict Cumberbatch in 2019 Dr. Stephen Strange (portrayed by Benedict Cumberbatch), known also by his academic title as Doctor Strange, is a powerful sorcerer and former neurosurgeon who, after a car accident that leads to a journey of healing, discovers the hidden world of magic and alternate dimensions, and becomes a Master of the Mystic Arts and the guardian of the New York Sanctum.

In 2018, Strange becomes a victim of the Blip, but is eventually revived in 2023. As of 2022, the character has appeared in six films: Doctor Strange, Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, Avengers: Endgame, Spider-Man: No Way Home and Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness.

Versions of Strange in alternate timelines appear in the Disney+ animated series What If.?, including a darker version known as Doctor Strange Supreme, and in Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness.

[75] [50] : 2 T'Challa / Black Panther [ edit ] Chadwick Boseman in 2017 T'Challa (portrayed by Chadwick Boseman) is the protector of Wakanda, known as the Black Panther, a highly skilled warrior who gains enhanced strength and agility by ingesting the vibranium-enriched heart-shaped herb. Following the death of his father, T'Challa ascends the throne and becomes the king of Wakanda.

His suit is also made of vibranium. After the death of Boseman in August 2020, Kevin Feige announced that the character would not be recast for the upcoming Black Panther sequel, leaving T'Challa's fate unknown. [76] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in four films: Captain America: Civil War, Black Panther, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame. Alternate versions of the character appears in the Disney+ animated series What If.?

including one where he takes the mantle of Star-Lord instead of Peter Quill. [9] [77] Thanos [ edit ] Josh Brolin in 2016 Thanos (portrayed initially by Damion Poitier and subsequently by Josh Brolin via motion capture) [78] is an intergalactic warlord from Titan with a personal quest of seeking all six Infinity Stones to destroy half of all life for the sake of balancing the universe's finite resources.

Thanos first appears during the post-credits of The Avengers. [79] [80] After Thanos succeeds in collecting the Infinity Stones and destroying half the universe, Thor decapitates him. A version of the character from the 2014 alternate timeline, also played by Brolin, learns of the Avengers' 'Time Heist' plot, and time travels to take on the Avengers and destroy the universe, in order to create a new one. He is later defeated by Tony Stark who uses the Infinity Stones, and is wiped out of existence along with his army.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in six films: The Avengers (mid-credits cameo), Guardians of the Galaxy, Avengers: Age of Ultron (mid-credits cameo), Avengers: Infinity War, Avengers: Endgame, and Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness (cameo); as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage) and the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

[9] Thor [ edit ] Main article: Thor (Marvel Cinematic Universe) Thor Odinson (portrayed by Chris Hemsworth) is an Avenger and one of the most powerful of the Asgardian race. He is also known as the " God of Thunder". [81] Unlike his comic book version, the MCU version of Thor has no human "alter ego". [82] Thor fights with a hammer, Mjölnir, which can channel Thor's ability to wield lightning. After Mjölnir is destroyed in the events of Thor: Ragnarok, however, Thor helps forge Stormbreaker, an axe channeling the Bifrost, allowing him to effectively travel across the universe at will.

Following Thanos' defeat and subsequent death after Tony Stark sacrifices himself in Avengers: Endgame, Thor attends Stark's funeral before leaving Earth and joining the Guardians of the Galaxy. [83] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in eight films: Thor, The Avengers, Thor: The Dark World, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Doctor Strange (mid-credits cameo), Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the episodes " Pilot" and " The Well" of the ABC series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

and the episode " Glorious Purpose" of the Disney+ series Loki via archival footage and the animated series What If.?. [9] He will return in the upcoming film Thor: Love martial master episode 173 sub indo Thunder. Valkyrie [ edit ] Tessa Thompson in 2019 Valkyrie (portrayed by Tessa Thompson), also known as Scrapper 142, is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Roy Thomas and John Buscema.

The character is the last surviving of a group of Asgardian female warriors called the Valkyries. In Thor: Ragnarok, she allies herself with Thor and Bruce Banner to fight Hela. In Avengers: Endgame, it is revealed that she survived the Blip and brought the remaining Asgardians to a town in Norway called New Asgard, which she de facto rules in place of the depressed Thor. She later joins the Avengers in their final battle against Thanos and his army.

After the battle, Thor officially leaves her in charge of New Asgard. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Thor: Ragnarok and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage) and the animated series What If.?.

[45] She will return in the upcoming film Thor: Love and Thunder. Hope van Dyne / Wasp [ edit ] Evangeline Lilly in 2014 Hope van Dyne (portrayed by Evangeline Lilly) is the daughter of Hank Pym and Janet van Dyne, and the second incarnation of the Wasp, who wears a flying suit that allows her to shrink in scale while also increasing in strength.

Hope is also the love interest of Scott Lang. In 2018, she takes up the Wasp mantle and alongside her parents, becomes a victim of the Blip. In 2023, she is restored to life. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Ant-Man, Ant-Man and the Wasp, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

She will return in the upcoming film Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania. [50] : 2 Vision [ edit ] Paul Bettany in 2019 The Vision (portrayed by Paul Bettany) is an Avenger and AI android created by Ultron, Tony Stark and Bruce Banner. After his creation, he allies himself with the Avengers to defeat Ultron. He then becomes a member of the Avengers and develops a romantic relationship with Wanda Maximoff. He is killed by Thanos, who takes the Mind Stone. [84] An alternate version of the character, also portrayed by Bettany, is a simulacrum created by Wanda in 2023 to be her companion.

Simultaneously, the original Vision is rebuilt by S.W.O.R.D as "Project Cataract", a colorless sentient weapon, and sent to Westview to destroy Wanda and the simulacrum Vision. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, and Avengers: Infinity War; as well as the Disney+ series WandaVision and the animated series What If.?.

[84] [50] : 2 Watcher [ edit ] Jeffrey Wright in 2019 The Watcher (voiced by Jeffrey Wright) is a member of the extraterrestrial species of the same name who observes the Multiverse and strictly refuses to interfere with its events.

He maintains his vow until he is forced to act in order to save the Multiverse from a version of Ultron, and manages to do this with the help of Guardians of the Multiverse.

He is based on Uatu (also known as the Watcher) from Marvel Comics. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one Disney+ series: What If.?. Sam Wilson / Falcon / Captain America [ edit ] Anthony Mackie in 2019 Samuel "Sam" Wilson (portrayed by Anthony Mackie) [11] is an Avenger and former U.S. Air Force pararescueman trained in aerial combat using a specially designed jet pack with articulated wings under the pseudonym the Falcon.

[85] [86] In 2014, he meets Steve Rogers and becomes instant friends. In 2015, he becomes a member of the Avengers. In 2016, he becomes friends with Rogers' best friend Bucky Barnes. In 2018, he becomes a victim of the Blip, but in 2023, he is restored to life. Afterwards, Rogers retires, and passes on his mantle and shield to him. [87] At first, he decides to give up the shield, but later reclaims it and embraces the mantle of Captain America. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in six films: Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Ant-Man, Captain America: Civil War, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier and the animated series What If.?.

[12] Wong [ edit ] Benedict Wong in 2016 Wong (portrayed by Benedict Wong) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko. The character is portrayed as an Asian sorcerer commonly affiliated with Doctor Strange as starting out as a teacher for him and is also a librarian within the New York Sanctum.

He also becomes an ally to Shang-Chi. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in six films: Doctor Strange, Martial master episode 173 sub indo Infinity War, Avengers: Endgame, Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings, Spider-Man: No Way Home, and Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness, as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.? [50] [88] Supporting characters [ edit ] Ajak [ edit ] See also: Ajak Ajak (portrayed by Salma Hayek) is the wise and spiritual leader of the Eternals who possesses healing abilities.

She can also communicate with the Celestial Arishem, but passed on this ability to Sersi following her death. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Eternals. Liz Allan [ edit ] See also: Liz Allan Liz Allan (portrayed by Laura Harrier) is a senior at Midtown School of Science and Technology, the daughter of Adrian Toomes, and leads the decathlon team. She is the initial love interest of Peter Parker.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Spider-Man: Homecoming and Spider-Man: No Way Home (cameo). Ancient One [ edit ] See also: Ancient One The Ancient One (portrayed by Tilda Swinton) is the former Sorcerer Supreme and mentor of Doctor Strange. Kaecilius kills her in Doctor Strange, but an alternate version of her returns in Avengers: Endgame.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Doctor Strange and Avengers: Endgame, as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

[50] : 2 Ayo [ edit ] See also: Ayo (character) Ayo (portrayed by Florence Kasumba) is the second-in-command of the Dora Milaje in Wakanda. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Captain America: Civil War, Black Panther, and Avengers: Infinity War; and one Disney+ series: The Falcon and the Winter Soldier. Quentin Beck / Mysterio [ edit ] See also: Mysterio Quentin Beck (portrayed by Jake Gyllenhaal), also known as " Mysterio", is a former Stark Industries employee and holographic illusions specialist who masquerades as a superhero named Quentin Beck from Earth-833.

He is recruited by Nick Fury to help Spider-Man stop the Elementals, which he secretly creates through illusions as a way to get recognition for his life's work, and revenge due to his grievance at Stark Industries and by the late Tony Stark, his former employer. He is killed after one of the drones backfires, with William Ginter Riva downloading the drones' data and doctoring the footage to frame Spider-Man for the attack.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Spider-Man: Far From Home and Spider-Man: No Way Home (archival footage), as well as the web series The Daily Bugle (archival footage). Yelena Belova / Black Widow [ edit ] See also: Black Widow (Yelena Belova) Yelena Belova (portrayed by Florence Pugh) is a highly trained spy and assassin who trained in the Red Room as a Black Widow and is a sister to Natasha Romanoff.

[89] [90] [91] In 2016, she works with Romanoff, Alexei Shostakov, and Melina Vostokoff to stop General Dreykov after he reactivates the Red Room program. [92] Following the Blip, which she fell victim to, and Romanoff's death, Belova is approached by Contessa Valentina Allegra de Fontaine to kill Clint Barton for his involvement in her sister Natasha's death. She locates Barton along with Kate Bishop and Maya Lopez and fights against them as a masked vigilante, until Barton unmasks her and she is forced to retreat.

On Christmas Eve, Belova infiltrates the Bishop Christmas family party to kill Barton, but Bishop intercepts and fights her. Belova confronts Barton on the Rockefeller Center ice rink, and at first she does not believe his story about Romanoff's sacrifice. It is not until Barton reveals the details about the relationship between her and Romanoff that she accepts her sister's sacrifice. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Black Widow; as well as the Disney+ series Hawkeye.

[93] Kate Bishop [ edit ] Hailee Steinfeld in 2018 Kate Bishop (portrayed by Hailee Steinfeld) is a 22-year-old Hawkeye fan. In 2012, she is living with her wealthy parents in Manhattan during the Battle of New York when she is nearly killed by Chitauri soldiers but is saved by Clint Barton. Bishop's father is killed during the alien invasion, motivating her to protect her family. She becomes a championship archer, martial artist, and fencer. Clint Barton passes down the mantle of Hawkeye to Bishop by the end of the miniseries.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one Disney+ series: Hawkeye. Emil Blonsky / Abomination [ edit ] See also: Abomination (character) Emil Blonsky (portrayed by Tim Roth), also known as the Abomination, is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name by Stan Lee and Gil Kane.

He is a British Royal Marine who is transformed into an atrocious humanoid creature with enhanced physiology and a deformed appearance as a result of being injected with an experimental version of the Super Soldier Serum, in conjunction with subsequent exposure to intense gamma radiation much like Bruce Banner himself years prior. [94] [95] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: The Incredible Hulk and Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings; as well as one Marvel One-Shot: The Consultant (archival footage).

He will return in the upcoming Disney+ series She-Hulk. Sharon Carter / Agent 13 / Power Broker [ edit ] See also: Sharon Carter and Power Broker (character) Sharon Carter (portrayed by Emily VanCamp), also known as Agent 13, is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby.

She initially appears as an agent of S.H.I.E.L.D., then goes into hiding in Madripoor and is later revealed to be the Power Broker. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Captain America: The Winter Soldier and Captain America: Civil War; [96] as well as the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier and the animated series What If.?.

[50] [97] America Chavez [ edit ] See also: America Chavez America Chavez (portrayed by Xochitl Gomez) is a teenager who received the ability to travel between dimensions by punching open doorways as a child, and who originates from another universe known as the Utopian Parallel. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness. Darren Cross / Yellowjacket [ edit ] See also: Darren Cross and Yellowjacket (Marvel Comics) Dr.

Darren Cross (portrayed by Corey Stoll), also known as the Yellowjacket, is Hank Pym's former protégé. He attempts to re-create the Pym particle formula and sell it to Hydra, but is foiled by Scott Lang, Pym, and Hope van Dyne. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film Ant-Man; as well as the WHIH Newsfront viral marketing campaign. Max Dillon / Electro [ edit ] Main article: Electro (Marvel Comics) § Film Max Dillon (portrayed by Jamie Foxx), also known as Electro, is an Oscorp electrical engineer from an alternate reality who gained electric powers after falling into a batch of electric eels.

Foxx reprises his role from the film The Amazing Spider-Man 2 (2014). As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Spider-Man: No Way Home. Antonia Dreykov / Taskmaster [ edit ] See also: Taskmaster (character) Antonia Dreykov (portrayed by Olga Kurylenko), also known as Taskmaster, is an agent of the Red Room, brainwashed by her father Dreykov. She studies her opponents' fighting style in order to mimic them and learn how to use it against them, [98] [99] : 4 and uses techniques from other superheroes.

martial master episode 173 sub indo As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Black Widow. Druig [ edit ] See also: Druig Druig (portrayed by Barry Keoghan) is an aloof Eternal who can use cosmic energy to control the minds of others. He becomes withdrawn from the other Eternals because he disagrees with their interactions with humankind.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Eternals. Ego [ edit ] See also: Ego the Living Planet Ego (portrayed by Kurt Russell) is a Celestial, and Peter Quill's father.

[101] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?

[50] : 2 Layla El-Faouly / Scarlet Scarab [ edit ] See also: Marlene Alraune and Scarlet Scarab Layla El-Faouly (portrayed by May Calamawy), also known as Scarlet Scarab, is Marc Spector's wife, an archeologist and adventurer. She is partially inspired by Marlene Alraune and the Scarlet Scarab. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one Disney+ series: Moon Knight. Fandral [ edit ] See also: Fandral Fandral (initially portrayed by Joshua Dallas and subsequently by Zachary Levi), also known as Fandral the Dashing, is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby.

Fandral is a member of the Warriors Three, depicted as a dashing warrior from Asgard. [102] He returns in Thor: The Dark World and is killed off by Hela in Thor: Ragnarok. [103] [104] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Thor, Thor: The Dark World, and Thor: Ragnarok; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?, voiced by Max Mittelman. [105] Jane Foster [ edit ] See also: Jane Foster Dr. Jane Foster (portrayed by Natalie Portman) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name who was first created by Stan Lee, Larry Lieber and Jack Kirby.

She first appears in Thor. She is depicted as an astrophysicist who (along with Darcy Lewis and Erik Selvig) first discover Thor in his banishment from Asgard to Earth. [106] She is depicted most commonly as the romantic interest of Thor from 2011 through 2015. [107] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Thor, Thor: The Dark World, and Avengers: Endgame, as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

[108] [9] She will return in the upcoming film Thor: Love and Thunder. Frigga [ edit ] See also: Frigga (character) Frigga (portrayed by Rene Russo) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Stan Lee, Robert Bernstein and Joe Sinnott which based her on Frigg of Norse mythology. Frigga is Thor's biological mother and Loki's adopted mother, first appearing in Thor. [109] She reprises her role in Thor: The Dark World where she is killed by a dark elf named Algrim.

[110] An alternate version of her from 2013 appears in Avengers: Endgame, during which she comforts Thor's depression during his time traveling mission to retrieve the Reality Stone.

[111] [112] She also knows that her time was near, and prevents Thor from telling her how she dies by encouraging him to change his future. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Thor, Thor: The Dark World, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage) and the animated series What If.?, voiced by Josette Eales.

[105] Gilgamesh [ edit ] See also: Forgotten One (comics) Gilgamesh (portrayed by Don Lee) is a strong Eternal who can project an exoskeleton of cosmic energy and becomes Thena's guardian over the centuries.

He is later killed by the Deviant Kro. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Eternals. Grandmaster [ edit ] See also: Grandmaster (Marvel Comics) The Grandmaster (portrayed by Jeff Goldblum) is the ruler of Sakaar, where he hosts a series of games called the Contest of Champions. He is the brother of the Collector. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 ( end credits sequence) and Thor: Ragnarok, one short film: Team Darryl, as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?

[9]. He will return in the upcoming film Thor: Love and Thunder. Justin Hammer [ edit ] See also: Justin Hammer Justin Hammer (portrayed by Sam Rockwell) is a weapons manufacturer and rival of Tony Stark, based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. After noticing Vanko's use of an arc reactor-based weapon, he breaks Vanko out of jail and uses him for making weapons, including turning James Rhodes' armor into War Machine. [94] [95] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Iron Man 2; and one Marvel One-Shot: All Hail The King.

Agatha Harkness [ edit ] See also: Agatha Harkness Agatha Harkness (portrayed by Kathryn Hahn) is a witch. In 1693, she kills members of her Salem coven (including her mother Evanora) when they attempt to execute her for practicing dark magic. She is initially portrayed as a friendly neighbor of Wanda Maximoff in Westview, but is ultimately revealed to martial master episode 173 sub indo after Wanda's powers. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one Disney+ series: WandaVision.

She will return in the upcoming Disney+ series Agatha: House of Harkness. [113] Arthur Harrow [ edit ] See also: Arthur Harrow Arthur Harrow (portrayed by Ethan Hawke) is a cult leader and avatar of Ammit who encourages Marc Spector to embrace his inner darkness.

While named after a minor single-issue Moon Knight adversary from the original comic books, Harrow is an original character, depicted as Spector's and Grant's predecessor as Moon Knight and former avatar of Khonshu. Ethan Hawke also portrays Doctor Harrow, a psychiatrist version of Arthur Harrow who only exists in Grant's and Spector's mind, who helps Grant confront the truth of his mother's death while denying Khonshu's existence. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in the Disney+ series: Moon Knight.

Heimdall [ edit ] See also: Heimdall (comics) Heimdall (portrayed by Idris Elba) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Stan Lee, Larry Lieber and Jack Kirby which based him on the mythical Heimdallr in Norse Mythology. Heimdall is depicted as the sole protector of the Bifröst in Asgard and ally to Thor.

[114] He is ultimately killed by Thanos in Avengers: Infinity War after sending Hulk to Earth via the Bifrost to warn the Avengers of Thanos' conquest. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in five films: Thor, Thor: The Dark World, [115] Avengers: Age of Ultron, [116] Thor: Ragnarok, and Avengers: Infinity War, [117] as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

[45] Hela [ edit ] See also: Hela (character) Hela (portrayed by Cate Blanchett) is the Goddess of Death and the eldest daughter of Odin, King of Asgard. As Thor's older sibling, she has the rightful claim of succession to the throne as Queen of Asgard. Like Thor, her powers are drawn from Asgard and are strongest while she's there. As Odin's executioner, she helped conquer realms that allowed Asgard to grow and prosper.

However, being Goddess of Death, her growing destructive ambition led Odin to cast her out of Asgard, which consequently weakened her powers and allowed Asgard to enjoy times of peace within the Nine Realms. Hela's banishment is rescinded upon the death of Martial master episode 173 sub indo, at which time she returns to claim her rightful place as queen.

Her return is significant as the beginning of Ragnarok, the prophesied destruction of Asgard. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film Thor: Ragnarok.

Maria Hill [ edit ] See also: Maria Hill Maria Hill (portrayed by Cobie Smulders) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Brian Michael Bendis and David Finch. She is a recurring S.H.I.E.L.D. member and ally to Nick Fury. In 2018, she is a victim of the Blip. In 2023, she is restored to life. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in five films: The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Avengers: Infinity War (post-credits cameo), and Avengers: Endgame, and is impersonated by the Skrull Soren in Spider-Man: Far From Home; [118] as well as three episodes of the TV series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

and the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [50] : 2 She will return in the upcoming Disney+ series Secret Invasion. [119] Happy Hogan [ edit ] See also: Happy Hogan (character) Harold "Happy" Hogan (portrayed by Jon Favreau) is Tony Stark's bodyguard and close friend, and head of security for Stark Industries. Happy is later assigned by Stark as head of Asset Management for the Avengers.

He also serves as mentor to Peter Parker after Tony's death and is romantically attached to Peter's aunt, May Parker. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in seven films: Iron Man, Iron Man 2, Iron Man 3, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Endgame, Spider-Man: Far From Home, and Spider-Man: No Way Home; [120] as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

[50] Hogun [ edit ] See also: Hogun Hogun (portrayed by Tadanobu Asano), also known as Hogun the Grim, is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby. Hogun is a member of the Warriors Three, depicted as a grim warrior from Asgard. He reprises his role in Thor: The Dark World, in which he reveals that he is a Vanir from Vanaheim.

He martial master episode 173 sub indo killed by Hela martial master episode 173 sub indo Thor: Ragnarok. [121] [104] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Thor, Thor: The Dark World, and Thor: Ragnarok; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?, voiced by David Chen.

[105] J. Jonah Jameson [ edit ] J. K. Simmons in 2009 J. Jonah Jameson (portrayed by J. K. Simmons) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same. Simmons previously portrayed a different incarnation of the character in Sam Raimi's Spider-Man trilogy, making Jameson the second Marvel character to be portrayed by the same actor in both their MCU and non-MCU live-action depictions, following Lou Ferrigno as the voice of the Hulk. [122] However, this version of the character is unrelated to the version that Simmons first portrayed in Raimi's trilogy as he appears as the host of TheDailyBugle.net, a sensationalist " InfoWars-type video platform." [123] While having the same hair color as his Raimi films' counterpart, Simmons does not wear a toupée to emulate Jameson's usual flattop hairstyle; appearing bald instead to differentiate this version from his previous portrayal.

In the film's mid-credits scene, he broadcasts doctored footage that incriminates Spider-Man for Mysterio's death and reveals the web-slinger's civilian identity as Peter Parker while simultaneously praising Mysterio as "the greatest superhero", much to Spider-Man and Michelle Jones' shock and dismay. In addition, a promotional Daily Bugle website set in the MCU heavily features Jameson's influence, with most of the articles libeling Spider-Man and the Avengers with false accusations while still praising Mysterio and speculating on conspiracy theories.

[124] Simmons announced that he has signed on to play Jameson for more movies in the MCU. [125] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Spider-Man: Far From Home, and Spider-Man: No Way Home. Simmons makes an uncredited cameo appearance as Jameson in the SSU film Venom: Let There Be Carnage.

Michelle "MJ" Jones-Watson [ edit ] Zendaya in 2019 Michelle "MJ" Jones-Watson (portrayed by Zendaya), is an original character based on the comics character Mary Jane Watson. [126] [127] She is a classmate of Peter Parker and a teammate on the academic decathlon team.

She is depicted as politically active with critical views, and a loner who eschews friendship. [128] [129] Displaying a penchant for deadpan sarcasm, [130] [131] [132] she also teases her classmates, as when she calls Peter and Ned "losers" for ogling Liz from afar.

[129] Among her unusual hobbies is attending detention simply to "sketch people in crisis." [128] [129] [133] At the end of Homecoming, after Liz moves away, dashing Peter's hopes of a relationship with her, MJ replaces her as captain of the Academic Decathlon team.

In Spider-Man: Far From Home, it is established that MJ, like Peter, Ned, Betty, and Flash, are victims of The Blip, but she is resurrected when it is reversed at the end of Avengers: Endgame.

In that film, her character takes on a more traditionally feminine appearance, [132] and is more open to relationships. [129] During a Midtown Tech trip to Europe, MJ tells Peter that she knows he is Spider-Man, and helps him uncover Mysterio's criminal staging of the Elemental crisis, after which the two students begin a romantic relationship. Soon after, however, the two are horrified when J.

Jonah Jameson releases a doctored video of Mysterio and Spider-Man, claiming that Spider-Man is responsible for the casualties of the Battle of London while exposing Parker as Spider-Man. Despite her life being negatively affected by the public revelation of Parker's superhero identity, MJ sticks by him, and alongside Ned Leeds helps Parker meet two alternate versions of himself and defeat five supervillains, all sent from other universes into theirs as a result of a botched spell by Stephen Strange.

When Strange is forced to magically erase the world's knowledge of Parker's existence to stop the Multiverse from breaking open, MJ and Parker profess their love for one another before going their separate ways, as she and everyone else forgets him. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Spider-Man: Homecoming, Spider-Man: Far From Home, and Spider-Man: No Way Home.

Kaecilius [ edit ] See also: Kaecilius Kaecilius (portrayed by Mads Mikkelsen) is a sorcerer and Master of the Mystic Arts. [134] [135] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Doctor Strange. Katy [ edit ] Katy (portrayed by Awkwafina), also known as Ruiwen, is a hotel valet and Shang-Chi's best friend who was unaware of his past. [136] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings.

[137] [138] Aldrich Killian [ edit ] See also: Aldrich Killian Aldrich Killian (portrayed by Guy Pearce) is the co-developer of the Extremis virus. He is also depicted as the founder of Advanced Idea Mechanics. Starting out as a sickly individual snubbed by Tony Stark in the past, he swore revenge. Years later, Killian participates in Maya Hansen's development of Extremis to cure himself, founds a terrorist movement with a group of Extremis-enhanced soldiers under his command, and poses as the Mandarin to ruin Iron Man, only to be killed by the Extremis-enhanced Pepper Potts.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Iron Man 3. Kingo [ edit ] See also: Kingo Sunen Kingo (portrayed by Kumail Nanjiani) is an Eternal who can project cosmic energy projectiles from his hands. Enamored with fame, Kingo becomes a popular Bollywood film actor and director to blend in on Earth. He also has a production company in Mumbai. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Eternals.

Ulysses Klaue [ edit ] See also: Klaw (character) Ulysses Klaue (portrayed by Andy Serkis) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. He is a South-African black-market arms dealer, smuggler, and gangster who specializes in the sale of stolen vibranium from Wakanda. After losing his arm to an angry Ultron, Klaue adopts a prosthetic sonic weapon, and works with N'Jadaka until the latter kills him. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Avengers: Age of Ultron and Black Panther; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

[50] : 2 Korg [ edit ] See also: Korg (character) Korg (voiced and motion-captured by Taika Waititi) is a Kronan warrior who was forced to participate in the Contest of Champions on Sakaar. He is based on the character of the same name. He later leads a rebellion against the Grandmaster and escapes the planet with the help of Thor and traveled to Earth. In Avengers: Endgame, he resides in Tønsberg, Norway, now named New Asgard. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Thor: Ragnarok and Avengers: Endgame, as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?

[9]. He will return in the upcoming film Thor: Love and Thunder. [139] Cassie Lang [ edit ] See also: Cassandra Lang Cassandra "Cassie" Lang (portrayed by Abby Ryder Fortson and subsequently by Emma Fuhrmann and Kathryn Newton) is the daughter of Scott Lang. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Ant-Man, Ant-Man and the Wasp, and Avengers: Endgame.

She will return in the upcoming film Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania. Laufey [ edit ] See also: Laufey (character) Laufey (portrayed by Colm Feore) is based on Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby which based him on Laufey in Norse mythology.

He is the king of the Frost Giants and original antagonist to Odin and Thor. He is revealed as the biological father to Loki, but abandoned him as a child, due to his small size. Laufey has a strong hatred for Odin for his defeat in battle when he tried to conquer Earth. Loki convinces Laufey to take over Asgard himself, but betrays and kills Laufey to prove himself worthy of Odin.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Thor. [140] [94] [95] Ned Leeds [ edit ] See also: Ned Leeds Ned Leeds (portrayed by Jacob Batalon) is Peter Parker's best friend. Ned is the first person other than Tony Stark and Happy Hogan to discover Peter's identity as Spider-Man.

He falls victim to the Blip in 2018 but is revived in 2023. He attends the trip to Europe and develops a relationship with Betty Brant, but they end up breaking up at the end of the trip. Following the exposure and incrimination of Parker's identity to the world, Ned, MJ and Parker's university applications are all subsequently rejected due to the ongoing controversy, in spite of the lifting of his criminal charges. When villains from alternate realities are brought into their universe through Dr.

Stephen Strange's failed spell, Ned and MJ help Parker collect the displaced villains into the Sanctum Sanctorum. Following a staged coup by the alternate Norman Osborn that results in the villains breaking out of captivity, Ned accidentally summons the alternate Spider-Men who help fight the villains. After the other Spider-Men aid their universe's Parker in curing the villains, Ned and MJ share a final goodbye with Parker, as Parker elects to wipe the world's memories of himself through Strange's magic, sending all martial master episode 173 sub indo displaced individuals back to their realities, and relinquishing Ned's friendship with Parker completely.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in five films: Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War, Avengers: Endgame (cameo), Spider-Man: Far From Home, and Spider-Man: No Way Home, as well in the web series The Daily Bugle. [141] Darcy Lewis [ edit ] Dr. Darcy Lewis (portrayed by Kat Dennings) is an original character in the MCU, often serving as comic relief. [142] In 2011 and 2013, she is a political science major at Culver University and volunteer research assistant to astrophysicist Jane Foster for college credit.

[142] [143] By 2023, she has a doctorate in astrophysics and is called in by S.W.O.R.D. to help investigate Westview. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Thor and Thor: The Dark World; as well as the Disney+ series WandaVision and What If.? [144] [50] : 2 Maya Lopez [ edit ] See also: Echo (Marvel Comics) Maya Lopez (portrayed by Alaqua Cox) is the deaf Native American leader of the Tracksuit Mafia who can perfectly imitate others' movements.

She is the daughter of William Lopez and adopted niece of Wilson Fisk and commands the Tracksuit Mafia against Clint Barton and Kate Bishop. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one Disney+ series: Hawkeye. She will return in the upcoming Disney+ series Echo.

Luis [ edit ] See also: Ebony Maw Ebony Maw (voiced and portrayed [via motion capture] by Tom Vaughan-Lawlor) is an adopted son of Thanos and member of the Black Order. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Avengers: Infinity War and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

[50] : 2 Pietro Maximoff [ edit ] See also: Quicksilver (Marvel Comics) Pietro Maximoff (portrayed by Aaron Taylor-Johnson) is an Avenger based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. He first appears in the mid-credits scene of Captain America: The Winter Soldier and then has a starring role in Avengers: Age of Ultron. [146] [147] [148] In Avengers: Age of Ultron, Pietro and his fraternal twin sister Wanda are introduced as Hydra assets, both acquiring superhuman powers after volunteering to be experimented upon by the Mind Stone.

[149] Pietro has the ability of super-speed. Harboring a lifelong hatred for American arms manufacturer Tony Stark, whose bombs killed their parents, they side with Ultron against the Avengers before later switching sides. In the final conflict with Ultron, Pietro dies a hero's death, saving the lives of Clint Barton and a Sokovian boy. The character's reception has been lukewarm with complaints that the character or the character's power was not developed enough compared to the comic book version or 20th Century Fox's X-Men film series version.

[150] [151] [152] Marvel Studios president Kevin Feige stated in 2015 that there are no plans for Quicksilver to appear in future Marvel Studios films; [153] the character is referred to in the Disney+ series WandaVision when Westview resident Ralph Bohner is forced to impersonate him. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Captain America: The Winter Soldier (mid-credits cameo) and Avengers: Age of Ultron, as well as in flashbacks and recaps in the Disney+ series WandaVision.

M'Baku [ edit ] See also: Man-Ape M'Baku (portrayed by Winston Duke) is the leader of the renegade Jabari Tribe, who shun Wakanda's technological society and have a religious reverence for gorillas, such as decorating their armor with white gorilla pelts and worshiping the ape god, Hanuman, as a part of a complex Indo-African religion rather than the Panther god Bast. [154] [155] In 2016, M'Baku challenges T'Challa for control of Wakanda. When he is defeated in combat, the latter convinces him to yield.

M'Baku returns the favor by looking after the wounded T'Challa following T'Challa's fight with N'Jadaka and agreeing to look after Ramonda. He initially declines T'Challa's request to help fight N'Jadaka, but ultimately reconsiders and leads the Jabari into battle against him.

Following N'Jadaka's death, M'Baku is granted a place on Wakanda's national council. [156] In 2018, he and the Jabari join the battle against the Outriders, and survives the Blip. [157] In 2023, he joins the final battle against an alternate Thanos. [158] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Black Panther, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame. He will return in the upcoming film Black Panther: Wakanda Forever.

Mobius M. Mobius [ edit ] See also: Baron Mordo Karl Mordo (portrayed by Chiwetel Ejiofor) is a sorcerer and a former member of the Masters of the Mystic Arts. A close ally to the Ancient One, he assists in recruiting and training their future sorcerers. In this role, he trains Strange, using the Staff of the Living Tribunal as his weapon. He also helps Strange fight against Kaecilius. The Ancient One notes that Mordo's strength must be balanced by Strange since Mordo is unable to recognize the need for moral flexibility and compromise.

At the end of the film, disillusioned with the teachings of the Ancient One after learning that the latter's immortality has been the result of her drawing martial master episode 173 sub indo the energy of the Dark Dimension and Strange further breaking nature's laws, he decides to leave his fellow sorcerers. He comes to believe that all magic perverts and disrupts the natural order, thus causing him to set out to stop others from using it.

In a post-credits scene, Mordo visits former Master Jonathan Pangborn and steals the energy that he uses to walk, stating that the world has "too many sorcerers". An alternate-universe variant of the character is the Sorcerer Supreme and a member of the Illuminati from Earth-838, following the betrayal of this universe's variant of Stephen Strange. As of May 2022 [update], the main version of the character has appeared in one film: Doctor Strange, while an alternate-universe variant appeared in Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness.

Karli Morgenthau [ edit ] See also: Karl Morgenthau Karli Morgenthau (portrayed by Erin Kellyman) is the teenage leader of the anti-nationalist terrorist group the Flag Smashers.

She and the other Flag Smashers are made into Super Soldiers with the help of the Power Broker, Sharon Carter, and martial master episode 173 sub indo violent tactics such as bombings to achieve open borders for refugees in the Baltic states.

She is killed by Sharon Carter after she attempts to kill Carter and Sam Wilson. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one Disney+ series: The Falcon and the Winter Soldier. Nakia [ edit ] See also: Malice (comics) § Malice (Nakia) Nakia (portrayed by Lupita Nyong'o) [159] is a former Dora Milaje, a member of the War Dogs, and T'Challa's lover.

Having often been sent on missions around the world, witnessing the hardships experienced by many people, she grows in the belief that Wakanda should actively help them. Nakia returns to Wakanda upon hearing that T'Challa's father, T'Chaka, was killed. She stays after T'Challa is crowned king and asks that she accompany him to one of their missions, leading into the major events of the film.

After N'Jadaka seizes the throne and orders the heart-shaped herbs which grant the power of the Black Panther to be burned, Nakia steals one. Although Ramonda urges Nakia to consume it in order to challenge N'Jadaka, Nakia plans to offer it to M'Baku so that he can challenge N'Jadaka with his army. M'Baku reveals that his people have recovered T'Challa, so Nakia gives the herb to T'Challa, healing him and restoring his powers as the Black Panther. Nakia then assists in the insurrection against N'Jadaka, dressing as a Dora Milaje soldier at Shuri's martial master episode 173 sub indo.

At the end of the film, Nakia resumes her relationship with T'Challa and accepts a position running a Wakandan outreach center in California at the location of N'Jobu and N'Jadaka's former apartment. As martial master episode 173 sub indo 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Black Panther, and will return in the upcoming film Black Panther: Wakanda Forever. N'Jadaka / Erik "Killmonger" Stevens [ edit ] See also: Erik Killmonger N'Jadaka (portrayed by Michael B.

Jordan), also known as Erik Stevens or Killmonger, is a former U.S. Navy SEAL lieutenant and the son of N'Jobu. His father was killed by T'Chaka for helping Ulysses Klaue smuggle vibranium out of Wakanda in order to arm oppressed peoples around the world and initiate revolutions. N'Jadaka later becomes an acquaintance of Klaue, before betraying and killing him to gain the trust of the Wakandan population. After bringing the dead Klaue, he challenges his cousin T'Challa to a duel over the throne, which N'Jadaka wins.

However, T'Challa later returns to take back his throne, with the help of M'Baku, Okoye and Shuri. T'Challa defeats N'Jadaka in combat and fatally wounds him, although he takes N'Jadaka to see the Wakandan sunset per his wishes.

N'Jadaka dies after refusing to be healed, claiming that death is "better than bondage". Impacted by his cousin's death, T'Challa decides to finally open Wakanda up to the rest of the world. The character has been widely praised as one of the MCU's best villains, [160] [161] [162] with Ben Child of The Guardian comparing the character to the Terminator and Darth Vader.

[163] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Black Panther; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.? [9] [164] Kraglin Obfonteri [ edit ] See also: Kraglin Kraglin Obfonteri (portrayed by Sean Gunn) is based on a Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Stan Lee, Ernie Hart, and Don Heck. He is a Xandarian and the first mate of Yondu Udonta's faction of the Ravagers. In 2014, following the mutiny of the other Ravagers, Kraglin remains loyal to Yondu and helps rescue the Guardians of the Galaxy from Ego.

After Yondu's death, Kraglin acquires a similar cybernetic fin and Yaka arrow. In 2023, he is transported to Earth to join the battle. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Guardians of the Galaxy, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.

2, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [9] He will return in the upcoming films Thor: Love and Thunder and Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 3. Otto Octavius / Doctor Octopus [ edit ] Main article: Otto Octavius (film character) Dr. Otto Octavius (portrayed by Alfred Molina), also known as Doctor Octopus, is a scientist from an alternate reality with four artificially intelligent mechanical tentacles fused to his body after an accident.

Molina reprises his role from the film Spider-Man 2 (2004). As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Spider-Man: No Way Home. Odin [ edit ] See also: Odin (Marvel Comics) Odin Borson (portrayed by Anthony Hopkins), also known as Odin Allfather, is the ruler of Asgard, son of Bor, biological father of Thor and Hela, adoptive father of Loki, and husband of Frigga.

Based on Odin in Norse mythology, he first appears in Thor and reprises his role in two of its sequels. He is removed from power by Loki at the end of the second film and is placed under a spell to make him forget his past life before being put into a retirement home in New York City. He manages to break free of Loki's spell before heading to Norway instead of returning to Asgard, wishing to not be disturbed. When he is found by his sons, Odin warns them that his time has come and that his daughter Hela will be freed after his death.

He bids them both farewell and soon disappears. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Thor, [165] Thor: The Dark World, [166] and Thor: Ragnarok; [167] as well as the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage) and the animated series What If.?

[45] Norman Osborn / Green Goblin [ edit ] Main article: Norman Osborn (Sam Raimi film series) Dr. Norman Osborn (portrayed by Willem Dafoe), also known as the Green Goblin, is a scientist and the CEO of Oscorp from an alternate reality who tested an unstable strength enhancer on himself and develops an insane alternate personality while using advanced Oscorp armor and equipment.

Dafoe reprises his role from Sam Raimi's Spider-Man trilogy. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Spider-Man: No Way Home. Christine Palmer [ edit ] See also: Night Nurse (comics) Dr. Christine Palmer (portrayed by Rachel McAdams) is based on the character of the same name, an emergency surgeon who was a colleague and lover of Stephen Strange. An alternate-universe variant worked for the Baxter Foundation in Earth-838 to analyze multiversal threats.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Doctor Strange and Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness. Variants of the character have also appeared in Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness, as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.? [50]. May Parker [ edit ] See also: Aunt May May Parker (portrayed by Marisa Tomei), commonly known as Aunt May, is the aunt of Peter Parker and widow of Ben Parker. Unlike previous incarnations, she finds out that Peter is Spider-Man, when she walks in on him wearing the suit.

She falls victim to the Blip in 2018, but is revived to life in 2023 and attends Tony Stark's funeral. Afterwards, she begins a relationship with Happy Hogan. Upon the arrival of villains from alternate realities in their universe, May houses the displaced Norman Osborn inside the F.E.A.S.T. shelter where she works. When Osborn rebels against her nephew's attempts to cure him of his Green Goblin persona and stages an uprising within Happy's apartment, May is mortally wounded by a combination of crushed debris from the remnants of the shelter, and the impact of Osborn's Goblin Grenade.

She provides final words of wisdom—" With great power, there must also come great responsibility"—to the distraught Peter before quietly passing away leaving both Peter and Happy, who is arrested, devastated. Peter later tries to avenge her death by attempting to murder Green Goblin but is stopped by his alternate universe counterpart who intervenes, instead curing Osborn and the other villains and sending them back, eventually doing what May would have wanted.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in five films: Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Endgame (cameo), Spider-Man: Far From Home, and Spider-Man: No Way Home. Peter Parker / Spider-Man / "Peter-Two" [ edit ] Main article: Peter Parker (Sam Raimi film series) Peter Parker (portrayed by Tobey Maguire), also known as Spider-Man and nicknamed " Peter-Two", is an alternate version of Peter Parker from an alternate reality.

He similarly has devoted his life to apprehending crime as the masked superhero Spider-Man while balancing his heroic deeds with his ongoing commitment to a relationship with Mary Jane Watson. He has previously fought the likes of Norman Osborn, Otto Octavius, Flint Marko, Harry Osborn, and Eddie Brock / Venom. He accidentally arrives from his universe along with Osborn, Octavius, and Marko after Doctor Strange's spell goes awry. Parker helps his other versions to cure the displaced villains and get back to their respective universes.

Maguire reprises his role from Sam Raimi's Spider-Man trilogy. Marvel's official website refers to him as the " Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Man".

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film in the MCU: Spider-Man: No Way Home. Peter Parker / Spider-Man / "Peter-Three" [ edit ] Main article: Peter Parker (The Amazing Spider-Man film series) Peter Parker (portrayed by Andrew Garfield), also known as Spider-Man and nicknamed " Peter-Three", is an alternate version of Peter Parker from an alternate reality.

He similarly has devoted his life to apprehending crime as the masked superhero Spider-Man while also trying to uncover more about his parents' mysterious past. He has previously fought the likes of Curt Connors, Max Dillon, and Aleksei Sytsevitch in his reality, and is haunted by his failure to prevent the untimely demise of his girlfriend, Gwen Stacy at the hands of Harry Osborn. He accidentally arrives from his universe along with Connors and Dillon after Doctor Strange's spell goes awry.

Parker helps his other versions to cure the displaced villains and get back to their respective martial master episode 173 sub indo. Garfield reprises his role from Marc Webb's The Amazing Spider-Man films. Marvel's official website refers to him as " The Amazing Spider-Man". As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film in the MCU: Spider-Man: No Way Home.

Phastos [ edit ] See also: Phastos Phastos (portrayed by Brian Tyree Henry) is an Eternal and an intelligent cosmic-powered inventor who helps humanity progress technologically behind the scenes before abandoning them to live in exile following the bombing of Hiroshima. By 2024, he lives under the human alias of " Phil" with a martial master episode 173 sub indo and a 10-year-old son.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Eternals. Alexander Pierce [ edit ] See also: Alexander Pierce Alexander Pierce (portrayed by Robert Redford) is the secretary of the World Security Council and the secret director of Hydra operating within S.H.I.E.L.D. He plans on using Project Insight to eliminate individuals that would oppose or threaten Hydra goals, those who are recognized as a threat to Hydra based on Arnim Zola's algorithm.

When Pierce learns that Nick Fury is investigating Project Insight's confidential files, he dispatches the Winter Soldier to eliminate him and Steve Rogers. However, Pierce's plan is foiled by Rogers, Natasha Romanoff, Sam Wilson, and S.H.I.E.L.D. loyalists before Pierce is killed by Fury. An alternate version of Pierce appears in Avengers: Endgame. [168] In an alternate 2012, Pierce attempts to take custody of Loki and the Tesseract away from Tony Stark and Thor.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Captain America: The Winter Soldier and Avengers: Endgame. Hank Pym / Ant-Man [ edit ] See also: Hank Pym Dr.

Henry "Hank" Pym (portrayed by Michael Douglas) is an entomologist and quantum physicist who created the Pym particle, a subatomic particle that changes the distance between atoms, allowing one to shrink and grow in relative size, while increasing strength. Hank Pym is the MCU's original Ant-Man; a role begun in 1963, during his tenure as a high-ranking scientist and operative at S.H.I.E.L.D.

As the Ant-Man, Hank Pym operated as a classified agent performing field missions on behalf of S.H.I.E.L.D., using a self-designed shrinking suit powered by Pym particles that also gave him the ability to communicate with different species of ants.

During one of these missions, his wife Janet van Dyne was lost within the quantum realm and presumed dead. Following the incident, Pym resigns from S.H.I.E.L.D. in 1989, after he suspects Howard Stark of attempting to replicate the Pym particle formula.

After his resignation from S.H.I.E.L.D., Pym retires the Ant-Man suit and founds his own technology company in San Francisco.

In Ant-Man, after Darren Cross' takeover of the company, Pym subsequently recruits Scott Lang to take on the mantle of Ant-Man, with the assistance of his estranged daughter Hope van Dyne. Together, they prevent Cross from selling the Yellowjacket technology to Hydra. Following Lang's alliance with the Avengers, Hank inadvertently violates the Sokovia Accords because of Lang's misuse of his technology, and becomes a fugitive along with Hope from the FBI in Ant-Man and the Wasp.

With help from Lang and Hope, he subsequently succeeds in rescuing Janet from the quantum realm. However, shortly after, Hank becomes a victim of the Blip. In Avengers: Endgame, Hank's findings on the quantum realm prove fundamental to the Avengers' plan to successfully navigate through time, during which Steve Rogers steals Pym particles from a younger Hank in an alternate 1970 timeline. In 2023, Hank is restored to life and attends Tony Stark's funeral with Janet, Hope and Lang.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Ant-Man, Ant-Man and the Wasp, and Avengers: Endgame. An alternate version of the character dressed in the Yellowjacket armor appears in the third episode of the Disney+ animated series What If.?, in which he murders several members of the Avengers to avenge Hope's death.

He will return in the upcoming film Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania. [9] Monica Rambeau [ edit ] See also: Monica Rambeau Captain Monica Rambeau (portrayed initially by Akira Akbar as a child and subsequently by Teyonah Parris as an adult) is the daughter of Maria Rambeau, who befriended Carol Danvers in Captain Marvel.

As a child, she is inspired by Danvers and thinks highly of her. She grows up to become an agent of S.W.O.R.D., which was founded by her mother. In 2018, she is a victim of the Blip. In 2023, she is restored to life and learns that her mother died three years prior. She returns to work at S.W.O.R.D. and is tasked with investigating a missing persons case in Westview. Upon arriving, she is sucked into Wanda Maximoff's Hex, and remains there until she remembers the real reality and is promptly forced out by Maximoff.

Outside at a S.W.O.R.D. facility, she continues to assist S.W.O.R.D with its Westview investigation, but after defending Maximoff several times, S.W.O.R.D's acting director Tyler Hayward kicks her off the investigation. This leads to her, Darcy Lewis, and Jimmy Woo going rogue. However, only she and Woo escape Wanda's Hex expansion.

After re-entering the Hex, Monica's cells are rewritten, allowing her to absorb Maximoff's energy blasts and absorb gun bullets. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film Captain Marvel; as well as the Disney+ series: WandaVision, in which she adopts the alias Geraldine until she is forced out of the sitcom reality by Wanda.

[169] She will return in the upcoming film The Marvels. Ramonda [ edit ] See also: Ramonda (character) Ramonda (portrayed by Angela Bassett) is the Queen Mother of Wakanda, wife of T'Chaka, and mother of T'Challa and Shuri. She stands by her son's side when he became King of Wakanda, but is soon forced into exile when N'Jadaka seemingly-defeats T'Challa in ritual combat and took over the throne.

[170] Boseman noted that Ramonda "is one of the advisors that [T'Challa] would look to. for some of the answers of what his father might want or might do. She may not be exactly right all the time, but she definitely has insights." [171] She survives the Blip and is seen reuniting with her children after they return to Wakanda from New York.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Black Panther and Avengers: Endgame; [168] as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [50] : 2 She will return in the upcoming film Black Panther: Wakanda Forever. Ronan the Accuser [ edit ] See also: Ronan the Accuser Ronan the Accuser (portrayed by Lee Pace) is a Kree fanatic whose family was killed in the Kree-Nova War. In the 1990s, Ronan actively leaves the Accusers in the Kree-Skrull war.

Working together with the Kree Starforce, he attempts to launch a missile strike on Earth to eliminate the Skrulls present on the planet, but is thwarted and chased off by Carol Danvers. Ronan is first introduced when he is originally hired by Thanos to acquire the Power Stone, with the assistance of Nebula, daughter of Thanos.

However, Ronan's quest for vengeance and power causes him to break allegiance with Thanos and he decides to use the stone himself to serve his own agenda. Ultimately that decision leads him to a battle with the Guardians of the Galaxy ending in his own death. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Guardians of the Galaxy and Captain Marvel. Everett K.

Ross [ edit ] See also: Everett Martial master episode 173 sub indo. Ross Everett K. Ross (portrayed by Martin Freeman) is a CIA operative who is tasked with regulating the Avengers and later tracking down Ulysses Klaue.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Captain America: Civil War and Black Panther. He will return in the upcoming film Black Panther: Wakanda Forever and in the Disney+ series Secret Invasion. Thaddeus Ross [ edit ] See also: Thunderbolt Ross Thaddeus Ross (portrayed by William Hurt) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name, first introduced in The Incredible Hulk. He first appears as a United States General who is responsible for reviving the super-soldier project so he can create a weapon.

This instead results in the creation of the Hulk. Ross tries to track Banner down, believing he is the property of the United States government. He later tries the super-soldier project on Emil Blonsky, which transforms him into the Abomination.

Ross appears again in Captain America: Civil War, having retired from the army after suffering a near-fatal heart attack, and now serves as the Secretary of State of the United States. He proposes the Sokovia Accords, making the Avengers under the supervision of the United Nations, which divides the team.

[172] Ross is usually portrayed in an antagonistic manner, although he believes his actions are patriotic or for the greater good. [94] [95] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in five films: The Incredible Hulk, Captain America: Civil War, Avengers: Infinity War, Avengers: Endgame (cameo), and Black Widow; as well as the Marvel One-Shot The Consultant and the Disney+ animated series What If.?, voiced by Mike McGill.

Brock Rumlow [ edit ] See also: Crossbones (character) Brock Rumlow (portrayed by Frank Grillo) is a former S.H.I.E.L.D. agent secretly working for Hydra, who later becomes a mercenary. In 2014, he assists Steve Rogers on a mission to free hostages taken by Georges Batroc's pirates on the Lemurian Star. When Rogers refuses to disclose S.H.I.E.L.D. information to Secretary Alexander Pierce, Rumlow and his team are tasked with bringing in Rogers and Natasha Romanoff.

After Rogers outs Rumlow's unit and Pierce as Hydra agents, Rumlow comes into conflict with Sharon Carter and Sam Wilson until a Helicarrier crashes into the Triskelion, leaving Rumlow with severe burns and facial scars. Following the fall of S.H.I.E.L.D., Rumlow operates as a mercenary. [173] In 2016, he and a group of mercenaries storm an institute for infectious diseases and steal a biological weapon in Lagos, Nigeria when Rogers, Romanoff, Wilson, and Wanda Maximoff intervene and try to stop them.

Despite having acquired strength-enhancing gauntlets, Rumlow is defeated by Rogers while his fellow mercenaries are captured. In a final attempt to kill Rogers, Rumlow detonates his suicide vest, but Maximoff contains the explosion and levitates him into a nearby building, killing him and dozens of Wakandan humanitarian workers. An alternate timeline version of Rumlow appears in Avengers: Endgame. [174] In an alternate 2012, Rumlow and Hydra agents attempt to obtain Loki's scepter, but are tricked by Rogers, from the main timeline, into giving it to him instead.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Captain America: Civil War, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [175] Johann Schmidt / Red Skull [ edit ] See also: Red Skull Johann Schmidt (portrayed initially by Hugo Weaving and subsequently by Ross Marquand), also known as the Red Skull, is the head of Hydra, the Nazi science division, during World War II, who first appears in Captain America: The First Avenger.

Schmidt plans global dominance under his rule by finding the Tesseract and using it as a weapon against the world, including to overthrow Adolf Hitler.

He is revealed to have subjected himself to an early version of Erskine's super-soldier formula. [176] After being foiled by Steve Rogers, Schmidt is transported to the planet Vormir by the Tesseract, where he is cursed in a purgatory state to serve as Stonekeeper and a guide to those seeking the Soul Stone. [177] [178] In 2018, he is met by Thanos and Gamora and witnesses Thanos sacrificing Gamora to get the Stone. In an alternate 2014, an alternate version of him martial master episode 173 sub indo Natasha Romanoff and Clint Barton during martial master episode 173 sub indo quest for the Soul Stone.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Captain America: The First Avenger, Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [179] Erik Selvig [ edit ] Stellan Skarsgård portrays Erik Selvig in the MCU Dr.

Erik Selvig (portrayed by Stellan Skarsgård) is an original character first introduced in the film Thor. In Thor, astrophysicist Erik Selvig works with Jane Foster, the daughter of a former colleague of his, on her wormhole research. They become involved in an encounter between Thor and S.H.I.E.L.D., leading to his employment by the latter to study the Tesseract—he accepts the job due to influence by Loki.

[180] [181] In The Avengers, Loki uses the Tesseract to travel to Earth, and places Selvig under the control of the Mind Stone. Selvig is eventually freed of this control and able to help stop Loki's invasion of Earth, but is left traumatized by his experience. Selvig is able to help Thor again in Martial master episode 173 sub indo The Dark World, and by Avengers: Age of Ultron appears to have recovered, working at Royal Holloway.

Following the defeat of Ultron, Selvig begins working for the Avengers. In Avengers: Endgame, it is revealed that he was a victim of the Blip, but is restored to life in 2023. [182] In Spider-Man Far From Home, Selvig is shown to be starring in the documentary NOVA: Einstein Rosen Bridges with Dr. Erik Selvig.

[183] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in four films: Thor, The Avengers, Thor: The Dark World, and Avengers: Age of Ultron. Sif [ edit ] See also: Sif (character) Lady Sif (portrayed by Jaimie Alexander) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, who based her on Sif of Norse mythology.

She is the leading female warrior of Asgard, and Thor's childhood friend and trusted ally. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Thor and Thor: The Dark World; as well as the television series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D., [184] [185] Loki, and What If.?.

[186] [50] She will return in the upcoming film Thor: Love and Thunder. Trevor Slattery [ edit ] Ben Kingsley portrays Trevor Slattery in the MCU Trevor Slattery (portrayed by Ben Kingsley) is a washed-up, drug-addicted British actor hired by Aldrich Killian to portray the idealized image of Aldrich Killian as the Mandarin, starring in propaganda videos that are broadcast to the world as a cover for AIM's explosive Extremis experiments.

Slattery lives oblivious to the true meaning of his actions, surrounded by wealth and drugs provided by AIM, until he is discovered by Tony Stark.

Slattery is arrested following Stark's defeat of Killian. In Seagate Prison, he lives luxuriously, with his own personal "butler" and adoring fans among the other inmates, until he is interviewed by Jackson Norriss, a Ten Rings terrorist posing as a documentary filmmaker, who reveals that Killian based the Mandarin on a powerful historical figure of the same name.

He then breaks him out of prison in order for the Mandarin to punish him for impersonating him and abusing his name. He is spared by the Ten Rings by impressing them with his acting skills and becomes their prisoner and jester, befriending a hundun creature named Morris and eventually being freed by Shang-Chi, after which he leads him and his friends to Ta Lo.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Iron Man 3 and Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings; as well as the Marvel One-Shot All Hail the King. [187] Sprite [ edit ] See also: Sprite (Eternal) Sprite (portrayed by Lia McHugh) is an Eternal who has the appearance of a 12-year-old child and can project lifelike illusions and is stronger and smarter than she appears.

Hannah Dodd portrays Sprite in the illusionary adult form of " Sandra", while Salma Hayek portrays Sprite in the illusionary form of Ajak.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Eternals. Obadiah Stane [ edit ] See also: Iron Monger Obadiah Stane (portrayed by Jeff Bridges) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name by Dennis O'Neil and Luke McDonnell. He was Tony's mentor after the passing away of Tony's dad, Howard.

The character secretly seeks control of Stark Industries. It is later revealed that he hired terrorists to assassinate Tony and after the failure to do so seeks control of the arc reactor to create his own super powered exoskeleton suit, which he succeeds in after stealing Tony's technology.

Stane is killed in confrontation by Tony in the film's climax. [94] [95] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Iron Man and Spider-Man: Far From Home (archival footage); as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?, voiced by Kiff VandenHeuvel.

Howard Stark [ edit ] See also: Howard Stark Howard Stark (portrayed by John Slattery and Dominic Cooper) is the creator of Stark Industries, one of the founding members of S.H.I.E.L.D., and the father of Tony Stark.

Howard Stark is a close friend of Peggy Carter and Steve Rogers. Stark was involved with Rogers' transformation into Captain America, as well as the creation of Rogers' trademark vibranium shield. Along with Peggy Carter and his assistant Jarvis, he was instrumental in crushing the rise of the Russian terrorist organisation Leviathan.

He dies at the hands of a brainwashed Bucky Barnes by orders of Hydra. [188] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in five films: Iron Man 2, Captain America: The First Avenger, Ant-Man, Captain America: Civil War, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the TV series Agent Carter and What If.?; [9] and the Marvel One-Shot Agent Carter.

Ava Starr / Ghost [ edit ] See also: Ghost (Marvel Comics) Ava Starr (portrayed by Hannah John-Kamen) is a supervillain with invisibility and intangibility powers, and a reimagining of the character of the same name. [189] [190] [191] In her childhood, Ava was caught in an accident in her father Elihas' laboratory. The ensuing explosion killed both of her parents while Ava gained the ability to become intangible as her body was left in a constant state of "molecular disequilibrium".

She is recruited by scientist Bill Foster into S.H.I.E.L.D., where she is trained and martial master episode 173 sub indo a containment suit to better control her powers. Ava agrees to work for the organization as an assassin and spy under the codename Ghost in exchange for S.H.I.E.L.D.'s help in finding a way to stabilize her condition.

However, she discovers that S.H.I.E.L.D. (having been taken over by Hydra) has no intention of helping her and subsequently goes rogue to find a way to cure herself with Foster's help. The two later plan to harness the energy that Janet van Dyne's body absorbed from the quantum realm, putting Ghost in direct conflict with Hank Pym, Hope van Dyne, and Scott Lang.

At the end of the film, Janet willingly uses some of her energy to partially stabilize Ava's condition and she departs with Foster as Janet's group vow to collect more energy for her. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Ant-Man and the Wasp. Wolfgang von Strucker [ edit ] See also: Baron Strucker Baron Wolfgang von Strucker (portrayed by Thomas Kretschmann and Joey Defore as a teenager in Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

Strucker is a high-ranking Hydra leader who specializes in human experimentation. Strucker supervised the successful experimentation on the Maximoff twins, where they acquired powers from the Mind Stone within Loki's scepter.

Captured by the Avengers in Sokovia and taken under the custody of NATO, Strucker is later killed by Ultron in his cell to serve as a message to the Avengers. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Captain America: The Winter Soldier (mid-credits cameo) and Avengers: Age of Ultron; [192] as well as one episode of the TV series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

as a teenager. Sylvie [ edit ] Main article: Sylvie (Marvel Cinematic Universe) Sylvie Laufeydottir (portrayed by Sophia Di Martino), also referred to as " The Variant", is a female variant of Loki arrested by the TVA as a child, hiding in apocalyptic events ever since. She opposes the TVA while seeking to "free" the Sacred Timeline.

[193] [194] She is partially based on Sylvie Lushton and Lady Loki from the Marvel Comics. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one Disney+ series: Loki. Talos [ edit ] See also: Talos the Untamed Talos (portrayed by Ben Mendelsohn) is a Skrull based on the Marvel Comics character of the same.

Initially believed to be a terrorist, Carol Danvers agrees to help him and the Skrulls find a new home after Talos revealed the Kree destroyed their homeworld and martial master episode 173 sub indo driven them to near-extinction.

In 2024, he assumes Nick Fury's martial master episode 173 sub indo on Earth during his vacation in space and assists Spider-Man and Mysterio in Europe, eventually discovering the latter's fraudulence. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Captain Marvel and Spider-Man: Far From Home. He will return in the upcoming Disney+ series Secret Invasion. T'Chaka / Black Panther [ edit ] See also: T'Chaka T'Chaka (portrayed by John Kani) is the former King of Wakanda.

During a meeting ratifying the Sokovian Accords at the Vienna International Center, T'Chaka is killed by an explosion. The Winter Soldier was originally believed to be behind the attack, but it was later discovered that he was framed by Helmut Zemo. [195] Years ago, T'Chaka learned his brother N'Jobu was plotting acts of open insurrection with plans to have Wakanda take a more aggressive foreign policy to fight the social injustice he witnessed in his assigned country.

T'Chaka confronted N'Jobu. When N'Jobu attacked, he was killed by T'Chaka in defense of Zuri (who was acting as a spy the whole time). Distressed at this act and concerned about maintaining Wakanda's security above all else, T'Chaka chose to promptly return to his nation and left his nephew, N'Jadaka, abandoned as a child orphan.

T'Challa would learn of this act and the resulting cover-up by his late father.

martial master episode 173 sub indo

While visiting the ancestor lands, T'Challa learned of T'Chaka's actions and tells him and the previous Black Panthers before him that he will lead Wakanda in a manner differently to them for the purpose of correcting T'Chaka's past mistakes. [196] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Captain America: Civil War and Black Panther; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [50] : 2 Thena [ edit ] See also: Thena Thena (portrayed by Angelina Jolie) is a fierce warrior Eternal who can form any weapon out of cosmic energy.

Because of her Mahd Wy'ry "illness", Gilgamesh becomes her guardian over the centuries. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Eternals. Flash Thompson [ edit ] See also: Flash Thompson Eugene "Flash" Thompson (portrayed by Tony Revolori) is a student at the Midtown School of Science and Technology. He is generally depicted as a school bully who often torments Peter Parker but admires Spider-Man, unaware that the two are the same person.

In 2018, he is a victim of the Blip, but is revived to life in 2023. He attends the trip to Europe and is a social media personality, with followers he dubs the "Flash Mob". After the trip, Flash's difficult home life is alluded to, as his father is ill and his mother is distant; having sent a chauffeur to pick him up from the airport rather than do so herself. [197] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Spider-Man: Homecoming, Spider-Man: Far From Home, and Spider-Man: No Way Home, as well in the web series The Daily Bugle.

[198] Taneleer Tivan / Collector [ edit ] See also: Collector (character) Taneleer Tivan (portrayed by Benicio del Toro), also martial master episode 173 sub indo as the Collector, is the renowned keeper of the largest collection of interstellar fauna, relics and species in the galaxy, operating from the Knowhere port installation. After the Asgardians defeat Malekith, Sif and Volstagg bring the Reality Stone to Tivan for safekeeping, citing the foolishness of storing both the Reality Stone and the Space Stone in the same place.

Later, he was also nearly able to obtain the Power Stone. He is the brother of the Grandmaster. The Reality Stone was eventually taken from Tivan in Infinity War by Thanos, and his collection was destroyed. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Thor: The Dark World (mid-credits cameo), Guardians of the Galaxy, and Avengers: Infinity War; as well as the Disney+ animated series: What If.?.

[50] : 2 He also appears in Guardians of the Galaxy – Mission Breakout!. Adrian Toomes / Vulture [ edit ] See also: Vulture (Marvel Comics) Adrian Toomes (portrayed by Michael Keaton), also known as the Vulture, is the former owner of Bestman Salvage.

He chooses to become a criminal after the creation of the Department of Damage Control, a joint venture between the federal government and Tony Stark, following the Battle of New York, and Toomes' company is run out of business.

With his associates, Phineas Mason, Herman Schultz, Jackson Brice, and Randy Vale, he begins an illegal arms-dealing business that reverse-engineers and weaponizes Chitauri technology that they have scavenged and salvaged, and sells it on the black market. This version of the character is the father of Liz. Toomes' flight suit is equipped with turbine-powered wings, claw-like wingtips, and boot-mounted martial master episode 173 sub indo. After deducing Spider-Man's secret identity, he threatens him with retaliation unless he stops interfering.

However, Spider-Man thwarts Toomes' attempt to hijack a plane carrying Avengers weaponry and saves his life when his suit malfunctions before Happy Hogan and the FBI find and arrest Toomes.

As a result, his family moves away. Later, an imprisoned Toomes is approached by Mac Gargan, who wants to confirm whether he knows Spider-Man's identity, which Toomes falsely denies.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Spider-Man: Homecoming. Toomes is teleported to the SSU in Morbius (2022), with Keaton reprising his role. [199] [200] Yondu Udonta [ edit ] Michael Rooker as Yondu at the 2016 San Diego Comic-Con International. Yondu Udonta (portrayed by Michael Rooker) is the adoptive father of Peter Quill and a leader of the Ravagers. Yondu had originally been contracted to kidnap young Quill from Earth following the death of Quill's mother and return him to his birth father.

However, Yondu decided Quill would better serve his own needs in thievery, therefore he kept and raised him as part of his Ravager clan. Despite their frequent arguments and conflicts over the years, Quill and Yondu form an emotional and familial bond.

In 2014, Yondu assists Quill and the Martial master episode 173 sub indo of the Galaxy on Xandar against Ronan, and later saves Quill from his birth father, Ego and sacrifices himself to save Quill from his potentially ill-fated end.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Guardians of the Galaxy and Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [9] Ultron [ edit ] See also: Ultron Ultron (portrayed by James Spader) is an artificial intelligence conceived and designed by Tony Stark and Bruce Banner as the head of a peacekeeping program, who subsequently takes the form of a sentient android overwhelmed with a god complex, determined to pacify the Earth by martial master episode 173 sub indo humanity.

[201] Stark and Banner's research on the Mind Stone was the groundwork for Ultron's genesis, along with Stark's belief that Ultron would be the Avengers' permanent solution to maintaining "peace in our time." Once born, Ultron, however, quickly surmises that humanity's continued survival throughout human history is a result of overcoming ongoing successions of crises, and thus, he determines to inflict an extinction-level event in Sokovia to ensure the people of Earth have the will to evolve.

[201] Ultron, however, views the Avengers as a hindrance to humanity's evolution and vows to fulfill the Avengers' extinction. Ultron continuously updates his physical form with the acquisition of vibranium from Ulysses Klaue and possesses the ability to manifest himself within Stark's Iron Legion droids. He is ultimately defeated by the Avengers and destroyed by Vision. An alternate version of Ultron (voiced by Ross Marquand) in Vision's body appears in What If.?, making an appearance at the end of the seventh episode.

The following episode reveals an alternate version of 2015 where Ultron transferred his AI into Vision, defeated the Avengers, and eradicated most of Earth's lifeforms. He then killed Thanos and took the Infinity Stones, using them to eradicate all other life in the universe.

Ultron also becomes aware of the Watcher, and manages to break into the Nexus of All Realities in an attempt to kill the Watcher and destroy the Multiverse.

In the ninth episode, Ultron becomes aware of and battles the Guardians of the Multiverse but fails to defeat them due to Strange Supreme's immense power and protection spells. As Ultron starts focusing on him, Natasha Romanoff and Captain Carter manage to shoot an arrow to his head which contains a copy of Arnim Zola's consciousness. Subsequently, Zola destroys Ultron from inside his body and takes over it, but starts fighting Killmonger over the Infinity Stones until both are trapped in a pocket dimension by Strange Supreme and the Watcher.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Avengers: Age of Ultron, as well as the animated series What If.?. [28] [45] Janet van Dyne / Wasp [ edit ] See also: Wasp (character) Janet van Dyne (portrayed by Michelle Pfeiffer) is a scientist, the wife of Hank Pym, mother of Hope van Dyne, and the MCU's original Wasp. As the Wasp, Janet operated at S.H.I.E.L.D.

alongside Hank on field missions where she wore a shrinking suit with similar powers as the Ant-Man one, with the added capability of wings for flight. During a mission in 1987, Janet turned off her suit regulator and became sub-atomic, disappearing into the quantum realm.

Presumed dead, she was actually trapped within the quantum realm for nearly 30 years, until Hank rescued her in Ant-Man and the Wasp. Shortly after, Janet is a victim of the Blip. In Avengers: Endgame, she is restored to life and attends Tony Stark's funeral with Hank, Hope, and Scott Lang.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Ant-Man, Ant-Man and the Wasp, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?, where an alternate version of Janet appears in one episode as patient zero with an infectious quantum virus that has turned her into a zombie, which is spread across the Earth after Hank Pym rescues her from the quantum realm.

She will return in the upcoming film Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania. Ivan Vanko / Whiplash [ edit ] See also: Whiplash (Marvel Comics) and Crimson Dynamo Ivan Vanko (portrayed by Mickey Rourke), also known as Whiplash, is based on the Marvel Comics characters Whiplash and Crimson Dynamo. The son of Anton Vanko. He avenges his father by learning what he knew of his father of the original model of the arc reactor.

He uses it to create electric whips to kill Tony. After his failure to do so, he attracts business rival, Justin Hammer, for the creation of a new suit for Hammer. Although Vanko later betrays him using drones to kill Tony and then attempts to kill him with a new exoskeleton suit. He is defeated and died in battle with the combined forces of Iron Man and War Machine followed by his exoskeleton suit self-destructing.

[202] [94] [95] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Iron Man 2. Volstagg [ edit ] See also: Volstagg Volstagg (portrayed by Ray Stevenson) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby.

Volstagg is a member of the Warriors Three, depicted as a warrior of Asgard who loves to eat. He is killed by Hela in Thor: Ragnarok when she invades Asgard after being freed from her imprisonment.

[102] [104] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Thor, Thor: The Dark World, and Thor: Ragnarok; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?, voiced by Fred Tatasciore. [105] John Walker / Captain America / U.S. Agent [ edit ] See also: U.S. Agent Captain John F. Walker (portrayed by Wyatt Russell) is the former successor to Steve Rogers as Captain America appointed by the U.S. Government. His partner was Lemar Hoskins, also known as "Battlestar", and the two served in Operation Enduring Freedom together.

Walker was a football star at Custer's Grove High School in Georgia and graduated from West Point in 2009. He went on to become a highly decorated U.S. Army Captain and the first person in history to receive the Medal of Honor three times for his combat service. He also commanded high level counter-terrorism and hostage rescue operations. He was studied at MIT and tested well above average in speed, endurance, and intelligence.

He is chosen by the Global Repatriation Council (GRC) to help quash the ongoing violent post-Blip revolutions occurring across the world. He comes to the aid of Sam Wilson and Bucky Barnes during their first confrontation with the Flag Smashers and attempts to recruit them to join the GRC but they refuse.

Walker later assists Barnes after he is arrested for missing court-mandated therapy and again is refused when he asks Barnes and Wilson to join him. Walker ultimately warns them to stay out of his way. During a fight with the Flag Smashers, Walker retrieves a vial of Super Soldier serum, and decides to ingest it. In the ensuing battle with the Flag Smashers, Hoskins is killed by Karli Morgenthau, leading Walker to murder a Flag Smasher by driving the shield into the man's chest while a horrified crowd watches.

For this, Wilson and Barnes fight him for the Captain America shield, and defeat him. The government strips him of his role as Captain America, and he is other than honorably discharged from the army. However, he builds a new shield from scrap metal and his Medal of Honor.

Thus equipped, Walker confronts the Flag Smashers to avenge Hoskins, but defers his original goal and saves the Flag Smashers' hostages. After Wilson helps save them as Captain America, Walker assists Barnes in capturing the Flag Smashers. Afterwards, Walker is dubbed as U.S. Agent by Contessa Valentina Allegra de Fontaine. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one Disney+ series: The Falcon and the Winter Soldier. Wenwu [ edit ] Tony Leung portrays Wenwu in the MCU Xu Wenwu (portrayed by Tony Leung) is the legendary founder and supreme leader of the Ten Rings terrorist organization, and is the father of Shang-Chi in place of Fu Manchu / Zheng Zu from Marvel Comics.

[203] [204] [205] The Ten Rings terrorist group was previously referenced in the Iron Man trilogy and Ant-Man.

[206] [207] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings. Jimmy Woo [ edit ] See also: Jimmy Woo James E. "Jimmy" Woo (portrayed by Randall Park) is an FBI agent. While Scott Lang is under house arrest, Woo acts as his parole officer. In 2023, Woo is called in to investigate a missing persons case in Westview, New Jersey.

He works alongside S.W.O.R.D. to investigate Westview, teaming up with Monica Rambeau and Darcy Lewis. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Ant-Man and the Wasp, as well as one Disney+ series: WandaVision.

[208] Xu Xialing [ edit ] See also: Zheng Bao Yu and Sister Dagger Xu Xialing (portrayed by Meng'er Zhang) is Shang-Chi's sister. After escaping the Ten Rings, Xialing establishes an underground fight club in Macau. Xialing is captured along with her brother and Katy by Wenwu but escapes with them to Ta Lo.

She helps defend the village from the Ten Rings and later the Dweller-in-Darkness. After Wenwu's death, Xialing becomes the new leader of the Ten Rings. She is partially inspired by Zheng Bao Yu and Sister Dagger. [209] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings.

Yon-Rogg [ edit ] See also: Yon-Rogg Yon-Rogg (portrayed by Jude Law) [210] [211] [212] is the leader of Starforce, and leads the war against the Skrulls. While hunting down former Kree scientist Mar-Vell, who is hiding on Earth as Dr. Martial master episode 173 sub indo Lawson, he encounters Carol Danvers who destroys an energy core that imbues her with powers. Yon-Rogg takes her back to Hala, gives Carol a blood transfusion with his blood to save her life, and has her memories altered to think that she is a Kree named Vers.

He mentors and trains her to be a soldier, but during martial master episode 173 sub indo operation she is separated from the rest of the Starforce and lands on Earth.

Yon-Rogg goes after her, only to discover that Danvers has switched sides martial master episode 173 sub indo a Skrull named Talos helped her recover her memories. Starforce captures Danvers, Talos and a group of Skrull refugees, but Danvers manages to break free of Yon-Rogg and the Supreme Intelligence's hold over her by unlocking her full potential to drive back and defeat several members of the Starforce.

Yon-Rogg requests assistance from Ronan the Accuser, but his assault on Earth is thwarted by Danvers. In their final confrontation, Danvers defeats Yon-Rogg. Afterwards, she sends him back to Hala to deliver her message to the Supreme Intelligence. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Captain Marvel. Helmut Zemo [ edit ] See also: Helmut Zemo and Baron Zemo Baron Helmut Zemo (portrayed by Daniel Brühl) [213] is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

First introduced in Captain America: Civil War, Zemo is a wealthy baron of the Sokovian royal family who served as colonel of an elite Sokovian commando unit and blamed the Avengers for their role in his family's deaths during their battle with Ultron, developing a hatred towards enhanced individuals in general. Learning of a facility holding Hydra's Winter Soldier project and the footage of Bucky Barnes murdering Tony Stark's parents, Zemo frames Barnes by bombing the signing of the Sokovia Accords in Vienna in order to acquire the facility's location and then lure Tony and Steve Rogers so he can have them destroy each other.

Achieving his goal of effectively fracturing the Avengers, Zemo attempts to commit suicide but is stopped by T'Challa and taken into custody by the authorities. Everett Ross supervises his incarceration where he mocks Zemo for failing in his efforts, but Zemo indicates otherwise. Zemo returns in the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier, still in imprisonment after the events of Civil War, [97] although he escapes with the help of Barnes and allies with him and Sam Wilson against the Flag Smashers for his own agenda.

Though later recaptured by the Dora Milaje and sent to the Raft, Zemo arranges the murder of arrested members of the inner circle through his butler to minimize the chance of their Super-Soldier enhancements being reproduced. In the series, Zemo briefly wears his traditional purple mask from the comics, which he was not depicted with in Civil War.

[214] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Captain America: Civil War, and one Disney+ series: The Falcon and the Winter Soldier. Arnim Zola [ edit ] See also: Arnim Zola Dr. Arnim Zola (portrayed by Toby Jones) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Jack Kirby. He first appears in Captain America: The First Avenger as a scientist working for Hydra and the Red Skull before getting captured and recruited into S.H.I.E.L.D.

Zola masterminded Hydra's infiltration within S.H.I.E.L.D.‘s infrastructure before a terminal illness in the 70s lead to him transferring his consciousness into a computer system in Camp Lehigh, where he distracted Steve Rogers and Natasha Romanoff long enough for the camp to be wiped out by a missile barrage from Hydra.

As hinted in What If.?, Zola had digital copies of his mind stored in other Hydra bases. Alternate versions of Zola appear in the animated series What If.?, one version in existing in a universe where Peggy Carter became the Super-Soldier. Another version is seen in the last two episodes of the first season, a copy of Zola's consciousness was recovered by Natasha Romanoff to stop their universe’s Ultron.

Despite his initial failure to overwrite Ultron’s AI, Zola acquires the android’s body in the second attempt and battles Killmonger for his universe’s Infinity Stone before the two are trapped in a pocket dimension by Doctor Strange Supreme and the Watcher. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Captain America: The First Avenger and Captain America: The Winter Soldier; as well as the episode " Valediction" from the TV series Agent Carter and the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

[9] Minor characters [ edit ] The following is a supplementary list of characters that appear in lesser roles, make significant cameo appearances or who receive co-starring credit over multiple appearances. Introduced in Phase One [ edit ] See also: Marvel Cinematic Universe: Phase One • Felix Blake (portrayed by Titus Welliver) is a former loyal S.H.I.E.L.D. agent who was tasked by Nick Fury to find the final remaining Chitauri Gun.

As of 2022, the character has appeared in the One-Shot Item 47; as well as in the TV series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. [215] • Jacques Dernier (portrayed by Bruno Ricci) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name (who debuted in the series Sgt.

Fury and his Howling Commandos by Stan Lee). He appears in the film Captain America: The First Avenger as a French member of the Howling Commandos, [216] and returns in the Disney+ animated series What If.?. • Timothy "Dum Dum" Dugan (portrayed by Neal McDonough) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby. A recurring member of the Howling Commandos within the MCU.

He first appears in the film Captain America: The First Avenger [216] and later returned in the One-Shot and TV series both titled Agent Carter, [217] as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

[9] • Dr. Abraham Erskine (portrayed by Stanley Tucci) martial master episode 173 sub indo based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Jack Kirby and Joe Simon. The character is depicted as the creator of the super soldier serum, being responsible for the origin of Steve Rogers as Captain America and Johann Schmidt as the Red Skull.

Before being assassinated by Hydra agent Heinz Kruger, Erskine motivated Rogers to always remain as a good man in his heart. [218] He appears in the film Captain America: The First Avenger and the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

[50] : 2 • Christine Everhart (portrayed by Leslie Bibb) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. Everhart was created by John Jackson Miller and Jorge Lucas who depicted her as working in the Daily Bugle within the comic book.

[219] She plays a more prominent role in the MCU first as a news reporter for Vanity Fair in Iron Man and Iron Man 2 and later as a news broadcaster for WHiH World News in the WHIH Newsfront viral marketing campaign and in the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

[220] [50] : 2 • James Montgomery Falsworth (portrayed by JJ Feild) is based on the Marvel Comics character which became the first Union Jack created by Roy Thomas and Frank Robbins. He appears in the film Captain America: The First Avenger as a British member of the Howling Commandos, [216] [221] and returns in the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

• Roger Harrington (portrayed by Martin Starr) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. At Culver University, he granted Bruce Banner access to the computers in exchange for some pizza. [222] After graduating, he went on to become a science teacher at Midtown School of Science and Technology and the coach of its Academic Decathlon Team.

He went as a chaperone on a school sponsored trip to Europe. Among his students are: Peter Parker, Flash Thompson, Michelle Jones, Ned Leeds and Betty Brant. He appears in the films The Incredible Hulk, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Spider-Man: Far From Home, and Spider-Man: No Way Home.

• Gabriel "Gabe" Jones (portrayed by Derek Luke) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby.

He appears in the film Captain America: The First Avenger as an African-American member of the Howling Commandos, [223] and returns in the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

• Heinz Kruger (portrayed by Richard Armitage) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Jack Kirby and Joe Simon. The character was Red Skull's top assassin who is responsible for the death of Abraham Erskine.

[217] He appears in the film Captain America: The First Avenger, and returns in the Disney+ animated series What If.?. • Gideon Malick (portrayed by Powers Boothe) is an original character playing a small role as one of the members of the World Security Council in The Avengers.

He later reprises his role in Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. as a more recurring cast member and revealed as a secret member of Hydra within the series. [224] • Jim Morita (portrayed by Martial master episode 173 sub indo Choi) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby.

He appears in the film Captain America: The First Avenger and in the TV series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. as an Asian-American member of the Howling Commandos, [225] and returns in the Disney+ animated series What If.?. • The Other (portrayed by Alexis Denisof) is an original character from the MCU and is the grim leader of an alien race called the Chitauri.

He is a servant of Thanos and uses telepathic powers in The Avengers. He is later killed by Ronan the Accuser. He appears in The Avengers and Guardians of the Galaxy. [226] [227] • Colonel Chester Phillips (portrayed by Tommy Lee Jones) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

Phillips leads the Strategic Scientific Reserve during World War II. He is initially skeptical of Dr. Erskine's choice to administer the Super Soldier Serum to Steve Rogers, but later has a change of heart after witnessing Rogers' heroic actions.

[228] Phillips is one of the founders of S.H.I.E.L.D., along with Peggy Carter and Howard Stark. [229] He appears in the film Captain America: The First Avenger and the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

• William Ginter Riva (portrayed by Peter Billingsley) is a former Stark Industries employee who was ordered by Obadiah Stane to replicate Tony Stark's arc reactor. Years later, he joins Quentin Beck's crew to wreak havoc across Europe, helping him masquerade as a superhero named Mysterio, and controlling his drones. Following Mysterio's death, he leaks the identity of Spider-Man to J.

Jonah Jameson, and uploads a copy of Mysterio's software onto a flash drive. [230] He appears in Iron Man and Spider-Man: Far From Home. • Elizabeth "Betty" Ross (portrayed by Liv Tyler) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby.

She is the first love interest of Bruce Banner and the daughter of General Ross. The character appears in The Incredible Hulk and the Disney+ animated series What If.?, voiced by Stephanie Panisello. [231] [232] • Dr. Leonard Samson (portrayed by Ty Burrell) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. A psychiatrist who is in a relationship with Betty during Bruce's absence [233] He appears in The Incredible Hulk. • Jasper Sitwell (portrayed by Maximiliano Hernández) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby.

Jasper first appears as a S.H.I.E.L.D. agent under Phil Coulson in Thor. He is later revealed to be a Hydra sleeper agent and is killed by a brainwashed Bucky Barnes by command of Hydra. [234] [94] [95] An alternate version of him from 2012 appears in Avengers: Endgame.

[178] [235] He appears in Thor, The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as in Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. and two Marvel One-Shots: The Consultant and Item 47. [215] • Senator Stern (portrayed by Garry Shandling) is an original character in the MCU inspired by Howard Stern according to the director, Jon Favreau.

[236] First seen in Iron Man 2, he is depicted as a United States Senator who wanted Tony's armor to be handed to the US government. He harbored a strong dislike for Tony even after handing Tony and Rhodes the Medal of Honor. He was later revealed to be affiliated with Hydra.

[237] He appears in Iron Man 2 and Captain America: The Winter Soldier. • Dr. Samuel Sterns (portrayed by Tim Blake Nelson) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. Depicted in The Incredible Hulk as a gifted biologist who tried to cure Bruce Banner under the alias Mr. Blue. After replicating Banner's blood, he then is forced to use it on Emil Blonsky.

After Blonsky is transformed as a monster. Sterns's lab is destroyed and part of the Hulk's blood drops on Sterns's head and his skull mutates as he grins maniacally. Outside of the film series he is referenced in a prequel comic of The Avengers titled Fury's Big Week, revealed to be insane and imprisoned by S.H.I.E.L.D. [233] He appears in The Incredible Hulk. • Anton Vanko (portrayed by Yevgeni Lazarev as an old man, Costa Ronin as a young man) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

Vanko was created by Stan Lee and Don Heck and appears in Iron Man 2. He is depicted as a Soviet scientist and partner of Howard Stark who both help create the first arc reactor.

He betrays Howard by selling their designs on the black market. When Stark found out, Vanko was deported and became a drunk who leaves behind a legacy of his son exacting revenge on the Stark family after his death.

Outside of being in Iron Man 2, he guest stars in Agent Carter. [238] Stan Lee in 2014 • The Watcher Informant (portrayed by Stan Lee) is a being who travels the universe and reports on his adventures to the Watchers. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in twenty-two films: Iron Man, The Incredible Hulk, Iron Man 2, Thor, Captain America: The First Avenger, The Avengers, Iron Man 3, Thor: The Dark World, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Guardians of the Galaxy, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Ant-Man, Captain America: Civil War, Doctor Strange, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.

2, Thor: Ragnarok, Black Panther, Avengers: Infinity War, Ant-Man and the Wasp, Captain Marvel, and Avengers: Endgame; ten TV series: Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D., Agent Carter, Daredevil, Jessica Jones, Luke Cage, Iron Fist, The Defenders, The Punisher, Runaways, and Cloak & Dagger; and a web series: Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: Slingshot.

• Raza Hamidmi al-Wazar (portrayed by Faran Tahir) is a terrorist leader of the Ten Rings in the film Iron Man, created by Mark Fergus, Hawk Ostby, Art Marcum and Matt Holloway. He is an original character for the film outside of his character sharing some characteristics from the Marvel Comics character Wong-Chu and referencing the organization that alludes to the Mandarin.

[239] He uses Stark Industries weapons for personal gain, and was responsible for the origin of Tony as Iron Man, as he is the one who abducted him for his self-proclaimed personal gain of taking over the world, citing Genghis Khan as his influence. He was revealed to be working for Obadiah Stane, who later kills him.

[94] [240] [95] He appears in Iron Man. • Dr. Ho Yinsen (portrayed by Shaun Toub) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name first created by Stan Lee, Larry Lieber and Don Heck. The character is central to the origin of Tony as the superhero Iron Man. He is an engineer who helped save Tony's life by creating an electromagnet heart and then helped Tony build armor to escape from the terrorists. He then sacrifices his life in order to martial master episode 173 sub indo Stark escape, with his last words being "don't waste your life, Stark".

[241] [242] He appears in Iron Man and Iron Man 3 (cameo). Introduced in Phase Two [ edit ] See also: Marvel Cinematic Universe: Phase Two • Algrim (portrayed by Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje), also known as Kurse, is martial master episode 173 sub indo on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

He is a Dark Elf, and Malekith's lieutenant. He is one of the few Dark Elves who survived the catastrophe that almost wiped out their race.

He is physically stronger and more durable than Thor, due to having his abilities enhanced with the Kurse Stone, enabling him to survive blows from Mjolnir, although Loki kills him with a black hole grenade.

He appears in the film Thor: The Dark World and the Disney+ series Loki (archival footage). • Laura Martial master episode 173 sub indo (portrayed by Linda Cardellini) is based on the character of the same name from the Ultimate Marvel comics and Mockingbird from the Earth-616 comics universe.

A former S.H.I.E.L.D agent, she is the wife of Clint Barton, and the mother of Cooper, Lila, and Nathaniel Barton. To protect themselves, Laura and her children lived in secrecy (unbeknownst to the Avengers). However, Clint told the Avengers about his family during the Ultron Offensive, during which Laura told Clint how proud she was of him, but that she needed him with her as she was pregnant with their third child. Clint decided to retire from the Avengers to be with his family, and Laura later gave birth to their son Nathaniel.

In 2018, she and all three Barton children become victims of the Blip, but are all revived to life in 2023. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Avengers: Age of Ultron and Avengers: Endgame; as well as in the Disney+ series Hawkeye.

[243] • Georges Batroc (portrayed by Georges St-Pierre) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby. He is an Algerian mercenary and pirate at the top of Interpol's Red Notice, as well as a former DGSE agent who scored 36 kill missions before being demobilized by the French government.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Captain America: The Winter Soldier; [244] as well as in the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier and in the animated series What If.?.

[245] [246] [50] : 2 • Ellen Brandt (portrayed by Stéphanie Szostak), is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. She is a war veteran who lost her arm in battle before A.I.M. founder Aldrich Killian injects her with the Extremis virus, which grants enhanced regenerative capabilities. She and Eric Savin attack Tony Stark, but Stark is able to cause an explosion that sends Brandt flying into a set of power lines, fatally electrocuting her. She appears in the film Iron Man 3.

• Mitchell Carson (portrayed by Martin Donovan), is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. He is the head of defense at S.H.I.E.L.D. while secretly working for Hydra. When Hank Pym discovers S.H.I.E.L.D.

has been trying to replicate his Pym particles, he confronts Carson, Peggy Carter, and Howard Stark. Decades later, Carson allies himself with Pym's former protege-turned-adversary, Darren Cross, who has managed to successfully replicate the Pym particles.

During a confrontation among these parties, Carson absconds with the particles. He appears in the film Ant-Man. • Dr. Helen Cho (portrayed by Claudia Kim) is a world-renowned Korean geneticist and the leader of the U-GIN Research Group.

She is called upon to assist the Avengers with her research and technology in the war against Hydra, treating Clint Barton's injuries. Later, she martial master episode 173 sub indo approached and brainwashed by Ultron to create a new body for him using vibranium and synthetic tissue, this body becoming Vision.

She first appears in the film Avengers: Age of Ultron. • Dave (portrayed by Tip "T.I." Harris) is a friend of Scott Lang and Luis who works as Lang's getaway driver during heists. He enjoys playing poker and watching football. He later teases Hank Pym about the heist they pulled in his house before he became one of his employees.

The character has appeared in two films: Ant-Man, and Ant-Man and the Wasp. [247] • Rhomann Dey (portrayed by John C. Reilly) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

He is a member of the Nova Corps and contact to Star-Lord and the Guardians of the Galaxy. He was promoted to the rank of Denarian due to his actions during the Battle of Xandar.

He appears in the film Guardians of the Galaxy. • Matthew Ellis (portrayed by William Sadler) [248] [249] [250] is the President of the United States. He is kidnapped on board Air Force One by Eric Savin via the " Iron Patriot" armor where he's a powerless hostage of Aldrich Killian's fake terrorist attack before being rescued by Tony Stark and James Rhodes.

He is also one of the targets marked by Alexander Pierce's Helicarriers before being saved by Steve Rogers and Sam Wilson, and later is seen in viral marketing videos for an interview. As of 2022 [update], the character is seen in the films Iron Man 3 and Captain America: The Winter Soldier (pictured) as well as the TV series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. and in the WHIH Newsfront viral marketing campaign. • John Flynn (portrayed by Bradley Whitford) [251] is a senior agent of the Strategic Scientific Reserve.

After martial master episode 173 sub indo end of World War II, Peggy Carter was among the agents stationed under him though martial master episode 173 sub indo never assigned her to field mission. He wanted to officially punish her after she went against the orders and successfully retrieved the mysterious Zodiac serum, but she was promoted to head of S.H.I.E.L.D.

alongside Howard Stark with him now working under her. He appears in the One-Shot Agent Carter and the Disney+ animated series What If.?. • Maya Hansen (portrayed by Rebecca Hall) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. She is a scientist and a developer of the Extremis virus. She then works for Aldrich Killian who uses the virus as a weapon. She is later killed by him after she turns on him and has a change of heart. She appears in the film Iron Man 3. • Howard the Duck (voiced by Seth Green) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

He is an anthropomorphic duck who used to be one of the Collector's specimens. He was briefly shown later joining in the Battle of Earth of the fight against Thanos. As of 2022 martial master episode 173 sub indo, the character has appeared in three films: Guardians of the Galaxy, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.

2, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as in the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [50] • Harley Keener (portrayed by Ty Simpkins) is a child from Tennessee who, in 2012, assists Tony Stark following the destruction of his mansion and the ongoing attacks by the " Mandarin".

In 2023, Keener appears as a young man at Stark's funeral. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Iron Man 3 and Avengers: Endgame (cameo). • Korath (portrayed by Djimon Hounsou) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

He was martial master episode 173 sub indo member of the Starforce during the Kree-Skrull War before becoming Ronan's enforcer, during which he turns against Thanos and fights the Guardians of the Galaxy, only to be killed by Drax the Destroyer. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Guardians of the Galaxy and Captain Marvel.

He returned in the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [9] • Kurt (portrayed by David Dastmalchian) is a friend and roommate of Scott Lang and Luis who works as the team's hacker during heists.

He, Luis and Dave are together known as the "Three Wombats". In 2021, David Dastmalchian revealed Kurt's last name was "Goreshter". [252] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Ant-Man and Ant-Man and the Wasp; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [50] : 2 • Dr. List (portrayed by Henry Goodman) is a Hydra scientist who conducted experimentation on Loki's scepter and the Maximoff twins.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Captain America: The Winter Soldier (mid-credits cameo) and Avengers: Age of Ultron; as well as the TV series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. • Maggie (portrayed by Judy Greer) is the former wife of Scott Lang, the mother of his daughter Cassie Lang and the wife of Jim Paxton.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Ant-Man and Ant-Man and the Wasp. • Jackson Norriss (portrayed by Scoot McNairy) [253] is a member of the Ten Rings terrorist organization who goes undercover as a reporter to break Trevor Slattery out of Seagate Prison and punish him for impersonating the Mandarin during the events of the film Iron Man 3.

He appears in the One-Shot All Hail the King. He is based on the character of the same name. • James "Jim" Paxton (portrayed by Bobby Cannavale) is a police officer in the San Francisco Police Department, the husband of Maggie Lang (Scott Lang's ex-wife), and the stepfather of Cassie Lang.

He works alongside another police officer, Officer Gale (portrayed by Wood Harris). As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Ant-Man and Ant-Man and the Wasp. • Meredith Quill (portrayed by Laura Haddock) was the mother of Peter Quill and the ex-lover of Ego. She met Ego, fell in love with him and become pregnant with their son.

She enjoyed pop music, and gave Peter her Walkman, along with her mixtapes. She later dies of brain cancer, unaware martial master episode 173 sub indo the tumor was caused by Ego, to ensure that she was not a distraction to him.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Guardians of the Galaxy and Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2. She is based on the character of the same name. martial master episode 173 sub indo Irani Rael (portrayed by Glenn Close), also known as the Nova Prime, is the leader of Nova Corps.

She leads the Corps to victory with the help of the Guardians of the Galaxy when Ronan the Accuser attempts to destroy her home planet of Xandar with the Power Stone. She first appears in the film Guardians of the Galaxy. She is based on the character of the same name. • Rodriguez (portrayed by Miguel Ferrer) [254] is the Vice President of the United States.

He was working with Aldrich Killian to dispose of President Ellis so that Rodriguez could become the next President and Killian would treat his unnamed daughter (portrayed by Jenna Ortega).

After Ellis is saved and Killian is killed, Rodriguez and Trevor Slattery are arrested. He appears in the film Iron Man 3.

• Eric Savin (portrayed by James Badge Dale) is a former Lieutenant Colonel and Aldrich Killian's right-hand man who underwent the Extremis treatment to enhance his combat skills and give himself various fire-based powers as well as a regenerative healing factor.

He turns Jack Taggart into a human bomb as part of a terrorist attack, injuring Happy Hogan in the process. Savin then leads an assault on Tony Stark's mansion and later accompanies Ellen Brandt to Tennessee to recover evidence involving Extremis, though Stark is able to survive both times.

After James Rhodes's capture, Savin poses as the Iron Patriot to board Air Force One to kidnap President Matthew Ellis. While he succeeds in this task, Iron Man kills Savin before he can escape. He appears in the film Iron Man 3. He is based on the character of the same name. Introduced in Phase Three [ edit ] See also: Marvel Cinematic Universe: Phase Three • A group of Asgardian actors perform a play, "The Tragedy of Loki of Asgard" (portraying Loki's "death" in Thor: The Dark World, for Odin, in reality a disguised Loki).

The actors play "Thor" (portrayed by Chris Hemsworth's real-life brother Luke Hemsworth), "Odin" (portrayed by Sam Neill), "Loki" (portrayed by Matt Damon), "Jane Foster" (portrayed by Gabby Carbon), and "Sif" (portrayed by Charlotte Nicdao). The actors first appear in Thor: Ragnarok and will return in Thor: Love and Thunder, joined by an actor playing "Hela" (portrayed by Melissa McCarthy).

• Att-Lass (portrayed by Algenis Perez Soto) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. He is a Kree member of Starforce, and their stealth and raid specialist. He uses twin pistols as weapons. Att-Lass accompanies Yon-Rogg, Starforce, and some Kree soldiers to Earth to find Carol Danvers where it was discovered that the late Mar-Vell had hidden some Skrull refugees.

He seems reluctant to bring Carol Danvers in once she has discovered her history. After Carol Danvers shorts out the implant that limited her abilities, Martial master episode 173 sub indo joins Starforce and the Kree soldiers in fighting her, but is subdued. He appears in the film Captain Marvel.

• Ayesha (portrayed by Elizabeth Debicki) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. She is the high priestess of the golden-skinned Sovereign race. She hires the Guardians of the Galaxy to protect Anulax Batteries from the Abilisk, but after Rocket steals several of the batteries with the intention to later sell them, she becomes enraged and sends her fleet of Omnicrafts to kill them. In a mid-credit scene, she is seen observing the gestation of a new member of the Sovereign race, and names it Adam.

She first appears in the film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2; as well as in the Disney+ animated series What If.?. • Elizabeth "Betty" Brant (portrayed by Angourie Rice) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. Brant is a student at Midtown School of Science and Technology. This version of the character, in terms of appearance, bears a similarity to Gwen Stacy, having long blonde hair and often wearing a black headband. [255] She is Liz's best friend, and host of the school's news report.

In 2018, she is a victim of the Blip, but is revived to life in 2023. She enters a relationship with Ned Leeds in Europe, however they break up at the end of the trip, but maintain a friendship.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in three films: Spider-Man: Homecoming, Spider-Man: Far From Home, and Spider-Man: No Way Home, and the second season of the web series The Daily Bugle, as the website's newest unpaid intern. • Jackson Brice (portrayed by Logan Marshall-Green) is based on the Marvel Comics character Montana and the Shocker.

He is a member of Adrian Toomes' criminal enterprise who wields a modified version of Brock Rumlow's vibro-blast emitting gauntlet and calls himself the " Shocker". After a weapons deal with Aaron Davis attracts Spider-Man's attention, Toomes fires him for his recklessness, to which Brice threatens to expose their operation.

In response, Toomes fires one of Phineas Mason's weapons at Brice to intimidate him, but inadvertently disintegrates him instead. Following this, Toomes gives his vibro-gauntlet to fellow associate Herman Schultz.

He appears in the film Spider-Man: Homecoming. • Bron-Char (portrayed by Rune Temte) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. He is a Kree Empire operative and a member of Starforce.

In addition to being an expert at hand-to-hand combat, he jokes about finding Korath attractive. After Carol Danvers fights the Supreme Intelligence's control and burns out the implant that limits her abilities, she fights Starforce and subdues Bron-Char. He appears in the film Captain Marvel. • Sonny Burch (portrayed by Walton Goggins) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. He is a "low-level criminal-type" who wants Pym's technology to sell on the black market.

He has henchmen (consisting of Uzman, Anitolov, Knox martial master episode 173 sub indo FBI agent Stoltz) and is the owner of a restaurant (presumably as a front).

Sonny attempts to buy Hank Pym's quantum technology, but gets turned down by Hope van Dyne. Sonny's men subsequently battle the Wasp and Ant-Man. He later manages to get information out of Scott Lang's friends ( Luis, Kurt and Dave) via his "truth serum" concoction. He appears in the film Ant-Man and the Wasp.

• Charlie-27 (portrayed by Ving Rhames) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. He is the captain of a Ravager Clan, distinguished by their mustard yellow garbs. He appears in the film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2. • Aaron Davis (portrayed by Donald Glover) [256] [257] [258] is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

He is a low-level criminal with a sense of morality. He attempts to buy high-tech firearms from Herman Schultz and Jackson Brice, only to be interrupted by Spider-Man.

The hero later confronts Aaron, webs his hand to his car, and questions him regarding Adrian Toomes' plans. Aaron gives information about a sale with his former acquaintance Mac Gargan, and admits to wanting to keep the weapons off the streets to protect his nephew.

Spider-Man leaves, leaving Aaron trapped to his car. In a deleted post-credits scene, Aaron tries to use his keys to get the webbing off, without success. He calls his nephew to say that "he's not gonna make it". [259] He appears in the film Spider-Man: Homecoming. • Dormammu (voiced by Benedict Cumberbatch and an unidentified British actor) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

He is a primordial inter-dimensional entity and ruler of the Dark Dimension. He wields apocalyptic levels of supernatural power. Dormammu seeks to absorb all other universes into his Dark Dimension and turn the victims into Mindless Ones. The Zealots misinterpret this eternal existence as a benevolent longevity, and Dormammu gives them some of his power. Doctor Strange uses the Time Stone to trap himself and Dormammu in an endless loop, where he offers a bargain and dies when the entity refuses.

Desperate to escape this loop, Dormammu accepts the bargain to end it in exchange for taking his Zealots from the Earth and never returning to it. This version of Dormammu appears as a massive face made of rippling mystical energy, with his full form never seen. He appears in the film Doctor Strange and the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [260] • Eitri (portrayed by Peter Dinklage) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

He is the King of the Dwarves, an ancient race of skilled forgers and blacksmiths who hail from the martial master episode 173 sub indo of Nidavellir. Atypically to his traditional diminutive form, the MCU's version of Eitri is depicted at a giant's size (although he still refers to his race as Dwarves). Thor comes to him on Nidavellir asking for a new weapon after Mjolnir was destroyed by Hela.

Eitri reveals that Thanos forced the Dwarves to produce the Infinity Gauntlet, before slaughtering the entire race except Eitri, destroying his hands to render him unable to forge anything ever again.

Thor, Groot, and Rocket all help Eitri create the new weapon, Stormbreaker. He appears in Avengers: Infinity War and the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [261] • Dr. William "Bill" Foster (portrayed by Laurence Fishburne) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

He is a physicist, and the former Giant-Man. [191] [262] [263] He was Hank Pym's assistant on "Project Goliath" and is Ava Starr's surrogate father after Elihas Starr's death. In the present, Bill teaches quantum physics at UC Berkeley when he encounters his former employer, Scott Lang, and Hope van Dyne. When Ava restrains Pym, Scott and Hope, Bill states that he has been working to martial master episode 173 sub indo Ava by obtaining quantum energy from the quantum realm.

As Pym knows that Bill's plan will affect Janet van Dyne's rescue, Hope and Hank manage their escape. When Scott Lang goes into the quantum realm, Hank talks Bill down and states that he will find a way to help stabilize Ava as Hank's ants see Bill out. After Janet is rescued from the quantum realm and gives some of her energy to stabilize Ava, Bill takes Ava away as Hank still vows to find a way to help stabilize Ava for good. He appears in the film Ant-Man and the Wasp. • MacDonald "Mac" Gargan (portrayed by Michael Mando) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

He is a professional criminal and one of Adrian Toomes' potential buyers. In the wake of an encounter with Spider-Man, Gargan is arrested by the FBI and vows revenge, seeking out new allies to help him kill Spider-Man.

He approaches Toomes in prison on the basis of certain rumours, wanting to know Spider-Man's identity to settle personal scores. Toomes denies that he knows it, however. He appears in the film Spider-Man: Homecoming. • Corvus Glaive (voiced and portrayed [via motion capture] in live-action by Michael James Shaw; voiced in animation by Fred Tatasciore [32]) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

He is Thanos' adoptive son. He joined his father in his quest for the six Infinity Stones, initially attacked the Statesman with his siblings and helped to kill the Asgardians aboard and retrieve the Space Stone.

While attempting to retrieve the Mind Stone from Vision with Proxima Midnight, they are met in battle and defeated by Steve Rogers, Natasha Romanoff, and Sam Wilson. During a second attempt, Midnight leads the Outriders in attacking the Avengers on the ground to distract from Glaive infiltrating Shuri's lab to attack her, which leads Vision to come to her defense and tackle Glaive out of the lab.

Rogers intervenes in the fight, but Glaive incapacitates the former before Vision kills the latter. An alternate version of Glaive travels through time with Thanos' army to stop the Avengers, only to be killed by Okoye. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Avengers: Infinity War and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

• Anne Marie Hoag (portrayed by Tyne Daly) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. Hoag is the director of the United States Department of Damage Control who was instructed by Tony Stark to handle all clean up operations which involved the Avengers or their allies.

This had included firing Adrian Toomes and his Crew from the clean up of the Battle of New York cleanup and other future jobs. [255] As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Spider-Man: Homecoming. • Jason Ionello (portrayed by Jorge Lendeborg Jr.) is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

Ionello is a former student at Midtown School of Science and Technology and the co-host of Midtown News with Betty Brant. [255] In 2018, he is a victim of the Blip, but is revived to life in 2023. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Spider-Man: Homecoming and Spider-Man: Far From Home. • Krugarr is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. He is a Lem, a race of extremely long-lived worm-like creatures.

He is a sorcerer and a captain of his own faction of the Ravagers. He was also one of the members of Stakar Ogord's faction in the past. He appears in the film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2. • Mainframe (voiced by Miley Cyrus), based on the character of the same name, is an artificial intelligence and Ravager captain as well as a member of Stakar Ogord's original team. It appears in the film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.

2 speaking through a disembodied robot head. • Martinex (portrayed by Michael Rosenbaum), based on the character of the same name, is a member of Stakar Ogord's team of Ravagers. He visits Yondu on Contraxia along with Stakar to remind him that he is in exile for breaking the Ravagers' code.

After Yondu sacrifices himself to save Peter Quill, Martinex and Stakar are moved by his sacrifice, and he and the other Ravagers attend his funeral. The two of them decide to bring the rest of the team back together to honor him as seen in the mid-credits scene. He appears in the film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.

2. • Mar-Vell (portrayed by Annette Bening) is a reimagining of the Marvel Comics character of the same name. A Kree scientist who rejected her species' war with the Skrulls, Mar-Vell fled to Earth in the 1980s and adopted the alias of Dr. Wendy Lawson, a physicist at Project Pegasus. Using the Tesseract, she sought to develop an experimental engine that would have allowed the Skrulls to settle beyond the reach of the Kree Empire. She is killed by Yon-Rogg, though she is able to instruct Carol Danvers to destroy the engine before Yon-Rogg is able to seize the device.

The Supreme Intelligence later takes on her appearance while conversing with Danvers. She appears in the film Captain Marvel. • Phineas Mason (portrayed by Michael Chernus) [264] is a weapons maker and part of a salvage company alongside Adrian Toomes, Herman Schultz and Jackson Brice. When the salvaging company goes out of business due to Damage Control, Mason helps Toomes steal leftover technology from the Avengers' battles and build advanced weapons out of the technology, such as Toomes' flight suit and modified versions of Brock Rumlow's vibro-blast emitting gauntlets.

While his assistants were defeated by Spider-Man and arrested by the authorities, Mason's fate is left unknown. He appears in the film Spider-Man: Homecoming. He is based on the character of the same name. • Proxima Midnight (voiced and faced by Carrie Coon, and portrayed [via motion capture] by Monique Ganderton) is Thanos' adoptive daughter, based on the character of the same name.

She joined her father in his quest for the six Infinity Stones, initially attacked the Statesman with her brothers, helping to kill the Asgardians aboard in order to retrieve the Space Stone.

While attempting to claim the Mind Martial master episode 173 sub indo, she and Corvus Glaive attack Wanda Maximoff and Vision, but are repelled by Steve Rogers, Sam Wilson, and Natasha Romanoff.

During a second attempt at the Infinity Stone, Proxima fights Romanoff and Okoye, but is ultimately killed by Maximoff. A past version of Midnight travels through time with Thanos' forces to stop the Avengers from foiling his plans.

However, they are all disintegrated when Tony Stark uses the Infinity Gauntlet. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Avengers: Infinity War and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [50] : 2 • Miek is a Sakaaran insectoid warrior, based on the character of the same name. This version of the character is a larva-like creature as opposed to a humanoid roach, and initially uses an exoskeleton equipped with blades in combat. Having been freed from the Grandmaster's prison, Miek fights alongside Thor and Korg and joins the Asgardian people in their journey to Earth after the destruction of Asgard.

Along with Korg, he survives Thanos' attack on the Asgardian starship and the Blip. He finds a new home with the Asgardians in New Asgard in Norway. Miek participates in the final battle at the destroyed Avengers Headquarters against Thanos and his army.

As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Thor: Ragnarok and Avengers: Endgame, as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?. He will return in the upcoming film Thor: Love and Thunder. • Minn-Erva (portrayed by Gemma Chan) is based on the Marvel Comics character Doctor Minerva.

She is a Kree tactical sniper and a member of Yon-Rogg's Starforce team along with Carol Danvers (who at that time is known simply as Vers) whom she has strong animosity towards. Minn-Erva accompanies Starforce and some Kree soldiers to Earth where it was discovered that Mar-Vell had hid some Skrull refugees.

During the final battle, she pilots a fighter and attempts to catch up with and shoot down a ship being flown by Maria Rambeau and housing several refugee Skrulls. Maria outmaneuvers Minn-Erva and shoots her down, killing martial master episode 173 sub indo. She appears in the film Captain Marvel. • N'Jobu (portrayed by Sterling K. Brown) was the younger brother of T'Chaka, the King of Wakanda and an agent of the War Dogs. After betraying his own people and aiding Ulysses Klaue with getting vibranium out of Wakanda with the intention of allowing oppressed people to possess its power, N'Jobu was confronted and killed by T'Chaka.

His only son Prince N'Jadaka (Erik Killmonger) saw the whole thing and planned to avenge his death and finish his work by becoming King. He appears in the film Black Panther. • Cull Obsidian (voiced and portrayed [via motion capture] by Terry Notary) is loosely based on Black Dwarf created by Jonathan Hickman and an adopted son of Thanos. In this incarnation, he is equipped with a chain hammer and an arm blade. He and Ebony Maw go to retrieve the Time Stone from Doctor Strange, who protects it with a spell that only expires in the event of his death.

In the ensuing battle, Maw kidnaps Doctor Strange, while Wong tricks Obsidian into jumping through a portal, severing his hand as Obsidian tries to return. He is rescued off-screen and his hand replaced by a cybernetic replacement by the time of the final battle in Wakanda. Bruce Banner later defeats him in the Hulkbuster armor by sending him flying into the Wakandan energy shield, incinerating Obsidian on impact.

A past version of Cull Obsidian appears in Avengers: Endgame, again at Thanos's side; he is stepped on and killed by Scott Lang during the final battle. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Avengers: Infinity War, and Avengers: Endgame; as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

• Stakar Ogord (portrayed by Sylvester Stallone) is a legendary Ravager captain and the leader of the Stakar Ravager Clan. Ogord saved Yondu Udonta from a life of slavery to the Kree and welcomed him to the Ravagers, but was later forced to exile him for engaging in child trafficking, thus violating the Ravager code.

In a mid-credits scene, Stakar and Martinex reunite with their old teammates Charlie-27, Aleta Ogord, Mainframe, and Krugarr. He is based on the character of the same name. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2. He will return in the upcoming films Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 3. • Aleta Ogord (portrayed by Michelle Yeoh) is a Ravager captain, and the wife of Stakar Ogord, as well as a member of his team.

She appears in the film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2. She is based on the character of the same name. • Jonathan Pangborn (portrayed by Benjamin Bratt) is a former Master of the Mystic Arts who was trained by the Ancient One but later chose to leave Kamar-Taj as he only wanted to heal his paralysis.

During the post-credits scene of Doctor Strange, Karl Mordo drains him of his magic and his ability to walk, as Mordo claims that there are too many sorcerers. He appears in the film Doctor Strange. • Captain Maria "Photon" Rambeau (portrayed by Lashana Lynch) is a former United States Air Force pilot and a single mother of Monica Rambeau.

She becomes best friends with Carol Danvers, who was presumed dead for six years, after a plane accident. Maria was reunited with Danvers during the Kree-Skrull War and helped Danvers to remember her early life. Later, she helps found S.W.O.R.D. and becomes its Director until she dies of cancer in 2020. She appears in the film Captain Marvel and is referenced in the Disney+ series WandaVision. An alternate version of Maria from Earth-838, who took up the mantle of Captain Marvel instead of Carol Danvers, appears as a member of the Illuminati.

She is killed by the Scarlet Witch in the film Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness. [265] • Herman Schultz (portrayed by Bokeem Woodbine), [266] [267] also known as the Shocker, is a former salvage worker and professional criminal. When Jackson Brice is killed, Schultz assumes the Shocker mantle and gauntlet before tracking down a weapon retrieved by Spider-Man and assisting in a weapons deal aboard the Staten Island Ferry.

The deal is ambushed by the FBI and Spider-Man, though Schultz and Toomes manage to escape. When the crew pulls their final heist on a cargo plane transporting weapons from the Avengers Tower, Schultz is tasked with stopping Spider-Man from intervening.

The former initially overpowers the web-slinger until he is distracted by Ned Leeds, allowing Spider-Man to web Schultz onto a bus. In a deleted scene, students find Schultz still webbed and take photos with him before he is eventually turned over to the authorities. He appears in the film Spider-Man: Homecoming. He is based on the character of the same name. • Skurge (portrayed by Karl Urban) served as Loki's chosen successor to Heimdall as gatekeeper of the bifrost.

He is later promoted martial master episode 173 sub indo the position of Executioner upon Hela's return to Asgard. Skurge is portrayed in a mostly comedic, subservient if not absent-minded fashion. Upon realizing the fate of Asgard, he changes allegiance and ultimately sacrifices himself while assisting Thor in evacuating the people of Asgard during the battle against Hela during Ragnarok, using his two M-16 assault rifles, Des and Troy, to hold off her army.

He appears in the film Thor: Ragnarok, as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [45] He is based on the character of the same name. • Soren (portrayed by Sharon Blynn) is a Skrull and the wife of Talos. She is an original character. The couple have an unnamed daughter, portrayed by Harriet L. Ophuls and Auden L. Ophuls. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in two films: Captain Marvel and seen in her Maria Hill form alongside her normal Skrull form in Spider-Man: Far From Home.

• Maria Stark (portrayed by Hope Davis) is the wife of Howard Stark and mother of Tony Stark. In 1991, she is assassinated by the Winter Soldier along with her husband on Hydra's orders. She appears in flashbacks in the film Captain America: Civil War and in the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier via archival footage.

She is based on the character of the same name. • Morgan Stark (portrayed by Lexi Rabe) is the four-year-old daughter of Tony Stark and Pepper Potts. Born after Thanos' universal genocide, she grows up during the five-year 'Blip' period with half the world's population having been wiped out of existence. Katherine Langford portrays Morgan Stark in a deleted scene, in which she has a conversation with her father in the Soul World after he sacrifices himself to save the universe by using the Infinity Stones to defeat Thanos.

She appears in Avengers: Endgame. She is based on the character of the same name. • Surtur (motion-captured by Taika Waititi, voiced by Clancy Brown) is a Fire Demon, lord of Muspelheim, and a significant figure in the prophecy of Ragnarök as the one who martial master episode 173 sub indo initiate the fall of Asgard. He imprisons Thor in his lair in Muspelheim and reveals that Odin is not on Asgard, where Surtur plans to unite his crown with the Eternal Flame so that he can cause Ragnarök and destroy Asgard, though Thor manages to defeat Surtur and escape with his crown.

During his battle with Hela however, Thor realizes causing Ragnarök is the only way he can defeat her, so he tasks Loki with resurrecting Surtur with the Eternal Flame, allowing Surtur to succeed in his plans and kill Hela while Thor, Loki, and the Asgardians escape. He appears in the film Thor: Ragnarok, as well as the Disney+ animated series What If.?.

[50] He is based on the character of the same name. Chris Sullivan as Taserface at the 2016 San Diego Comic Con • Taserface (portrayed by Chris Sullivan) is a Ravager mercenary and a lieutenant in the Yondu Ravager Clan. He is depicted as being proud of his name as he believes it strikes fear into the hearts of his enemies. However, Rocket and the rest of the Ravagers scoff at the ridiculousness of his name. Following Yondu Udonta's exile by Stakar Ogord, Taserface leads a mutiny against Udonta, feeling that he is "going soft", and kills anyone still loyal to him.

After Kraglin aids Yondu, Rocket, and Groot in escaping from their prison cells, Yondu kills the remaining Ravagers and destroys the main engine, causing the Ravager ship to explode. While the heroes eject from the main ship in a smaller escape ship, Taserface contacts the Sovereign to give them Yondu's coordinates before dying in the explosion. He first appears in the film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.

2 and returned in the Disney+ animated series What If.?. [50] : 2 He is based on the character of the same name.

• Dr. Nicodemus West (portrayed by Michael Stuhlbarg) is based on the character of the same name. He is a rival surgeon to Stephen Strange. He first appears in the film Doctor Strange. He returns in its sequel Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness, playing a minor role.

• W'Kabi (portrayed by Daniel Kaluuya) is the chief of Wakanda's Border Tribe as well as T'Challa's best friend, and Okoye's husband. [268] As he is responsible for the borders of Wakanda, W'Kabi and his guards have trained armored white rhinoceroses as shock cavalry.

W'Kabi loses faith in T'Challa when he fails to capture Klaue (who had killed his parents decades earlier while stealing vibranium), and supports N'Jadaka when he subsequently takes the throne.

During the final battle, Okoye confronts W'Kabi when he tries to trample M'Baku with an armored white rhinoceros, saying she values Wakanda more than their love. Not wanting to die by Okoye's hands or take her life, W'Kabi surrenders and the rest of the Border Tribe does the same.

He appears in the film Black Panther. He will return in the upcoming film Black Panther: Wakanda Forever. He is based on the character of the same name. • Zuri (portrayed by Forest Whitaker and Denzel Whitaker) is a former member of the War Dogs and a Wakandan shaman, and the trusted loyal adviser to his King. Having maintained T'Chaka's secrets over his handling of the death of N'Jobu in the past, Zuri continued supporting the King of Wakanda as T'Challa took over the throne in the wake of the death of T'Chaka.

As a young man, Zuri posed as an American named James to tail N'Jobu, T'Chaka's brother and a traitor, and witnessed his death at T'Chaka's hands. Twenty-five years later, Zuri appoints T'Chaka's son T'Challa as the new king, and oversees T'Challa's fight with M'Baku on challenge day by administering the liquid that removes the abilities the heart-shaped herb grants. When M'Baku is defeated, Zuri performs a ritual that involves the abilities' return. Zuri is the one to tell T'Challa the truth about Erik Stevens' parentage.

Stevens later kills Zuri when he attempts to protect T'Challa, blaming him for doing nothing to protect N'Jobu. He appears in the film Black Panther. He is based on the character of the same name. Introduced in Phase Four [ edit ] See also: Marvel Cinematic Universe: Martial master episode 173 sub indo Four • Ammit (motion-captured by Sofia Danu, voiced by Saba Mubarak) is the imprisoned Egyptian goddess that resembles a humanoid version of her classical depiction whom Arthur Harrow plans to release.

Ammit is known as the "The Devourer of the Dead" and plans to cast her preemptive judgement on all of humanity. She appears in the Disney+ series Moon Knight. She is based on the Egyptian goddess of the same name. • Arishem (voiced by David Kaye) [269] is a Celestial who created the Eternals and the Deviants. He makes his first appearance in Eternals.

He is based on the character of the same name. • Hunter B-15 (portrayed by Wunmi Mosaku) is an agent of the Time Variance Authority (TVA), who is a brainwashed variant who later remembers her family. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one Disney+ series: Loki. • Derek Bishop (portrayed by Brian d'Arcy James) was the husband of Eleanor Bishop and the father of Kate Bishop.

Bishop owed money to Wilson Fisk and was one of the victims of the Battle of New York. He appears in the Disney+ series Hawkeye. He is based on the character of the same name. • Eleanor Bishop (portrayed by Vera Farmiga) is the wealthy mother of Kate Bishop.

After her first husband Derek dies in 2012, she becomes engaged to Jack Duquesne in 2024. She appears in the Disney+ series Hawkeye. She is based on the character of the same name. • Ralph Bohner (portrayed by Evan Peters) is a "recast" version of Pietro Maximoff. Agatha Harkness possesses him, imbuing him with Pietro's super-speed and forcing him into playing the role, in order to discover how Wanda created the hex. He was initially introduced as "Agnes"' unseen husband, who was frequently mentioned whenever Agnes needed a punchline for a laugh line.

He was freed from Agatha's control when Monica Rambeau removed a magical necklace he was wearing. He appears in the Disney+ series WandaVision. Peters previously portrayed a different incarnation of the character named Peter Maximoff in 20th Century Fox's X-Men film series. • Isaiah Bradley (portrayed by Carl Lumbly), based on the character of the same name, is an elderly super soldier who served in the Korean War, during which time he was sent behind enemy lines to fight the brainwashed Bucky Barnes, whose metal arm he damaged.

After rescuing other black super soldiers who were being held prisoner, he was imprisoned by the US government and Hydra for 30 years, experimented on, and his existence kept a secret, with not even Steve Rogers knowing of him. A nurse helped him escape by forging his death and he went into hiding. He first appears in the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier, where he lives in Baltimore with his grandson Eli (portrayed by Elijah Richardson).

He refuses to help Sam Wilson and Bucky Barnes when they seek him out, revealing his hatred for the government and contempt for the idea of a Black man becoming Captain America.

Later, he is provided with his own memorial and statue in the Smithsonian Institution with Wilson's help. Tom Hardy in 2018 • Eddie Brock (portrayed by Tom Hardy) is an investigative journalist from an alternate reality, who is the host of the alien symbiote Venom that imbues him with superhuman abilities, becoming a vigilante duo known as the "Lethal Protector".

After being transported to Peter Parker's universe due to Doctor Strange's attempt to cast a spell and restore Peter Parker's secret identity, he finds himself at a bar discussing the Avengers, Thanos, and the Blip with the bartender. Brock decides to go meet Spider-Man, martial master episode 173 sub indo he and Venom are swiftly sent back to their universe while unknowingly leaving a part of the symbiote behind.

[270] He is based on his comic book counterpart. Hardy appears, uncredited, in the mid-credits scene of Spider-Man: No Way Home, reprising the role from the Sony's Spider-Man Universe films Venom and Venom: Let There Be Carnage. • Clea (portrayed by Charlize Theron) is a sorceress from the Dark Dimension who came to Earth to enlist Doctor Strange's help.

She makes her first appearance in Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness. She is based on the character of the same name. • Dr. Curt Connors (portrayed by Rhys Ifans), also known as Lizard, is an Oscorp scientist from an alternate reality who attempted to engineer a regeneration serum to help regrow limbs and human tissue, but was transformed into a large reptilian monster.

Ifans reprises his role from the film The Amazing Spider-Man (2012). As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Spider-Man: No Way Home. • Contessa Valentina Allegra de Fontaine (portrayed by Julia Louis-Dreyfus), also known by her nickname Val, is an influential contessa, based on the character of the same name.

Introduced in The Falcon and the Winter Soldier episode " Truth", she approaches John Walker after he is stripped martial master episode 173 sub indo the mantle of Captain America following his killing a member of the Flag Smashers. She expresses sympathy for his situation and tells him that the people she works for may have use for his services.

She later convinces Walker to take up the mantle of the 'U.S. Agent'. De Fontaine returns in the post-credits scene of Black Widow as Yelena Belova's handler, recruiting her for a mission to kill Clint Barton.

In Hawkeye, it's revealed that the Contessa's client who requested this mission is Eleanor Bishop. • Death Dealer (portrayed by Andy Le), based on the character of the same name, is a Ten Rings assassin and Shang-Chi's martial arts mentor during his youth. He accompanied Razor Fist and the Martial master episode 173 sub indo Rings in acquiring Xialing's pendant where he fought Shang-Chi before Wenwu broke up the fight. During the battle of Ta Lo, Death Dealer is the first person killed by the forces of the Dweller-in-Darkness, prompting the Ten Rings into forming a truce with the Ta Lo villagers.

He appears in the film Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings. • General Dreykov (portrayed by Ray Winstone) is a high-ranking officer in the Soviet Armed Forces who acts as the Red Room's overseer and father and superior to Taskmaster. He is killed by Yelena Belova in 2016. He appears in Black Widow, after being previously mentioned in The Avengers. • Jack Duquesne (portrayed by Tony Dalton) is the fiancée of Eleanor Bishop, the nephew of Armand III, and CEO of the shell corporation Sloan Limited.

Along with his uncle, he attends a black market auction of items stolen from the Avengers compound in 2024, and steals Ronin's retractable sword. Jack later assists Hawkeye in fighting the Tracksuit Mafia during Kate Bishop's fight with Kingpin. He appears in the Disney+ series Hawkeye.

He is based on the character of the same name. • Eros (portrayed by Harry Styles), [271] also known as Starfox, is the brother of Thanos.

He makes his first appearance in Eternals. He is based on the character of the same name. • Tyler Hayward (portrayed by Josh Stamberg) is the acting director of S.W.O.R.D., having taken over from Maria Rambeau following her death.

[272] Following the Blip, he is shown to have animosity against superheroes, viewing Wanda Maximoff as dangerous which leads to him kicking colleague Monica Rambeau off the Westview investigation for having defended Wanda. He is revealed to have lied to Monica, FBI agent Jimmy Woo, and astrophysicist Darcy Lewis earlier about Wanda and has been working on a secret project dealing with Vision.

The project culminates with Vision being reactivated by exposure to Wanda's powers from a drone. His plan to eliminate Wanda with Vision, however, fails when Wanda's Vision restores the real Vision's memories. When the Hex is partially taken down, Darcy stops Hayward from ramming the twins, and he is arrested for tampering with evidence and removed from S.W.O.R.D. He appears in the Disney+ series WandaVision.

• He Who Remains (portrayed by Jonathan Majors) is the creator of the Time Variance Authority (TVA), which he founded after a multiversal war. He resides in the Citadel at the End of Time and is ultimately killed by Sylvie.

He makes his first appearance in Loki, and is based on Immortus and He Who Remains from the Marvel Comics. [273] A variant of him, Kang the Conqueror, will appear in Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania.

• Sergeant major [274] Lemar Hoskins (portrayed by Clé Bennett), also known as Battlestar, was the partner of John Walker, the new Captain America. Hoskins and Walker served together in Operation Enduring Freedom and Hoskins laments that they could have saved a lot of lives had they been super soldiers.

During a fight with the Flag Smashers, Karli Morgenthau punches him into a concrete pillar, killing him. He appears in the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier. He is based on the character of the same name. • Jon Jon (portrayed by Ronny Chieng), is Xialing's right-hand man and announcer at her underground fighting club.

He later joins the Ten Rings after Xialing assumes leadership and restructures it. He appears in the film Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings. • Kazimierz "Kazi" Kazimierczak (portrayed by Fra Fee) is a prominent member of the Tracksuit Mafia. He is the second in command and personal sign interpreter to Maya Lopez, who has been his friend since childhood.

He appears in the Disney+ series Hawkeye. He is based on the character of the same name. • Khonshu (motion-captured by Karim El Hakim, voiced by F. Murray Abraham) is the Egyptian moon god, an outcast amongst the gods for waging a "one-god war on perceived injustices", thus necessitating him to find and use his avatar, Marc Spector.

He appears in the Disney+ series Moon Knight. He is based on the character of the same name. • Kro (voiced by Bill Skarsgård) [275] is a Deviant who despises the Eternals. He is later killed by Thena. He makes his first appearance in Eternals. He is based on the character of the same name. • Flint Marko (portrayed by Thomas Haden Church), also known martial master episode 173 sub indo Sandman, is a small-time crook from an alternate reality who received sand-like abilities following an accident.

Church reprises his role from the film Spider-Man 3 (2007). As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Spider-Man: No Way Home. • Rick Mason (portrayed by O-T Fagbenle) is an ally from Romanoff's S.H.I.E.L.D. past. He makes his first appearance in Black Widow. He is based on the character of the same name. • William "Billy" Maximoff (portrayed by Baylen Bielitz and Julian Hilliard) is Wanda Maximoff and simulacrum Vision's son, and the twin brother of Tommy Maximoff.

He has magical powers similar to his mother's, meaning that he can hear people's thoughts, and senses Vision crossing the Hex barrier. Due to Wanda's powers, he is born in under a day, and is physically ten years old by the end of the following day. Although he disintegrates when the Hex comes down, his voice is later heard by Wanda whilst studying the Darkhold.

He appears in the Disney+ series WandaVision and as his Earth-838 counterpart in the film Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness. He is based on the character of the same name.

• Thomas "Tommy" Maximoff (portrayed by Gavin Borders and Jett Klyne) is created by Wanda Maximoff as her son, along with the simulacrum of Vision as his father, and twin brother Billy in her Hex in Westview, New Jersey. He has superspeed powers and like Billy, he is born in a day, and aged to ten by the next.

Although he disintegrates when the Hex comes down, his voice is later heard by Wanda whilst studying the Darkhold. He appears in the Disney+ series WandaVision and as his Earth-838 counterpart in the film Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness. He is based on the character of the same name. • Anton Mogart (portrayed by Gaspard Ulliel) is a wealthy antiquities collector living in Egypt and an old acquaintance of Layla El-Faouly.

He appears in the Disney+ series Moon Knight. He is based on the character of the same name. • Karun Patel (portrayed by Harish Patel) is Kingo's human valet, a former vampire hunter who has been in Kingo's service for 50 years since mistaking him for one and trying to stake him. He makes his first appearance in Eternals.

• Pip the Troll (voiced by Patton Oswalt) [271] is an ally of Eros. He makes his first appearance in Eternals. He is based on the character of the same name. • Razor Fist (portrayed by Florian Munteanu), based on the character of the same name, is a high-ranking Ten Rings agent with a steel blade for a hand. Razor Fist is sent by Wenwu to take Shang-Chi's pendant. Then he engages Shang-Chi when the Ten Rings target Xialing's pendant until Wenwu breaks up the resulting conflict. Razor Fist later accompanies him and Ten Rings on the assault on Ta Lo.

When the Dweller-in-Darkness escapes his seal, Razor Fist orders the Ten Rings into working with the Ta Lo villagers to help battle the Dweller and his minions as he replaces his blade with one made of dragon scales. When Xialing takes over the Ten Rings and restructures it, Razor Fist retains his old position.

He makes his first appearance in the film Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings. • Ravonna Renslayer (portrayed by Gugu Mbatha-Raw) is a former Minuteman for the TVA codenamed Hunter A-23 [276] who rose from the ranks to become a respected judge; she oversees the Loki variant investigation.

[277] : 8 Prior to joining the TVA, she was martial master episode 173 sub indo vice-principal called Rebecca Tourminet in Fremont, Ohio.

[278] She first appeared in the Disney+ series Loki. She is based on the character of the same name. • Dr. Reed Richards is a scientist and inventor, better known as Mister Fantastic, who has been considered the smartest man.

His Earth-838 counterpart (portrayed by John Krasinski) makes an appearance in Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness and is based on the character of the same name. He is a member of The Illuminati alongside King Black Bolt, Peggy Carter / Captain Carter, Maria Rambeau / Captain Marvel, Karl Mordo, and Charles Xavier / Professor X, all who seek to pass judgment on the MCU universe's Dr. Strange and America Chavez for their roles in the possible destruction of the Multiverse.

Richards is killed by Wanda's chaos magic, alongside other Illuminati members when Scarlet Witch infiltrates their headquarters to kidnap Chavez. The MCU counterpart of the character will be introduced in the upcoming film Fantastic Four. • Rintrah (voiced by Adam Hugill) is a minotaur-esque being from R'Vaal who is a student at Kamar-Taj. He makes his first appearance in Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness.

He is based on the character of the same name. • Alexei Shostakov (portrayed by David Harbour), also known as the Red Guardian, is the Russian super-soldier counterpart to Captain America and the father figure of Romanoff and Belova. He makes his first appearance in Black Widow. He is based on the character of the same name. • Elias Spector (portrayed by Rey Lucas) is the father of Marc Spector. He martial master episode 173 sub indo in the Disney+ series Moon Knight. He is based on the character of the same name.

• Randall Spector (portrayed by Claudio Fabian Contreras) was the younger brother of Marc Spector, with his death being the cause of his mother Wendy's child abuse and DID. He appears in the Disney+ series Moon Knight.

He is based on the character of the same name. • Wendy Spector (portrayed by Fernanda Andrade) is the abusive mother of Marc Spector. She appears in Moon Knight. She is based on the character of the same name. • Taweret (voiced and motion-captured by Antonia Salib) is the hippopotamus-headed Egyptian goddess of childbirth and fertility, who helps guide Marc Spector and Steven Grant through the Duat.

She appears in the Disney+ series Moon Knight. She is based on the Egyptian goddess of the same name. • First lieutenant Joaquin Torres (portrayed by Danny Ramirez) is a member of the U.S. Air Force who is investigating the Flag Smashers and is a friend of Sam Wilson.

He is passed on the EXO-7 Falcon wing-suit by Wilson, when the latter takes on the mantle of Captain America. He appears in the Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier. [279] [280] He is based on the character of the same name. • Melina Vostokoff (portrayed by Rachel Weisz) is a seasoned spy who trained in the Red Room as a Black Widow and is a mother-figure to Romanoff and Belova.

She is also a scientist who does research into mind control methods for General Dreykov. She makes her first appearance in Black Widow. She is based on the character of the same name. • Dane Whitman (portrayed by Kit Harington) is a human who is dating Sersi.

He martial master episode 173 sub indo his first appearance in Eternals. He is based on the character of the same name. • Sarah Wilson (portrayed by Adepero Oduye) is the sister of Sam Wilson. She takes care of her two sons, AJ (portrayed by Chase River McGhee) and Cass (portrayed by Aaron Haynes), and struggles financially in Sam's absence during the Blip. She first appeared in the Disney+ series The Falcon and The Winter Soldier.

Patrick Stewart in 2019 • Professor Charles Xavier (portrayed by Patrick Stewart), also known as Professor X, is the mutant founder of the X-Men and the Xavier School for Gifted Youngsters, who hopes for peaceful coexistence between mutantkind and mankind and is regarded as an authority on genetic mutation.

Although restricted to a wheelchair, his mutant powers include vast telepathy. An alternate-universe variant of the character from Earth-838 was a founding member of the Illuminati, and he was killed by the Scarlet Witch. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in one film: Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness.

• Ying Li (portrayed by Fala Chen) is Wenwu's wife and the mother of Shang-Chi and Xialing who was a guardian of Ta Lo. Out of his love for Li, Wenwu disbands the Ten Rings to spend time with her and their children. Her death at the hands of the Iron Gang prompts Wenwu into reactivating the Ten Rings and resuming his criminal activities.

The Dweller-in-Darkness uses Li's voice to manipulate Wenwu into releasing him. She makes her first appearance in the film Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings.

Originally created for the MCU, Li was later integrated into mainstream Marvel Universe as Jiang Li, Shang-Chi's real mother in Marvel Comics. [notes 1] • Ying Nan (portrayed by Michelle Yeoh) is a guardian of Ta Lo, Shang-Chi and Xialing's aunt, and Li's sister. Nan gives her nephew and niece suits of armor crafted from dragon scales and mentors Shang-Chi in the fighting style of Ta Lo. Nan leads the defense of Ta Lo against the Ten Rings and later the Dweller-in-Darkness.

She makes her first appearance in the film Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings. Introduced in Marvel Television series [ edit ] Anson Mount in 2018 • Blackagar Boltagon / Black Bolt (portrayed by Anson Mount) is the Head of the Inhuman Royal Family and King of Attilan, whose voice can cause destruction with the slightest whisper.

He is based on his comic book counterpart. He first appears in the TV series Inhumans, and an alternate-universe version of him appears in Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness as a member of the Illuminati before being killed by Scarlet Witch. [283] Vincent D'Onofrio in 2014 • Wilson Fisk / Kingpin (portrayed by Vincent D'Onofrio), also known as Kingpin, is a powerful businessman and crime lord. He previously comes into conflict with the masked vigilante Daredevil, who successfully destabilizes his criminal activities, and publicly exposes him and his wife's attempts to execute people threatening their personal empire, including people in Daredevil's personal life.

Years after these events, it is shown that Fisk is behind the killing of Maya Lopez's father William. Eleanor Bishop approaches Fisk to kill Clint Barton. When Eleanor approaches him to sever their pact, Fisk personally pursues her with a vengeance, only to be confronted by her daughter who successfully subdues him after a lengthy fight.

Fisk manages to escape martial master episode 173 sub indo scene before being able to be apprehended, only to be cornered by Maya, who shoots him. He is based on his comic book counterpart. As of 2022 [update], the character has appeared in the Netflix series Daredevil and the Disney+ series Hawkeye.

He will return in the upcoming Disney+ series Echo. James D'Arcy in 2012 • Edwin Jarvis (portrayed by James D'Arcy) was the butler and trusted ally of Howard Stark, and helped Peggy Carter in her mission of clearing his master's name when Johann Fennhoff attempted to convince the SSR Stark was guilty of treason. Gaining a thirst for adventure as a result, Jarvis volunteered to assist Carter once again when Whitney Frost threatened the world due to being consumed with Darkforce.

However, when his beloved wife was almost killed by Frost, Jarvis was forced to reevaluate his future. Over the years, he served as a support figure during the childhood of Tony Stark. When Jarvis eventually died, the young Stark paid tribute to him by naming his A.I. system J.A.R.V.I.S. after him. He is based on his comic book counterpart.

He first appears in the TV series Agent Carter and later returned in the film Avengers: Endgame. Charlie Cox has thus far, portrayed Matt Murdock in various television series and one film set in the MCU. • Matt Murdock / Daredevil (portrayed by Charlie Cox) is a lawyer operating in New York City who specializes in legal defense against civilians, particularly superpowered individuals. He also operates as a masked crimefighter known as Daredevil, working to retain order and safety in the city at night, particularly working within Hell's Kitchen, which interferes with businessman Wilson Fisk's plans to discreetly build a criminal empire in secret.

He later forms an assemblage of street-level heroes with Jessica Jones, Luke Cage and Danny Rand, intent on stopping the criminal organization The Hand when they successfully resurrect and weaponize his former ally and lover Elektra Natchios. Sometime after apprehending and exposing Fisk and his wife, he comes to the legal aid of Peter Parker, who was falsely incriminated for Mysterio's death in London.

Murdock successfully manages to clear Parker of all of his criminal accusations and charges, but assures him that it won't cause a shift in public opinion on Spider-Man, while also advising Happy Hogan to likewise secure legal defense as federal agencies continue to actively investigate the Stark Industries technology involved in the London incident, he also briefly hints at his vigilante identity when he effortlessly catches a brick thrown at Parker's apartment window using his enhanced senses, surprising his client, May Parker and Hogan.

Alongside the rest of the world, Murdock's memory of Parker is permanently wiped from his subconscious when Doctor Strange successfully recasts the Runes of Kauf-Kaul following the battle at Liberty Island and the return of the displaced individuals from the multiverse. He is based on his comic book counterpart. Murdock stars in the Netflix series Daredevil and The Defenders, and appears in a minor role in the film Spider-Man: No Way Home.

He will return in the upcoming Disney+ series Echo. Teams and organizations [ edit ] See also: Marvel Television • ABC series characters • Characters of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. • Characters of Agent Carter • Characters of Inhumans • Netflix series characters • Characters of Daredevil • Characters of Jessica Jones • Characters of Luke Cage • Characters of Iron Fist • Characters of The Defenders • Characters of The Punisher • Young adult series characters • Characters of Runaways • Characters of Cloak & Dagger • Adventure into Fear series characters • Characters of Helstrom Reception [ edit ] The depiction of adapted and original characters in the MCU has been generally positively received, [284] with the portrayal of superhero protagonists mostly positive.

IGN opined, "With heroes ranging from super-spies to super-soldiers to space raccoons, the MCU has gifted us with some of the most memorable champions in movie history." [285] Meanwhile, reception of the MCU's depiction of its villains has been more mixed, with some media outlets coining the term "villain problem" to describe this shortcoming.

[286] [94] [287] Collider described the villains as " Achilles' heel" of the shared universe, [288] with Phase One and Phase Two most commonly criticized for having weak or unmemorable villains. [289] The villains of Phase Three were hailed as an improvement over the villains of martial master episode 173 sub indo previous two Phases, [290] [291] while villains of Phase Four have also been praised. [292] In an analysis of the MCU's villains, Michael Burgin of Paste opined that it was "probably still fair to say their track record has been less consistent with the bad guys than with the good", believing that this was due to "a reluctance to embrace the established look and character of the villain" and the differences from their source material.

[286] Angelo Delos Trinos of Comic Book Resources further elaborated on this, opining that "the MCU has been widely praised for its characters and storylines" but has "mistreated some villains and wasted the potential they have in comics", remarking on the wasted potential of some of the supervillains within the franchise in comparison to their comic book counterparts.

[293] Alternatively, Looper described the MCU's villains as "fairly compelling criminals", [94] [294] while Eric Diaz of Nerdist described them as being unappreciated despite being the weakest part of the franchise. [294] Some villains were more well received than others, with Screen Rant elaborating on which villains were "loved" and "hated" from the fans of the franchise. [295] Carolina Darney of SB Nation explained, "Some of the villains — hello, Vulture — are fantastic.

They're well-rounded, they have depth, and there seems to be a method to their madness. Then there are the other villains. Their backgrounds aren’t particularly explained, you're not entirely sure what they're doing — looking intently at you, Malekith — and motivations seem weak at best." [296] See also [ edit ] • Lists of Marvel Cinematic Universe cast members Notes [ edit ] • ^ a b Williams, Taylor (April 23, 2019).

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Not Returning for 'Ant-Man 3' ". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 26, 2021. • ^ Keyes, Rob (March 23, 2013). "Iron Man 3: The Story Behind Rhodey & The Martial master episode 173 sub indo Patriot Armor". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on November 27, 2013. Retrieved November 12, 2020. • ^ Franich, Daniel (April 5, 2014). " 'Captain America: The Winter Soldier': A reference guide".

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Here's what they mean". deseret. Retrieved December 14, 2021. • ^ a b Gullapalli, Vishal; Robinson, Tasha (November 4, 2021). "Eternals' post-credit scene brings the Marvel universe back to Thanos". Polygon. Archived from the original on November 5, 2021. Retrieved November 5, 2021. • ^ Kleinman, Jake (January 29, 2021). " 'WandaVision's newest character may be hiding a terrifying secret". Inverse. Retrieved January 30, 2021.

• ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (July 16, 2021). " 'Loki' Season One Finale Postmortem: Director & EP Kate Herron On Whether He Who Remains Is Really Immortus". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 16, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021. • martial master episode 173 sub indo Dinh, Christine (March 29, 2021). " 'The Falcon and The Winter Soldier': Episode 2 Intel Report". Marvel.com. Retrieved April 2, 2021. • ^ Sandwell, Ian (November 5, 2021).

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• ^ Trinos, Angelo Delos (May 14, 2021). "10 Martial master episode 173 sub indo Villains Who Are Just Better In The Comics". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved May 20, 2021. • ^ a b Diaz, Eric. "Every MCU Villain Ranked from Worst to Best". www.yahoo.com. Retrieved May 20, 2021.

• ^ Jain, Tushar (February 17, 2021). "5 MCU Villains Fans Loved (& 5 Fans Hated)". Screen Rant. Retrieved May 20, 2021. • ^ Darney, Caroline (May 5, 2020). "Every Marvel Cinematic Universe villain, ranked from forgettable to iconic". SB Nation. Retrieved May 20, 2021. • Black Widow • Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings • Eternals • Spider-Man: No Way Home • accolades • Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness • Thor: Love and Thunder • Black Panther: Wakanda Forever martial master episode 173 sub indo Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania • Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.

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• Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • • INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH COMMITTEE, IDM: INTERNAL PROTOCOL FOR • FINANCIAL REVIEW OF IDM RESEARCH PROPOSALS AND • STUDY PROTOCOLS REQUIRING ETHICS APPROVAL eRA pre-awards approval process The Pre-awards section of the electronic Research Administration (eRA) system was created to streamline and standardise UCT’s current grant application and submission processes.

This process helps to manage risk (in terms of resource use, research ethics, health and safety, and finances) to both the PI and the university and serves to support internal application review to ensure all information required by the funder is complete upon submission.

All new protocols applying for external funding must follow the proposal approval process via the eRA Pre-awards module. If there was no specific funding call and the process was initiated by contract negotiation with the funder/sponsor or if a proposal approval form was submitted at the time of application, but the funder requests changes to the project or budget at award/contract stage then PIs must follow the contract approval process.

Applications for NRF, URC, and SAMRC self-initiated research grants are not required to follow the eRA Pre-awards approval process but still require liaising with the Central Finance and Research offices directly. If in doubt as to when an approval form should be submitted, ask yourself: will what I am submitting pose any potential risk to UCT, whether martial master episode 173 sub indo terms of resource use, research ethics, health & safety, and finances?

If the answer is yes, then complete a pre-awards approval form. For further information visit the pre-awards FAQ page. Pre-awards internal approval process • Visit UCT’s Research Portal and log in to the eRA system using the Login option at the top right-hand corner of the screen.

• Under the ”Add New Content” button in the top right corner of your Dashboard select “Project Application/Approval Request” ? • Under the “Other Funding Schemes” menu, choose “Application stage approvals” or “Contract stage approvals” and select relevant form type (Preliminary Proposal Approval / Proposal Approval / Contract Approval) • The PI uploads the requested project documents and captures key project information and details relating to resourcing, ethics, and biosafety online.

• The form is sent online to Departmental Research Finance Staff ( Budget Reviewer) to complete project-related finance information that was discussed with the PI prior to submission of the form.

• When the Budget Reviewer has completed the Financial Information, the form will be returned to the PI for review of the financial details. • The PI confirms their agreement with this financial information and sends the form to the Finance Approver step. • Internal review and approvals are then completed by relevant Faculty Finance and Deanery ( Final Faculty Approver) staff. • Completion of internal approval through the eRA system will deem your application ready for submission by the institution (or PI) to the funder or for sign off of the research contract.

Importantly for proposals, please note, your application is not submitted to the funder via the eRA system. If UCT is required to authorise submission of your application to a funder, it is advised that the PI contacts Research Contracts and Innovation (RC&I) once internal Faculty approval is complete to confirm expectations of when their review would be complete, and which documents require a signature to proceed to submission to the funder.

A) FINANCIAL REVIEW The University's Pre-Awards process must strictly be adhered to. Submission of the eRA pre-awards approval form via the eRA portal needs to be assigned to the Assistant Research Management Accountant, Joy Joachims (extension 1582) who will reassign to one of the pre-award team members based on workload and / capacity. The Budget Martial master episode 173 sub indo will complete the “Financial Information” tab within the eRA approval form for all external grants and drug trial funding following review of the budget.

The Budget Reviewer should return the supported financial information within 3 working days of receipt of the approval form, but only if IDM Finance assistance was sought and engaged prior to logging the application onto the eRA portal. The advantages of contacting the Budget Reviewer timeously are: • Budgets will be in line with UCT Finance Policies and Procedures. • Budgets are fully or appropriately costed [if the grant is awarded, no further re-negotiation with funders is required as is often the case at present].

• VAT implications are correctly incorporated, as the VAT Apportionment ruling has changed how much Input VAT can be claimed on purchases. • IP protocols are followed with regard to financial implications. • There is no delay in the final contract process. • UCT will sign a grant contract sooner martial master episode 173 sub indo to if finances were still to be signed off after the grant is awarded.

Current exceptions for eRA pre-awards approval process National Research Foundation (NRF): Step 1: Applicants who submit applications by the internal closing deadline are guaranteed an internal review. Step 2: Internal review is undertaken by the Research Office. In rare but necessary cases – Thuthuka, CPRR, and CSUR – scientific reviews are also undertaken by discipline experts. Step 3: Feedback is provided to applicants and, if necessary, applications reopened for amendment.

Step 4: Applicants resubmit applications before the NRF final deadline. Cancer Association of South Africa (CANSA) & Poliomyelitis Research Foundation (PRF) – for Health Sciences researchers: To apply, researchers email their completed application form to the funder and copy an administrator in the Faculty of Health Sciences Dean’s Office.

The administrator will obtain institutional approval from the Deputy Dean for Research and forward this to the funder. South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC): For the SAMRC Self-Initiated Research (SIR) grant scheme, researchers complete an online application form and press submit.

The application then gets sent to an internal administrator in the Faculty of Health Sciences who takes the application to the Deputy Dean for Research for institutional approval.

Once the signed application is received, the administrator uploads this and completes the online submission to the funder. B) For all study protocols that require Faculty Human or Animal Research Ethics Committee clearance Two standing subcommittees of the IRC will be responsible for the scientific review of protocols requiring human or animal ethics clearance.

The two standing subcommittees of the IRC namely the Human Research Scientific Review and the Animal Research Scientific Review subcommittees will be responsible for establishing an explicit and formal scientific review process that evaluates the scientific merit and potential risks of each protocol before the protocol is submitted to Faculty's Human or Animal Research Ethics Committees.

Dr Keren Middelkoop and A/Professor Suraj Parihar chair the subcommittees respectively, and each subcommittee is made up of martial master episode 173 sub indo drawn from within the IDM and UCT with relevant background and experience. Send an electronic copy of the application (to Andruween Kadalie (ext 6098) including names of two potential and suitably qualified researchers/reviewers affiliated to or within the IDM and UCT but who are not collaborators.

Andruween in turn will log the application with a tracking number. Hardcopies will be requested only once the relevant IRC subcommittee has approved the application. For protocols requiring human scientific reviews, the following materials are to be submitted: • FHS013 • Protocol • Synopsis • Consent and assent documents • Original protocol if a sub-study • Any other relevant appendices If your protocol is a sub-study of an existing study, please include a brief description of the parent study, the current status of the parent study, and how the sub-study will fit with the parent study.

Andruween will forward the proposal electronically to the subcommittee Chair who in turn assigns the proposal to a member of the subcommittee as primary reviewer. The secondary reviewer will be assigned by the subcommittee member and will be drawn from the names of potential reviewers as per applicant's recommendation Protocols to be reviewed within one week. Comments of primary and secondary reviewers will be sent to all members of the relevant subcommittee.

Each subcommittee will meet and consider all reviews. Hardcopies of approved proposals will be requested and signed on the same day. A report will martial master episode 173 sub indo sent to the applicant within 24 hours to give the applicant the opportunity to respond and/or revise their application if the proposal requires revision.

The applicant will thus have approximately three days to re-submit to the subcommittee Chair, prior to the HREC and AREC deadlines. Approval of resubmissions is however at the discretion of the subcommittee Chairs and outstanding or major issues may be held over to the next subcommittee meeting.

Due Dates for submission of applications for 2022 Scientific and Ethics reviews are listed here. Andruween Kadalie services the Subcommittees.

PLEASE ALSO NOTE : The IRC Committees will not normally review Grant applications unless a complete protocol is submitted for review. Protocols that are the result of successful grant awards following the C1 process, and that have already undergone scientific review, will only be re-reviewed by the IRC if substantive changes to the study design have taken place.

Mechanisms are in place to deal with urgent applications. Martial master episode 173 sub indo notify either Keren Middelkoop or Jo-Ann Passmore, and Assistant Research Management Accountant Joy Joachim well in advance of a looming deadline should this be anticipated, so that the necessary arrangements can be made to expedite the approval process.

Resubmission of amended proposals to AERC require the Animal Research Scientific Committee Chair and IDM Director signatures. An additional column has been added to accommodate due dates for required signatures. Eligibility Criteria for IRC Expedited Review: • Protocol submitted outside the published submission-review cycle for which there is reasonable confidence that UCTHREC will also offer expedited review.

'Reasonable confidence' would in almost all instances need the investigator to approach the UCTHREC Chair for confirmation. • Protocol involving minimal complexity, for example: establishment of biobanks or databases; some laboratory studies using previously stored samples.

• IDM/UCT involvement is a minor component of an external study, for example: laboratory analysis of non-endpoint assays for samples collected at non-UCT sites. • Protocol is a sub-study of a previously IRC and UCTHREC reviewed and approved protocol that is carried out in the same study population with expansion of the same aims and interventions.
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BOULLE, Prof Andrew MBChB, MSc, PhD, FCPHM(SA). Division of Public Health Medicine and Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research (CIDER), School of Public Health and Family Medicine; Wellcome Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa (CIDRI-Africa), Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine; Health Impact Assessment directorate, Department of Health, Provincial Government of the Western Cape.

Research interests: HIV cohort and infectious disease epidemiology; operations research on service responses for priority health conditions; data harmonisation and linkage; and context-appropriate health information systems development.

DHEDA, Prof Keertan Keertan Dheda (MBBCh (Wits), FCP (SA), FCCP, PhD (Lond)) is Head of the Lung Infection and Immunity Unit and Associate Professor of Respiratory Medicine (SARChI), Division of Pulmonology and UCT Lung Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town.

He holds an honorary faculty position at UCL. His group’s main research interests are the study of pulmonary regulatory immunological pathways in relation to infection, rapid and field-friendly diagnosis of tuberculosis, and drug-resistant tuberculosis.

His work is funded by the SA MRC, SA NRF, EU FP7, EDCTP and NIH. EGAN, Prof Timothy PhD (Bioinorganic Chemistry), Head of Department and Jamison Professor of Inorganic Chemistry, Science Faculty, UCT. Research interests: understanding how the malaria parasite deals with the large influx of haem associated with ingestion and degradation of haemoglobin in its digestive vacuole and the effects of antimalarials such as chloroquine, which inhibit this process.

Biomimetic investigations of β-haematin (synthetic haemozoin/malaria pigment) formation. Speciation and behaviour of free Fe(III) haem in aqueous solution.

Interaction of Fe(III) haem with antimalarials and effects on haem in cultured parasites. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies on β-haematin inhibiting compounds. JOSEPH DAVEY, Dr Dvora BA, MPH, PhD (Epidemiology). Honorary Senior Lecturer, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Desmond Tutu Health Foundation.

Dvora is an Assistant Professor martial master episode 173 sub indo Epidemiology at the University of California, Los Angeles. Her research focuses on evaluating innovative technologies and interventions to improve the delivery of HIV/STI prevention interventions (including pre-exposure prophylaxis) and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in pregnant women, male partners and families. MAARTENS, Prof Gary MBChB, MMed, FCP SA DTM&H; Head of the Division of Clinical Pharmacology His main research interests are in the therapeutic aspects of HIV-associated tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis, antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings, and the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis drugs.

McILLERON, Prof Helen MBChB(UCT), PhD in Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town. Key research areas involve optimising doses and drug combinations for patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis or TB/HIV co-infection, and optimising anti-tuberculosis drug use in children.

She participates in research projects across Africa, as well as in Asia and South America where a key interest is the support and mentoring of investigator-initiated pharmacology research projects.

MYER, Prof Landon MBChB MA MPhil PhD; Professor, Centre for Infectious Diseases Epidemiology & Research, School of Public Health & Family Medicine Thirty-one Masters students supervised; broad areas of research are: epidemiology of HIV/AIDS, other sexually transmitted infections & tuberculosis; maternal and child health; women's reproductive health. NTSEKHE, Prof Mpiko BA, MD, MPhil (Cardiol), PhD, FCP (SA), Cert Cardiol (SA), F.A.C.C.

Helen and Morris Maueberger Professor and Chair of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town and Head: Division of Cardiology Groote Schuur Hospital. Ongoing research: Investigation of the Martial master episode 173 sub indo of Pericarditis (IMPI), Inflammatory determinants of disease severity and treatment outcome in TB patients, Left Cardiac Sympathetic Denervation for Cardiomyopathy Pilot Study, HIV Associated Myocardial Fibrosis Study. SLIWA-HAHNLE, Prof Karen Director, Hatter Institute for Cardiology Research; Diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, specialist physician, cardiologist (2000).

Is one of the very rare cardiologists in South Africa who is clinically active and trained in fundamental molecular laboratory methods, combining laboratory and epidemiological skills. Widely published in both local and international journals and books of various topics related to cardiovascular medicine.

Internationally recognized for her outstanding work in the area of heart failure. Collaborations with a range of prestigious national and international clinical and academic centers. She holds an appointment as adjunct professor at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia and as a visiting professor at the Baker Institute in Melbourne, Australia. STEIN, Prof Dan Professor and Head of Dept, Psychiatry and Mental Health; Chair in Psychiatry; Director, the Brain and Behaviour Initiative (BBI).

The Brain and Behaviour Initiative (BBI) enables cross-faculty, multidisciplinary, collaborative research in the cognitive and affective neurosciences and brings together expertise on phenotyping, genotyping, cognotyping, brain imaging and molecular signatures to address brain-behaviour issues.

New experimental techniques including brain imaging, genetic testing and neuropsychological assessment combined with new theoretical insights have opened up significant potential for the advancement of novel diagnostic tools and treatments for people with mental disorders. The initial focus on trauma and resilience has now extended to work in substance use and NeuroHIV. ZAR, Prof Heather MBBCh, FAAP, PhD is head of Paediatric Pulmonology at Red Cross Childrens Hospital, University of Cape Town.

Her research focuses on child lung health including HIV-associated lung disease, childhood pneumonia and childhood TB. In 2014 she received the 2014 World Lung Health Award, awarded by the American Thoracic Society at a ceremony in San Diego, in recognition of work that has "the potential to eliminate gender, racial, ethnic, or economic health disparities worldwide".

ZÜHLKE, Assoc Prof Liesl MBChB, DCH, MPH, PhD(Cape Town) FC Paeds, FESC, FACC. Paediatrician/Paediatric Cardiologist, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital; Director and Medical Specialist, Children’s Heart Disease Research Unit, UCT.

Currently regarded as a thought leader in Rheumatic Heart Disease, both on the continent and internationally. Has significant international research collaborations within the Rheumatic Heart Disease Community and within the Cardiovascular Community. Her social responsibility is reflected in, amongst others, numerous board positions; and she continues to be involved in teaching, training and mentorship encompassing courses directed at nurse practitioners, clinical officers and martial master episode 173 sub indo masterclasses in South Africa, Ethiopia, Zambia and Uganda.
This article may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies.

Please help improve it by rewriting it in a balanced fashion that contextualizes different points of view. ( September 2020) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) Interracial marriage is a marriage involving spouses who belong to different races or racialized ethnicities. In the past, such marriages were outlawed in the United States, Nazi Germany and apartheid-era South Africa as miscegenation.

In 1960 interracial marriage was forbidden by law in 31 U.S. states. It became legal throughout the United States in 1967, following the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States under Chief Justice Earl Warren in the case Loving v. Virginia, which ruled that race-based restrictions on marriages, such as the anti-miscegenation law in the state of Virginia, violated the Equal Protection Clause (adopted in 1868) of the United States Constitution. [1] [2] Contents • 1 Legality • 2 Complications • 2.1 Family, Society, and Religion • 2.2 Racial Constructs • 3 Benefits • 3.1 Positive interracial encounters • 3.2 Mixed-race children • 4 Americas • 4.1 United States • 4.1.1 Hawaii • 4.2 Canada • 4.3 Latin America • 4.4 Guyana • 4.5 Trinidad • 4.6 Peru • 4.7 Cuba • 4.8 Mexico • 4.9 Costa Rica • 4.10 Venezuela • 4.11 Jamaica • 5 Africa and Middle East • 5.1 Middle East and North Africa • 5.2 Elsewhere in Africa • 5.2.1 Southern Africa • 5.2.2 Mauritius • 5.3 Réunion • 5.3.1 West Africa • 6 Oceania • 6.1 Australia • 7 Asia • 7.1 Central Asia • 7.1.1 Afghanistan • 7.2 East Asia • 7.2.1 China • 7.2.1.1 Western regions • 7.2.1.2 Manchuria • 7.2.1.3 Hong Kong • 7.2.1.4 Macau • 7.2.2 Taiwan • 7.2.3 Japan • 7.2.4 Korea • 7.3 Southeast Asia • 7.3.1 Vietnam • 7.3.2 Burma • 7.3.3 Malaysia and Singapore • 7.3.4 Philippines • 7.4 South Asia • 8 Europe • 8.1 France • 8.2 Germany • 8.3 Iberian Peninsula • 8.3.1 Portuguese colonies • 8.4 Iceland • 8.5 Italian Peninsula • 8.6 United Kingdom • 9 See also • 10 References • 11 External links Legality [ edit ] Further information: Anti-miscegenation laws and Marriage laws Many jurisdictions have had regulations banning or restricting not just interracial marriage but also interracial sexual relations, including Germany during the Nazi period, South Africa under apartheid, and many states in the United States prior to a 1967 Supreme Court decision.

Complications [ edit ] According to studies by Jenifer L. Bratter and Rosalind B. King made publicly available on the Education Resources Information Center, in the United-States, unions between white males and non-white martial master episode 173 sub indo (and between Hispanics and non-Hispanic persons) have similar or lower risks of divorce than white-white marriages, and unions between white males and black females last longer than white-white pairings.

[3] Conversely, white female-black male pairings are more prone to divorce than white-white pairings. [3] The Bratter and King study is not statistically valid for Asian-white pairings, particularly those in which the male is Asian and the female is white, due to their small sample size of 5 couples.

More robust studies such as those published by Zhang and van Hook show that, based on the mathematical model used, Asian male-white female pairings were 21 to 33 percent less likely to divorce than white-white couples, and that white male-Asian female pairings were 23 to 27 percent less likely to divorce than white-white couples. [4] Family, Society, and Religion [ edit ] Possible racism from outside sources is a common area of potential conflict.

[5] According to polling, however, there has been an increase in the number of people who view interracial marriage as acceptable. In 1972, a Gallup poll showed that 76% of the African Americans polled approved of interracial marriage while 30% of White Americans polled approved. By 1997, those percentages increased to 83% for African-Americans and 67% for White Americans. [6] Furthermore, from 1980 to 2015, the number of interracial marriages increased from 7% to 17%.

Rates for black and white peoples more than doubled while rates for Hispanic and Asian peoples stayed fairly consistent staying around the higher 20% area. [7] In America, results obtained through polling indicated that about 87% approve of interracial marriage while about 4% did in 1958. [8] However, these results may need to be analyzed with caution as there is research emerging that even when people agree that they approve of interracial couples, there is still evidence of disgust or disapproval when faced with certain situations.

[9] Religion has been an important historical factor in interracial marriage acceptance and complications. Studies have suggested that those who are more religiously involved are less likely to be open to interracial relations. In surveys done, those who stated that religion was an important factor in who their child married were less likely to approve of the child marrying outside their race. [10] There are also studies that have yielded similar results; in another survey, those who chose religion in being the most important factor in identifying themselves were also least likely to have been in an interracial relationship as compared to others who picked other describing or identifying factors such as race, social class, or age.

[11] Racial Constructs [ edit ] There is evidence that interracial marriage challenges the barriers of racial identity. Not only does it oftentimes result in mixed-race children who defy these barriers, but it also could cause those who engage to either challenge or recognize their racial identities. According to studies and polling, this can mean different things for different races. For example, African-Americans are likely to be treated as though they are going against the principles of their racial identities.

White Americans in an interracial relationship are also reported to feel as though they are more likely to recognize their own racial identity in a way they did not before. This could mean that interracial marriage has an effect on racial construction itself. [12] Benefits [ edit ] Positive interracial encounters [ edit ] A benefit of interracial marriages is that it increases the opportunity for positive interracial encounters.

Research has found a reduction in prejudice and discrimination towards members of an out-group (someone from whom one has a different racial identity) when one has positive interracial encounters. For instance, a meta-analysis by Pettigrew and Tropp (as cited in Latson) [13] found intergroup friendship was associated with decreased intergroup prejudice.

This can be explained by the "Contact Hypothesis" which is the idea that intergroup contact under appropriate conditions can effectively reduce in-group out-group prejudice. This contact does not have to be direct, but it could also be vicarious. For instance, Wright et al. [14] found Caucasians who report knowing another Caucasian with a cross-race friend had fewer negative attitudes about non-Caucasians regardless of direct level of contact.

They created a competition between two groups who thought the groups had been martial master episode 173 sub indo based on similarity. After an intergroup hostility had been established, participants observed a member of an in-group member (confederate) complete a task with an out-group person (also a confederate). The participant observed the confederate acting differently depending martial master episode 173 sub indo the condition she observed.

In the positive condition, the confederates hugged and greeted each other as pre-existing friends (positive condition). In the neutral condition, the confederates were polite to each other but not necessarily friendly. In the hostile condition, the confederates acted as if they were pre-existing enemies.

Participants who were in the positive condition rated the out-group more positively on both negative characteristics such as "inflexible" and positive characteristics such as "intelligent." They concluded that merely observing a positive in-group member act positively towards an out-group member increases positive feelings towards the out-group [15] This is a benefit of interracial marriages because they tend to involve the families and friends of the interracial partners coming together and forming relationships with one another.

Consequently, this diversity within a family system can enhance open communication for individuals so that they have a deeper understanding of the views of different people. [ citation needed] Mixed-race children [ edit ] A potential outcome of interracial marriage is multiracial children.

There are both benefits and challenges that come with being multiracial. Multiracial people are perceived as more attractive than their monoracial peers. For instance, Rhodes et al. (as cited in Lewis) [16] found that people of mixed Asian and European backgrounds were rated as more attractive than Europeans, Asians and even random faces generated as morphs between these two groups.

Another recent study by Elena Stepanova (as cited in Latson [13] ) found that a group of black, Latino, white and Asian college students rated mixed-race faces more attractive. Micheal B. Lewis [16] suggests the reason multiracial people are perceived as more attractive is that genetic diversity makes people more attractive by virtue of their apparent greater "genetic fitness." In other words, others take the ethnically ambiguous faces as indicators of greater genetic diversity which is a cue for apparent healthiness.

This is known as heterosis. A 2005 study conducted by Craig et al. (as cited in Latson) [13] lends support to heterosis. The study focused on people who had inherited a different gene variant from each parent in a section of DNA playing a vital role in the regulation of the immune system.

Heterozygous men –with two different versions of these genes –were more attractive to women than homozygous men (men with the same version of these genes). Although this study was not conducted on multiracial people, specifically, having parents of different races makes you more likely to be heterozygous. The upshot of this study is that heterosis is the reason multiracial people are perceived as more attractive. There is debate, however, over whether Heterozygotes are healthier or whether it is all an illusion.

It has been shown heterozygotes are indeed more resistant to infectious diseases such as HIV. Other researchers, however, have failed to find a correlation between attractiveness and actual health, although this may be a result of advances martial master episode 173 sub indo medicine in helping the less heterozygous overcome genetic susceptibility to illness. However, a study conducted by Jennifer Patrice Sims [17] found that generally mixed-race people were perceived as more attractive, but some racial mixes were not perceived as more attractive.

This calls into question heterosis as an explanation for why mixed-race people are perceived as more attractive since, according to heterosis, all racial mixes should be perceived as more attractive than their monoracial counterparts. Moreover, attributing attractiveness to genetics alone ignores the role culture and socialisation has to play. Sims (as cited in Latson [13]) argues the heterosis theory is overreaching and based on the false presumption of biologically distinct races.

Martial master episode 173 sub indo asserts that attractiveness is a social construct and changes with time. For instance, the historical European ideal of a beautiful woman as having blonde hair, pale skin and blue eyes is different from contemporary ideals of beauty. For example, Rihanna is widely regarded as attractive, despite having very different features from the old ideal.

There are some challenges associated with being multiracial. For example, some multiracial people struggle with discerning who they are. A recent survey found a fifth of respondents feel pressure to claim just one race. [13] A quarter felt confusion about what they are. The complexity that comes with how they choose to identify marks them out for a different sort of discrimination monoracial people endure. Sarah Gaither [18] has found that multiracial people suffer from rejection from multiple racial groups.

For instance, those with a black parent and a white parent may feel that they are not black enough to identify with a predominantly black group at school, and not white enough to identify with a predominantly white group at school.

However, there does seem to be an advantage to a multiracial person's complex identity. For instance, multiracial people can switch between their racial identities and navigate themselves well in different social groups. Gaither's research found that multiracial people report higher self-esteem, increased social engagement and greater well-being.

Moreover, a 2015 study [13] found when primed to think about their identities beforehand, multiracial people demonstrated greater creative problem-solving skills. Americas [ edit ] United States [ edit ] Overturned on 12 June 1967 Interracial marriage in the United States has been fully legal in all U.S. states since the 1967 Supreme Court decision that deemed anti-miscegenation state laws unconstitutional (via the 14th Amendment adopted in 1868) with many states choosing to legalize interracial marriage at much earlier dates.

Anti-miscegenation laws have played a large role in defining racial identity and enforcing the racial hierarchy. The United States has many ethnic and racial groups, and interracial marriage is fairly common among most of them.

Interracial marriages increased from 2% of married couples in 1970 to 7% in 2005 [19] [20] and 8.4% in 2010. [21] Mildred and Richard Loving helped end laws prohibiting interracial marriage in the United States 1967 According to a Pew Research Center analysis of census data conducted in 2013, 12% of newlyweds married someone of a different race.

(This share does not take into account the "interethnic" marriages between Hispanics and non-Hispanics). [22] And, most Americans say they approve of racial or ethnic intermarriage – not just in the abstract, but in their own families. About six-in-ten say it would be fine with them if a family member told them they were going to marry someone from any major race/ethnic groups other than their own.

[23] Some racial groups are more likely to intermarry than others. Of the 3.6 million adults who got married in 2013, 58% of Native Americans, 28% of Asian Americans, 19% of Africans-Americans and 7% of White Americans have a spouse whose race was different from their own.

The overall numbers mask significant gender gaps within some racial groups. Among black Americans, men are much more likely than women to marry someone of a different race. Fully a quarter of black men who got married in 2013 married someone who was not black. Only 12% of black women married outside of their race.

For Asians, the gender pattern goes in the opposite direction: Asian women are much more likely than Asian martial master episode 173 sub indo to marry someone of a different race. Among newlyweds in 2013, 37% of Asian women married someone who was martial master episode 173 sub indo Asian, while 16% of Asian men married outside of their race.

However, Asian women are more likely to marry Asian men than any other men of different ethnic background. Native Americans have the highest interracial marriage rate among all single-race groups. Women are slightly more likely to "marry out" than men in this group: 61% of Native American female newlyweds married outside their race, compared with 54% of Native American male newlyweds. [22] Although the anti-miscegenation laws have been revoked by the Warren Court in 1967, the social stigma related to black interracial marriages still exists in today's society although to martial master episode 173 sub indo much lesser degree.

Research by Tucker and Mitchell-Kerman from 1990 has shown that black Americans intermarry far less than any other non-White group [24] and in 2010, only 17.1% of black Americans married interracially, a rate far lower than the rates for Hispanics and Asians.

[21] Black interracial marriages in particular engender problems associated with racist attitudes and perceived relational inappropriateness. [25] There is also a sharp gender imbalance to Black interracial marriages: In 2008, 22% of all black male newlyweds married interracially while only 9% of black female newlyweds married outside their race, making them one of the least likely of any race or gender to marry outside their race and the least likely to get married at all.

[26] From the mid 19th to 20th centuries, many black people and ethnic Mexicans intermarried with each other in the Lower Rio Grande Valley in South Texas (mostly in Cameron County and Hidalga County). In Cameron County, 38% of black people were interracially married (7/18 families) while in Hidalgo County the number was 72% (18/25 families). These two counties had the highest rates of interracial marriages involving at least one black spouse in the United States.

The vast majority of these marriages involved black men marrying ethnic Mexican women or first generation Tejanas (Texas-born women of Mexican descent). Since ethnic Mexicans were considered white by Texas officials and the U.S. government, such marriages were a violation of the state's anti-miscegenation laws. Yet, there is no evidence that anyone in South Texas was prosecuted for violating this law.

The rates of this interracial marriage dynamic can be traced back to when black men moved into the Lower Rio Grande Martial master episode 173 sub indo after the Civil War ended. They married into ethnic Mexican families and joined other black people who found sanctuary on the U.S./Mexico border.

[27] The Chinese that migrated were almost entirely of Cantonese origin. Hundreds of thousands of Chinese men in the U.S, mostly of Cantonese origin from Taishan migrated to the United States. Anti-miscegenation laws in many states prohibited Chinese men from marrying white women.

[28] After the Emancipation Proclamation, many intermarriages in some states were not recorded and historically, Chinese American men married African American women in high proportions to their total marriage numbers due to few Chinese American women being in the United States. After the Emancipation Proclamation, many Chinese Americans immigrated to the Southern states, particularly Arkansas, to work on plantations. For example, in 1880, the tenth US Census of Louisiana alone counted 57% of interracial marriages between these Chinese to be with black and 43% to be with white women.

[29] Between 20 and 30 percent of the Chinese who lived in Mississippi married black women before 1940. [30] In a genetic study of 199 samples from African American males found one belong to haplogroup O2a ( or 0.5% ) [31] It was discovered by historian Henry Louis Gates, Jr in the African American Lives documentary miniseries that NASA astronaut Mae Jemison has a significant (above 10%) genetic East Asian admixture.

Gates speculated that the intermarriage/relations between migrant Chinese workers during the 19th century and black, or African-American slaves or ex-slaves may have contributed to her ethnic genetic make-up. In the mid 1850s, 70 to 150 Chinese were living in New York City and 11 of them married Irish women.

In 1906 the New York Times (6 August) reported that 300 white women (Irish American) were married to Chinese men in New York, with many more cohabited. In 1900, based on Liang research, of the 120,000 men in more than 20 Chinese communities in the United States, he estimated that one out of every twenty Chinese men (Cantonese) was married to white women.

[32] In the 1960s census showed 3500 Chinese men married to white women and 2900 Chinese women married to white men. It also showed 300 Chinese men married to Black women and vice versa 100. [33] The 1960 interracial marriage census showed 51,000 black-white coupled. White males and black females being slightly more common (26,000) than black males and white females (25,000) The 1960 census also showed that Interracial marriage involving Asian and American Indian was the most common.

White women most common intermarriage was with Filipino males (12,000), followed by American Indian males (11,200), followed by Japanese males (3,500) and Chinese males (3,500). For White males, the most was with Japanese females (21,700), American Indian females (17,500), followed by Filipina females (4,500) and Chinese females (2,900).

[34] Hawaii [ edit ] The majority of the Hawaiian Chinese were Cantonese migrants from Guangdong with minority of Hakka descent also from Guangdong.

If all people with Chinese ancestry in Hawaii (including the Chinese-Hawaiians) are included, they form about 1/3 of Hawaii's entire population. Many thousands of them married women of Hawaiian, Hawaiian/European and European origin. A large percentage of the Chinese men married Hawaiian and Hawaiian/European women, while a minority married white women in Hawaii who were of Portuguese descent.

The 12,592 Asiatic-Hawaiians enumerated in 1930 were the result of Chinese men intermarrying with Hawaiian and part Hawaiian/Europeans.

Most Asiatic-Hawaiian men also married Hawaiians and European women (and vice versa). On the census, some Chinese with little "native blood" would be classified as Chinese – not as Asiatic-Hawaiians – due to "dilution of native blood". Intermarriage started to decline in the 1920s. [35] Portuguese and other Caucasian women married Chinese men.

[36] [37] The unions between Chinese men and Portuguese women resulted in children of mixed Chinese Portuguese parentage, called Chinese-Portuguese. For two years to 30 June 1933, 38 of these children who were born were classified as pure Chinese because their fathers were Chinese. [38] A large amount of mingling took place between Chinese and Portuguese, Chinese men married Portuguese, Spanish, Hawaiian, Caucasian-Hawaiian, etc.

[39] [40] [41] [42] Only one Chinese man was recorded marrying an American woman. [43] [44] Chinese men in Hawaii also married Puerto Rican, Italian, Japanese, Greek, and half-white women. [45] [46] Canada [ edit ] In Canada, 2011, 4.6% of all civil unions are interracial ones, an 18% increase from 2006 (3.9%), and a 77% increase from 1991 (2.6%).

[47] Vancouver reported the highest rate of interracial unions, at 9.6%, and Toronto in second place at 8.2%. Major census metropolitan areas had higher frequencies of mixed unions (6.0%) compared to areas that were not classified as such (1.0%). Younger people were more likely to be in a mixed union; the highest proportion of couples in mixed unions was among persons aged 25 to 34 (7.7%), 35 to 44 (6.8%), 15 to 24 (6.1%), 45 to 54 (4.1%), and 55 and over (2.7%).

[47] The 2006 study had an interesting find, that people born in Canada were more likely to marry someone of another race as opposed to those who immigrated there; [48] only 12% of first generation immigrant visible minorities were in a mixed union, this figure is higher for second generation immigrants (51%) and three or more generation immigrants (69%).

There are a few examples of this: • 63% of Canadian-born Blacks (who were in couples) were in mixed unions, while the numbers for Blacks born in the Caribbean and Bermuda (17%), and Africa (13%) were much lower percentages. • For Chinese people born in Canada, 54% (who were in couples) were with someone non-Chinese (it's not noted if this figure refers to anyone who is not East Asian (race), or just not Chinese (nationality)), compared to only 3% of those born in China who immigrated to Canada.

• 33% of South Asian Canadians who were born in Canada, were in a mixed union, compared to only 3% of those who were born in South Asia. One theory for this may include that those who martial master episode 173 sub indo as adults, may have already found a partner before immigrating to Canada. [48] Certain visible minority groups had higher rates of being in mixed unions; • 78.7% of Japanese • 64.9% of multiracial people • 48.2% of Latin Americans • 40.2% of Blacks • 29.8% of Filipinos • 25.4% of Arabs / West Asians • 22.5% of Koreans • 21.9% of Southeast Asians (other than Filipinos) • 19.4% of Chinese • 13.0% of South Asians • 52.4% of other groups; There are no statistics that show data for White Canadians or Indigenous Canadians.

The 2006 study also stated that same-sex couples are about 2.5 times more likely to be in an interracial marriage as opposed to opposite-sex couples, 9.8% of same-sex marriages are interracial. [48] There were some theories as to why; same-sex marriage in Canada become legal in 2005, whereas opposite sex marriage was always legal, and it also mentions that same-sex couples are more likely to be in common-law marriages, and common-law marriages had a higher frequency of mixed unions.

One study done by Reg Bibby found that 92% of Canadians are accepting of interracial marriages. [49] See also: Metis people (Canada) Latin America [ edit ] In Latin America, most of the population are descended from Amerindians, Europeans and Africans.

They formed the Mestizo and Mulatto populations that populate the countries in Latin America. Intermarriage and inter-relations occurred on a larger scale than most places in the world. In some countries, Asian immigrants have also intermarried among the groups.

About 300,000 Cantonese coolies and migrants (almost all males) from the 19th-20th century and migrants were shipped to Latin America, many had either intermarried or formed sexual relationships with females of different racial origin such as African, Mullato, European, Mestizo etc.

An estimated 100,000 Chinese people that came to Peru, only 15 were women, and in Cuba, the census for 1872 aloned recorded only 32 Chinese women as compared to 58,368 Chinese men. [50] Between a total roughly 140,000 Chinese males went to Cuba between 1847 and 1874, with around another 100,000 went to Peru between 1849 and 1874.

[51] Around 20,000 mostly Cantonese and some Hakka coolies migrated to Jamaica, Guyana, Trinidad. Many of them intermarried with Black women and East Indian women. Unlike in Trinidad Tobago and Guyana who were predominantly Cantonese men who intermarried with Black women and Indian women. In Guyana, the Chinese were mostly Cantonese men and who intermarried with the local women.

Because almost all of the Chinese indentured immigrants were men, they tended to intermarry with both East Indians and Africans, and thus the Chinese of Guyana did not remain as physically distinct as other groups. Marriage among different Chinese language groups is rare; it is so rare that the any cases of it can be individually named. While intermarriage between Hakka Chinese and Indians hardly occur. [52] Guyana [ edit ] Many Portuguese men intermarried Creole women.

Their children easily merged with the other Creole population. Many Chinese men also intermarried or established sexual relationships with Creole women. [53] At the beginning, interracial marriage with Chinese men was not common at first. In the 1870s it was viewed more negatively than Portuguese men marrying Creole women, so that the Chinese population remained mostly racially pure.

Chinese men having interracial marriages became increasingly more common. The significant changes in how Creole women began to view Chinese men as desirable partners led to an increase in intermarriage.

Due to the scarcity of Chinese women, Kirke in 1897 had observed that Chinese males in Guyana like to either mix with Creole women, and have the prettiest coloured women as concubines. As a result of continued intermixing, 80% of the Chinese-Guyana look scarcely Chinese with only few characteristics facial features of Chinese. [54] In Guyana, immigrant Chinese men established sexual relations with local Indian and Creole women due to the lack of Chinese women migrating to British Guiana. [55] [56] Creole sexual relationships and marriages with Chinese and Indians was rare.

[57] However, more common was Indian women and Chinese men establishing sexual relations with each other and some Chinese men took their Indian wives back with them to China. [58] In Guyana, while marriages between Indian women and black African men is socially shameful to Indians, Chinese-Indian marriages are considered acceptable as reported by Joseph Nevadomsky in 1983.

[59] "Chiney-dougla" is the Indian Guyanese term for mixed Chinese-Indian children. [60] Some Indian women in Guiana had multiple partners due to the greater number of men than women, an account of the era told by women in British Guiana is of a single Chinese man who was allowed to temporarily borrow a Hindu Indian woman by her Indian husband who was his friend, so the Chinese man could sire a child with her, after a son was born to her the Chinese man kept the boy while she was returned to her Indian husband, the boy was named William Adrian Lee.

[61] [62] An Indian woman named Mary See married a Chinese man surnamed Wu in Goedverwagting and founded their own family after he learned how to process sugar cane.

[63] In British Guiana, the Chinese did not maintain their distinctive physical features due to martial master episode 173 sub indo high rate of Chinese men marrying people other ethnicities like Indian women. [64] [65] [66] The severe imbalance with Indian men outnumbering Indian women led some women to take advantage of the situation to squeeze favors from men and leave their partners for other men, [67] one infamous example was a pretty, light skinned, Christian Indian woman named Mary Ilandun with ancestral origins from Madras, born in 1846, who had sex with Indian, black, and Chinese men as she married them in succession and ran off with their money to her next paramour, doing this from 1868 to 1884.

[68] Indian men used force to bring Indian women back in line from this kind of behavior. [69] The most severe lack of women in all the peoples of British Guiana was with the Chinese and this led Europeans to believe that Chinese did not engage in wife murders while wife murders was something innate to Indian men, and unlike Indian coolie women, Chinese women were viewed as chaste.

[70] Chinese women were not indentured and since they did not need to work, they avoided prospective men seeking relationships, while the character of Indian women was disparaged as immoral and their alleged sexual looseness was blamed for their deaths in the "wife murders" by Indian men. [71] The sex ratio of Indian men to Indian women was 100:63 while the sex ratio of Chinese men to Chinese women martial master episode 173 sub indo 100:43 in British Guiana in 1891.

[72] Over time, although there were more Creole marriages with Chinese, there was also small growth of Indian marriages with Chinese and it was reported that "It is not an uncommon thing to find a cooly woman living with a Chinaman as his wife, and in one or two instances the woman has accompanied her reputed husband to China." by Dr.

Comins in 1891, with six Indian women marrying Chinese men in just the year of 1892 alone, as reported by The Immigration Report for 1892. [73] [74] Trinidad [ edit ] According to the 1931 census, 1,713 persons were born to Indian fathers only, and 805 were born to Indian mothers only (Kuczynski 1953). The race of the other parent is not indicated. The 1946 census registers the presence of 8,406 East Indian Creoles who are defined as "persons of mixed East Indian origin, on the whole people who had an East Indian father or an East Indian mother only" (Kuczynski 339).

Harewood (1975) notes that these 8,406 were included in the category "Mixed" together with 70,369 mulattoes and other people of mixed racial ancestry.

[11] In Trinidad some Chinese men had sexual relations Indian coolie women, siring children with them, and it was reported that "A few children are to be met with born of Madras and Creole parents and some also of Madras and Chinese parents – the Madrasee being the mother", by the missionary John Morton in 1876, Morton noted that it seemed strange since there were more Indian coolie men than Indian coolie women that Indian coolie women would marry Chinese men, but claimed it was most likely because the Chinese could provide amenities to the women since the Chinese owned shops and they were enticed by these.

[75] [76] [77] [78] [79] Indian women were married by indentured Chinese men in Trinidad. [80] Few Chinese women migrated to Trinidad while the majority of Chinese migrants were men. [81] The migration of Chinese to Trinidad resulted in intermarriage between them and others.

[82] Chinese in Trinidad became relatively open to having marital relations with other races and Indian women began having families with Chinese in the 1890s.

[83] The situation in Trinidad and British Guiana with Indian women being fewer than Indian men led to Indian women using the situation to their advantage by leaving their partners for other men, leading to a high incidence of "wife murders" by Indian men on their wives, and Indian women and culture were branded as "immoral" by European observers, an Indian man named Mohammad Orfy petitioned as a representative of "destitute Indian men of Trinidad", to the colonial authorities, complaining of Indian women's behavior and claiming that it was "a perforating plague.the high percentage of immoral lives led by the female section of our community.to satisfy the greed and lust of the male section of quite a different race to theirs.[Indian women] are enticed, seduced and frightened into becoming concubines, and paramours.[Indian women] have absolutely no knowledge whatsoever of the value of being in virginhood.most shameless and a perfect menace to the Indian gentry." with him naming specific peoples, claiming that Indian women were having sex with Chinese men, Americans, Africans, and Europeans, [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] saying "Africans, Americans and Chinese in goodly numbers are enticing the females of India, who are more or less subtle to lustful traps augured through some fear of punishment being meted out if not readily submissive as requested." [89] [90] [91] The situation on Trinidad enabled unprecedented autonomy in the sexual activities of Indian women and freedom.

[92] The 1916 "Peition of Indentured Labourers in Trinidad" complained martial master episode 173 sub indo "Is it permissible for a male member of the Christian faith to keep a Hindoo or Muslim female as his paramour or concubine? Is this not an act of sacrilege and a disgraceful scandal according to the Christian faith to entice and encourage Indian females to lead immoral lives?" [92] Indian men used violence against Indian women in response to Indian women engaging in sexual relations with multiple men due to the shortage of them in Trinidad.

[93] On plantations white European managers took advantage of and use indentured Indian woman for sex, [94] in addition, English, Portuguese, and Chinese men were also in sexual relationships with Indian women as noted by Attorney General W.F. Haynes Smith, while Creole women were abhorred or ignored by Indian men.

[95] [96] Approval of interracial marriage has slowly increased in Trinidad and Tobago and one Chinese man reported that his Indian wife did not encounter any rejection from his parents when asked in a survey.

[97] In Trinidad Europeans and Chinese are seen as acceptable marriage partners by Indians while marrying black men would lead to rejection of their daughters by Indian families.

[98] In British Guiana and Trinidad, white overseers and managers would take advantage of Indian coolie women and use them in sexual relationships, the Indian women were then blamed for these incidents and viewed as allegedly "loose" and promiscuous by colonial officials, and Indian women were subjected to a high rate of "wife murders" by Indian men, the Indian women were also blamed for this due to their "inconstancy" due to alleged low "sexual morality".

[99] In one incident in Trinidad, seven Indian women were impregnated at the same time by an estate manager in 1854. [100] [101] The managers sexual relations with Indian women caused riots, at the most significant one, at the hands of the police, 59 Indians were wounded and 5 Indians were killed, in Non Pareil in 1896, due to an Indian woman cohabiting with Gerad Van Nooten, the acting manager.

[102] [103] : 29 [104] : 37 [105] : 52 The low ratio of Indian women compared to Indian men, along with the factor of Portuguese, white overseers and managers, and Chinese men having sexual relations with Indian women, aggravated the problem of rivalry for Indian women between Indian men, and drove up the value of Indian women. [106] The incidents of overseers and managers taking sexual advantage of the women laborers led to Indian laborers causing stoppages and protests.

[107] In British Guiana the overseers and managers sexual abuse of Indian women caused Indian workers to embark on a "struggle" from 1869 to 1872. [108] Conflicts due to women led to attacks against drivers and overseers. [109] The resentment of the workers was aggravated by the use of women on estates for sexual relations. [110] The deficit in Indian women compared to men was caused by the recruitment quota ratio of 100 men to 40 women, most of the women were young and single, [104] : 16 and the shortage of Indian women for Indian men was aggravated when Indian women were taken by Africans and European overseers, leading to high amounts of wife murders against Indian women by Indian men and a decrease in morals.

[103] : 15 The appropriation of Indian women by Europeans and Africans added up to the resentment which contributed to violence against Indian women by Indian men.

[104] : 22–23 Indian women on plantations took part in the struggle against Africans and European authorities who were sexually using them. [104] : 26 [105] : 18 Indian nationalists ashamed of the sexual reputation of Indian coolie women often attacked the coolie trade for that reason instead of other reasons such as bad working conditions.

[111] Overseers and planters on the plantations and sailors and doctors on board the ships transporting Indian coolie women would try to obtain sex from Indian women. [112] The Indian women had a sexual bargaining chip since they could frequently change lovers due to the fact that there were less Indian women than men, The Daily Chronicle described Indian coolie women as "pretty and youthful", laborers had to be moved around plantations by managers to prevent men from killing their adulterous wives, and the aura surrounding the sexuality and perils of Indian coolie women was enhanced by the widespread worship of the goddess Kali by them.

[113] [114] Riots and murders were blamed on the sexual liaisons between white overseers, managers and Indian coolie women in addition to their constant changing of sexual partners and the sexuality of coolie women were viewed shamefully as a deviation of the expected behavior of Indian women. [115] The Guyanese-Indian journalist Gaiutra Bahadur wrote about the experiences of Indian coolie women. [116] [117] Sex was utilized as a potent instrument by Indian coolie women such as when they obtained favors from overseers by having sex with them, [118] and the women could either have been "imperiled" or "empowered" when forming sexual relations with overseers.

[119] The Indian coolie women both had sexual advantages due to being less in number and suffered from sexual exploitation, in total, around 250,000 Indian women migrated as coolies. [120] Gaiutra Bahadur said in an interview that some Guyanese from her community were angered by her book and writing on the sexual experiences of the Indian coolie woman, with one saying "Who is that woman who's been writing that all of our grandmothers and great-grandmothers were prostitutes?", and another saying "One must be careful." to her, viewing her book as an attack on the honor and morals of Indian women, Bahadur maintained that she was trying to bring back the "dignity" of the women and that Indian women's honor was attacked in the same way by colonial officials who blamed the women themselves for their sexual liaisons rather than flaws in the plantation and indenture systems.

[121] A stereotype of an uncontrollable sexual libido was attributed to Indian women in the Caribbean and they were described as having "white liver" because of this. [111] [122] [123] Sexual abuse, poor living standards, and tough work were all things Indian coolie women had to contend with.

[124] [125] In seeking potential mates the Indian coolie women has some amount of free choice due to their scarce numbers, some of them were able to end their indenture when married by white overseers.

[126] There were cases of sexual abuse of Indian women on the ships and one man prostituted his 8-year-old daughter, [127] and in another case a British surgeon married a young widow, [128] the women obtained an advantage in sexual relations from being less numerous than men but this led to a large amount of killings called "wife murders" of martial master episode 173 sub indo women by men they rejected.

[129] Postcards were made of Indian coolie women and girls bedecked in jewelry made of gold and silver such as bangles and nose rings which seemed to be aiming to show them as wealthy and pretty.

[130] [131] [132] Indian coolie women wore their wealth in the form of jewellery, [133] [134] [135] [136] like bangles and nose rings. [137] [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] In Port of Spain in Trinidad, Chinese coolies were described as going about almost naked while Indian coolie women wore "scanty drapery" and had "arms and ankles covered with bangles".

[143] One Indian woman on the way to Guiana had to be given jewelry like bangles made of silver and nose rings made of gold to by her husband in order to make her not leave him.

[144] Peru [ edit ] See also: Chinese Peruvian Interracial marriages between Cantonese-Chinese males and Peruvian females was quite large resulting in large number of mixed children's and people with some Chinese ancestry in Peru. There is no prevailing racist attitude against intermarriage between martial master episode 173 sub indo Chinese and non-Chinese in Peru, so the number of interracial marriages is quite large.

According to one source, the number of mix raced children born was 180,000. Half of that number was martial master episode 173 sub indo Lima alone, with the ratio between Chinese mestizo and the full-blooded Chinese at 90,000 to 15,000 (6:1). [145] There is estimated up to 2.5 million (up to 8% of Peru) citizens are of mixed Chinese-Peruvian ancestry known as 'Tusans'. [146] One estimates puts 4.2 million (15%) of the Peruvians having some Chinese ancestry.

[147] Many Peruvian women of different origins married to these Chinese male migrants. Most of the women that married Chinese are Native Indians (including Meztiza) and Black.

Some lowers class white women also married Chinese men but in a lower ratio. [148] [149] [150] [151] [152] [153] Chinese had contact with Peruvian women in cities, there they formed relationships and sired mixed babies, these women originated from Andean and coastal areas and did not originally come from the cities, in the haciendas on the coast in rural areas, native young women of indígenas (native) and serranas (mountain) origin from the Andes mountains would come down to work, these Andean native women were favored as marital partners by Chinese men over Africans, with matchmakers arranging for communal marriages of Chinese men to indígenas and serranas young women.

[154] There was a racist reaction by Peruvians to the marriages of Peruvian women and Chinese men. [155] When native Peruvian women (cholas et natives, Indias, indígenas) and Chinese men had mixed children, the children were called injerto and once these injertos emerged, Chinese men then sought out girls of injertas origins as marriage partners, children born to black mothers were not called injertos.

[156] Low class Peurvians established sexual unions or marriages with the Chinese men and some black and Indian women "bred" with the Chinese according to Alfredo Sachettí, who claimed the mixing was causing the Chinese to suffer from "progressive degeneration", in Casa Grande highland Indian women and Chinese men participated in communal "mass marriages" with each other, arranged when highland women were brought by a Chinese matchmaker after receiving a down payment.

[157] [158] It was reported by the New York Times that Peruvian black and Indian (Native) women married Chinese men to their own advantage and to the disadvantage of the men since they dominated and "subjugated" the Chinese men despite the fact that the labor contract was annulled by the marriage, reversing the roles in marriage with the Peruvian woman holding marital power, ruling the family and making the Chinese men slavish, docile, "servile", "submissive" and "feminine" and commanding them around, reporting that "Now and then.he [the Chinese man] becomes enamored of the charms of some sombre-hued chola (Native Indian and mestiza martial master episode 173 sub indo or samba (mixed black woman), and is converted and joins the Church, so that may enter the bonds of wedlock with the dusky señorita." [159] Chinese men were sought out as husbands and considered a "catch" by the "dusky damsels" (Peruvian women) because they were viewed as a "model husband, hard-working, affectionate, faithful and obedient" and "handy to have in the house", the Peruvian women became the "better half" instead of the "weaker vessel" and would command their Chinese husbands "around in fine style" instead of treating them equally, while the labor contract of the Chinese coolie would be nullified by the marriage, the Peruvian wife viewed the nullification merely as the previous "master" handing over authority over the Chinese man to her as she became his "mistress", keeping him in "servitude" to her, speedily ending any complaints and suppositions by the Chinese men that they would have any power in the marriage.

[160] Cuba [ edit ] See also: Chinese Cuban 120,000 Cantonese coolies (all males) entered Cuba under contract for 80 years, most did not marry, but Hung Hui (1975) cites there was frequent sexual activity between black women and Cantonese coolies. According to Osberg (1965) the free Chinese conducted the practice of buying slave women and freeing them expressly for marriage. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Chinese men (Cantonese) engaged in sexual activity with white Cuban women and black Cuban women, and from such relations many children were born.

[161] In the 1920s, an additional 30,000 Cantonese and small groups of Japanese also arrived; both immigrations were exclusively male, and there was rapid intermarriage with white, black, and mulato populations. [162] [163] [164] In the study of Genetic origin, admixture, and asymmetry in maternal and paternal human lineages in Cuba.

Thirty-five Y-chromosome SNPs were typed in the 132 male individuals of the Cuban sample. The study does not include any people with some Chinese ancestry. All the samples were White Cubans and Black Cubans. 2 out of 132 male sample belong to East Asian Haplogroup O2 which is found in significant frequencies among Cantonese people is found in 1.5% of Cuban population. [165] Mexico [ edit ] See also: Chinese immigration to Mexico The Chinese who migrated to Mexico in the 19th to 20th centuries were almost entirely Chinese men.

Males made up the majority of the original Chinese community in Mexico and they married Mexican women. [166] They married Mexican women, which led to anti-Chinese prejudice; many were expelled, while those who were allowed to stay intermarried with the Mexican population.

The Mexicali officials estimate was that slightly more than 2,000 are full-blooded Chinese and about 8,000 are mixed-blood Chinese-Mexicans. Other estimates claimed 50,000 residents more than thought who are of Chinese descent. 10,000 full-blooded Chinese, down from 35,000 in the 1920s. [167] Marriage of these people to full-blooded Mexicans is diluting the community further. [167] Chinese Mexicans in Mexicali consider themselves equally "cachanilla", a term used for locals, as any other resident of the city, even if they speak Cantonese in addition to Spanish.

The sentiment against Chinese men was due to (and almost all Chinese immigrants in Mexico were men) stealing employment and Mexican women from Mexican men who had gone off to fight in the Revolution or in World War I. [168] Costa Rica [ edit ] See also: Chinese people in Costa Rica The Chinese originated from the Cantonese male migrants.

Pure Chinese make up only 1% of the Costa Rican population, but according to Jacqueline M. Newman, as close to 10% of the people in Costa Rica are Chinese, if we count the people who are Chinese, married to a Chinese person, or of mixed Chinese descent.

[169] Most Chinese immigrants since then have been Cantonese, but in the last decades of the 20th century, a number of immigrants have also come from Taiwan. Many men came alone to work and married Costa Rican women and speak Cantonese.

However the majority of the descendants of the first Chinese immigrants no longer speak Cantonese and feel themselves to be Costa Ricans. [170] They married Tican women (a blend of Europeans, Caztizos, Mestizos, Indian, and Black). [171] A Tican is also a White person with a small portion of non-white blood like Caztizos.

The census of 1989 shows about 98% of Costa Ricans were either white, Castizos or Mestizos, with 80% being white or Caztizos. Venezuela [ edit ] See also: Chinese Venezuelan Marriages between European, Mestizo, Amerindians, and Africans was not uncommon in the past. Several thousand Chinese from Enping resided in the country. The Chinese were still largely viewed as a foreign population who married foreign brides but seldom integrated into Venezuelan society.

[172] Jamaica [ edit ] See also: Chinese Jamaicans When black and Indian women had children with Chinese men the children were called chaina raial in Jamaican English. [173] The Chinese community in Jamaica was able to consolidate because an openness to marrying Indian women was present in the Chinese since Chinese women were in short supply.

[174] Women sharing was less common among Indians in Jamaica according to Verene A. Shepherd. [175] The small number of Indian women were fought over between Indian men and led to a rise in the amount of wife murders by Indian men. [176] Indian women made up 11 percent of the annual amount of Indian indentured migrants from 1845 to 1847 in Jamaica.

[177] Thousands of Chinese men (mostly Hakka) and Indian men married local Jamaican women. The study "Y-chromosomal diversity in Haiti and Jamaica: Contrasting levels of sex-biased gene flow" shows the paternal Chinese haplogroup O-M175 at a frequency of 3.8% in local Jamaicans ( non-Chinese Jamaicans) including the Indian H-M69 (0.6%) and L-M20 (0.6%) in local Jamaicans.

[178] Among the country's most notable Afro-Asians are reggae singers Sean Paul, Tami Chynn and Diana King. Africa and Middle East [ edit ] Middle East and North Africa [ edit ] Interracial marriage [ failed verification] was common in the Arab world during the Arab slave trade, which lasted throughout the Middle Ages and early modern period. [179] Most of these enslaved peoples came from places such as Sub-Saharan Africa (mainly Zanj) the North Caucasus, [180] Central Asia (mainly Tatars), and Western, Southern and Southeastern Europe (mainly Slavs from Serbia – Saqaliba, Spain, France, Italy).

[181] [182] [183] The Barbary pirates from North Africa captured and enslaved 1.25 million slaves from Western Europe and North America between the 16th and 19th centuries. [184] [185] Outside the Arab world, it was also common for Arab conquerors, traders and explorers to intermarry with local females in the lands they conquered or traded with, in various different parts of Africa, Asia (see Asia section) and Europe (see Europe section).

From AD 839, Viking Varangian mercenaries who were in the service of the Byzantine Empire, notably Harald Sigurdsson, campaigned in North Africa, Jerusalem and other places in the Middle East during the Byzantine-Arab Wars. They interbred with the local population as spoils of warfare or through eventual settling with many Scandinavian Viking men taking Arab or Anatolian women as wives.

There is archaeological evidence the Vikings had established contact with the city of Baghdad, at the time martial master episode 173 sub indo center of the Islamic Empire, and connected with the populace there.

[186] Regularly plying the Volga with their trade goods (furs, tusks, seal fat, seal boats and notably female slaves; the one period in the history of the slave-trade martial master episode 173 sub indo females martial master episode 173 sub indo priced higher than males), the Vikings were active in the Arab slave trade at the time. [187] These slaves, most often Europeans that were captured from the coasts of Europe or during war periods, [188] and sold to Arabic traders in Al-Andalus and the Emirate of Sicily.

Intermarriage martial master episode 173 sub indo accepted in Arab society, though only if the husband was Muslim. It was a fairly common theme in medieval Arabic literature and Persian literature. For example, the Persian poet Nizami, who married his Central Asian Kipchak slave girl, wrote The Seven Beauties (1196). Its frame story involves a Persian prince marrying seven foreign princesses, who are Byzantine, Chinese, Indian, Khwarezmian, Maghrebian, Slavic and Tartar.

Hadith Bayad wa Riyad, a 12th-century Arabic tale from Al-Andalus, was a love story involving an Iberian girl and a Damascene man. The Arabian Nights tale of " The Ebony Horse" involves the Prince of Persia, Qamar al-Aqmar, rescuing his lover, the Princess of Sana'a, from the Byzantine Emperor who also wishes to marry her.

[189] At times, some marriages would have a major impact on the politics of the region. The most notable example was the marriage of As-Salih Ayyub, the Sultan of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty, to Shajar al-Durr, a slave of Turkic origin from Central Asia.

Following her husband's death, she became the Sultana of Egypt and the first Mamluk ruler. Her reign marked the end of the Ayyubid dynasty and the beginning of the Mameluk era, when a series of former Mamluk slaves would rule over Egypt and occasionally other neighbouring regions.

[190] [191] [192] [193] Elsewhere in Africa [ edit ] Former President Ian Khama of Botswana, son of Motswana chief Sir Seretse Khama and Englishwoman Ruth Williams Khama Africa has a long history [ citation needed] of interracial mixing with Arabs and later Europeans having sexual relations with black Africans.

[ citation needed] Arabs played a big role in the African slave trade and unlike the trans-Atlantic trade most of the enslaved Africans in the Arab slave trade were women. Most of them were used as sexual slaves by the Arab men and some were taken as wives. [ citation needed] In the former Lusophone Africa (now known as Angola, Mozambique and Cape Verde) racial mixing between white Portuguese and black Africans was fairly common, especially in Cape Verde, where the majority of the population is of mixed descent.

There have been several cases of Chinese merchants and laborers marrying black African women as many Chinese workers were employed to build railways and other infrastructural projects in Africa. These labour groups were made up completely of men with very few Chinese women coming to Africa. In Réunion and Madagascar, intermarriage between Chinese men of Cantonese origin and African women is not uncommon. [194] Southern Africa [ edit ] There is a significant mixed race population, the result of mostly European and African unions, in South Africa, called Coloureds.

The term Coloured is also used to describe persons of mixed race in the neighbouring nation of Namibia, to refer to those of part Khoisan, part black and part white descent. The Basters constitute a separate ethnic group that are sometimes considered a sub-group of the Coloured population of the country.

Some of the Xhosa people claim descent from white people. The royal family of the ImiDushane, for example, is descended from Queen Gquma of the Mpondo, a white orphan that was adopted by a Xhosa chief after a shipwreck killed her parents.

She later married an Mpondo prince, became his great wife, and served as queen during his reign as king of the Tshomane Mpondo. Interracial marriage was banned under apartheid. Due to this, there was considerable opposition to the marriage between Sir Seretse Khama, Paramount Chief of the Bamangwato Tswanas, and his eventual wife Ruth Williams Khama, Lady Martial master episode 173 sub indo, even though Chief Khama was Motswana and not South African.

Today there are a number of high-profile interracial couples in Southern Africa, such as the unions of Mmusi Maimane (a black opposition politician who served as the Leader of the Opposition of South Africa) and his white wife Natalie Maimane, Siya Kolisi (a black rugby union player and current captain of the South African national team) and his white wife Rachel Kolisi, Nyaniso Dzedze (a black actor) and his German wife Yana Fay Dzedze, Matthew Booth (a white soccer player) and his wife Sonia Bonneventia (a black former Miss South Africa first princess and international model) [195] and Bryan Habana (a coloured South African rugby union player) and his white wife Janine Viljoen.

[196] Mauritius [ edit ] In the late 19th to early 20th century, Chinese men in Mauritius married Indian women due to both a lack of Chinese women and the higher numbers of Indian women on the island. [197] [198] All the immigrants were men. When the very first Chinese arrived in Mauritius, they were reluctant to marry local women. But with no Chinese women in sight, the Chinese men had no choice but to begin to integrate themselves and martial master episode 173 sub indo with the Creole and Indian populations on the island and establish households en ménage.

[199] : 15 The 1921 census in Mauritius counted that Indian women there had a total of 148 children sired by Chinese men. [200] [201] [199] : 16 These Chinese were mostly traders. [202] Colonialist stereotypes in the sugar colonies of Indians emerged such as "the degraded coolie woman" and the "coolie wife beater", due to Indian women being murdered by their husbands after they ran away to other richer men since the ratio of Indian women to men was low.

[203] Réunion [ edit ] See also: Cafres The Native Kaf population has a diverse range of martial master episode 173 sub indo stemming from colonial Indian and Chinese peoples. They also descend from African slaves brought from countries like Mozambique, Guinea, Senegal, Madagascar, Tanzania and Zambia to the island. Most population of Réunion Creoles who are of mixed ancestry and make up the majority of the population.

Interracial marriages between European men and Chinese men with African women, Indian women, Chinese women, Madagascar women were also common. In 2005, a genetic study on the racially mixed people of Réunion found the following. For maternal ( mitochondrial) DNA, the haplogroups are Indian (44%), East Asian (27%), European/Middle Eastern (19%) or African (10%). The Indian lineages are M2, M6 and U2i, the East Asian ones are E1, D5a, M7c, and F (E1 and M7c also found only in South East Asia and in Madagascar), the European/Middle Eastern ones are U2e, T1, J, H, and I, and the African ones are L1b1, L2a1, L3b, and L3e1.

[204] For paternal ( Y-chromosome) DNA, the haplogroups are European/Middle Eastern (85%) or East Asian (15%). The European lineages are R1b and I, the Middle Eastern one E1b1b1c (formerly E3b3) (also found in Northeast Africa), and the East Asian ones are R1a (found in many parts of the world including Europe and Central and Southern Asia but the particular sequence has been found in Asia) and O3.

[204] West Africa [ edit ] In West Africa, a series of interracial marriages and relationships created a number of mixed race families in the various countries of the region. [ citation needed] In Sierra Leone, marriages between representatives of British trading firms and princesses of the Sherbro people created a number of aristocratic families such as the Sherbro Tuckers and the Sherbro Caulkers.

Due to matrilineality, they have maintained their claims to their ancestral thrones. [ citation needed] In Benin, meanwhile, the descendants of the Brazilian slave trader Francisco Felix de Sousa and his harem of black consorts have contributed a number of prominent citizens. Figures such as a president ( Paul-Emile de Souza) and a first lady ( Chantal de Souza Boni Yayi, President de Souza's niece) are arguably the most notable of martial master episode 173 sub indo.

[ citation needed] In Ghana, a number of founding fathers had relationships with foreigners of other races: Kwame Nkrumah married the Egyptian Copt Fathia Nkrumah and raised a family with her. Their children would go on to become politicians like their father. President Nkrumah's contemporary and sometime friend, Joe Appiah, was himself married to the British debutante Peggy Cripps Appiah.

At the start of the 21st century, their descendants were being led by their only son, Kwame Anthony Appiah. In addition to this, Dr. J. B. Martial master episode 173 sub indo had a son with a British woman during his time in Britain. He would go on to become noted actor Paul Danquah. [ citation needed] In Gabon, a woman by the name of Germaine Anina - daughter of a Gabonese tribal chief - married a Chinese trader and politician named Cheng Zhiping.

Their son, Jean Ping, went on to serve as a minister in his mother's native country. [ citation needed] In orthodox Serer religion and custom, interfaith and interracial marriages are forbidden. Banishment and disinheritance may be levied against a Serer who fails to follow these customary teachings.

[205] The Serer-Noon (a sub-group of the Serer people) strongly adhere to these teachings. [205] It was for this reason that the first Senegalese president Léopold Sédar Senghor did not receive support from the Serer community, especially the ultra—traditional Serer. Although born to an aristocratic Serer family, he did not receive support from the Serer community due to his marriage to his French wife (see below). Instead, he was supported by other ethnic groups such as the Wolof and Fula.

In return, Senghor failed to develop Serer villages and towns. [206] [207] Lastly, a number of the first ladies in Francophone West Africa have been French: Collette Hubert Senghor and Viviane Wade of Senegal, and Dominique Ouattara of Ivory Coast. [ citation needed] Oceania [ edit ] Australia [ edit ] Further information: Racism in Australia Historical marriages of Aboriginal Australian women with European men and Asian men of various nationality have been recorded in the late 19th and 20th century.

Chinese immigrant men and other Asian men migrated to Australia and intermarried with Aboriginal Australian women. In 1913, anthropologist and temporary Chief Protector Walter Baldwin Spencer opposed these intermarriages and demonstrated clear bias against the mixing of Aboriginal women and Asian men (as opposed to white men), claiming their sexual contact caused 'rapid degeneration of the native'.

[208] [209] Most of the early Chinese-Australian population was formed by Cantonese migrants from Guangzhou and Taishan, including some from Fujian, who came during the goldrush period of the 1850s. Marriage records show that between the 1850s and around the start of the 20th century, there were about 2,000 legal marriages between white women and migrant Chinese men in Australia's eastern colonies, probably with similar numbers involved in de facto relationships of various kinds. [210] Rallies against Chinese men taking white women became widespread.

[ citation needed] In late 1878 there were 181 marriages between European women and ethnic Chinese men, and 171 couples cohabiting without matrimony, resulting in 586 children. [211] No data about the races of people getting married in Australia is currently collected, meaning no figures can be produced on interracial marriages.

Asia [ edit ] Central Asia [ edit ] Today Central Asians are a mixture of various peoples, such as Mongols, Turks, and Iranians. The Mongol conquest of Central Asia in the 13th century resulted in the mass killings of the Iranian-speaking people and Indo-Europeans population of the region, their culture and languages being superseded by that of the Mongolian- Turkic peoples. The invasions of Bukhara, Samarkand, Urgench and others resulted in mass murders and unprecedented destruction, such as portions of Khwarezmia being completely razed.

The remaining surviving population were either displaced or assimilated with intermarriage with invaders. [212] [213] [214] [215] Genetic studies indicates all Central Asian ethnicities share a various genetic mixture of East Eurasian and West Eurasian. [216] [217] Interracial marriage between Turkic, European, Central Asians in Kazakhstan are rare but increasing. The most common marriages are between Kazakh and Volga Tatars.

Intermarriage usually involves Kazakh men, due to Muslim tradition favouring male over female. For example, 1% were between Russians, Tatars, and Kazakhs (792 between Russians and Tatars, 561 between Kazakhs and Tatars, and 212 between Kazakhs and Russians). 701 Kazakh men married Russians or Tatars, against only 72 Kazakh women. [218] Among Kirgiz men living in Uzbekistan and married to non-Kirgiz women, 9.6% martial master episode 173 sub indo married Russians, 25.6% Uzbeks, and 34.3% Tatars.

Among Kazakh men in Uzbekistan, the structure of mixed marriages appeared as follows: 4.4% married Russians. [219] Afghanistan [ edit ] Genetic analysis of the Hazara people indicates partial Mongolian ancestry. [220] Invading Mongols and Turco-Mongols intermixed with the local Iranian population, forming a distinct group.

Mongols settled in what is now Afghanistan martial master episode 173 sub indo intermarried with native populations who spoke Persian.

A second wave of mostly Chagatai Mongols came from Central Asia and were followed by other Mongolic groups, associated with the Ilkhanate and the Timurids, all of whom settled in Hazarajat and mixed with the local, mostly Persian-speaking population, forming a distinct group. One genetic study detected Sub-Saharan African lineages in both the paternal and maternal ancestry of Hazara.

Among the Hazaras there are 7.5% of African mtDNA haplogroup L with 5.1% of African Y-DNA B. [221] [222] The origin and date of when these admixture occurred are unknown but was believed to have been during the slave trades in Afghanistan. [222] East Asia [ edit ] China [ edit ] Western regions [ edit ] Intermarriage was initially discouraged by the Tang Dynasty. In 836 Lu Chun was appointed as governor of Canton, and was disgusted to find the Chinese living with foreigners and intermarrying.

Lu enforced separation, banned interracial marriages, and made it illegal for foreigners to own property. Lu Chun believed his principles were just and upright. [223] The 836 law specifically banned Chinese from forming relationships with "dark peoples" or "people of colour", which was used to describe foreigners, such as "Iranians, Sogdians, Arabs, Indians, Malays, Sumatrans", among others.

[224] In 779, the Tang dynasty issued an edict which forced Uighurs to wear their ethnic dress, stopped them from marrying Chinese females, and banned them from pretending to be Chinese. The magistrate who issued martial master episode 173 sub indo orders may have wanted to protect "purity" in Chinese custom. [225] Han men also married Turkic Uyghur women in Xinjiang from 1880 to 1949.

Sometimes poverty influenced Uyghur women to marry Han men. These marriages were not recognized by local mullahs since Muslim women were not allowed to marry non-Muslim men under Islamic law. This did not stop the women because they enjoyed advantages: they were not subject to Islamic law and not subjected to certain taxes. Uyghur women married to Han men also did not have to wear a veil, and they received their husband's property upon his death. These women were forbidden from having burial in Muslim graves.

The children of Han men and Uyghur women were considered to be Uyghur. Some Han soldiers had Uyghur women as temporary wives, and after their service was up, the wife was left behind or sold. If it was possible, sons were taken, and daughters were sold. [226] Iranian women dancers were in demand in China during this period.

During the Sui dynasty, ten young dancers were sent from Persia to China. During the Tang dynasty, bars were often attended by Iranian or Sogdian waitresses who performed dances for clients. [227] [228] [229] [230] [231] [232] [233] [234] [235] [236] [237] During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (Wudai) (907–960), there are examples of Persian women marrying Chinese emperors.

Some Chinese officials from the Song Dynasty era also married women from Dashi (Arabia). [238] From the tenth to twelfth century, Persian women were to be found in Guangzhou (Canton), some of them in the tenth century like Mei Zhu in the harem of the Emperor Liu Chang, and in the twelfth century large numbers of Persian women lived there, noted for wearing multiple earrings and "quarrelsome dispositions".

[239] [240] Some scholars did not differentiate between Persian and Arab, and some say that the Chinese called all women coming from the Persian Gulf "Persian women". [241] Genetic evidence shows Persian women intermarried with the Cantonese men of Guangzhou.

Yao Yonggang et al. reported that Kivisild detected one W mtDNA out of 69 Guangzhou Cantonese population, a common Martial master episode 173 sub indo Eastern and Iranian marker. [242] By the 14th century, the total population of Muslims in China had grown to martial master episode 173 sub indo million.

[243] After Mongol rule had been overthrown by the Ming Dynasty in 1368, this led to a violent Chinese backlash against West and Central Asians. In order to contain the violence, both Mongol and Central Asian Semu Muslim women and men of both sexes were required by Ming Code to marry Han Chinese after the first Ming Emperor Hongwu passed the law in Article 122.

[244] [245] [246] Han women who married Hui men became Hui, and Han men who married Hui women also became Hui. [247] [248] [249] Of the Han Chinese Li family in Quanzhou, Li Nu, the son of Li Lu, visited Hormuz in Persia in 1376, married a Persian or an Arab woman, and brought her back to Quanzhou.

He then converted to Islam. Li Nu was the ancestor of the Ming Dynasty reformer Li Chih. [250] [251] [252] After the Oghuz Turkmen Salars moved from Samarkand in Central Asia to Xunhua, Qinghai in the early Ming dynasty, they converted Tibetan women to Islam and the Tibetan women were taken as wives by Salar men.

A Salar wedding ritual where grains and milk were scattered on a horse by the bride was influenced by Tibetans.

[253] After they moved into northern Tibet, the Salars originally practiced the same Gedimu (Gedem) variant of Sunni Islam as the Hui people and adopted Hui practices like using the Hui Jingtang Jiaoyu Islamic education during the Ming dynasty which derived from Yuan dynasty Arabic and Persian primers. One of the Salar primers was called "Book of Diverse Studies" (雜學本本 Zaxue Benben) in Chinese. The version of Sunni Islam practiced by Salars was martial master episode 173 sub indo impacted by Salars marrying with Hui who had settled in Xunhua.

The Hui introduced new Naqshbandi Sufi orders like Jahriyya and Khafiyya to the Salars and eventually these Sufi orders led to sectarian violence involving Qing soldiers (Han, Tibetans and Mongols) and the Sufis which included the Chinese Muslims (Salars and Hui).

Ma Laichi brought the Khafiyya Naqshbandi order to the Salars and the Salars followed the Flowered mosque order (花寺門宦) of the Khafiyya. He preached silent dhikr and simplified Martial master episode 173 sub indo readings bringing the Arabic text Mingsha jing (明沙經, 明沙勒, 明沙爾 Minshar jing) to China. [254] The Kargan Tibetans, who live next to the Salar, have mostly become Muslim due to the Salars.

The Salar oral tradition recalls that it was around 1370 in which they came from Samarkand to China. [255] [256] The later Qing dynasty and Republic of China Salar General Han Youwen was born to a Tibetan woman named Ziliha (孜力哈) and a Salar father named Aema (阿额玛). [257] [258] [259] Tibetan women were the original wives of the first Salars to arrive in the region as recorded in Salar oral history.

The Tibetans agreed to let their Tibetan women marry Salar men after putting up martial master episode 173 sub indo demands to accommodate cultural and religious differences. Hui and Salar intermarry due to cultural similarities and following the same Islamic religion. Older Salars married Tibetan women but younger Salars prefer marrying other Salars. Martial master episode 173 sub indo and Salar mostly do not intermarry with each other unlike marriages of Tibetan women to Salar men.

Salars however use Han surnames. Salar patrilineal clans are much more limited than Han patrilinial clans in how much they deal with culture, society or religion.

[260] [261] Salar men often marry a lot of non-Salar women and they took Tibetan women as wives after migrating to Xunhua according to historical accounts and folk histories. Salars almost exclusively took non-Salar women as wives like Tibetan women while never giving Salar women to non-Salar men in marriage except for Hui men who were allowed to marry Salar women. As a result Salars are heavily mixed with other ethnicities.

[262] Salars in Qinghai live on both banks of the Yellow river, south and north, the northern ones are called Hualong or Bayan Salars while the southern ones are called Xunhua Salars. The region north of the Yellow river is a mix of discontinuous Salar and Tibetan villages while the region south of the yellow river is solidly Salar with no gaps in between, since Hui and Salars pushed the Tibetans on the south region out earlier.

Tibetan women who converted to Islam were taken as wives on both banks of the river by Salar men. The term for maternal uncle (ajiu) is used for Tibetans by Salars since the Salars have maternal Tibetan ancestry. Tibetans witness Salar life passages in Kewa, a Salar village and Tibetan butter tea is consumed by Salars there as well.

Other Tibetan cultural influences like Salar houses having four corners with a white stone on them became part of Salar culture as long as they were not prohibited by Islam. Hui people started assimilating and intermarrying with Salars in Xunhua after migrating there from Hezhou in Gansu due to the Chinese Ming dynasty ruling the Xunhua Salars after 1370 and Hezhou officials governed Xunhua.

Many Salars with the Ma surname appear to be of Hui descent since a lot of Salars now have the Ma surname while in the beginning the majority of Salars had the Han surname. Some example of Hezhou Hui who became Salars are the Chenjia (Chen family) and Majia (Ma family) villages in Altiuli where the Chen and Ma families are Salars who admit their Hui ancestry. Marriage ceremonies, funerals, birth rites and prayer were shared by both Salar and Hui as they intermarriaed and shared the same religion since more and more Hui moved into the Salar areas on both banks of the Yellow river.

Many Hui married Salars and eventually it became far more popular for Hui and Salar to intermarry due to both being Muslims than to non-Muslim Han, Mongols and Tibetans. The Salar language and culture however was highly impacted in the 14th-16th centuries in their original ethnogenesis by marriage with Mongol and Tibetan non-Muslims with many loanwords and grammatical influence by Mongol and Tibetan in their language.

Salars were multilingual in Salar and Mongol and then in Chinese and Tibetan as they trade extensively in the Ming, Qing and Republic of China periods on the yellow river in Ningxia and Lanzhou in Gansu.

[263] Salars and Tibetans both use the term maternal uncle (ajiu in Salar and Chinese, azhang in Tibetan) to refer to each other, referring to the fact that Salars are descendants of Tibetan women marrying Salar men. After using these terms they often repeat the historical account how Tibetan women were married by 2,000 Salar men who were the First Salars to migrate to Qinghai.

These terms illustrate that Salars were viewed separately from the Hui by Tibetans. According to legend, the marriages between Tibetan women and Salar men came after a compromise between demands by a Tibetan chief and the Salar migrants. The Salar say Wimdo valley was ruled by a Tibetan and he demanded the Salars follow 4 rules in order to marry Tibetan women. He asked them to install on their houses's four corners Tibetan Buddhist prayer flags, to pray with Tibetan Buddhist prayer wheels with the Buddhist mantra om mani padma hum and to bow before statues of Buddha.

The Salars refused those demands saying they did not recite mantras or bow to statues since they believed in only one creator god and were Muslims. They compromised on the flags in houses by putting stones on their houses' corners instead of Tibetan Buddhist prayer flags. Some Tibetans do not differentiate between Salar and Hui due to their Islamic religion. In 1996, Wimdo township only had one Salar because Tibetans whined about the Muslim call to prayer and a mosque built in the area in the early 1990s so they kicked out most of the Salars from the region.

Salars were bilingual in Salar and Tibetan due to intermarriage with Tibetan women and trading. It is far less likely for a Tibetan to speak Salar. [264] Tibetan women in Xiahe also married Muslim men who came there as traders before the 1930s.

[265] In eastern Qinghai and Gansu there were cases of Tibetan women who stayed in their Buddhist Lamaist religion while marrying Chinese Muslim men and martial master episode 173 sub indo would have different sons who would be Buddhist and Muslims, the Buddhist sons became Lamas while the other sons were Muslims.

Hui and Tibetans married Salars. [266] Manchuria [ edit ] Ethnic Russians first arrived in large numbers in Manchuria during the 1890s as colonists and marriages between Martial master episode 173 sub indo men and Han Chinese women started at the same time as the migration. [267] The descendants of the interracial marriages are concentrated in the towns and villages of the frontier areas along the Ergun River of Inner Mongolia like Shiwei and Enhe. [268] [267] Interracial marriages between Chinese and Russians were rare, a marriage pattern that does not fit the European colonial convention of Western men marrying native women.

[267] Martial master episode 173 sub indo between Chinese and Russians were also rare in urban areas like Harbin where there was prejudice against mixed marriages on both sides. [267] Hong Kong [ edit ] Main article: Tanka people Martial master episode 173 sub indo Tanka women bore children with foreign men. Ernest John Eitel mentioned in 1889 how an important change had taken place among Eurasian girls, the offspring of illicit connections: instead of becoming concubines, they were commonly brought up respectably and married to Hong Kong Chinese husbands.

Some believed many Hong Kong-born Eurasians were assimilated into the Hong Kong society by intermarriage with the Cantonese population. The world's most influential martial artist icon, Bruce Lee, was also born to parents of Hong Kong heritage to a Cantonese father and a Eurasian mother. Some European women also married with Cantonese such as Hollywood sex symbol Nancy Kwan born to a Cantonese architect, [269] and Marquita Scott, a Caucasian [270] model of English and Scottish ancestry.

[271] [note 1] Ernest John Eitel controversially claimed that most "half-caste" people in Hong Kong were descended exclusively from Europeans having relationships with Tanka women. The theory that most of the Eurasian mixed-race Hong Kong people are descended only from Tanka women and European men, and not ordinary Cantonese women, has been backed up by other martial master episode 173 sub indo who pointed out that Tanka women freely consorted with foreigners because they were not bound by the same Confucian traditions as the Cantonese, and having relationships with European men was advantageous for Tanka women, but Lethbridge criticized it as "a 'myth' propagated by xenophobic Cantonese to account for the establishment of the Hong Kong Eurasian community".

Carl Smith's study in the late 1960s on the protected women seems, to some degree, to support Eitel's theory. Smith says that the Tankas experienced certain restrictions within the traditional Chinese social structure.

Being a group marginal to the traditional Chinese society of the Puntis (Cantonese), they did not have the same social pressure in dealing with Europeans.

The ordinary Cantonese women did not sleep with European men; the Eurasian population was formed mostly from Tanka and European admixture. [272] [273] [274] [275] They invaded Hongkong the moment the settlement was started, living at first on boats in the harbon with their numerons families, and gradually settling on shore. They have maintained ever since almost a monopoly of the supply of pilots and ships' crews, of the fish trade and the cattle trade, but unfortunately also of the trade in girls and women.

Strange to say, when the settlement was first started, it was estimated martial master episode 173 sub indo some 2,000 of these Tan-ka lieople had flocked to Hongkong, but at the present time they are abont the same number, a tendency having set in among them to settle on shore rather than on the water and to disavow their Tan-ka extraction in order to mix on equal terms with the mass of the Chinese community.

The half-caste population in Hongkong were, from the earliest days of the settlement of the Colony and down to the present day, almost exclusively the off-spring of these Tan-ka people.

But, like the Tan-ka people themselves, they are happily under the influence of a process of continuons re-absorption in the mass of the Chinese residents of the Colony. [276] Elizabeth Wheeler Andrew (1845–1917) and Katharine Caroline Bushnell (5 February 1856 26 January 1946), who wrote extensively on the position of women in the British Empire, wrote about the Tanka inhabitants of Hong Kong and their position martial master episode 173 sub indo the prostitution industry, catering to foreign sailors.

The Tanka did not marry with the Chinese; being descendants of the natives, they were restricted to the waterways. They supplied their women as prostitutes to British sailors and assisted the British in their military actions around Hong Kong.

[277] The Tanka in Hong Kong were considered "outcasts", and categorized as low class. [278] Tanka women were ostracized from the Cantonese community, and were nicknamed "salt water girls" (ham shui mui) for their services as prostitutes to foreigners in Hong Kong.

[279] [280] South Asians have been living in Hong Kong throughout the colonial period, before the partition of India into the nations of India and Pakistan. They migrated to Hong Kong and worked as police officers as well as army officers during colonial rule. 25,000 of the Muslims in Hong Kong trace their roots back to Faisalabad in what is now Pakistan; around half of them belong to ' local boy' families, who descended from early Indian-Pakistani immigrants who took local Martial master episode 173 sub indo wives mostly of Tanka origin.

[281] [282] Macau [ edit ] Due to a few Chinese living in Macau, the early Macanese ethnic group was formed from Portuguese men with Malay, Japanese, Indian women.

martial master episode 173 sub indo

{INSERTKEYS} [283] The Portuguese encouraged Chinese migration to Macau, and most Macanese in Macau were formed from intermarriages between Portuguese and Chinese. Rarely did Chinese women marry Portuguese; initially, mostly Goans, Ceylonese (from today's Sri Lanka), Indochinese, Malay, and Japanese women were the wives of the Portuguese men in Macau.

[284] [285] [286] [287] [288] Japanese girls would be purchased in Japan by Portuguese men. [289] Many Chinese became Macanese simply by converting to Catholicism, and had no ancestry from Portuguese, having assimilated into the Macanese people. [290] The majority of the early intermarriages of people from China with Portuguese were between Portuguese men and women of Tanka origin, who were considered the lowest class of people in China and had relations with Portuguese settlers and sailors, or low-class Chinese women.

[291] Western men were refused by high-class Chinese women, who did not marry foreigners, while a minority were Cantonese men and Portuguese women. Macanese men and women also married with the Portuguese and Chinese, and as a result some Macanese became indistinguishable from the Chinese or Portuguese population.

Because the majority of the population who migrated to Macau were Cantonese, Macau became a culturally Cantonese speaking society; other ethnic groups became fluent in Cantonese. Most Macanese had paternal Portuguese heritage until 1974. [ citation needed] It was in the 1980s that Macanese and Portuguese women began to marry men who defined themselves ethnically as Chinese.

[291] Literature in Macau was written about love affairs and marriage between the Tanka women and Portuguese men, like "A-Chan, A Tancareira", by Henrique de Senna Fernandes. [291] [292] [293] After the handover of Macau to China in 1999, many Macanese migrated to other countries. Many of the Portuguese and Macanese women who stayed in Macau married local Cantonese men, and many Macanese also now have Cantonese paternal heritage. There are between 25,000 – 46,000 Macanese, only 5000 – 8000 of whom live in Macau, while most live in America, Latin America, and Portugal.

Unlike the Macanese of Macau who are strictly of Chinese and Portuguese heritage, many Macanese living abroad are not entirely of Portuguese and Chinese ancestry. Many Macanese men and women intermarried with the local population of America and Latin America, etc., and have only partial Macanese heritage.

Taiwan [ edit ] During the Siege of Fort Zeelandia in which Chinese Ming loyalist forces commanded by Koxinga besieged and defeated the Dutch East India Company and conquered Taiwan, the Chinese took Dutch women and children prisoner. Koxinga took Antonius Hambroek's teenage daughter as a concubine, [294] [295] [296] and Dutch women were sold to Chinese soldiers to become their wives. In 1684 some of these Dutch wives were still captives of the Chinese.

[297] Some Dutch physical features like auburn and red hair among people in regions of south Taiwan are a result of this episode of Dutch women becoming concubines to the Chinese commanders. [298] Japan [ edit ] Main articles: Marriage in Japan and Slavery in Japan § Portuguese trade in Japanese slaves Inter-ethnic marriage in Japan dates back to the 7th century, when Chinese and Korean immigrants began intermarrying with the local population.

By the early 9th century, over one-third of all noble families in Japan had ancestors of foreign origin. [299] In the 1590s, over 50,000 Koreans were forcibly brought to Japan, where they intermarried with the local population. In the 16th and 17th centuries, around 58,000 Japanese travelled abroad, many of whom intermarried with the local women in Southeast Asia. [300] Portuguese traders in Japan also intermarried with the local Christian women in the 16th and 17th centuries.

[301] During the anti-Christian persecutions in 1596, many Japanese Christians fled to Macau and other Portuguese colonies such as Goa, where there was a community of Japanese slaves and traders by the early 17th century.

[299] The Japanese slaves were brought or captured by Portuguese traders from Japan. [302] Intermarriage with the local populations in these Portuguese colonies also took place. [299] Marriage and sexual relations between European merchants and Japanese women was usual during this period. [303] A large-scale slave trade developed in which Portuguese purchased Japanese as slaves in Japan and sold them to various locations overseas, including Portugal itself, throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

[304] [305] At least more than several hundreds of Japanese women, were sold sexual purposes. [306] Many documents mention the slave trade along with protests against the enslavement of Japanese. Japanese slaves are believed to be the first of their nation to end up in Europe, and the Portuguese purchased many Japanese slave girls to bring to Portugal for sexual purposes, as noted by the Church in 1555.

King Sebastian feared that it was having a negative effect on Catholic proselytization since the slave trade in Japanese was growing in larger proportions, so he commanded that it be banned in 1571. [307] [308] Japanese slave women were occasionally even sold as concubines to Indian and African crewmembers, along with their European counterparts serving on Portuguese ships trading in Japan, mentioned by Luis Cerqueira, a Portuguese Jesuit, in a 1598 document.

[309] Japanese slaves were brought by the Portuguese to Macau, where some of them not only ended up being enslaved to the Portuguese, but as slaves to other slaves, with the Portuguese owning Malay and African slaves, who in turn owned Japanese slaves of their own. [310] [311] Historian S.

Kuznetsov, dean of the Department of History of the Irkutsk State University, one of the first researchers of the topic, interviewed thousands of former internees and came to the following conclusion: What is more, romantic relations between Japanese internees and Russian women were not uncommon.

For example, in the city of Kansk, Krasnoyarsk Krai, about 50 Japanese married locals and stayed. Today many Russian women married Japanese men, often for the benefit of long-term residence and work rights. Some of their mixed offspring stay in Japan while other's to Russia. [312] In 2019, there were 599,007 marriages in Japan, of which 14,911 involved a non-Japanese bride and 7,008 involved a non-Japanese groom. Non-Japanese women who married a Japanese man were predominantly of Chinese (4,723), Filipino (3,666), Korean (1,678), Thai (986) and Brazilian (318) nationality.

Non-Japanese men who married a Japanese woman were predominantly of Korean (1,764), United States (989), Chinese (917), Brazilian (332) nationality. [313] Korea [ edit ] Main article: Marriage in South Korea There were 15,341 international marriages between Koreans and non-Koreans in 2020.

Since 2005, the number of international marriages in Korea has been on the decline. About 7% of couples who married in 2020 were international couples. [314] Since the 1960s, young women had an incentive to move from countryside to the city due to the desire of chasing a better life. Hence, there are only young men remaining in their hometown to look after their farm and keep the agriculture industry going.

About one third of South Korean men in rural areas married women from abroad, according to Korea National Statistics Office data published in 2006. [315] Marriages between South Korean men and foreign women are often arranged by marriage brokers or international religious groups.

There is a research to suggest that there is a statistically higher level of poverty, violence and divorce in the Korean men married to foreign women cohort. [316] Most Korean men who marry Southeast Asian women end up with divorces due differences in beliefs [ citation needed] Currently divorces between Koreans and foreign spouses make up 10% of the total Korean divorce rate.

[ citation needed] Interracial marriage in Korea dates back to at least the Three Kingdoms period. Records about the period, in particular the section in the Samguk Yusa about the Gaya kingdom (it was absorbed by the kingdom of Silla later), indicate that in 48 AD, King Kim Suro of Gaya (the progenitor of the Gimhae Kim clan) took a princess ( Heo Hwang-ok) from the "Ayuta nation" as his bride and queen.

"Ayuta" is the Korean name for the city of Ayodhya in India. [317] Two major Korean clans today claim descent from this union. [318] Somewhat later, during the arrival of Muslims in Korea in the Middle Ages, a number of Arab, Persian and Turkic navigators and traders settled in Korea. They took local Korean wives and established several Muslim villages.

[319] Some assimilation into Buddhism and Shamanism eventually took place, owing to Korea's geographical isolation from the Muslim world. [320] At least two or three major Korean clans today claim descent from Muslim families. [321] [322] Southeast Asia [ edit ] Interracial marriage in Southeast Asia dates back to the spread of Indian culture, including Hinduism and Buddhism, to the region.

From the 1st century onwards, mostly male traders and merchants from the Indian subcontinent frequently intermarried with the local female populations in Cambodia, Burma, Champa, central Thailand, the Malay Peninsula, the Philippines, and Indonesia.

Many Indianized kingdoms rose in Southeast Asia during the Middle Ages. [323] From the 9th century onwards, some male Arab traders from the Middle East settled in Maritime Southeast Asia and married local Malay, Indonesian and Filipina female populations, which contributed to the spread of Islam in Southeast Asia. [324] From the 14th to the 17th centuries, many Chinese, Indian and Arab traders settled within the kingdoms of Maritime Southeast Asia and married within local female populations.

This tradition continued among Spain and Portuguese traders who also married within local populations. [325] In the 16th and 17th centuries, thousands of Japanese people travelled to Southeast Asia and married with local women there. [300] Vietnam [ edit ] Main articles: Bụi đời and Women in Vietnam § European rule Much of the business conducted with foreign men in southeast Asia was done by the local women, who engaged in both sexual and mercantile intercourse with foreign male traders.

A Portuguese- and Malay-speaking Vietnamese woman who lived in Macao for an extensive period of time was the person who interpreted for the first diplomatic meeting between Cochin-China and a Dutch delegation. She served as an interpreter for three decades in the Cochin-China court with an old woman who had been married to three husbands, one Vietnamese and two Portuguese. [326] [327] [328] The cosmopolitan exchange was facilitated by the marriage of Vietnamese women to Portuguese merchants.

Those Vietnamese woman were married to Portuguese men and lived in Macao which was how they became fluent in Malay and Portuguese.

[329] Foreigners noted that in southeast Asian countries, foreigners would be offered already married local women for sex. William Dampier wrote, "The offering of Women is a Custom used by several nations in the East-Indies, as at Pegu, Siam, Cochinchina, and Cambodia...

It is accounted a piece of Policy to do it; for the chief Factors and Captains of Ships have the great men's Daughters offered them, the Mandarins or Noblemen at Tunquin..." [330] [331] [332] Dampier's full account said, "They are so free of their women, that they would bring them aboard and offer them to us; and many of our men hired them for a small matter.

This is a custom used by several nations in the East Indies, as at Pegu, Siam, Cochin-China, and Cambodia, as I have been told. It is used at Tunquin also to my knowledge; for I did afterwards make a voyage thither, and most of our men had women on board all the time of our abode there.

In Africa, also, on the coast of Guinea, our merchants, factors, and seamen that reside there, have their black misses.

It is accounted a piece of policy to do it; for the chief factors and captains of ships have the great men's daughters offered them, the mandarins' or noblemen's at Tunquin, and even the King's wives in Guinea; and by this sort of alliance the country people are engaged to a greater friendship; and if there should arise any difference about trade, or any thing else, which might provoke the native to seek some treacherous revenge, to which all these heathen nations are very prone, then these Dalilahs would certainly declare it to their white friends, and so hinder their countrymen's design." [333] [334] [335] [336] [337] [338] Alexander Hamilton said, "The Tonquiners used to be very desirous of having a brood of Europeans in their country, for which reason the greatest nobles thought it no shame or disgrace to marry their daughters to English and Dutch seamen, for the time they were to stay in Tonquin, and often presented their sons-in-law pretty handsomely at their departure, especially if they left their wives with child; but adultery was dangerous to the husband, for they are well versed in the art of poisoning." [331] [332] [339] [340] [341] [342] Burma [ edit ] Burmese Muslims are the descendants of Indian Muslims, Arabs, Persians, Turks, Pathans, Chinese Muslims and Malays who settled and intermarried with the local Burmese population and other Burmese ethnic groups such as the Shan, Karen, and Mon.

[343] [344] During British Indian rule, millions of Indians, mostly Muslim, migrated there. The small population of mixed descendants of Indian men and local Burmese women are called "Zerbadees", often in a pejorative sense implying mixed race.

The Rohingya claim to have descended from Bengalis who intermarried with the local women, but this remains a hotly contested issue. The political situation surrounding the actual history of the Rohingya, the lack of evidence, and the counter-claims, mean that proper ancestry cannot be established. The Panthays, a group of Chinese Muslims descended from West Asians and Central Asians, migrated from China and also intermarried with local Burmese females. [345] Burma has an estimated 52,000 Anglo-Burmese people, descended from British and Burmese people.

Anglo-Burmese people frequently intermarried with Anglo-Indian immigrants, who assimilated into the Anglo-Burmese community. Malaysia and Singapore [ edit ] In Malaysia and Singapore, the majority of inter-ethnic marriages are between Chinese and Indians.

The offspring of such marriages are informally known as " Chindian". The Malaysian and Singaporean governments, however, only classify them by their father's ethnicity. As the majority of these marriages involve an Indian groom and Chinese bride, the majority of Chindians in Malaysia are usually classified as " Indian" by the Malaysian government.

As for the Malays, who are predominantly Muslim, legal restrictions in Malaysia make it less common for them to intermarry with either the Indians, who are predominantly Hindu, or the Chinese, who are predominantly Buddhist and Taoist. [346] It is common for Arabs in Singapore and Malaysia to take local Malay wives, due to a common Islamic faith.

[324] The Chitty people, in Singapore and the Malacca state of Malaysia, are a Tamil people with considerable Malay descent, which was due to thousands of the first Tamil settlers taking local wives, since they did not bring along any of their own women with them. According to government statistics, the population of Singapore as of September 2007 was 4.68 million, of whom multiracial people, including Chindians and Eurasians, formed 2.4%.

In 2007, 16.4% of all marriages in Singapore were inter-ethnic. [347] The Peranakans are descendants of Chinese merchants who settled down in Malaysia and Singapore during the colonial era and married Malay women. There is also a significant minority population of Eurasians who are descended from Europeans – Singapore and Malaysia being former British colonies – and local women. Philippines [ edit ] A Filipina bride and Nigerian groom walk down the aisle. Centuries of migration, diaspora, assimilation, and cultural diversity have made most Filipinos open-minded in embracing interracial marriage and multiculturalism, especially after three centuries of Spanish colonization.

Following independence in 1945, the Philippines has seen both small and large-scale immigration into the country, mostly involving Chinese, Americans, Europeans, Japanese, and South Asians. More recent migrations into the country by Koreans, Brazilians and other Southeast Asians have contributed to the enrichment of the country's ethnic landscape. Thousands of interracial marriages between Americans and Filipinos have taken place since the United States took possession of the Philippines after the Philippine–American War.

Due to the strategic location of the Philippines, as many as 21 bases and 100,000 military personnel were stationed there since the U.S. first colonized the islands in 1898. These bases were decommissioned in 1992 after the end of the Cold War, but left behind thousands of Amerasian children. The Pearl S. Buck International Foundation estimates there are 52,000 Amerasians scattered throughout the Philippines.

In the United States intermarriage among Filipinos with other races is common. They have the largest number of interracial marriages among Asian immigrant groups, as documented in California.

[348] It is also noted that 21.8% of Filipino Americans are of mixed blood, second among Asian Americans, and is the fastest growing. [349] Interracial marriages particularly among Southeast Asians are continually increasing.

At present, there is an increasing number of Southeast Asian intermarriages, particularly between Filipinos and Malaysians (Dumanig, 2009). Such marriages have created an impact on language, religion and culture.

Dumanig argues that Filipino-Malaysian couples no longer prefer their own ethnic languages as the medium of communication at home. The use of English with some switching in Bahasa Malaysia, Chinese, and Filipino is commonly used. [350] Philippine nationality law is currently based upon the principles of jus sanguinis and therefore descent from a parent who is a citizen/national of the Republic of the Philippines is the primary method of acquiring Philippine citizenship.

Birth in the Philippines to foreign parents does not in itself confer Philippine citizenship, although RA9139, the Administrative Naturalization Law of 2000, does provide a path for administrative naturalization of certain aliens born on Philippine soil (Jus soli).

Together, some of these recent immigrants have intermarried with the indigenous Filipinos, as well as with the previous immigrant groups, giving rise to Filipinos of mixed racial and/or ethnic origins also known as mestizos.

South Asia [ edit ] An oil painting of Khair-un-Nissa by George Chinnery. c. 1805. She was an Indian Hyderabadi noblewoman who married British Lieutenant Colonel James Achilles Kirkpatrick. The Indian subcontinent has a long history of inter-ethnic marriage dating back to ancient India. Various groups of people have been intermarrying for millennia in the Indian subcontinent, including speakers of Dravidian, Indo-Aryan (Indic), Iranian, Austroasiatic, and Tibeto-Burman languages.

This was particularly common in the northwestern and northeastern parts of the subcontinent where invaders of Central Asian origin often invaded throughout history. Many Indian traders, merchants, and missionaries travelled to Southeast Asia (where Indianized kingdoms were established) and often took local wives from the region. The Romani people (" Gypsies") who have origins in the Indian subcontinent travelled westwards and also took local wives in Central Asia, the Middle East, and Europe.

Genetic studies show that the majority of Romani males carry large frequencies of particular Y chromosomes (inherited paternally) that otherwise exist only in populations from South Asia, in addition to nearly a third of Romani females carrying particular mitochondrial DNA (inherited maternally) that is rare outside South Asia.

[351] [352] Around 800, a ship carrying Persian Jews crashed in India. They settled in different parts of India and befriended and traded with the local Indian population. Intermarriage occurred, and to this day the Indian Jews physically resemble their surrounding Indian populations due to intermarriage.

There is also a case of Indian a princess marrying a king abroad. The Korean text Samguk Yusa about the Gaya kingdom (it was absorbed by the kingdom of Silla later), indicate that in 48 AD, King Kim Suro of Gaya (the progenitor of the Gimhae Kim clan) took Princess Heo from "Ayuta," as his bride and queen.

According to the Samguk Yusa, the princess' parents had a dream sent by a god who told them about a king from a faraway land. That was King Kim Suro of the Gaya kingdom, in what is now the southeastern tip of South Korea. [ check quotation syntax] In Goa during the late 16th and 17th centuries, there was a community of Japanese slaves and traders, who were either Japanese Christians fleeing anti-Christian sentiments in Japan, [299] or Japanese slaves brought or captured by Portuguese traders and their South Asian lascar crewmembers from Japan.

[302] In both cases, they often intermarried with the local population in Goa. [299] One offspring of such an intermarriage was Maria Guyomar de Pinha, born in Thailand to a Portuguese-speaking Japanese- Bengali father from Goa and a Japanese mother.

[353] In turn, she married the Greek adventurer Constantine Phaulkon. [354] Inter-ethnic marriages between European men and Indian women were somewhat common during the East India Company rule. According to the historian William Dalrymple, in the 1780s, more than one-third of the British men in India were leaving all their possessions to one or more Indian wives, or to Anglo-Indian children [ citation needed]. The most famous intermarriage was between the Anglo-Indian resident James Achilles Kirkpatrick (who converted to Islam) and the Hyderabadi noblewoman, whose family claimed descent from the Prophet Muhammad, Khair-un-Nissa.

During the British East India Company's rule in India in the late 18th century to early 19th century, it was initially common, especially for British officers and some soldiers, to marry local Indian wives but declined after the Indian rebellion of 1857. By the mid-19th century, there were around 40,000 British soldiers but less than 2,000 British officials present in India. [355] The 600,000 strong Anglo-Indian community today, that grew in numbers due to marriage within and amongst each other, had begun from such unions.

The 65,000 Burgher community of Sri Lanka was initially formed by the intermarriages of Dutch and Portuguese men with local Sinhalese and Tamil women. Intermarriage also took place in Britain during the 17th to 19th centuries, when the British East India Company brought thousands of Indian scholars, lascars and workers (mostly Bengali).

Most of whom worked on British ships in transit around the world. A number of them also settled down in Britain and took local British wives. [356] At the time the First World War began, 51,616 lascars were working in Britain. [357] The novel "Two Leaves and a Bud" by Ananda depicts labourer women in a tea garden in India being exploited by a British assistant manager Reggie Hunt who exercised illegal power and harassment that led to many run away just from seeing his presence.

[358] In Assam, local Indian women married several waves of Chinese migrants during British colonial times, to the point where it became hard to physically differentiate Chinese in Assam from locals during the time of their internment during the 1962 war, and the majority of these Chinese in Assam were married to Indian women, and some of these Indian women were deported to China with their husbands.

[359] In the 19th century, when the British Straits Settlement shipped Chinese convicts to be jailed in India, the Chinese men then settled in the Nilgiri mountains near Naduvattam after their release and married Tamil Paraiyan women, having mixed Chinese-Tamil children with them.

They were documented by Edgar Thurston. [360] Paraiyan is also anglicized as "pariah". Edgar Thurston described the colony of the Chinese men with their Tamil pariah wives and children: "Halting in the course of a recent anthropological expedition on the western side of the Nilgiri plateau, in the midst of the Government Cinchona plantations, I came across a small settlement of Chinese, who have squatted for some years on the slopes of the hills between Naduvatam and Gudalur, and developed, as the result of ' marriage ' with Tamil pariah women, into a colony, earning an honest livelihood by growing vegetables, cultivating coffee on a small scale, and adding to their income from these sources by the economic products of the cow.

An ambassador was sent to this miniature Chinese Court with a suggestion that the men should, in return for monies, present themselves before me with a view to their measurements being recorded.

The reply which came back was in its way racially characteristic as between Hindus and Chinese. In the case of the former, permission to make use of their bodies for the purposes of research depends essentially on a pecuniary transaction, on a scale varying from two to eight annas.

The Chinese, on the other hand, though poor, sent a courteous message to the effect that they did not require payment in money, but would be perfectly happy if I would give them, as a memento, copies of their photographs." [361] [362] Thurston further describe a specific family: "The father was a typical Chinaman, whose only grievance was that, in the process of conversion to Christianity, he had been obliged to 'cut him tail off.' The mother was a typical Tamil Pariah of dusky hue. The colour of the children was more closely allied to the yellowish tint of the father than to the dark tint of the mother; and the semimongol parentage was betrayed in the slant eyes, flat nose, and (in one case) conspicuously prominent cheek-bones." [363] Thurston's description of the Chinese-Tamil families were cited by others, one mentioned "an instance mating between a Chinese male with a Tamil Pariah female".

[364] [365] [366] [367] [368] A 1959 book described attempts made to find out what happened to the colony of mixed Chinese and Tamils. [369] An increasing number of non-Tibetan Muslim men are marrying Ladakhi Tibetan Buddhist women in Ladakh. [370] [371] [372] [373] [374] [375] [376] [377] [378] The Balti people of Baltistan in Pakistan and Kargil in India are descendants of Tibetan Buddhists who converted to the Noorbakshia sect of Islam. With the passage of time a large number converted to Shia Islam, and a few converted to Sunni Islam.

Their Balti language is highly archaic and conservative and closer to Classical Tibetan than other Tibetan languages. The Balti are speakers of a conservative Tibetan dialect in northern Pakistan, Baltistant. Most other Tibetan dialects lost Classical Tibetan consonant clusters that are presreved in Balti.

However DNA testing revealed that while Tibetan mtDNA makes up te majority of the Balti's female ancestry, the Balti paternal ancestry has foreign Near Eastern Y haplogroups of non-Tibetan origin. [379] [380] [381] [382] [383] [384] [385] Europe [ edit ] France [ edit ] According to official records in 1918 of the Vietnamese men and French women marriages, 250 had married officially and 1363 couples were living together without the approval of the French parental consent and without the approval of French authorities.

[386] [387] During World War I, there were 135,000 soldiers from British India, [388] a large number of soldiers from French North Africa, [389] and 20,000 labourers from South Africa, [390] who served in France. Much of the French male population had gone to war, leaving behind a surplus of French females, [389] many of whom formed interracial relationships with non-white soldiers, mainly Indian [391] [392] and North African.

[388] British and French authorities allowed foreign Muslim soldiers to intermarry with local French females on the basis of Islamic law, which allows marriage between Muslim men and Christian women. On the other hand, Hindu soldiers in France were restricted from intermarriage on the basis of the Indian caste system. [392] According to some historical research, French are less likely to display a conflictive look on interracial marriage compared to other nations.

One study suggests that a look into their film history is a good indication of this. They display less conflict around the issue of interracial marriage in many of their culturally significant films. However, it is unknown if this is truly evidence of less social stigma around the issue or rather a way to ignore the stigma around the issue altogether.

[393] [394] Germany [ edit ] The administrations of the German colonies in Africa and the South Seas enacted bans on marriages with non-European natives in the early 20th century. When the issue was debated in the Reichstag in 1912, this ban was rejected by a majority and an inclusive marriage law was demanded (see German interracial marriage debate (1912)).

However, it never came to pass because of the beginning of World War I a few years later. Nazi Germany introduced the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, among which was the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour that banned marital as well as extramarital relations between Germans (incl.

people deemed to be racially similar, colloquially Aryans) and Jews. Although Slavs could be in theory included as Aryans, [395] Nazi Germany's legal practice consisted in strict segregation of Germans and most subjugated Slavs and harsh punishment for miscegenation, as exemplified by the Polish decrees of 1940.

Iberian Peninsula [ edit ] Interracial marriage existed to some extent in the early part of the history of Iberia, particularly the Islamic period from the 8th to 14th centuries and in the early modern era, during which minorities of north African origin resided in Portugal and southern Spain. Portuguese colonies [ edit ] See also: Orfas del Rei According to Gilberto Freyre, a Brazilian sociologist, miscegenation was commonplace in the Portuguese colonies, and was even supported by the court as a way to boost low populations and guarantee a successful and cohesive settlement.

Thus, settlers often released African slaves to become their wives. The children were guaranteed full Portuguese citizenship, provided the parents were married.

Some former Portuguese colonies have large mixed-race populations, for instance, Brazil, Cape Verde, Mozambique, Timor Leste, Macau and São Tomé and Príncipe. In the case of Brazil, the influential "Indianist" novels of José de Alencar ( O Guarany, Iracema, and Ubirajara) perhaps went farther than in the other colonies, advocating miscegenation in order to create a truly Brazilian race.

[396] Mixed marriages between Portuguese and locals in former colonies were very common in all Portuguese colonies. Miscegenation was still common in Africa until the independence of the former Portuguese colonies in the mid-1970s. Iceland [ edit ] Most Icelanders are descendants of Norwegian settlers and Celts from Ireland and Scotland, brought over as slaves during the age of settlement.

Recent DNA analysis suggests that around 66% of the male settler-era population was of Norse ancestry, whereas the female population was 60% Celtic. [397] [398] [399] [400] Italian Peninsula [ edit ] As was the case in other areas occupied, it was acceptable in Islamic marital law for a Muslim male to marry Christian and Jewish females in southern Italy when under Islamic rule – namely, the Emirate of Sicily, and, of least importance, the short-lived Emirate of Bari between the 8th and 11th centuries.

In this case, most intermarriages were between Arab and Berber males from North Africa and the local Greek, Roman and Italian females. Such intermarriages were particularly common in the Emirate of Sicily, where one writer visiting the place in the 970s expressed shock at how common it was in rural areas. [401] After the Norman conquest of southern Italy, all Muslim citizens (whether foreign, native or mixed) of the Kingdom of Sicily were known as " Moors".

After a brief period when the Arab-Norman culture had flourished under the reign of Roger II of Sicily, later the mainlander Italians migrated to Sicily persecuted the Muslims of Sicily and they killed many of them; [402] later the remnants were expelled in 1239 with the persecution of Frederick II, who deported the Muslim survivors in Lucera.

In Malta, Arabs and Italians from neighbouring Sicily and Calabria intermarried with the local inhabitants, [403] who were descended from Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans and Vandals. The Maltese people are descended from such unions, and the Maltese language is descended from Siculo-Arabic. At times, the Italian city-states also played an active role in the Arab slave trade, where Moorish and Italian traders occasionally exchanged slaves.

For example, two researchers suggest that Leonardo da Vinci's mother Caterina may have been a slave from the Middle East. [404] United Kingdom [ edit ] Prince Harry and fiancée Meghan Markle going to church in 2017. Britain has a long history of interethnic marriage among the various European populations that inhabited the island, including the Celtic, Roman, Viking, Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman peoples.

In the late 15th century, the Romani people arrived. The arriving Romani nomads intermarried with the British population, forming a distinct community known as the Romnichal. Due to intermarriage, Romnichal today are often indistinguishable from the general white British population. Inter-ethnic marriage began occurring more often in Britain since the 17th century, when the British East India Company began bringing over many Indian scholars, lascars, servants and workers.

A lack of anti-miscegenation laws in Britain increased the frequency of such unions. [405] [406] By the mid-19th century, there were more than 40,000 Indian seamen, diplomats, scholars, soldiers, officials, tourists, businessmen and students arriving (normally temporarily) to Britain. [355] By the late 19th century and early 20th century, there were around 70,000 South Asians working on British ships, [407] 51,616 of whom were lascar seamen working on British merchant ships for the Royal Navy when the First World War broke out.

[408] [409] Families with South Asian lascar fathers and white mothers established small interracial families in Britain's dock areas. [410] This led to a number of " mixed race" children being born in the country. The small number of ethnic minority women in Britain were often outnumbered by "half-caste Indian" daughters born from white mothers and Indian fathers although mixed race families were still very unusual in Britain at this time. [411] In addition, a number of British officers who had Indian wives and Anglo-Indian children in British India often brought them over to Britain in the 19th century.

[412] From the 1890s onwards, small numbers of Chinese began to set up businesses catering to the Chinese sailors working on Holt's lines and others.

Some of these men married working class British women, resulting in a number of British-born Eurasian Chinese being born in Liverpool. [413] The first Chinese immigrants were mainly Cantonese from south China, with some also from Shanghai. The figures of Chinese for 1921 are 2,157 men and 262 women. Many Chinese men married British women while others remained single, possibly supporting a wife and family back home in China.

During the Second World War (1939–45) another wave of Chinese seamen from Shanghai and of Cantonese origin married British women. Records show that about some 300 of these men had married British women and supported families. [414] Following the end of the First World War, there were significantly more females than males in Britain, [415] and there were increasing numbers of sailors from the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and the West Indies. A number of the sailors intermarried and settled down with local British women, which led to tensions and a number of race riots breaking out in Cardiff, London and Liverpool.

[416] By the Second World War, hostility towards such unions had increased, though such views were in the minority.

[415] In 1932, an Indian National Congress (INC) survey of "all Indians outside India"" estimated that there were 7,128 Indians living in the United Kingdom, which included students, professionals such as doctors and lascars.

[417] Male immigrants and visitors to Britain have occasionally intermarried with British women, particularly during the 20th century. These include South Asian lascars before and after the First World War, [415] Arab and Indian immigrants during the interwar period, [415] African American GIs during the Second World War, Maltese and Cypriot cafe owners in the 1940s to 1950s, West Indian immigrants in the 1950s to 1960s, and a new wave of South Asian immigrants in the 1960s.

These relationships were marked by an increase in inter-ethnic tensions, though the actual impact of such unions remains a topic of debate among scholars and historians. [418] According to the 2001 census of Britain, Black British males were around 50% more likely than black females to marry outside their race. British Chinese women (30%) were twice as likely as their male counterparts (15%) to marry someone from a different ethnic group.

In 2001, 2% of all marriages in the United Kingdom were inter-ethnic. [419] In 2011 the Census showed that almost one in 10 people in Britain were either married or living with someone from a different ethnic group, with proportions ranging from 85% of mixed-race people to 4% of white people.

[420] In 1948, an international incident was created when the British government took exception to the "difficult problem" [421] of the marriage of Seretse Khama and Ruth Williams, whom he had met while studying law in London. The interracial marriage sparked a furore among both the tribal elders of the Bamangwato and the apartheid government of South Africa.

The latter objected to the idea of an interracial couple ruling just across their northern border, and exerted pressure to have Khama removed from his chieftainship. Britain's Labour government, then heavily in debt from World War II, could not afford to lose cheap South African gold and uranium supplies.

They also feared South Africa might take direct action against Bechuanaland, Khama's homeland, through economic sanctions or a military incursion. [422] [423] The British government began a parliamentary enquiry into Khama's fitness for the chieftainship. Though the investigation reported that he was eminently fit for the rule of Bechuanaland, "but for his unfortunate marriage", [424] the government ordered the report suppressed.

(It would remain so for thirty years.) It exiled Khama and his wife from Bechuanaland in 1951. It was many years before the couple was allowed to live in Africa, and several more years before Khama became president of what is now Botswana. Their son Ian Khama served as the president of that country decades later. According to the 2011 census, people who were cohabiting were more likely to be in an inter-ethnic relationship, than people who were married or in a civil partnership (12% vs 8%).

This was the case for all ethnic groups except Other White, where the proportions were the same (39%). The pattern for inter-ethnic relationships for those married or in a civil partnership and those who were cohabiting was similar to the overall picture of inter-ethnic relationships across the ethnic groups – with the Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups as the most likely and White British the least likely.

The largest differences between people who were married and cohabiting were in the Asian ethnic groups. Bangladeshis who were cohabiting were nearly seven times more likely to be in an inter-ethnic relationship than Bangladeshis who were married or in a civil partnership (39% compared with 6%).

Indians (56% compared with 10%) and Pakistanis (41% compared with 8%) were around five times more likely. Two thirds (65%) of Other Asians cohabiting were in an inter-ethnic relationship compared with 28% who were married (or in civil partnership). In the Other ethnic groups, nearly three quarters of Arabs (72%) and Any Other ethnic groups (74%) cohabiting were in inter ethnic relationships, compared with almost a third (31%) of Arabs and over a third (37%) of Any Other ethnic group who were married (or in a civil partnership).

The proportion of people in inter-ethnic relationships was lower in 2001, compared to 2011. Some 6% of people who were married in 2001 were in an inter-ethnic relationship compared to 10% who were cohabiting. [425] See also [ edit ] • Heterosis • List of interracial romance films • Loving Day • Mixed Race Day • Race of the future • Race traitor • Transnational marriage References [ edit ] Notes • ^ "Loving v. Virginia". Oyez . Retrieved 21 September 2019.

• ^ "Loving v. Virginia". LII / Legal Information Institute . Retrieved 21 September 2019. • ^ a b Bratter, J. L.; King, R. B. (2008). " "But Will It Last?": Marital Instability Among Interracial and Same-Race Couples". Family Relations. 57 (2): 160–171. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2008.00491.x. • ^ Zhang Y, van Hook J. Marital dissolution among interracial couples. J Marriage Family, Jan. 2009: vol. 71, no.

1, pp. 95-107. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2008.00582.x • ^ https://easd.gmu.edu/i-d-like-to-tell-about-struggles-successes-of/ [ dead link] • ^ Jacobson, Cardell; Johnson, Bryan R. (March 2006). "Interracial Friendship and African American Attitudes about Interracial Marriage". Journal of Black Studies. Sage Publications, Inc. 36: 2 – via JSTOR. • ^ Livingston, Gretchen; Brown, Anna (18 May 2017). "Trends and Patterns in Intermarriage".

Pew Research Center. Retrieved 23 April 2021. • ^ Newport, Frank (25 July 2013). "In U.S., 87% Approve of Black-White Marriage, vs. 4% in 1958". Gallup. • ^ "Study finds bias, disgust toward mixed-race couples". UW News . Retrieved 30 April 2021. • ^ Perry, Samuel (March 2014). "Hoping for a Godly (White) Family: How Desire for Religious Heritage Affects Whites' Attitudes Toward Interracial Marriage". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 53: 202–204 – via EBSCO. • ^ Perry, Samuel (December 2013).

"Religion and Interracial Romance: The Effects of Religious Affiliation, Public and Devotional Practices, and Biblical Literalism".

Social Science Quarterly. 94: 1309–1309 – via EBSCO. • ^ Afful, Stephanie; Wholford, Corinne; Stoelting, Suzanne (December 2015). "Beyond 'Difference': Examining the Process and Flexibility of Racial Identity in Interracial Marriages".

Journal of Social Issues. 71 – via EBSCO. • ^ a b c d e f Latson, Jennifer. "The Biracial Advantage". Psychology Today . Retrieved 14 April 2020. • ^ Wright, Stephen; Ropp, Stacy; Aron, Arthur; McLaughlin-Volpe, Tracy (1997). "The Extended Contact Effect: Knowledge of Cross-Group Friendships and Prejudice" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

73: 73–90. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.73.1.73. S2CID 37712773. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 August 2020.

• ^ Wright, Stephen; Ropp, Stacy; Aron, Arthur; McLaughlin-Volpe, Tracy (1997). "The Extended Contact Effect: Knowledge of Cross-Group Friendships and Prejudice".

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 73: 73–90. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.73.1.73. • ^ a b Lewis, Michael (2009). "Why Are Mixed-Race People Perceived as More Attractive?" (PDF). Perception. 39 (1): 136–138. doi: 10.1068/p6626. PMID 20301855. S2CID 15582617. • ^ Sims, Jennifer Patrice (2012).

"Beautiful Stereotypes: the relationship between physical attractiveness and mixed-race identity". Identities. 19 (1): 61–80. doi: 10.1080/1070289X.2012.672838. S2CID 145241482. • ^ Gaither, Sarah (2015). " "Mixed" Results: Multiracial Research and Identity Explorations" (PDF). Association for Psychological Science.

24 (2): 114–119. • ^ Jones, Nicholas A.; Symens Smith, Amy. "The Two or More Races Population: 2000. Census 2000 Brief" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2019 . Retrieved 8 May 2008. ; "B02001. RACE – Universe: TOTAL POPULATION". 2006 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau .

Retrieved 30 January 2008. has 6.1 million (2.0%) • ^ Interracial marriage flourishes in U.S. – US news – Life – Race & ethnicity.

NBC News (15 April 2007). Retrieved 9 May 2012. • ^ a b Wang, Wendy (16 February 2012) "The Rise of Intermarriage" Pew Research Center • ^ a b "Interracial marriage: Who is 'marrying out'?".

Pew Research Center. 12 June 2015 . Retrieved 22 October 2017. • ^ Wang, Wendy (16 February 2012). "The Rise of Intermarriage Rates, Characteristics Vary by Race and Gender". PewSocialTrends.org. Pew Research . Retrieved 21 January 2014. • ^ Tucker, M. B.; Mitchell-Kernan, C. (1990). "New trends in black American interracial marriage: The social structural context".

Journal of Marriage and Family. 52 (1): 209–218. doi: 10.2307/352851. JSTOR 352851. • ^ Hibbler, D. K.; Shinew, K. J. (2002). "Interracial couples' experience of leisure: A social network approach" (PDF). Journal of Leisure Research. 34 (2): 1357156. doi: 10.1080/00222216.2002.11949966.

S2CID 53470481. • ^ Davis, Linsey (4 June 2010) Interracial Marriage More Common Than Ever, but Black Women Still Lag. ABC News • ^ "Border Love on the Rio Grande: African American Men and Latinas in the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas (1850–1940)". The Black Past.

10 June 2003 . Retrieved 11 April 2014. • ^ Chin, Gabriel and Hrishi Karthikeyan, (2002) Asian Law Journal vol. 9 "Preserving Racial Identity: Population Patterns and the Application of Anti-Miscegenation Statutes to Asian Americans, 1910–1950". Papers.ssrn.com. Retrieved 29 January 2012. • ^ "The United States".

Chinese blacks in the Americas. Color Q World . Retrieved 15 July 2008. • ^ Susan Dente Ross; Paul Martin Lester (19 April 2011).

Images That Injure: Pictorial Stereotypes in the Media. ABC-CLIO. pp. 144–. ISBN 978-0-313-37892-8 . Retrieved 2 March 2012. • ^ Evaluation of Group Genetic Ancestry of Populations from Philadelphia and Dakar in the Context of Sex-Biased Admixture in the Americas Stefflova K, Dulik MC, Pai AA, Walker AH, Zeigler-Johnson CM, Gueye SM, Schurr TG, Rebbeck TR – PLoS ONE (2009). [1] • ^ Benson Tong (2004). Asian American children: a historical handbook and guide. Greenwood Publishing Group.

pp. 38–. ISBN 978-0-313-33042-1 . Retrieved 2 March 2012. • ^ Love's revolution: interracial marriage by Maria P.P. Root. p. 180 • ^ Love's Revolution: Interracial Marriage By Maria P. P. Root https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=-im2X0hbpv8C&pg=PA180&dq • ^ Schwertfeger, Margaret M. (1982). Interethnic Marriage and Divorce in Hawaii A Panel Study of 1968 First Marriages.

Kessinger Publishing. • ^ David Anthony Chiriboga; Linda S. Catron (1991). Divorce: crisis, challenge, or relief?. NYU Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-8147-1450-8. • ^ Cretser, Gary A.; Leon, Joseph J. (1982). Intermarriage in the United States, Volume 5. Psychology Press.

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(Monday, 8 January 2018) [in] the Seereer Resource Centre and Seereer Radio, [5] (retrieved 8 March 2020) • ^ Jeetaay (Thursday, 28 March 2019) [in] the Seereer Resource Centre and Seereer Radio [6] (retrieved 8 March 2020) • ^ Ellinghaus, Katherine (2003). "Absorbing the 'Aboriginal problem': controlling interracial marriage in Australia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries".

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Trompf. BRILL. pp. 351–. ISBN 978-90-04-17880-9. • ^ Roy, Olivier (1 October 2007). The New Central Asia: Geopolitics and the Birth of Nations Paperback. New York: New York University Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0814776094. • ^ [7].Central Asian world cities (XI – XIII century)faculty.washington.edu • ^ Ramirez-Faria, Carlos (30 June 2007). Concise Encyclopeida Of World History. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors.

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Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Consortium, The Genographic (28 March 2012). "Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events". PLOS ONE. 7 (3): e34288. Bibcode: 2012PLoSO.734288H. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC 3314501. PMID 22470552. • ^ Edward H. Schafer (1985). The Golden Peaches of Samarkand: A Study of T'Ang Exotics. University of California Press.

pp. 22–. ISBN 978-0-520-05462-2. • ^ Jacques Gernet (1996). A history of Chinese civilization. Cambridge University Press. p. 294. ISBN 978-0-521-49781-7. • ^ Edward H. Schafer (1963). The golden peaches of Samarkand: a study of T'ang exotics.

University of California Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-520-05462-2. • ^ Ildikó Bellér-Hann (2008). Community matters in Xinjiang, 1880–1949: towards a historical anthropology of the Uyghur.

BRILL. p. 476. ISBN 978-90-04-16675-2. Retrieved 30 July 2010. • ^ Ryōtarō Shiba (2003). Kukai the universal: scenes from his life. ICG Muse. p. 350. ISBN 978-4-925080-47-7. • ^ Victor H. Mair (1996). The Columbia Anthology of Traditional Chinese Literature. Columbia University Press. p. 1335. ISBN 978-0-231-07429-2. • ^ Amnon Shiloah (2003). Music in the World of Islam. Wayne State University Press. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-8143-2970-2. • ^ Edward H.

Martial master episode 173 sub indo (1963). The golden peaches of Samarkand: a study of T'ang exotics. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

p. 399. ISBN 978-0-520-05462-2. • ^ Naotaro Kudo (1969). The life and thoughts of Li Ho: the Tʾang poet. Waseda University. p. 108. • ^ Eliot Weinberger (2009). Oranges & Peanuts for Sale. New Directions Publishing. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-8112-1834-4. • ^ Patricia Buckley Ebrey; Anne Walthall; James Palais (2008). Pre-modern East Asia: to 1800: a cultural, social, and political history. Cengage Learning. p. 294. ISBN 978-0-547-00539-3. • ^ Mohammad Adnan Bakhit (2000). History of humanity.

UNESCO. p. 682. ISBN 978-92-3-102813-7. • ^ Mahler, Jane Gaston (1959). The Westerners among the figurines of the T'ang dynasty of China. Instituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente. p. 204. • ^ Universiṭat Tel-Aviv. Faḳulṭah le-omanuyot (1993). ASSAPH.: Studies in the theatre, Issues 9–12. Faculty of Visual and Performing Arts, Tel Aviv University. p. 89. • ^ Tōyō Bunko (Japan) (1961). Memoirs of the Research Department, Issue 20.

• ^ Jaschok, Maria; Shui, Jingjun (2000). The history of women's mosques in Chinese Islam: a mosque of their own. Routledge. p. 361. ISBN 978-0-7007-1302-8. • ^ Walter Joseph Fischel "Semitic and Oriental studies: a volume presented to William Popper, professor of Semitic languages, emeritus, on the occasion of his seventy-fifth birthday, October 29, 1949" University of California Press (1951) p.

407 Multiple women originating from the Persian Gulf lived in Guangzhou's foreign quarter, they were all called "Persian women" (波斯婦 Po-ssu-fu or Bosifu). • ^ Tōyō Bunko (Japan). Kenkyūbu (1928). Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko (the Oriental Library), Issue 2. the University of Michigan: The Toyo Bunko. p. 34. Retrieved 9 February 2011. • ^ History of Science Society, Académie internationale d'histoire des sciences (1939).

Isis, Volume 30. Publication and Editorial Office, Dept. of History and Sociology of Science, University of Pennsylvania. p. 120. • ^ Yao, YG; Kong, QP; Bandelt, HJ; Kivisild, T; Zhang, YP (2002).

"Phylogeographic Differentiation of Mitochondrial DNA in Han Chinese". American Journal of Human Genetics. 70 (3): 635–51. doi: 10.1086/338999. PMC 384943. PMID 11836649. • ^ Israeli, Raphael (2002). Islam in China. Lexington Books. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-7391-0375-3. • ^ Farmer, Edward L., ed. (1995). Zhu Yuanzhang and Early Ming Legislation: The Reordering of Chinese Society Martial master episode 173 sub indo the Era of Mongol Rule. BRILL. p. 82. ISBN 9004103910. • ^ Jiang, Yonglin (2011).

The Mandate of Heaven and The Great Ming Code. University of Washington Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0295801667. • ^ The Great Ming Code / Da Ming lu. University of Washington Press. 2012. p. 88. ISBN 978-0295804002. • ^ Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects.

Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-7007-1026-3. Retrieved 17 August 2010. • ^ Dru C. Gladney (1996). Muslim Chinese: ethnic nationalism in the People's Republic.

Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard Univ Asia Center. p. 481. ISBN 978-0-674-59497-5. • ^ China archaeology and art digest, Volume 3, Issue 4. Art Text (HK) Ltd.

2000. p. 30. Retrieved 17 August 2010. • ^ Association for Asian studies (Ann Arbor;Michigan) (1976). A-L, Volumes 1–2. Columbia University Press. p. 1022. ISBN 978-0-231-03801-0. {{ cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link) • martial master episode 173 sub indo Chen, Da-Sheng.

"CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS vii. Persian Settlements in Southeastern China during the T'ang, Sung, and Yuan Dynasties". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 28 June 2010. • ^ Needham, Joseph (1971). Science and civilisation in China, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press.

p. 2120. ISBN 978-0-521-07060-7. • ^ Dwyer, Arienne M. (2007). Salar: A Study in Inner Asian Language Contact Processes, Part 1 (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 17. ISBN 978-3447040914. • ^ Dwyer, Arienne M. (2007). Salar: A Study in Inner Asian Language Contact Processes, Part 1. Vol. 37 of Turcologica Series, Turcologica, Bd.

37 (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 18. ISBN 978-3447040914. Tibetans south of the Yellow river were displaced much earlier by Salar and .

intermarried extensively with local Tibetan womenunder the condition that . • ^ Royal Geographical Society (Great Britain) (1894). The Geographical journal, Volume 3. London: Royal Geographical Society. p. 362. Retrieved 11 December 2015. • ^ The Geographical journal, Volume 3.

London. 1894. p. 362. Retrieved 11 December 2015. • ^ 秉默, ed. (16 October 2008). "韩有文传奇 然 也". 中国国民党革命委员会中央委员会.

民革中央. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. • ^ 朱, 国琳 (3 March 2011). "马呈祥在新疆". 民族日报-民族日报一版 (民族日报数字报刊平台). Archived from the original on 2011.

• ^ 韩, 芝华 (16 October 2009). "怀念我的父亲──韩有文". 中国国民党革命委员会新疆维吾尔自治区委员会. Archived from the original on 6 September 2017. • ^ Yang, Shengmin; Wu, Xiujie (2018). "12 THEORETICAL PARADIGM OR METHODOLOGICAL HEURISTIC? Reflections on Kulturkreislehre with Reference to China". In Holt, Emily (ed.). Water and Power in Past Societies. SUNY Series, The Institute for European and Mediterranean Archaeology Distinguished Monograph Series (illustrated ed.). SUNY Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-1438468754.

The Salar did and do not fully exclude intermarriage with other ethnic groups. . reached that allowed Salar men to marry Tibetan women (Ma 2011, 63). • ^ Yang, Shengmin; Wu, Xiujie (2018). "12 THEORETICAL PARADIGM OR METHODOLOGICAL HEURISTIC? Reflections on Kulturkreislehre with Reference to China". In Arnason, Johann P.; Hann, Chris (eds.).

Anthropology and Civilizational Analysis: Eurasian Explorations. SUNY series, Pangaea II: Global/Local Studies (illustrated ed.). SUNY Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-1438469393. The Salar did and do not fully exclude intermarriage with other ethnic groups.

. reached that allowed Salar men to marry Tibetan women (Ma 2011, 63). • ^ Central Asiatic Journal, Volumes 43-44. O. Harrassowitz. 1999. p. 212. towards outsiders, the Salar language has been retained. Additionally, the ethnic group has been continuously absorbing a great amount of new blood from other nationalities.

In history, with the exception of Hui, there is no case of a Salar's daughter marrying a martial master episode 173 sub indo. On the contrarymany non - Salar females married into Salar households. As folk acounts and historical records recountshortly after Salar ancestors reached Xunhuathey had relationships with neighbouring Tibetans through marriage.

• ^ Dwyer, Arienne M. (2007). Salar: A Study in Inner Asian Language Contact Processes, Part 1. Vol. 37 of Turcologica Series, Turcologica, Bd. 37 (illustrated ed.). Otto Martial master episode 173 sub indo Verlag. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-3447040914. Tibetans south of the Yellow river were displaced much earlier by Salar and . intermarried extensively with local Tibetan womenunder the condition that .

• ^ Simon, Camille (2015). "Chapter 4 Linguistic Evidence of Salar-Tibetan Contacts in Amdo". In M Hille, Marie-Paule; Horlemann, Bianca; Nietupski, Paul Martial master episode 173 sub indo.

(eds.). Muslims in Amdo Tibetan Society: Multidisciplinary Approaches. Studies in Modern Tibetan Culture. Marie-Paule Hille, Bianca Horlemann, Paul K. Nietupski, Chang Chung-Fu, Andrew M. Fischer, Max Oidtmann, Ma Wei, Alexandre Papas, Camille Simon, Benno R. Weiner, Yang Hongwei. Lexington Books. pp. 90, 91, 264, 267, 146. ISBN 978-0739175309. . 146, 151n36; between Muslim tradesmen and local women, 149n15; oral history of the first matrimonial alliances between Salar men and Tibetan women.

. • ^ Nietupski, Paul K. (2015). "Chapter 6 Islam and Labrang Monastery A Muslim community in a Tibetan Buddhist Estate". In M Hille, Marie-Paule; Horlemann, Bianca; Nietupski, Paul K. (eds.). Muslims in Amdo Tibetan Society: Multidisciplinary Approaches. Studies in Modern Tibetan Culture. Marie-Paule Hille, Bianca Horlemann, Paul K. Nietupski, Chang Chung-Fu, Andrew M. Fischer, Max Oidtmann, Ma Wei, Alexandre Papas, Camille Simon, Benno R. Weiner, Yang Hongwei. Lexington Books.

pp. 90, 91, 264, 267, 146. ISBN 978-0739175309. • ^ The Tibet Journal, Volume 20. Library of Tibetan Works & Archives. Library of Tibetan Works & Archives. 1995. p. 101. Central Asian Sufi Masters who gave to the founder of the Chinese Qādiriyya his early training.25 Gladney wrote in his book Chinese Muslims martial master episode 173 sub indo Afāq Khvāja preached to the northeastern Tibetans but he does not tell us what are his sources.

. The cities of northwestern China visited by the khvāja are Xining (in Qinghai), Hezhou (the old name for Linxia, the Chinese Mecca) in Gansu and Xunhua near the Gansu-Qinghai border where the Salar Turks live amidst a predominantly Tibetan Buddhist population.

Gansu is a natural corridor linking China with Eastern Turkestan and Central Asia It is a . passageway through which the silk road slipped between the Tibetan plateau to the west and the Mongolian grasslands to the north. In addition to the Martial master episode 173 sub indo and the TibetansGansu was also home to different people like the Salar Turks and the Dongxiang or Mongol Muslims, both preached to by Afāq Khvāja.

. (actually the city of Kuna according to Nizamüddin Hüsäyin.26 Although the Salars intermarried with the Tibetans, Chinese and Hui, they have maintained their customs until now.

From the Mission d'Ollone who explored this area at the beginning of the centurywe learn that some Chinese Muslims of this area married Tibetan women who had kept their religioni. e. Lamaismand that their sons were either Muslim or Buddhist. We are told for example that in one of these families, there was one martial master episode 173 sub indo who was a Muslim and the other who became a Lama. Between the monastery of Lha-brang and the city of Hezhou (Linxia, it is also indicated that there were Muslims living in most of the Chinese and Tibetan.

{{ cite book}}: CS1 maint: others ( link) • ^ a b c d Entangled Histories: The Transcultural Past of Northeast China (PDF). London: Springer. 2014. pp. 47–58. • ^ "神秘室韦 中国唯一俄罗斯族民族乡(组图)".

乐途旅游网. 3 July 2014. • ^ Lee 2000, p. 201 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLee2000 ( help) • ^ "Exit the Dragon". New Yorker. 10 February 2014. • ^ a b Robinson, Johnny (18 May 1963). "Is Graduate of Royal Ballet". Lewiston Evening Journal. Lewiston, Maine. Retrieved 22 October 2011. • ^ Meiqi Lee (2004). Being Eurasian: memories across racial divides. Hong Kong University Press.

p. 262. ISBN 978-962-209-671-4. • ^ Maria Jaschok; Suzanne Miers, eds. (1994). Women and Chinese patriarchy: submission, servitude, and escape.

Zed Books. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-85649-126-6. • ^ Helen F. Siu (2011). Helen F. Siu (ed.). Merchants' Daughters: Women, Commerce, and Regional Culture in South. Hong Kong University Press.

p. 305. ISBN 978-988-8083-48-0. "The half-caste population of Hongkong were . almost exclusively the offspring of these Tan-ka women." EJ Eitel, Europe in, the History of Hongkong from the Beginning to the Year 1882 (Taipei: Chen-Wen Publishing Co., originally published in Hong Kong by Kelly and Walsh. 1895, 1968), 169. • ^ Lethbridge, Henry J. (1978). Hong Kong, stability and change: a collection of essays. Oxford University Press. p. 75. ISBN 9780195804027.

The half-caste population in Hong Kong were, from the earliest days of the settlement of the Colony and down to the present day [1895], almost exclusively the off-spring of these Tan-ka people • ^ Eitel, Ernest John (1895). Europe in China: the history of Hongkong from the beginning to the year 1882. London: Luzac & Co. p. 169. • ^ Andrew, Elizabeth Wheeler; Bushnell, Katharine Caroline (2006).

Heathen Slaves and Christian Rulers. Echo Library. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-4068-0431-7. • ^ John Mark Carroll (2007). A concise history of Hong Kong. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7425-3422-3. Most of the Chinese who came to Hong Kong in the early years were from the lower classes, such as laborers, artisans, Tanka outcasts, prostitutes, wanderers, and smugglers. That these people violated orders from authorities in Canton • ^ Henry J.

Lethbridge (1978). Hong Kong, stability and change: a collection of essays. Oxford University Press. p. 75. This exceptional class of Chinese residents here in Hong Kong consists principally of the women known in Hong Kong by the popular nickname " ham-shui- mui " (lit.

salt water girls), applied to these members of the so-called Tan-ka or boat • ^ Peter Hodge (1980). Peter Hodge (ed.). Community problems and social work in Southeast Asia: the Hong Kong and Singapore experience. Hong Kong University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-962-209-022-4. exceptional class of Chinese residents here in Hong Kong consists principally of the women known in Hong Kong by the popular nickname " ham-shui- mui " (lit.

salt water girls), applied to these members of the so-called Tan-ka or boat • ^ Weiss, Anita M. (July 1991). "South Asian Muslims in Hong Kong: Creation of a 'Local Boy' Identity". Modern Asian Studies. 25 (3): 417–53. doi: 10.1017/S0026749X00013895. S2CID 145350669. • ^ Ina Baghdiantz McCabe, Gelina Harlaftis, Iōanna Pepelasē Minoglou (2005).

Diaspora Entrepreneurial Networks: Four Centuries of History. Berg Publishers. p. 256. ISBN 978-1-85973-880-1. • ^ Jonathan Porter (1996). Macau, the imaginary city: culture and society, 1557 to the present. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-2836-2. • ^ Annabel Jackson (2003). Taste of Macau: Portuguese Cuisine on the China Coast (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press.

p. x. ISBN 978-962-209-638-7. Retrieved 2 February 2014. • ^ João de Pina-Cabral, p. 39: To be a Macanese is fundamentally to be from Macao with Portuguese ancestors, but not necessarily to be of Sino-Portuguese descent. The local community was born from Portuguese men.

. but in the beginning the woman was Goanese, Siamese, Indo-Chinese, Malay – they came to Macao in our boats. Sporadically it was a Chinese woman. • ^ João de Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe: person, culture and emotion in Macao.

Vol. 74 of London School of Economics monographs on social anthropology (illustrated ed.). Berg. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-8264-5749-3.

Retrieved 1 March 2012. To be a Macanese is fundamentally to be from Macao with Portuguese ancestors, but not necessarily to be of Sino-Portuguese descent. The local community was born from Portuguese men. . but in the beginning the woman was Goanese, Siamese, Indo-Chinese, Malay – they came to Macao in our boats.

Sporadically it was a Chinese woman. • ^ C. A. Montalto de Jesus (1902). Historic Macao (2 ed.). Kelly & Walsh, Limited. p. 41. Retrieved 2 February 2014.

macao Japanese women. • ^ Austin Coates (2009). A Macao Narrative. Vol. 1 of Echoes: Classics of Hong Kong Culture and History. Hong Kong University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-962-209-077-4. Retrieved 2 February 2014. • ^ Camões Center (Columbia University. Research Institute on International Change) (1989). Camões Center Quarterly, Volume 1. Vol. 1 of Echoes: Classics of Hong Kong Culture and History.

The Center. p. 29. Retrieved 2 February 2014. • ^ João de Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe: person, culture and emotion in Macao. Vol. 74 of London School of Economics monographs on social anthropology. Berg. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-8264-5749-3. When we established ourselves here, the Chinese ostracized us. The Portuguese had their wives, then, that came from abroad, but they could have no contact with the Chinese women, except the fishing folk, the tanka women and the female slaves.

Only the lowest class of Chinese contacted with the Portuguese in the first centuries. But later the strength of Christianization, of the priests, started to convince the Chinese to become Catholic. . But, when they started to be Catholics, they adopted Portuguese baptismal names and were ostracized by the Chinese Buddhists. So they joined the Portuguese community and their sons started having Portuguese education without a single drop of Portuguese blood.

• ^ a b c João De Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe: Person, Culture and Emotion in Macao. Vol. 74 of London School of Economics monographs on social anthropology.

Berg. pp. 164–. ISBN 978-0-8264-5749-3. • ^ Christina Miu Bing Cheng (1999). Macau: a cultural Janus. Hong Kong University Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-962-209-486-4. • ^ Christina Miu Bing Cheng (1999). Macau: a cultural Janus. Hong Kong University Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-962-209-486-4. We can trace this fleeting and shallow relationship in Henrique de Senna Fernandes' short story, A-Chan, A Tancareira, (Ah Chan, the Tanka Girl) (1978). Senna Fernandes (1923–), a Macanese, had written a series of novels set against the context of Macau and some of which were made into films.

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Vol. 30 of An Expanding World, the European Impact on World History, 1450–1800, Vol 30 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Ashgate. p. 636. ISBN 978-0-86078-522-4. Retrieved 10 December 2014. • ^ Hughes, Sarah S.; Hughes, Brady, eds. (1995). Women in World History: Readings from prehistory to 1500.

Vol. 1 of Sources and studies in world history (illustrated ed.). M.E. Sharpe. p. 219. ISBN martial master episode 173 sub indo. Retrieved 10 December 2014. • ^ Tingley, Nancy (2009). Asia Society. Museum (ed.). Arts of Ancient Viet Nam: From River Plain to Open Sea. Andreas Reinecke, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (illustrated ed.). Asia Society. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-300-14696-7. Retrieved 10 December 2014. • ^ Andaya, Barbara Watson (2006). The Flaming Womb: Repositioning Women in Early Modern Southeast Asia (illustrated ed.).

University of Hawaii Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-8248-2955-1. Retrieved 10 December 2014. It is accounted a piece of Policy to do it; for the chief Factors and Captains of Ships have the great men's Daughters offered them, the Mandarins or Noblemen at Tunquin. • ^ a b Andaya, Barbara Watson. "From temporary wife to prostitute: sexuality and economic change in early modern Southeast Asia." Journal of Women's History 9, no.

4 (February 1998): 11-34. [8] [9] [10] • ^ a b Viet-Dragon (31 October 2009). "Viet-Dragon". • ^ Pinkerton, John (1819). A General Collection of the Best and Most Interesting Voyages and Travels in Various Parts of America, Volume 1. Longman, Hurst, Rees and Orme and Brown.

p. 41. Retrieved 10 December 2014. • ^ Peletz, Michael G. (2009). Gender Pluralism: Southeast Asia Since Early Modern Times. Routledge. martial master episode 173 sub indo. 89. ISBN 978-1-135-95489-5. Retrieved 10 December 2014. • ^ Dampier, William (1906).

Masefield, John (ed.). Dampier's voyages: consisting of a New voyage round the world, a Supplement to the Voyage round the world, Two voyages to Campeachy, a Discourse of winds, a Voyage to New Holland, and a Vindication, in answer to the Chimerical relation of William Funnell, Volume 1. E. Grant Richards.

p. 393. Retrieved 10 December 2014. • ^ Dampier, William (1729). A Collection Of Voyages: In Four Volumes. Knapton. p. 395. Retrieved 10 December 2014. • ^ Purves, David Laing, ed. (1874). The English Circumnavigators: The Most Remarkable Voyages Round the World by English Sailors. William P. Nimmo. p. 256. Retrieved 10 December 2014. Siam, Cochinchina, and Cambodia. I did afterwards make a Voyage and most of our Men had Women aboard all the time of our abode there. • ^ Dampier, William (1699).

A New Voyage Round the World, Volume 1 (4 ed.). J. Knapton. p. 395. Retrieved 10 December 2014. Siam, Cochinchina, and Cambodia. I did afterwards make a Voyage and most of our Men had Women aboard all the time of our abode there. • ^ Pinkerton, John (1819). A General Collection of the Best and Most Interesting Voyages and Travels in Various Parts of Asia: Many of which are Now First Translated Into English : Digested on a New Plan ; Illustr.

with Plates, Volume 2. Longman. p. 484. Retrieved 10 December 2014. • ^ Pinkerton, John, ed. (1811). A general collection of . voyages and martial master episode 173 sub indo, digested by J. Pinkerton. p. 484. Retrieved 10 December 2014. • ^ Cope (Captain.) (1754). A New History of the East-Indies: With Brief Observations on the Religion, Customs, Manners and Trade of the Inhabitants.

. With a Map of the Country, and Several Other Copper-plates. . By Captain Cope. M. Cooper; W. Reeve, and C. Sympson. p. 379. Retrieved 10 December 2014. • ^ Hamilton, Alexander (1997). Smithies, Michael (ed.). Alexander Hamilton: A Scottish Sea Captain in Southeast Asia, 1689–1723 (illustrated, reprint ed.).

Silkworm Books. p. 205. ISBN 978-974-7100-45-7. Retrieved 10 December 2014. • ^ Yegar, Moshe (1972). The Muslims of Burma: a Study of a Minority Group. Schriftenreihe des Südasien-Instituts der Universität Heidelberg. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. p. 6. ISBN 978-3-447-01357-4.

OCLC 185556301. • ^ Lay, Pathi U Ko (1973). "Twentieth Anniversary Special Edition of Islam Damma Beikman". Myanmar Pyi and Islamic Religion: 109–11.

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• ^ Daniels, Timothy P. (2005). Building Cultural Nationalism in Malaysia. Routledge. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-415-94971-2. • ^ Sheela Narayanan (17 October 2008). "Go ahead, call me Chindian". AsiaOne. Archived from the original on 21 August 2009. Retrieved 8 October 2009. • ^ "Interracial Dating & Marriage". asian-nation.org. Retrieved 30 August 2007.

• ^ "Multiracial / Hapa Asian Americans". asian-nation.org. Retrieved 30 August 2007. • ^ Dumanig, Francisco P. (2009) Language Choice and Accommodation Strategies: The Case of Filipino-Malaysian Couples. 8th ISGC. • ^ Kalaydjieva, L.; Morar, B.; Chaix, R.; Tang, H. (2005). "A Newly Discovered Founder Population: The Roma/Gypsies".

BioEssays. 27 (10): 1084–94. doi: 10.1002/bies.20287. PMID 16163730. S2CID 20993913. • ^ Gresham, D; Morar, B; Underhill, PA; Passarino, G; Lin, AA; Wise, C; Angelicheva, D; Calafell, F; et al. (1 December 2001). "Origins and Divergence of the Roma (Gypsies)". American Journal of Human Genetics. 69 (6): 1314–31. doi: 10.1086/324681. PMC 1235543. PMID 11704928.

• ^ Sitsayamkan (1967) The Greek Favourite of the King of Siam, Donald Moore Press, p. 17 • ^ Keat Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor.

ABC-CLIO. pp. 1070–. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2. • ^ a b Fisher, Michael H. (2007). "Excluding and Including "Natives of India": Early-Nineteenth-Century British-Indian Race Relations in Britain".

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ISBN 978-81-7824-154-8. • ^ Ansari, Humayun (2004). Martial master episode 173 sub indo Infidel Within: The History of Muslims in Britain, 1800 to the Present. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 1-85065-685-1. • ^ N. K. Mishra; Sabita Tripathy (2002). A Critical Response to Indian English Literature. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. pp. 59, 65, 68. ISBN 978-81-269-0082-4. Retrieved 1 June 2006. • ^ • Chowdhury, Rita (18 November 2012). "The Assamese Chinese story".

The Hindu. Retrieved 17 May 2014. • Das, Gaurav (22 October 2013). "Tracing roots from Hong Kong to Assam". The Times of India. Retrieved martial master episode 173 sub indo May 2014. • Mitra, Dola (29 November 2010). "How To Stay Silent In Chinese". Outlook. Retrieved 17 May 2014. • Sharma, Anup (22 October 2013).

"Homecoming: Chinese To Revisit Birthplace In Assam". the pioneer. Guwahati. Retrieved 17 May 2014. • "Assamese of Chinese origin facing severe identity crisis". oneindia. 17 May 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2014. • Bora, Bijay Sankar (25 May martial master episode 173 sub indo. "Taunted as spies, China war victims seethe silently". The Tribune. Guwahati. Retrieved 17 May 2014. • Talukdar, Sushanta (8 November 2010). "Assamese of Chinese origin can visit State: Gogoi".

The Hindu. GUWAHATI. Retrieved 17 May 2014. • ^ • Sarat Chandra Roy (Rai Bahadur), ed. (1959). Man in India, Volume 39. A. K. Bose. p. 309. Retrieved 2 March 2012. During May 1959, while working on the blood groups of the Kotas of the Nilgiri Hills in the village of Kokal in Gudalur, inquiries were made regarding the present position of the Tamil-Chinese cross described by Thurston (1909).

It may be recalled here that Thurston reported the above cross resulting from the union of some Chinese convicts, deported from the Straits Settlement, and local Tamil Paraiyan • Edgar Thurston; K. Rangachari (1909). Castes and tribes of southern India, Volume 2. Government press. p. 99. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 99 CHINESE-TAMIL CROSS in the Nilgiri jail. It is recorded that, in 1868, twelve of the Chinamen broke out during a very stormy night, and parties of armed police were sent out to scour the hills for them.

They were at last arrested in Malabar a fortnight Alt URL • Edgar Thurston (2011). The Madras Presidency with Mysore, Coorg and the Associated States (reissue ed.).

Cambridge University Press. p. 218. ISBN 978-1-107-60068-3. Retrieved 17 May 2014. • Radhakrishnan, D (19 April 2014). "Unravelling Chinese link can boost Nilgiris tourism". The Hindu. Retrieved 13 March 2019. • Raman, A (31 May 2010). "Chinese in Madras". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 17 May 2014. • Raman, A (12 July 2010). "Quinine factory and Malay-Chinese workers".

The New Indian Express. Retrieved 17 May 2014. • "Chinese connection to the Nilgiris to help promote tourism potential". travel News Digest. 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2014. • W. Francis (1908). The Nilgiris. Vol. 1 of Madras District Gazetteers (reprint ed.). Logos Press. p. 184. ISBN 9780865903777. Retrieved 17 May 2014. Alt URL • Madras (India : State) (1908). Madras District Gazetteers, Volume 1.

Superintendent, Government Press. p. 184. Retrieved 17 May 2014. • W. Francis (1908). The Nilgiris. Concept Publishing Company. p. 184. Retrieved 17 May 2014. • ^ Government Museum (Madras, India) (1897). Bulletin ., Volumes 2-3. MADRAS: Printed by the Superintendent, Govt. Press. p. 31. Retrieved 2 March 2012. ON A CHINESE-TAMIL CKOSS. Halting in the course of a recent anthropological expedition on the western side of the Nilgiri plateau, in the midst of the Government Cinchona plantations, I came across a small settlement of Chinese, who have squatted for some years on the slopes of the hills between Naduvatam and Gudalur, and developed, as the result of 'marriage' with Tamil pariah women, into a colony, earning an honest livelihood by growing vegetables, cultivating cofl'ce on a small scale, and adding to their income from these sources by the economic products of the cow.

An ambassador was sent to this miniature Chinese Court with a suggestion that the men should, in return for monies, present themselves before me with a view to their measurements being recorded. The reply which came back was in its way racially characteristic as between Hindus and Chinese. In the case of the former, martial master episode 173 sub indo to make use of their bodies for the purposes of research depends essentially on a pecuniary transaction, on a scale varying from martial master episode 173 sub indo to eight annas.

The Chinese, on the other hand, though poor, martial master episode 173 sub indo a courteous message to the effect that they did not require payment in money, but would be perfectly happy if I would give them, as a memento, copies of their photographs.

The measurements of a single family, excepting a widowed daughter whom I was not permitted to see, and an infant in arms, who was pacified with cake while I investigated its mother, are recorded in the following table: • ^ Edgar Thurston (2004).

Badagas and Irulas of Nilgiris, Paniyans of Malabar: A Cheruman Skull, Kuruba Or Kurumba – Summary of Results. Vol. 2, Issue 1 of Bulletin (Government Museum (Madras, India)). Asian Educational Services. p. 31. ISBN 978-81-206-1857-2. Retrieved 2 March 2012. • ^ • Government Museum (Madras, India) (1897). Bulletin ., Volumes 2-3. MADRAS: Printed by the Superintendent, Govt. Press. p. 32. Retrieved 2 March 2012. The father was a typical Chinaman, whose only grievance was that, in the process of conversion to Christianity, he had been obliged to 'cut him tail off.' The mother was a typical Tamil Pariah of dusky hue.

The colour of the children was more closely allied to the yellowish tint of the father than to the dark tint of the mother; and the semimongol parentage was betrayed in the slant eyes, flat nose, and (in one case) conspicuously prominent cheek-bones. To have recorded the entire series of measurements of the children would have been useless for the purpose martial master episode 173 sub indo comparison with those of the parents, and I selected from my repertoire the length and breadth of the head and nose, which plainly indicate the paternal influence on the external anatomy of the offspring.

The figures given in the table bring out very clearly the great breadth, as compared with the length of the heads of all the children, and the resultant high cephalic index. In other words, in one case a mesaticephalic (79), and, in the remaining three cases, a sub-brachycephalic head (80"1; 801 ; 82-4) has resulted from the union of a mesaticephalic Chinaman (78-5) with a sub-dolichocephalic Tamil Pariah (76"8).

How great is the breadth of the head in the children may be emphasised by noting that the average head-breadth of the adult Tamil Pariah man is only 13"7 cm., whereas that of the three boys, aged ten, nine, and five only, was 14 3, 14, and 13"7 cm. respectively. Quite as strongly marked is the effect of paternal influence on the character of the nose; the nasal index, in the case of each child (68"1 ; 717; 727; 68'3), bearing a much closer relation to that of the long nosed father (71'7) than to the typical Pariah nasal index of the broadnosed mother (78-7).

It will be interesting to note, hereafter, what is the future of the younger members of this quaint little colony, and to observe the physical characters, temperament, improvement or deterioration, fecundity, and other points relating to the cross-breed resulting from the union of Chinese and Tamil.

• Edgar Thurston (2004). Badagas and Irulas of Nilgiris, Paniyans of Malabar: A Cheruman Skull, Kuruba Or Kurumba – Summary of Results. Vol. 2, Issue 1 of Bulletin (Government Museum (Madras, India)). Asian Educational Services. p. 32. ISBN 978-81-206-1857-2. Retrieved 2 March 2012.

• Edgar Thurston; K. Rangachari (1987). Castes and Tribes of Southern India (illustrated ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. 99. ISBN 978-81-206-0288-5. Retrieved 2 March 2012. The father was a typical Chinaman, whose only grievance was that, in the process of conversion to Christianity, he had been obliged to "cut his tail off." The mother was a typical dark-skinned Tamil paraiyan, • Edgar Thurston; K.

Rangachari (1987). Castes and Tribes of Southern India (illustrated ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. 98. ISBN 978-81-206-0288-5. Retrieved 2 March 2012. • Edgar Thurston; K. Rangachari (1987). Castes and Tribes of Southern India (illustrated ed.).

Asian Educational Services. p. 99. ISBN 978-81-206-0288-5. Retrieved 2 March 2012. • Government Museum; Edgar Thurston (1897). Note on tours along the Malabar coast. Vol. 2-3 of Bulletin, Government Museum (Madras, India). Superintendent, Government Press. p. 31. Retrieved 17 May 2014. • Government Museum (Madras, India) (1894). Bulletin, Volumes 1-2. Superintendent, Government Press. p. 31.

Retrieved 17 May 2014. • Government Museum (Madras, India) (1894). Bulletin. Vol. v. 2 1897–99. Madras : Printed by the Superintendent, Govt.

Press. p. 31. Retrieved 17 May 2014. • Madras Government Museum Bulletin. Vol. II. Madras. 1897. p. 31. Retrieved 17 May 2014. • ^ Sarat Chandra Roy (Rai Bahadur) (1954). Man in India, Volume 34, Issue 4. A.K. Bose. p. 273. Retrieved 2 March 2012. Thurston found the Chinese element to be predominant among the offspring as will be evident from his description. 'The mother was a typical dark-skinned Tamil Paraiyan. The colour of the children was more closely allied to the yellowish • ^ Mahadeb Prasad Basu (1990).

An anthropological study of bodily height of Indian population. Punthi Pustak. p. 84. ISBN 9788185094335. Retrieved 2 March 2012. Sarkar (1959) published a pedigree showing Tamil-Chinese-English crosses in a place located in the Nilgiris.

Thurston (1909) mentioned an instance of a mating between a Chinese male with a Tamil Pariah female. Man (Deka 1954) described • ^ Man in India, Volumes 34-35. A. K. Bose. 1954. p. 272. Retrieved 2 March 2012. (c) Tamil (female) and African (male) (Thurston 1909). (d) Tamil Pariah (female) and Chinese (male) (Thuston, 1909). (e) Andamanese (female) and UP Brahmin (male ) (Portman 1899). (f) Andamanese (female) and Hindu (male) (Man, 1883). • ^ Sarat Chandra Roy (Rai Bahadur) (1954).

Man in India, Volume 34, Issue 4. A.K. Bose. p. 272. Retrieved 2 March 2012. (c) Tamil (female) and African (male) (Thurston 1909). (d) Tamil Pariah (female) and Chinese (male) (Thuston, 1909). (e) Andamanese (female) and UP Brahmin (male ) (Portman 1899). (f) Andamanese (female) and Hindu (male) (Man, 1883). • ^ Edgar Thurston; K.

Rangachari (1987). Castes and Tribes of Southern India (illustrated ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. 100. ISBN 978-81-206-0288-5. Retrieved 2 March 2012. the remaining three cases, a sub-brachycephalic head (80-1 ; 80-1 ; 82-4) has resulted from the union of a mesaticephalic Chinaman (78•5) with a sub-dolichocephalic Tamil Paraiyan (76-8).

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• ^ Dowling, Timothy C. (2006). Personal Perspectives: World War I. ABC-CLIO. pp. 35–6. ISBN 978-1-85109-565-0. • ^ a b Omissi, David (2007). "Europe Through Indian Eyes: Indian Soldiers Encounter England and France, 1914–1918". English Historical Review. Oxford University Press. CXXII (496): 371–96. doi: 10.1093/ehr/cem004. S2CID 162322388. • ^ Cowans, Jon (2010). "Black and White on the Silver Screen: Views of Interracial Romance in French Films and Reviews since the 1980s".

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57: 103–104 – via EBSCO. • ^ The term 'Arier', i.e. 'Aryan', was never used in important legal documents. Instead, one usually martial master episode 173 sub indo the term 'artverwandtes Blut', i.e. roughly 'kindred blood' or 'blood of related stock', which includes in martial master episode 173 sub indo all native Europeans except for Jews and Gypsies. H. H. Schubert (1941): Eine Klarstellung zum Begriff 'artverwandtes Blut' [A clarification of the term 'kindred blood']. In: Volk und Rasse 12, pp.

216-218. • ^ Sá, Lúcia. Rain Forest Literatures: Amazonian Texts and Latin American Culture. Minneapolis, Minnesota: U of Minnesota Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-8166-4325-7 • ^ Helgason, A; Hickey, E; Goodacre, S; Bosnes, V; Stefánsson, K; Ward, R; Sykes, B (2001). "mtDNA and the Islands of the North Atlantic: Estimating the Proportions of Norse and Gaelic Ancestry". American Journal of Human Genetics. 68 (3): 723–37. doi: 10.1086/318785. PMC 1274484. PMID 11179019.

• ^ Helgason, A; Sigureth Ardóttir, S; Gulcher, JR; Ward, R; Stefánsson, K (2000). "mtDNA and the Origin martial master episode 173 sub indo the Icelanders: Deciphering Signals of Recent Population History". American Journal of Human Genetics. 66 (3): 999–1016. doi: 10.1086/302816. PMC 1288180. PMID 10712214. • ^ Ellrodt, AG; Conner, L; Riedinger, MS; Weingarten, S; Hill, Emmeline W.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Bosnes, Vidar; Gulcher, Jeffery R.; et al. (2000). "Estimating Scandinavian and Gaelic Ancestry in the Male Settlers of Iceland".

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• ^ a b c d Ansari, Humayun (2004). The Infidel Within: The History of Muslims in Britain, 1800 to the Present. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 93–4. ISBN 978-1-85065-685-2. • ^ Bland, Lucy (April 2005). "White Women and Men of Colour: Miscegenation Fears in Britain after the Great War". Gender & History. 17 (1): 29–61. doi: 10.1111/j.0953-5233.2005.00371.x. S2CID 143187996. • ^ Visram, Rozina (30 July 2015).

Ayahs, Lascars and Princes: The Story of Indians in Britain 1700-1947. ISBN 9781317415336. • ^ A White Side of Black Britain (2011) by France Winddance Twine Routledge • ^ "Inter-Ethnic Marriage: 2% of all Marriages are Inter-Ethnic". National Statistics. 21 March 2005. Retrieved 15 July 2008. • ^ Bingham, John (3 July 2014). "Love across the divide: interracial relationships growing in Britain".

Telegraph.co.uk. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. • ^ Memorandum to British Cabinet by Patrick Gordon Walker, Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations, 19 July 1949. • ^ Redfern, John (1955). "An appeal". Ruth and Seretse: "A Very Disreputable Transaction". London: Victor Gollancz. p. 221. The British government knew well enough, throughout the dispute, that the Union [of South Africa]'s Nationalist Government was playing up the theme of the protectorates, and that it was within the Union's power to apply economic sanctions at any time.

(The latest available figures show that more than half the cattle exported from Bechuanaland go to the Union .) • ^ Rider, Clare (2003). "The "Unfortunate Marriage" of Seretse Khama". The Inner Temple Yearbook 2002/2003. Inner Temple. Archived from the original on 19 July 2006. Retrieved 6 August 2006. "Under the provisions of the South Africa Act of 1909, the Martial master episode 173 sub indo laid claim to the neighbouring tribal territories and, as the Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations pointed out to the Cabinet in 1949, the 'demand for this transfer might become more insistent if we disregard the Union government's views'.

He went on, 'indeed, we cannot exclude the possibility of an armed incursion into the Bechuanaland Protectorate from the Union if Serestse were to be recognised forthwith, while feeling on the subject is inflamed'." • ^ Rider, Clare (2003). "The "Unfortunate Marriage" of Seretse Khama". The Inner Temple Yearbook 2002/2003. Inner Temple. Archived from the original on 19 July 2006.

Retrieved 6 August 2006. "Since, in their opinion, friendly and co-operative relations with South Africa and Rhodesia were essential to the well-being of the Bamangwato Tribe and the whole of the Protectorate, Serestse, who enjoyed neither, could not be deemed fit to rule. They concluded: 'We have no hesitation in finding that, but for his unfortunate marriage, his prospects as Chief are as bright as those of any native in Africa with whom we have come into contact'." • ^ "Nearly 1 in 10 martial master episode 173 sub indo living as a couple were in an inter-ethnic relationship in 2011 - ONS".

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