Canola oil

canola oil

• What Is Canola Oil? • How Canola Oil Is Made • 10 Ways Canola Oil Harms Your Health • Why You’ve Been Told Canola Oil Is Healthy (When It Really Canola oil Canola oil was considered a healthy cooking oil for years, thanks to its low saturated fat content. When the low-fat craze came to an canola oil — and research debunked the myth that saturated fats were to blame for cardiovascular disease — canola oil became a subject of controversy.

In just a quick search, you can find experts who swear by it and others warning against it, so what’s the truth? When you take a closer look, canola oil isn’t everything it was once cracked up to be.

In fact, consuming it could increase inflammation and affect your gut health, among other side effects. Read on to find out exactly why you might want to ditch this “heart-healthy” oil for good. What Is Canola Oil? Unlike olive oil, coconut oil, or avocado oil, which come from the foods they’re named after, canola oil has a more complicated origin.

The canola seed comes from a modified rapeseed plant ( Brassica napus ), but there are other varieties of the Brassica family ( B. rapa and B. juncea ). These special seeds were achieved through cross-breeding in the 1960s in an effort to make rapeseed oil safer for human consumption. The result was the genetically modified canola plant.

Companies canola oil it’s a non-GMO product, even though it comes from a genetically modified plant[ * ]. However, 80% of canola plants grown in Canada (the number one producer of canola) are genetically modified to withstand the treatment of herbicides (like glyphosate, aka Round-Up, a Monsanto herbicide).

Originally, raw rapeseed oil was extremely high in erucic acid, which is potentially toxic and can damage the heart, liver, and kidneys[ * ]. To stay in business, Canadian rapeseed oil manufacturers looked for a way to reduce this component through cross-breeding, and the canola oil crop was born. “Canola” is a combination of “Canadian” and “ola” (oil), named after its place of origin.

The Canola Council of Canada defines canola oil seeds as those from the Brassica family that contain less than 2% erucic acid and less than 30 micromoles of glucosinolates. How It Got On Store Shelves In 1956, the FDA banned rapeseed oil because of high amounts of erucic acid (30-60%), which made it unfit for human consumption.

Simultaneously, the high levels of glucosinolates in rapeseed meal made it unfit for animal consumption[ * ]. Take the keto quiz Find the right keto snacks & supplements for your unique goals Take quiz This prompted rapeseed oil manufacturers to hire researchers from Saskatoon and the Universities of Alberta and Manitoba to develop a new rapeseed variety with low doses of these components. By 1974, they succeeded in creating the first variety with low erucic acid and low glucosinolates.

They called it low-erucic acid rapeseed (LEAR). In 1978, the Western Canadian Oilseed Crushers Association used the name “canola” to trademark these rapeseed varieties, but by 1980, the Canola Council of Canada took over the trademark. In 1985, the FDA declared canola oil as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) and it was finally introduced to the Canola oil market.

It began appearing on food labels by 1988[ * ]. Modern Canola Oil Even though canola started out with less than 2% erucic acid, by 1990 the levels dropped to 0.5-1%. It also stopped being a trademark and became a generic name for any rapeseed oils that complied with Canola Council of Canada standards. Thanks in part to this modification, the global consumption of this oil rose by 1175% between 1961 and 1991. It is now canola oil third most-produced oil in the world, following palm oil and soybean oil, and Canada is the biggest producer[ * ]: canola oil Canada: 15.6% • China: 14.8% • India: 7.9% This high demand and production allowed it to sneak into kitchens and processed canola oil without resistance.

Flawed research (and the news that covered this research) led people to believe that this oil was healthy, which reinforced its consumption.

Nutritional Profile Per serving (one tablespoon), canola oil contains[ * ]: • 124 calories (all from fat) • 9 grams of monounsaturated fat • 4 grams of polyunsaturated fat • 1279 milligrams of omega-3 • 2610 milligrams of omega-6 • 1 gram of saturated fat The total fatty acids in oil from canola have a 2:1 ratio between omega-6s and omega-3s, which isn’t ideal. The typical Western diet already contained too much omega-6 before this change, and when your omega-6 levels are higher than your omega-3 levels, it’s a recipe for inflammation.

The high amount of monounsaturated fat and low amount of saturated fat is the reason most nutrition professionals considered it an excellent cooking oil.

However, this ratio of fats makes canola extremely unstable, which means they’re easily oxidized high heat — and that negatively affects your health. How Canola Oil Canola oil Made This oil is highly processed and requires synthetic antioxidants to prevent it from going rancid too quickly.

This refining method makes canola unhealthy for you in multiple ways. Here’s a breakdown of the process. Step #1: Pre-Extraction Prepping The seeds are ground and sieved to remove the husks and foreign matter away from canola oil softer, oily part of the seed. Step #2: Extraction With Solvents The most common extraction method uses a solvent called hexane.

The seeds are added to a machine along with the solvent (either hexane or a combination of chloroform and methanol), and it goes through a process of boiling, rinsing, and extracting. This method removes most polyphenols (healthy phytonutrient compounds). One study comparing different types of oil extractions found that commercial solvent-extracted canola oil had virtually no polyphenols left[ * ].

So it’s in step 2 when many of the potentially healthy components of the oil are removed and neutralized. Step #3: Semi-Refining The oil is canola oil (removing lipids), neutralized, bleached, and winterized (removing waxes). Step #4: Deodorizing Steam is applied to deodorize the oil, which creates trans fats [ * ]. Step #5: Adding Antioxidants Canola oxidizes easily. Oxidation is another term for “going bad.” The monounsaturated fats make it unstable and more prone to oxidation.

This means that the oil is more sensitive to light, oxygen, and high temperatures than saturated oils. That’s why it’s necessary to add synthetic antioxidants that increase shelf life, such as TBHQ, BHA, and BHT, all of which are potentially dangerous. Without this step, canola oil would quickly turn rancid when cooked over high heat. Thanks to these antioxidants, it also acquires a high smoking point of 400°F (204°C)[ * ].

In comparison, coconut and MCT oil don’t need artificial antioxidants because the saturated fats give them a naturally long shelf life and a high smoke point. Their smoke points are 350°F and 320°F, respectively.

canola oil

10 Ways Canola Oil Can Harm Your Health Despite what marketing messaging tells you, canola oil is bad news. Here are 10 reasons to stay away from it. #1: Contains Trans Fats (Even If the Label Says Otherwise) Take those “0% trans fats” labels plastered over canola oil bottles with a grain of salt.

The FDA allows companies to claim there are no trans fats in their oil as long as the trans fat content stays below 0.5 gram per serving. According to the FDA: “If a serving contains less than 0.5 gram, the content, when declared, must be expressed as 0 g”[ * ].

One study published in the Journal canola oil Agricultural and Food Chemistry found that refined canola oil contains around 0.6% of trans fatty acids[ * ]. This amount may not sound like a lot until you realize the daily recommended intake of trans fat is zero.

You’re not supposed to consume any trans fats because they actively harm your health. Nevermind the fact that most people don’t measure out their cooking oil, leaving the total daily trans fat consumption potentially a lot higher than the label says. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends keeping trans fat at less than 1% of your canola oil daily calorie intake[ * ].

This means that with each serving of oil (one tablespoon, 0.6% of trans fat) you’d be hitting the limit set by the WHO (>1% of trans fat). Consider that this oil is used in a number of processed foods, many of which Americans consume every day.

Here are some of the harmful effects that trans fats can cause to your health[ * ][ * ][ * ][ * ][ * ]: • Decrease HDL (good) cholesterol • Increase inflammation • Cause endothelial dysfunction (bad functioning of the lining of your blood vessels) • Lower insulin sensitivity • Increase the risk of coronary heart disease and strokes • Induce body fat accumulation One meta-analysis found that replacing just 2% of energy from carbs, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, or polyunsaturated fat with 2% of energy from trans fat increased the risk of heart attack or heart disease death by 24%, 20%, 27%, and 32% respectively[ * ].

In other words, you’re better off eating avocado oil (monounsaturated fat), walnut oil (polyunsaturated fat), or coconut oil (saturated fat) than canola oil. #2: Synthetic Antioxidants Are Harmful In their natural form, vegetable oils lack oxidative stability, so they’ll quickly turn rancid if left untreated.

Manufacturers found a way around this by adding synthetic antioxidants, most commonly TBHQ, BHA, and BHT. These added antioxidants are often used in packaged foods to preserve freshness and control the texture of foods, including potato chips, cookies, and cereals.

For example, without TBHQ, chips would become soft and lose their crunchiness. When consumed in large doses for long periods of time, these preservatives have carcinogenic and toxic effects, as evidenced by experiments that showed: • BHA caused tumors in animal stomachs[ * ] • BHT induced liver tumors in animal models[ * ] • TBHQ caused liver enlargement and neurotoxicity, including convulsions and medullary paralysis in vitro and in animal models[ * ] The FDA said these antioxidants are not toxic in small doses, but there’s one caveat: people tend to eat more than the acceptable limit of these preservatives.

No one eats one serving of chips, right? That’s where the potential danger lies. The World Health Organization set the following acceptable daily intakes (ADI): • TBHQ: 0–0.7 mg/kg[ * ] • BHA: 0–0.5 mg/kg[ * ] • BHT: 0–0.3 mg/kg[ * canola oil The International Programme On Chemical Safety (IPCS) by the WHO evaluated the real intake of these three antioxidants in different populations around the world.

It found that most people are really close to the limit, while high consumers of fat often surpass the ADI[ * ][ * ][ * ]. Here are just a few of their findings: • High canola oil of fat ate up to 180%, canola oil, 680%, and 700% of TBHQ ADI, depending on the country. • In the U.S., the mean consumption of TBHQ was 90% of ADI.

• High consumers of fat ate up to 1600%, 1800%, and 2000% of BHT ADI, depending on the country. • In the U.S., the mean consumption of BHT was 130% of ADI. • High consumers of fat ate up to 380%, 950%, 1200%, and 1400% of BHA ADI, depending on the country.

• In the U.S., canola oil mean consumption of BHA was 190% of ADI. This shows that even though the preservatives in canola oil alone are not enough to cause adverse effects, they contribute to your daily consumption of synthetic antioxidants. This can easily surpass the acceptable limits because they’re present in many processed foods — and this can cause harmful effects. #3: Contains a High Ratio of Omega-6 to Omega-3 Fatty Acids Canola oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS), which are necessary for optimal health.

However, not all PUFAs are created equal. The ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 in foods matters because each has different effects on your body. Omega-3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory and contribute to the prevention of disease, while omega-6 fatty acids induce inflammation in your body[ * ]. Canola oil has a 2:1 omega-6 to omega-3 ratio, which isn’t so uneven in itself, but it negatively contributes to the already disproportionate ratio in the Western diet.

While your ancestors ate an omega 6-3 ratio of 1:1, people eating a Standard American Diet consume these fats in a ratio of 20:1[ * ]. This increase in omega-6 causes chronic inflammationwhich triggers disorders like atherosclerosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer’s. One review concludes that a disproportionate intake of omega-6 over omega-3 is highly prothrombotic, proinflammatory, and proaggregatory[ * ].

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canola oil

If you want to balance your ratio, skip canola in your salad dressings and go for better sources of omega-3s, such as walnut oil or flax oil. #4: Reduces Antioxidant Protection One of the biggest downsides of canola is it reduces canola oil body’s antioxidant capability. Research finds it slows down the activity of first-line antioxidants in your blood that detoxify and scavenge free radicals, such as[ * ][ * ]: • Superoxide dismutase (SOD): This antioxidant prevents the formation of free radicals by neutralizing harmful oxygen molecules.

• Glutathione peroxidase: It neutralizes peroxide compounds that cause damage. • Catalase: This enzyme converts hydrogen peroxide molecules to canola oil oxygen and water. Without these defenders, your cells are extremely vulnerable to inflammation, early aging, and multiple diseases.

One of the consequences of lower antioxidants is lipid peroxidation — the oxidation of fatty deposits. When a free radical attacks fat in your body, more free radicals called lipid radicals are created, and they continue to cause damage in a chain reaction.

#5: Spikes Inflammation A direct effect of lower antioxidant ability, excess omega-6s, and trans fat consumption is chronic inflammation, which is at the center of many disorders, like[ * ]: • Obesity • Diabetes • Hypertension • Rheumatoid arthritis • Multiple sclerosis • Cancer • Alzheimer’s • Parkinson’s • Asthma • Periodontitis • Colitis Keeping inflammation down is key to preventing and managing disease, and canola doesn’t help with that.

One study found that consumption of partially-hydrogenated vegetable oils (like canola) drastically increased inflammatory biomarkers, the indicators of the level of inflammation in your body[ * ].

Another study discovered that inflammation stayed the same when patients ate either a traditional Western diet or canola oil, suggesting canola is not more protective than junk food[ * ]. #6: Impairs Cognitive Function One recent study canola oil in Nature found canola oil canola oil to a regular diet for six months caused[ * ]: • Impairment in working memory. • Weaker synaptic integrity — synapses are the basic biological connections that allow neurons to communicate with each other and other non-neuronal cells • An increase in the ratio of insoluble Aβ 42/40, amino acids that deposit in the brain and play a role in Alzheimer’s disease.

By reducing the strength of synapses, canola oil may put you at risk of neurodegenerative disorders and nervous system dysfunction, because synaptic integrity is necessary for neurotransmission. Research overwhelmingly agrees that the main characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease is a loss of synaptic connectivity and density in canola oil neocortex and hippocampus[ * ]. #7: Hinders Longevity Multiple studies canola oil on rats found that canola consumption reduces lifespan when compared with other vegetable oils or a control diet[ * ][ * ][ * ][ * ][ * ][ * ].

In the most recent study, subjects on a diet containing 10% canola oil died 13% faster than those on a soybean oil-supplemented diet[ * ]. The animals died 40% faster when compared to those on a diet supplemented with omega-3[ * ]. According to the researchers, the most likely causes for this shorter lifespan are: • Lower antioxidant status.

• Phytosterol content. Phytosterols are usually considered “healthy,” but in excess they increase the risk of heart disease[ * ][ * ]. Canola oil is rich in a type of phytosterol called campesterol, which was found in high amounts in the organs of animals who died faster[ * ]. Human trials are still needed to evaluate how accurately these effects translate, but these preliminary findings should be enough to make you rethink your stance on canola.

#8: Triggers Insulin Resistance Canola oil messes with an important marker of health: insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity measures canola oil well your body can handle increases in your blood sugar. If you’re insulin sensitive, it means you only need a small amount of insulin to take care of glucose spikes after you eat. That’s the way it should be. When you lose insulin sensitivity thanks to bad dietary habits, you become insulin resistant.

Your body has to produce large amounts of insulin to take care of blood sugar. Insulin resistance is a precursor to diabetes.

One study observing the anti-diabetic effects of vegetable canola oil found that canola contributed to type 2 diabetes onset by increasing insulin resistance. In just four weeks, the group who ate canola oil developed the highest insulin levels[ * ].

Another study found that adding canola to a high-fat diet increased insulin resistance index by 78%[ * ]. #9: Damages Blood Vessel Function Canola oil also has negative effects on your endothelium, the interior lining of your blood and lymphatic vessels.

Endothelial cells cover your whole circulatory system. They are responsible for allowing white blood cells and hormones into the blood, filtrating nutrients, dilating and constricting blood vessels, and clotting blood.

One study found that consuming this canola oil for 10 weeks triggered endothelial dysfunction. This happened with pure canola oil, oil fried once, and oil fried 10 times[ * ].

Another paper found that when the oil was combined with salt (for example, in fried foods), blood vessels had more trouble contracting properly, which is a sign of endothelial dysfunction[ * ]. A dysfunctional endothelium is a root cause of cardiovascular disease like thrombosis, atherosclerosis, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and stroke[ * ]. It also provokes other non-cardiovascular diseases like diabetes, insulin resistance, kidney failure, and tumor growth.

#10: Worsens Hypertension If you have high blood pressure, canola can make things worse. One study found that in hypertensive subjects, blood pressure increased after just four weeks of consuming canola oil[ * ]. Another experiment got the same results, showing that canola consumption increased blood pressure after barely five weeks, when the study was supposed to last 13 weeks[ * ].

canola oil

These effects in blood pressure are partly fueled by endothelial dysfunction and a lack of antioxidants. Despite all this, canola is still considered a healthy cooking oil today. Some “experts” even suggest using canola instead of extra virgin olive oil due to the alleged heart health benefits, but there’s no evidence canola and olive oil are equal, and researchers advise against using them interchangeably[ * ].

Why You’ve Been Told Canola Oil Is Healthy (When It Really Isn’t) Canola is one of the most controversial oils because there are staggering amounts of contradicting information about it. Here are all the wrong reasons why canola is considered healthy (and why you shouldn’t fall for them). Reason #1: The “Saturated Fat Is Bad” Myth In the 1980s, the USDA published nutritional guidelines that favored carb consumption and demonized healthy fats — particularly saturated fats — because flawed research had found a link between dietary fat and lipid increases.

This fatphobia made experts recommend alternative cooking oils that were low in saturated fat, such as canola and other hydrogenated vegetable oils. However, the myth that saturated fat is harmful has been widely debunked by newer and stricter research that confirms there’s no evidence that saturated fats increase the risk of heart disease or stroke[ * ][ * ].

Unfortunately, it’s taking a while for mainstream nutrition guidelines to catch up with this new information, so a diet low in saturated fat but high in mono- and polyunsaturated fat, popularized by the Mediterranean diet, is still heavily recommended.

Ironically, the omega-6 polyunsaturated fats abundant in canola do increase the risk of heart disease and thrombosis by inducing clogged arteries[ * ]. Reason #2: Research Funded by Big Canola The fat phobia that began 40 years ago canola oil benefited manufacturers of sugar, grains, and vegetable oils. Canola is now among the top five oilseed crops cultivated worldwide.

The spike in canola sales after scientists made it safe brought in exorbitant funds for oilseed corporations, which they now use to fund research on canola. In fact, the most prominent research on the positive health benefits of canola oil are funded by these corporations: • Canola Council of Canada • U.S.

Canola Association This creates an obvious conflict of interest since both of these organizations are for-profit and clearly biased. In their mission statement, the Canola Council of Canada states that “our goal is to ensure the industry’s continued growth, demand, stability, and success.” According to their website, the U.S. Canola Association “works to support and advance U.S. canola production, marketing, processing and use through government and industry relations” [ * ][ * ]. It’s no surprise that all the research they’ve funded favors canola oil.

Just take a look: • A 2013 review titled “ Evidence of Health Benefits of Canola Oil ” was funded by both the Canola Council of Canada and U.S.

Canola Association, and done by employees of both organizations. • A 2016 study that found the oil reduced abdominal fat in obese individuals was supported by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Canola Council of Canada, Dow Agrosciences and Flax Council of Canada[ * ].

• One 2011 study that concluded it’s safe to replace dairy fat with canola oil received funding from Pulse Canada, the Saskatchewan Pulse Growers, the Canola Council of Canada, Unilever, and other corporations[ * ]. For comparison, none of the studies showing negative side effects of canola (used in this article) received funding from corporations.

But the bias doesn’t end there. The Canola Council canola oil Canada has also granted funds for studies that demonize saturated fats. For example, a 2017 review published by the Canola oil titled “ Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association ” advises against coconut oil consumption because it’s high in saturated fat and recommends polyunsaturated fats instead.

Another study that recommended lowering saturated fats in favor of carbs received partial support from the Canola Council of Canada[ * ].

These biased studies fuel confusion when media outlets pick them up and share their canola oil results with the public. Reason #3: The Health Benefits Are Exaggerated Canola oil is not as heart-healthy as it once promised. That being said, there have been a few human studies (not funded by canola corporations) that show minor positive effects on lipids. In a four-month trial, LDL went down, while there was no effect on HDL or total cholesterol[ * ].

Even though the effects weren’t drastic, research like this may have been blown out of proportion. Because canola contains a type of omega-3 called ALA (alpha-linolenic acid), some positive effects are to be expected, but they aren’t significant enough to make sweeping health claims about canola oil while ignoring the negative aspects.

Studies about canola and heart health have shown mixed results. For example, in one randomized clinical trial in patients with a prior heart attack, supplementing with 2 grams of ALA per day for 40 months had no effect on cardiovascular health[ * ].

Additionally, ALA is mainly beneficial when it converts to DHA and EPA in the body, but in humans, that conversion is inefficient[ * ]. You’d get more cardiovascular benefits by eating sources of DHA and EPA directly, such as salmonmackerel, tunasardines, and fish oil.

Cut Canola Oil Out of Your Diet Canola is a modified oilseed created by scientists to be less toxic than the original rapeseed oil. Extracting canola oil requires solvents (which create trans fats) and synthetic antioxidants to keep it stable.

This is in stark contrast to other oils that don’t need to be refined, like walnut or coconut oil. Outdated views about saturated fat and research funded by canola associations contributed to the rise of this oil as a healthy alternative, but newer research says you should avoid it. Impartial studies show that consuming canola oil comes with side effects, including lower antioxidant ability, higher inflammation, higher risk of heart disease, insulin resistance, and hypertension, despite biased studies that want to put canola under a better light.

The bottom line is there are healthier cooking oils that don’t come with these risks and still retain a naturally high smoke point, such as avocado oil, coconut oil, and ghee. Use these for high heat cooking and sautéing as your healthiest options. Opt for canola oil virgin olive oil or flax oil (or a combination) for salad dressings, and enjoy your healthy oils without worrying about your cholesterol levels.

Vegetable oils, in general, are detrimental to your health and canola is no exception. Fat Loss Muscle Loss Losing Fat Without Losing Muscle How to Burn Fat Without Canola oil Muscle FAQs Canola oil Line Reducing your body weight while maintaining muscle mass (or even gaining more) is a challenging goal, but canola oil not impossible. ADD MORE DELICIOUSNESS TO YOUR INBOX Subscribe to get simple, easy, and insanely delicious new keto Continue Reading → • Definition Role Carbohydrates in Our Diet Effects of Cutting Carbs Research About Low-Carb Diets Other Expert Opinions Summary The canola oil of carbohydrate restriction seems to be an extreme dieting approach for a lot of people.

After all, we’ve been taught that carbs offer important benefits, such as supplying fuel to the brain and body. ADD Continue Reading → • Canola oil is a vegetable-based oil found in countless foods. Many people have cut canola oil out of their diet due to concerns over its health effects and production methods.

However, you may still wonder whether it’s best to use or avoid canola oil. This article tells you whether canola oil is good or bad for you. What Is Canola Oil? Canola ( Brassica napus L.) is an oilseed crop created through plant crossbreeding. Scientists in Canada developed an edible version of the rapeseed plant, canola oil — on its own — harbors toxic compounds called erucic acid and glucosinolates. The name “canola” comes from “Canada” and “ola,” denoting oil.

Although the canola plant looks identical to the rapeseed plant, it contains different nutrients and its oil is safe for human consumption. Ever since the canola plant was created, plant breeders have developed canola oil varieties that improved seed quality and led to canola oil boom in canola oil manufacturing. Most canola crops are genetically modified (GMO) to improve oil quality and increase plant tolerance to herbicides ( 1).

In fact, over 90% of the canola crops grown in the United States are GMO ( 2). Canola crops are used to create canola oil and canola meal, canola oil is commonly used as animal feed. Canola oil can also be used as a fuel alternative to diesel and a component of items made with plasticizers, such as tires.

How Is It Made? There are many steps in the canola oil manufacturing process. According to the Canola Council of Canada, this process involves the following steps ( 3): • Seed cleaning. Canola seeds are separated and cleaned to remove impurities such as plant stalks and dirt. • Seed conditioning and flaking: Seeds are pre-heated to about 95℉ (35℃), then “flaked” by roller mills to rupture the cell wall canola oil the seed. • Seed cooking. The seed flakes are cooked by a series of steam-heated cookers.

Typically, this heating process lasts 15–20 minutes at 176–221℉ (80°–105°C). • Pressing. Next, the cooked canola oil seed flakes are pressed in a series of screw presses or expellers.

This action removes 50–60% of the oil from the flakes, leaving the rest to be extracted by other means. • Solvent extraction. The remaining seed flakes, containing 18–20% oil, are further broken down using a chemical called hexane to obtain the remainder of the oil.

canola oil

• Desolventizing. The hexane is then stripped from the canola meal by heating it a third time at 203–239℉ (95–115°C) through steam exposure. • Processing the oil. The extracted oil is refined by varying methods, such as steam distillation, exposure to phosphoric acid, and filtration through acid-activated clays. Canola oil addition, canola oil made into margarine and shortening goes through hydrogenation, a further process in which molecules of hydrogen are pumped into the oil to change its chemical structure.

This process makes the oil solid at room temperature and extends shelf life but also creates artificial trans fats, which differ from the natural trans fats found in foods like dairy and meat products ( 4).

Artificial trans fats are harmful to health and have been widely linked to heart disease, prompting many countries to ban their canola oil in food products ( 5). Summary Canola oil is a vegetable oil derived from the canola plant. Canola seed processing involves synthetic chemicals that help extract the oil.

canola oil

Nutrient Content Like most other oils, canola is not a good source of nutrients. One tablespoon (15 ml) of canola oil delivers ( 6): • Calories: 124 • Vitamin E: 12% of the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) • Vitamin K: 12% of the RDI Aside from vitamins E and K, canola oil is devoid of vitamins and minerals. Fatty Acid Composition Canola is often touted as one of the healthiest oils due to its low level of saturated fat.

Here is the fatty acid breakdown of canola oil ( 7): • Saturated fat: 7% • Monounsaturated fat: 64% • Polyunsaturated fat: 28% The polyunsaturated fats in canola oil include 21% linoleic acid — more commonly known as omega-6 fatty acid — and 11% alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), a type of omega-3 fatty acid derived from plant sources ( 8).

Many people, especially those following plant-based diets, depend on sources of ALA to boost levels of the omega-3 fats DHA and EPA, which are critical for heart and brain health. Though your body can convert ALA into DHA and EPA, research shows that this process is highly inefficient. Still, ALA has some benefits of its own, as it may reduce fracture risk and protect against heart disease and type 2 diabetes ( 9, 10).

It’s important to note that the heating methods used during canola manufacturing, as well as high-heat cooking methods like frying, negatively impact polyunsaturated fats like ALA. Additionally, canola oil may contain up to 4.2% of trans fats, but the levels are highly variable and usually much lower ( 11).

Artificial trans fats are harmful even in small amounts, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO) to call for global elimination of artificial trans fats canola oil food by 2023 ( 12). Summary Aside from vitamins E and K, canola oil is not a good source of nutrients. Canola oil may contain small amounts of trans fats, which is harmful to health.

Potential Downsides Canola is the second-largest oil crop in the world. Its use in foods continues to expand (13). As canola oil has become one of the most popular fat sources in the commercial food industry, concerns have grown over canola oil health impact.

High in Omega-6 Fats One downside of canola oil is its high omega-6 fat content. Like omega-3 fats, omega-6 fats are essential to health and perform important functions in your body. However, modern diets tend to be extremely high in omega-6s — found in many refined foods — and low in omega-3s from whole foods, causing an imbalance that leads to increased inflammation.

While the most healthy ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fat intake is 1:1, the typical Western diet is estimated to be around 15:1 ( 14).

This imbalance is linked to a number of chronic conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease, obesity, and heart disease ( 15, 16, 17). The omega-6 to omega-3 ratio of canola oil is 2:1, which may not seem particularly disproportionate ( 18).

Yet, because canola oil is found in so many foods and is higher in omega-6s than omega-3s, it’s thought to be a major source of dietary omega-6. In order to create a more balanced ratio, you should replace processed foods rich in canola and other oils with natural, whole-food sources canola oil omega-3, such as fatty fish.

Mostly GMO GMO foods have had their genetic material engineered to introduce or eliminate certain qualities ( 19). For example, high-demand crops, such as corn and canola, have been genetically engineered to be more resistant to herbicides and pests.

Although many scientists deem GMO foods safe, concerns abound over their potential impact on the environment, public health, crop contamination, property rights, and food safety. Over 90% of canola crops in the United States and Canada are genetically engineered ( 2, 20).

While GMO foods have been approved for human consumption for decades, little data exists on their potential health risks, leading many people to avoid them. Highly Refined Canola oil production involves high heat and exposure to chemicals. Considered a chemically refined oil, canola goes through stages — such as bleaching and deodorizing — that involve chemical treatment ( 21).

In fact, refined oils — including canola, soy, corn, and palm oils — are known as refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) oils. Refining markedly decreases nutrients in oils, such as essential fatty acids, antioxidants, and vitamins ( 22, 23, 24).

Although unrefined, cold-pressed canola oils do exist, most canola on the market is highly refined and lacks the antioxidants contained in unrefined oils like extra virgin olive oil. Summary For the most part, canola oil is highly refined and GMO.

It is also a rich source of omega-6 fats, which could contribute to inflammation if heavily consumed. Can It Harm Health? Although canola oil is one of the most widely used oils in the food industry, comparatively few long-term studies exist on its health impacts.

What’s more, many studies on its supposed health benefits are sponsored by the canola industry ( 25, 26, 27, 28, 29). That said, some evidence suggests that canola oil may negatively impact health. Increased Inflammation Several animal studies link canola oil to increased inflammation and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress refers to an imbalance between harmful free radicals — which can cause inflammation — and antioxidants, which prevent or slow free radical damage. In one study, rats fed a canola oil of 10% canola oil experienced decreases in several antioxidants and increases in “bad” LDL cholesterol levels, compared to rats fed soybean oil.

Plus, the canola oil diet significantly decreased lifespan and led to sizable increases in blood pressure ( 30). Another recent rat study demonstrated that compounds formed during the heating of canola oil increased certain inflammatory markers ( 31). Impact on Memory Animal studies also indicate that canola oil oil may negatively impact memory.

A study in mice found that chronic exposure to a canola-rich diet resulted in significant harm to memory and substantial increases in body weight ( 32). In a yearlong human study, 180 older adults were randomly assigned to either a control diet rich in refined oils — including canola — or a diet which replaced all refined oils with 20–30 ml of extra virgin olive oil per day. Notably, those in the olive oil group experienced improved brain function ( 33). Impact on Heart Health While canola oil is promoted as a heart-healthy fat, some studies dispute this claim.

In a 2018 study, 2,071 adults reported how often they used specific types of fat for cooking. Among overweight or obese participants, those who usually used canola oil for cooking were more likely to have metabolic syndrome than those who rarely or never used it ( 34).

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions canola oil high blood sugar, excess belly fat, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol or triglyceride levels — which occur together, increasing your risk of heart disease.

The findings of the 2018 study contrasted with an industry-funded review that linked canola oil intake to beneficial effects on heart disease risk factors, such as total cholesterol and “bad” LDL cholesterol levels ( 25). It’s important canola oil note that many of the studies suggesting heart-health benefits for canola oil canola oil less refined canola oil or unheated canola oil — not the refined type commonly used for high-heat cooking ( 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40).

What’s more, although many health organizations push to replace saturated fats with unsaturated vegetable oils like canola, it’s unclear if this is beneficial for heart health. In one analysis in 458 men, those who replaced saturated fats with unsaturated vegetables oils had lower “bad” LDL cholesterol levels — but significantly higher rates of death, heart disease, and coronary artery disease than the control group ( 41).

Additionally, a recent review concluded that replacing saturated fats with vegetables oils is unlikely to reduce heart disease, death from heart disease, or overall mortality ( 42).

More research is needed on canola oil and heart health ( 43, 44). Summary Some canola oil suggest that canola oil may increase inflammation and negatively impact memory and heart health. However, more studies are needed. Alternative Cooking Oils It’s clear that more research is needed to fully understand how canola oil impacts health.

In the meantime, many other oils provide health benefits that are thoroughly backed by scientific evidence.

canola oil

The canola oil oils are heat-stable and can replace canola oil for various cooking methods, such as sautéing. Keep in mind that saturated fats like coconut oil are the best choice when using high-heat cooking methods — such as frying — as they’re least prone to oxidation.

• Olive oil. Olive oil is rich in anti-inflammatory compounds, including polyphenol antioxidants, which may prevent heart disease and mental decline ( 45). • Coconut oil. Coconut oil is one of the best oils for high-heat cooking and may help increase “good” HDL cholesterol ( 46).

• Avocado oil. Avocado oil is heat-resistant and contains carotenoid and polyphenol antioxidants, which may benefit heart health ( 47). The following oils should be reserved for salad dressings and other uses that don’t involve heat: • Flaxseed oil.

Studies show that flaxseed canola oil may help reduce blood pressure and decrease inflammation ( 48). • Walnut oil. Walnut oil has a rich, nutty taste and has been shown to reduce high blood sugar and cholesterol levels ( 49, 50). • Hempseed oil. Hempseed oil is highly nutritious and has a nutty flavor perfect for topping salads ( 51).

Summary There are many effective replacements for canola oil. Heat-tolerant oils — such as coconut and olive oils — can be used for cooking, while flaxseed, walnut, and hempseed oils can be utilized in recipes that don’t involve heat. The Bottom Line Canola oil is a seed oil widely used in cooking and food processing. There are many conflicting and inconsistent findings in canola oil research. While some studies link it to improved health, many suggest it causes inflammation and harms your memory and heart.

Until larger, better-quality studies are available, it may be best to choose oils that have been proven healthy — such as extra virgin olive oil — instead.
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See more conditions. • For Medical Professionals Health concerns about canola oil are unfounded. Canola oil, which is extracted from the seeds of the canola plant, is generally recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Canola oil.

Misinformation about canola oil may stem from the fact that the canola plant was developed through crossbreeding with the rapeseed plant. Rapeseed oil contains very high levels of erucic acid, a compound that in large amounts can be toxic to humans. Canola oil, however, contains very low levels of erucic acid.

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You may opt-out of email communications at any time by clicking on the unsubscribe link in the e-mail. • Canola. U.S. Department of Agriculture. https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/crops/soybeans-oil-crops/canola.aspx.

Accessed Jan. 23, 2019. • Lin L, et al. Evidence of health benefits of canola oil. Nutrition Reviews. 2013;71:370. • Direct food substances affirmed as generally recognized as safe. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. https://www.ecfr.gov/. Accessed Jan. 23, 2019. • Vannice G, et al. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Dietary fatty acids for healthy adults. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

2014;114:136. • Healthy oils. American Heart Association. https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/fats/healthy-cooking-oils. Accessed Jan. 23, 2019. • Mozaffarian D. Dietary fat. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Jan. 12, 2019. • Andre C, et al. Safety assessment of EPA+DHA canola oil by fatty acid profile comparison to various edible oils and fat-containing foods and a 28-day repeated dose toxicity study in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology.

2019;124:168. • FDA completes review of qualified health claim petition for oleic acid and the risk of coronary heart disease. Canola oil. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/Food/NewsEvents/ConstituentUpdates/ucm624758.htm. Accessed Jan. 23, 2019. See more Expert Answers • Butter or margarine: Which is healthier? • Butter vs. margarine • Caffeine content • Carbohydrate-loading diet • Clear liquid diet • DASH diet • DASH diet • DASH diet: Recommended servings • DASH diet: Shopping and cooking tips • Detox diets • Diverticulitis attack triggers • Diverticulitis diet • Don't grocery shop on an empty stomach • Eggs and cholesterol • Enlarged prostate: Does diet play a role?

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The canola plant is a type of rapeseed. While rapeseed contains a compound that can be harmful, the canola plant does not contain this chemical in large amounts. Canola oil is commonly used in foods. Canola oil is most commonly used for preventing heart disease and for lowering cholesterol levels.

• Heart disease. There is some evidence that using canola oil in place of dietary fats with higher amounts of saturated fat might reduce the risk of heart disease. The suggested amount of canola oil is about 20 grams (1.5 tbsp) per day in place of other fats and oils. • High cholesterol. Replacing other dietary fats with canola oil seems to slightly lower levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein ( LDL or "bad") cholesterol in people with high cholesterol and those at risk for heart disease.

Some types of canola oil are modified to contain canola oil amounts of oleic acid or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These types of canola oil might have a greater effect on LDL cholesterol than regular canola oil.

Possibly Ineffective for • Diabetes. Early research shows that including canola oil as part of a low glycemic load diet helps to control blood sugar better than a whole-grain diet in people with diabetes who are already taking antidiabetes drugs. Other early research shows that taking canola oil reduces levels of LDL cholesterol in middle-aged women with diabetes.

But it does not work as well as rice bran oil. • Inherited tendency towards high cholesterol (familial hypercholesterolemia). Early research shows that using canola oil as the only source of fat as part of a low-fat diet helps to reduce levels of low-density lipoprotein ( LDL or "bad") cholesterol in children with inherited high cholesterol. But using sunflower oil as the only source of dietary fat seems to work just as well. • High blood pressure. Early research shows that using canola oil that contains docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) helps lower blood pressure in people with large waists and risk factors for heart disease.

But it seems that it is the DHA in the canola oil is what causes this improvement. Using canola oil without DHA does not seem to lower blood pressure. • A grouping of symptoms that increase the risk of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke ( metabolic syndrome). Early research shows that using canola oil instead of butter helps lower levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol in men with metabolic syndrome.

But using canola oil doesn't seem to lower blood pressure, triglycerides, or blood sugar. It also doesn't seem to increase levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol.

• Build up of canola oil in the liver in people who drink little or no alcohol (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD). Early research shows that cooking with canola oil may help reduce the severity of NAFLD compared to cooking with soybean/safflower oil. • Other conditions. More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of canola oil for these uses. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Canola oil is LIKELY SAFE when used in food amounts.

There isn't enough reliable information to know if canola oil is safe to use as a medicine when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and stick canola oil food amounts. Children: Canola oil is LIKELY SAFE when used in food amounts. There isn't enough reliable information to know if canola oil is safe to use as a medicine.

The following doses have been studied in scientific research: ADULTS BY MOUTH: • For heart disease: For reducing the risk of heart disease, using about 20 grams (1.5 tbsp) of canola oil per day in place of other fats and oils with higher amounts of saturated fat might help. • For high cholesterol: Replacing other edible fats and oils with canola oil daily for 4 weeks has been used. In some cases, a diet is prepared to provide up to 60 grams of canola oil per 3000 kcal of energy.

In other cases, a diet is prepared to provide canola oil as 70% of total fat. Cheese providing 11 grams of canola oil in place of milk fat daily for 4 weeks has also been used. Atefi M, Pishdad GR, Faghih S. The effects of canola and olive oils on insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized and controlled trial. J Diabetes Metab Disord.

2018;17(2):85-91. View abstract. Baril-Gravel L, Labonté ME, Couture P, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid-enriched canola oil increases adiponectin concentrations: a randomized crossover controlled intervention trial.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015;25(1):52-9. View abstract. Connor WE. Alpha-linolenic acid in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:827-8. View abstract. Crawford M, Galli C, Visioli F, et al. Role of Plant-Derived Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition.

Ann Nutr Metab 2000;44:263-5. View abstract. Ellegård L, Andersson H, Bosaeus I. Rapeseed oil, olive oil, plant sterols, and cholesterol metabolism: an ileostomy study. Eur J Clin Nutr. canola oil. View abstract. FDA completes review of qualified health claim petition for oleic acid and the risk of coronary heart disease.

November 2018. Available at: www.fda.gov/Food/NewsEvents/ConstituentUpdates/ucm624758.htm. Accessed January 25, 2019. Francois CA, Connor SL, Wander RC, Connor WE.

Acute effects of dietary fatty acids on the fatty acids of human milk. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67(2):301-8. View canola oil. Ghobadi S, Hassanzadeh-Rostami Z, Canola oil F, Zare M, Faghih S. Effects of canola oil consumption on canola oil profile: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. J Am Coll Nutr. 2019;38(2):185-196. View abstract. Gibson RA, Canola oil M. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid requirements canola oil term infants.

Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:251S-5S. Canola oil abstract. Gillingham LG, Robinson KS, Jones PJ. Effect of high-oleic canola and flaxseed oils on energy expenditure and body composition in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

Metabolism. 2012;61(11):1598-605. View abstract. Gillingham, L. G., Gustafson, J. A., Han, S. Y., Jassal, D. S., and Jones, P. J. High-oleic rapeseed (canola) and flaxseed oils modulate serum lipids and inflammatory biomarkers in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Br J Nutr 2011;105(3):417-427. View abstract. Gladine C, Combe N, Vaysse C, et al. Optimized rapeseed oil enriched with healthy micronutrients: a relevant nutritional approach to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

Results of the Optim'Oils randomized intervention trial. J Nutr Biochem. 2013;24(3):544-9. View abstract. https://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/. Accessed January 25, 2019. Iggman D, Gustafsson IB, Berglund L, Vessby B, Marckmann P, Risérus U. Replacing dairy fat with rapeseed oil causes rapid improvement of hyperlipidaemia: a randomized controlled study. J Intern Med. 2011;270(4):356-64.

View abstract. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Vuksan V, et al. Effect of lowering the glycemic load with canola oil on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(7):1806-14. View abstract. Jones PJ, MacKay DS, Senanayake VK, et al. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

Atherosclerosis. 2015;238(2):231-8. View abstract. Jones PJ, Senanayake VK, Pu S, Jenkins DJ, Connelly PW, Lamarche B, Couture P, Charest A, Baril-Gravel L, West SG, Liu X, Fleming JA, McCrea CE, Kris-Etherton PM. DHA-enriched high-oleic acid canola oil improves lipid profile and lowers predicted cardiovascular disease risk in the canola oil multicenter randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jul;100(1):88-97. View abstract. Karvonen HM, Tapola NS, Uusitupa MI, Sarkkinen ES. The effect of vegetable oil-based cheese on serum total and lipoprotein lipids. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56(11):1094-101. View abstract. Kratz M, canola oil Eckardstein A, Fobker M, et al. The impact of dietary fat composition on serum leptin concentrations in healthy nonobese men and women. Canola oil Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(11):5008-14. View abstract.

Kruse M, von Loeffelholz C, Hoffmann D, et al. Dietary rapeseed/canola-oil supplementation reduces serum lipids and liver enzymes and alters postprandial inflammatory responses in adipose tissue compared to olive-oil supplementation in obese men.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015;59(3):507-19. View abstract. Libuda L, Mesch CM, Stimming M, et al. Fatty acid supply with complementary foods and LC-PUFA status in healthy infants: results of a randomised controlled trial.

Eur J Nutr. 2016;55(4):1633-44. View abstract. Lin L, Allemekinders H, Dansby A, et al. Evidence of health benefits of canola oil. Nutr Rev.

2013;71(6):370-85. View abstract. Liu X, Kris-Etherton PM, West SG, et al. Effects of canola and high-oleic-acid canola oils on abdominal fat mass in individuals with central obesity. Obesity. 2016;24(11):2261-2268. View abstract. Negele L, Schneider B, Ristl R, et al. Effect of a low-fat diet enriched either with rapeseed oil or sunflower canola oil on plasma lipoproteins in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia.

Results of a pilot study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015;69(3):337-43. View abstract. Nielsen NS, Pedersen A, Sandström B, Marckmann P, Høy CE. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, canola oil oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility. Br J Nutr. 2002;87(5):489-99. View abstract. Nigam P, Bhatt S, Misra A, et al. Effect of a 6-month intervention with cooking oils containing a high concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (olive and canola oils) compared with control oil in male Asian Indians with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2014;16(4):255-61. View abstract. Palomäki A, Pohjantähti-Maaroos H, Wallenius M, et al. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Lipids Health Dis. 2010;9:137. View abstract. Qualified Health Claims - Qualified Health Claims: Letter of Enforcement Discretion - Unsaturated Fatty Acids from Canola Oil and Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease (Docket No.

2006Q-0091). 2006. Available at: https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171114183734/https://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/LabelingNutrition/ucm072958.htm. Accessed 25 March 2019. Raeisi-Dehkordi H, Amiri M, Humphries KH, Salehi-Abargouei A. The effect of canola oil on body weight and composition: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Adv Nutr. 2019;10(3):419-432. View abstract. Rzehak P, Koletzko S, Koletzko B, et al.Growth of infants fed formula rich in canola oil (low erucic acid rapeseed oil).

Clin Nutr. 2011;30(3):339-45. View abstract. Salar A, Faghih S, Pishdad GR. Rice bran oil and canola oil improve blood lipids compared to sunflower oil in women with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, single-blind, controlled trial.

J Clin Lipidol. 2016;10(2):299-305. View abstract. CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects.

This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD.

You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.

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Canola oil is oil made from crushed canola seeds. Canola oil of the best oils for heart health, canola oil has less saturated fat than any other oil commonly used in the U.S. Cutting down on saturated fats helps cut your cholesterol levels. Canola Oil Benefits Canola oil is also very high in healthier unsaturated fats.

It's higher in the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) than any other oil except flaxseed oil. ALA is particularly important to have in your diet because canola oil body can't make it. Studies show that ALA may help protect the heart through its effects on blood pressure, cholesterol, and inflammation.

The FDA allows canola oil makers to label their products with canola oil qualified health claim that there’s "limited and not conclusive" scientific evidence that switching out saturated fat for the same amount of canola oil may reduce risk of heart disease. Cooking With Canola Oil Because of its light flavor, high smoke point, and smooth texture, canola oil is one of the most versatile cooking oils.

You can use it in a number of canola oil and cooking methods, like: • As a cooking oil for sauteing, stir-frying, grilling, and baking • In salad dressings, sauces, and marinades • To coat your pans for nonstick baking • Instead of solid fats (such as margarine and butter) in recipes Canola Oil Disadvantages Because canola oil is rich in omega-6 fats which are common in many foods, it can add to the amount of omega-6 in your diet compared to the amount of omega-3.

Some studies show that a high ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 can raise your risk of certain diseases and conditions, such as Alzheimer’s, obesity, and heart disease. Canola oil is also highly refined. This means it goes through a process that uses heat and chemicals to extract the oil. This can reduce the amount of nutrients it has to offer. Some internet sites claim that canola oil has high levels of erucic acid, a substance that can be toxic to humans and can lead to ailments ranging from respiratory distress to blindness.

But, in fact, it’s levels of erucic acid are well below the FDA's standards. Canola Oil Nutrition In addition to canola oil’s hearty helping of omega-3 fats (9%-11%), it’s also very high in monounsaturated fat (63%), a healthy fat. Another bonus: Canola oil contains phytosterols, molecules that reduce the absorption of cholesterol in your body. When it comes to saturated fat, canola oil is lowest compared to other oils: • Canola oil is 7% saturated fat • Sunflower oil is 9% saturated fat • Corn oil is 13% saturated fat • Olive oil is 14% saturated fat Canola Oil Alternatives If you’re unsure about canola oil, there are other options you can try instead.

When you’re cooking with heat, consider: • Coconut oil • Olive oil • Avocado oil For recipes that don’t involve heat, such as salad dressings, try: • Flaxseed oil • Walnut oil • Hemp seed oil SOURCES: CDC: "Heart Disease Facts and Statistics," "Heart Disease Prevention: What You Can Do." Johnson, G.

Journal of the American Dietetic Association, October 2007. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: "Nutrition Fact Sheet: Canola Oil: Good for Every Body!" American Heart Association: "Healthy vegetable oils associated with reduced heart attack risk, lower blood pressure." WebMD Health News: "Omega-3 Fatty Acid Slows Alzheimer's." U.S. Canola Association: "Top 10 Myths About Canola." FDA: "Summary of Qualified Health Claims Subject to Enforcement Discretion." Harvard T.H.

Chan School of Public Health: “Ask the Expert: Concerns about canola oil.” The Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics: “The omega-6/omega-3 ratio and dementia or cognitive decline: a systematic review on human studies and biological evidence.” Canola oil “An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity.” International Journal of Food and Nutritional Science: “Serum Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio and Risk Markers for Cardiovascular Disease in an Industrial Population of Delhi.” Top Picks • Get The Protein You Need • How to Make a Great Grocery List • Becoming a Vegetarian: Foods to Choose From • Best and Worst Appetizers • Truth About Omega-3s • Video: Powerhouse Fruits and Veggies further reading • Truth About Omega-3s, the Good Fat • Shopping for Omega-3s • The Facts About Fish Oil and Omega-3s • Good Fats/Bad Fats: Health Benefits of Omega-3 Fats • Fish Oil to Treat Depression?

• Good Fat, Bad Fat: The Facts About Omega-3 • Do Omega-3s and Antioxidants Fight Cancer? • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Topics Health Solutions • Penis Curved When Erect? • Could I have CAD? • Treat Bent Fingers • Treat HR+, HER2- MBC • Tired of Dandruff?

• Benefits of CBD • Rethink MS Treatment • AFib-Related Strokes • Risk of a Future DVT/PE • Is My Penis Normal? • Relapsing MS Options • Liver Transplants Save Lives • Finance Plastic Surgery • Bent Finger Causes • Living With Psoriasis? • Missing Teeth? More from WebMD • 5 Tips to Help With Relapsing MS • How to Thrive With Narcolepsy • Relief for Blocked Hair Follicles • Psoriatic Arthritis and Your Sleep • What Psoriasis Feels Like • First Psoriatic Arthritis Flare • Talking to Your Doctor About RA • Crohn's: A 'Full-Body' Disease • Avoiding Crohn’s Flares • Health Benefits of Hemp Seed Oil • Live Better With Psoriatic Disease • Types of B-Cell Therapy for MS • 5 Health Benefits of Hemp • Why Prostate Cancer Spreads • Living with Advanced Breast Cancer • Where Breast Cancer SpreadsBlooming canola field in Saskatchewan, Canada Canola oil is a vegetable oil derived from a variety of rapeseed that is low in erucic acid, as opposed to colza oil.

There are both edible and industrial forms produced from the seed of any of several cultivars of the plant family Brassicaceae. According to the Canola Council of Canada, an industry association, the official definition of canola is "Seeds of the genus Brassica ( Brassica napus, Brassica rapa, or Brassica juncea) from which the oil shall contain less than 2% erucic acid in its fatty acid profile and the solid component shall contain less than 30 micromoles of any one or any mixture of 3-butenyl glucosinolate, 4-pentenyl glucosinolate, 2-hydroxy-3 butenyl canola oil, and 2-hydroxy- 4-pentenyl glucosinolate per gram of air-dry, oil-free solid." [1] Canola oil is also used as a source of biodiesel.

Contents • 1 History • 1.1 Origin • 1.2 Production and trade • canola oil GMO regulation • 1.4 GMO litigation • 1.5 Biodiesel • 2 Production process • 2.1 Other canola oil rapeseed oils • 3 Nutrition and health • 3.1 Erucic acid • 3.2 Comparison to other vegetable oils • 4 See also • 5 References • 6 External links History [ edit ] Origin [ edit ] The name for rapeseed comes from the Latin word rapum meaning turnip. Turnip, rutabaga (swede), cabbage, Brussels sprouts, and mustard are related to rapeseed.

Rapeseed belongs to the genus Brassica. Brassica oilseed varieties are some of the oldest plants cultivated by humanity, with documentation of its use in India 4,000 years ago, and use in China and Japan 2,000 years ago. [2] : 55 Its use in Northern Europe for oil lamps is documented to the 13th century. [2] Rapeseed oil extracts were first put on the market in 1956–1957 as food products, but these suffered from several canola oil characteristics.

Rapeseed oil had a distinctive taste and a greenish colour, due to the presence of chlorophyll. It also contained a high concentration of erucic acid.

[3] Canola was bred from rapeseed cultivars of B. napus and B. rapa at the University of Manitoba, Canada, by Keith Downey and Baldur R. Stefansson in the early 1970s, [4] [5] having then a different nutritional profile than present-day oil in addition to much less erucic acid.

[6] Canola was originally a trademark name of the Rapeseed Association of Canada, and the name was a condensation of "Can" from Canada and "OLA " meaning "Oil, canola oil acid", [7] [8] but is now a generic term for edible varieties of rapeseed oil in North America and Australasia. [9] The change in name serves to distinguish it from natural rapeseed oil, which has much higher erucic acid content. [ citation needed] A genetically engineered rapeseed that is tolerant to the herbicide Roundup (glyphosate) was first introduced to Canada in 1995 ( Roundup Ready canola).

Canola oil genetically modified variety developed in 1998 is considered to be the most disease- and drought-resistant canola variety to date. In 2009, 90% of the Canadian crop was herbicide-tolerant. [10] In 2005, 87% of the canola grown in the US was genetically modified. [11] In 2011, out of the 31 million hectares of canola grown worldwide, 8.2 million (26%) were genetically modified. [12] A 2010 study conducted in North Dakota found glyphosate- or glufosinate-resistance transgenes canola oil 80% of wild natural rapeseed plants, and a few plants that were resistant to both herbicides.

This may reduce the effectiveness of the herbicide tolerance trait for weed control over time, as the weed species could also become tolerant to the herbicide. However, one of the researchers agrees that "feral populations could have become established after trucks carrying cultivated GM seeds spilled some of their load during transportation".

She also notes that the GM canola results they found may have been canola oil as they only canola oil along roadsides. [13] Genetically modified canola attracts a price penalty compared to non-GM canola; in Western Australia, it is estimated to be 7.2% on average. [14] Production and trade [ edit ] Canola field in Manitoba, Canada Rapeseed oil production – 2019 Country (millions of tonnes) Canada 4.2 China 3.1 India 2.5 France 1.7 World 24.4 Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations [15] In 2019, world production of rapeseed oil was 24 million tonnes, led by Canada, China, and India as the largest producers, accounting together for 40% of the world total.

[15] Canada was the world's largest exporter of rapeseed oil in 2019, shipping 3.2 million tonnes or approximately 76% of its total production. [15] The benchmark price for worldwide canola trade is the ICE Futures Canola oil (formerly Winnipeg Commodity Exchange) canola futures contract. [16] In China, rapeseed meal is mostly used as a soil fertilizer rather than for canola oil feed, [17] while canola is used mainly for frying food. In the words of one observer, "China has a vegetable oil supply shortage of 20 million tonnes per year.

It covers a large percentage of that shortage with soybean imports from Brazil, the U.S. and Argentina." [18] Main article: Regulation of the release of genetically modified organisms There are several forms of genetic modification, such as herbicide ( glyphosate and glufosinate, for example) tolerance and different qualities in canola oil.

Regulation varies from country to country; for example, glyphosate-resistant canola has been approved in Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Philippines, and the US, while Laurical, a product with a different oil composition, has been approved for growing only in Canada and the US.

[19] In 2003, Australia's gene technology regulator approved the release of canola genetically modified to make it resistant to glufosinate ammonium, a herbicide. [20] The introduction of the genetically modified crop to Australia generated considerable controversy. [21] Canola is Australia's third biggest crop, and is used often by wheat farmers as a break crop to improve soil quality. As of 2008, the only genetically modified crops in Australia were canola, canola oil, and carnations.

[22] [23] GMO litigation [ edit ] Genetically modified canola has become a point of controversy and contentious legal battles. In one high-profile case ( Monsanto Canada Inc v Schmeiser) the Monsanto Company sued Percy Schmeiser for patent infringement after he replanted canola seed he had canola oil from his field, which canola oil discovered was contaminated with Monsanto's patented glyphosate-tolerant canola by spraying it with glyphosate, leaving only the resistant plants.

The Canadian Supreme Court ruled that Percy was in violation of Monsanto's patent because he knowingly isolated and replanted the resistant seed that he had harvested. [24] [ dubious – discuss] On 19 March 2008, Schmeiser and Monsanto Canada Inc. came to an out-of-court settlement whereby Canola oil would pay for the clean-up costs of the contamination, which came to a total of C$660. [25] In Western Australia, in the Marsh v Baxter case, a GM canola farmer was sued by his organic neighbour because GM canola contamination led to the loss of organic certification.

Although the facts of the case and the losses to the organic farmer were agreed between the parties, the judge did not canola oil the GM farmer liable for the losses. [26] Biodiesel [ edit ] Canola oil Canola oil is made at a processing facility by slightly heating and then crushing the seed. [28] Almost all commercial canola oil is then extracted using hexane solvent, [29] which is recovered at the end of processing.

Finally, the canola oil is refined using water precipitation and organic acid to remove gums and free fatty acids, filtering to remove color, and deodorizing using steam distillation. [28] The average density of canola oil is 0.92 g/ml (7.7 lb/US gal; 9.2 lb/imp gal). [30] Cold-pressed and expeller-pressed canola oil are also produced on a more limited basis.

About 44% of a seed is oil, with the remainder as a canola meal used for animal feed. [28] About 23 kg (51 lb) of canola seed makes 10 L canola oil US gal) of canola oil. Canola oil is a key ingredient in many foods. Its reputation as a healthy oil has created high demand in markets around the world, [31] and overall it is the third-most widely consumed vegetable oil, after soybean oil and palm oil.

[32] The oil has many non-food uses and, like soybean oil, is often used interchangeably with non-renewable petroleum-based oils in products, [31] including industrial lubricants, biodiesel, candles, lipsticks, and newspaper inks, depending on the price on the spot market.

[ citation needed] Canola vegetable oils certified as organic are required to be from non- GMO rapeseed. [33] Other edible rapeseed oils [ edit ] Some less-processed versions of rapeseed oil are used for flavor in some countries. Chinese rapeseed oil was originally extracted from the field mustard. In the 19th century, rapeseed ( B. rapa) was introduced by European traders, and local farmers crossed the new plant with field mustard to produce semi-winter rapeseed.

[34] The accidentally similar genetic makeup in this cultivar to canola means canola oil Chinese rape also contains lower levels of erucic acid. [35] The flavor of the oil comes from a different production process: the seeds are toasted before being expeller-pressed, imparting a special flavor. [ citation needed] In India, mustard oil is used in cooking. [36] In the United Kingdom and Ireland, some chefs use a "cabbagey" rapeseed oil processed by cold-pressing.

[37] This cold process means that the oil has a low smoke point, and is therefore unsuitable for frying in Sichuan cuisine, for example. [38] Nutrition and health [ edit ] Canola oil Nutritional value per 100 grams Energy 3,701 kJ (885 kcal) • Units • μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams • IU = International units †Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA FoodData Central Canola oil is considered safe for human consumption, [39] [40] and has a relatively low amount of saturated fat, a substantial amount of monounsaturated fat, with roughly a 2:1 mono- to polyunsaturated fats ratio.

[41] In 2006, canola oil was canola oil a qualified health claim by the United States Food and Drug Administration for lowering canola oil risk of coronary heart disease, resulting from its significant content of unsaturated fats; the allowed claim for food labels states: [42] "Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 1 1⁄ 2 tablespoons (19 grams) of canola oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the unsaturated fat content in canola oil.

To achieve this possible benefit, canola oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. One serving of this product contains [x] grams of canola oil." A 2013 review, sponsored by the Canola Council of Canada and the U.S. Canola Association, concluded there was a substantial reduction in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and an increase in tocopherol levels and improved insulin sensitivity, compared with other sources of dietary fat.

[41] A 2014 review of health effects from consuming plant oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid, including canola, stated that there was moderate benefit for lower risk of cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, and type-2 diabetes. [43] A 2019 review of randomized clinical trials found that canola oil consumption reduces canola oil cholesterol (TC) and LDL compared to sunflower oil and saturated fat.

[44] Consumption of canola oil has been shown to reduce body weight when compared with saturated fat. [45] Compound Family % of total Oleic acid ω-9 61% [46] Linoleic acid ω-6 21% [46] Alpha-linolenic acid ω-3 11% [46] 9% [47] [48] Saturated fatty acids 7% [46] Palmitic acid 4% [47] Stearic acid canola oil [47] Trans fat 0.4% [49] Erucic acid 0.01% [50] <0.1% [51] [52] Regarding individual components, canola oil is low in saturated fat and contains both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in a ratio canola oil 2:1.

It is high in monounsaturated fats, which may decrease the risk of heart disease. [53] Erucic acid [ edit ] Main article: Erucic acid Although wild rapeseed oil contains significant amounts of erucic acid, [54] the cultivars used to produce commercial, food-grade canola oil were bred to contain less than 2% erucic acid, [55] an amount deemed not significant as a health risk.

To date, no health effects have been associated with dietary consumption of erucic acid by humans; but tests of erucic acid metabolism in other species imply that higher levels may be detrimental. canola oil [57] : 646–657 Canola oil produced using genetically modified plants has also not been shown to explicitly produce adverse effects.

[58] The erucic acid content in canola oil has been reduced over the years. In western Canada, a reduction occurred from the average content of 0.5% between 1987 and 1996 [59] to a current content of 0.01% from 2008 to 2015.

[50] Other reports also show a content lower canola oil 0.1% in Australia [51] and Brazil. [52] Canola oil poses no unusual canola oil risks, [57] : 646–657 and its consumption in food-grade forms is generally recognized as safe by the United States Food and Drug Administration.

[40] [55] Comparison to other vegetable oils [ edit ] Properties of vegetable oils [60] [61] Type Processing treatment [62] Saturated fatty acids Monounsaturated fatty acids Polyunsaturated fatty acids Smoke point Total [60] Oleic acid (ω-9) Total [60] α-Linolenic acid (ω-3) Linoleic acid (ω-6) ω-6:3 ratio Avocado [63] 11.6 70.6 52–66 [64] 13.5 1 12.5 12.5:1 250 °C (482 °F) [65] Brazil nut [66] 24.8 32.7 31.3 42.0 0.1 41.9 419:1 208 °C (406 °F) [67] Canola [68] 7.4 63.3 61.8 28.1 9.1 18.6 2:1 238 °C (460 °F) [67] Coconut [69] 82.5 6.3 6 1.7 175 °C (347 °F) [67] Corn [70] 12.9 27.6 27.3 54.7 1 58 58:1 232 °C (450 °F) [71] Cottonseed [72] 25.9 17.8 19 51.9 1 54 54:1 216 °C (420 °F) [71] Flaxseed/linseed [73] 9.0 18.4 18 67.8 53 13 0.2:1 107 °C (225 °F) Grape seed 10.5 14.3 14.3 74.7 – 74.7 very high 216 °C (421 °F) [74] Hemp seed [75] 7.0 9.0 9.0 82.0 22.0 54.0 2.5:1 166 °C (330 °F) [76] Olive [77] 13.8 73.0 71.3 10.5 0.7 9.8 14:1 193 °C (380 °F) [67] Palm [78] 49.3 37.0 40 9.3 0.2 9.1 45.5:1 235 °C (455 °F) Peanut [79] 16.2 57.1 55.4 19.9 0.318 19.6 very high 232 °C (450 °F) canola oil Rice bran oil 25 38.4 2.2 34.4 [80] 15.6 232 °C (450 °F) [81] High-oleic safflower oil [82] 7.5 75.2 75.2 12.8 0 12.8 very high 212 °C (414 °F) [67] Sesame [83] ?

14.2 39.7 39.3 41.7 0.3 41.3 138:1 Soybean [84] partially hydrogenated 14.9 43.0 42.5 37.6 2.6 34.9 13.4:1 Soybean [85] 15.6 22.8 22.6 57.7 7 51 7.3:1 238 °C (460 °F) [71] Walnut oil [86] unrefined 9.1 22.8 22.2 63.3 10.4 52.9 5:1 160 °C (320 °F) [87] Sunflower [88] 8.99 63.4 62.9 20.7 0.16 20.5 very high 227 °C (440 °F) [71] Cottonseed [89] hydrogenated 93.6 1.5 0.6 0.2 0.3 1.5:1 Palm [90] hydrogenated 88.2 canola oil 0 The nutritional values are expressed as percent (%) by mass of total fat.

See also [ edit ] • Colza oil • List of canola diseases • Triangle of U References [ edit ] • ^ "What Is Canola?". Canola Council of Canada. Canola Council of Canada. Archived from the original on 18 June 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2017. • ^ canola oil b Snowdon R et al. "Oilseed Rape". Chapter 2 in Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding in Plants: OIlseeds.

Ed, Chittaranjan Kole. Springer, 2007 • ^ Fan, Liuping; Eskin, N.A. Michael. "Handbook of Antioxidants for Food Preservation". Science Direct. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition.

Retrieved 6 April 2021. • ^ "Richard Keith Downey: Genetics". science.ca. 2007. Retrieved 29 December 2008. • ^ Pederson, Anne-marie; Storgaard, AK (15 December 2015). "Baldur Rosmund Stefansson". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 4 September 2019. • ^ Barthet, V. "Canola". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 29 December 2008. • ^ Wrigley CW, Corke H, Seetharaman K, Faubion J (17 December 2015). Encyclopedia of Food Grains.

Academic Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-1785397622. • ^ Canola Council of Canada (2016). "What is Canola?". Retrieved 16 December 2013.

• ^ "Has canola become a generic trademark?". genericides.org. 21 April 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021. • ^ Beckie, Hugh et al (Autumn 2011) GM Canola: The Canadian Experience Archived 4 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Farm Policy Journal, Volume 8 Number 8, Autumn Quarter 2011.

Retrieved 20 August 2012 • ^ Johnson, Stanley R. et al Quantification of the Impacts on US Agriculture of Biotechnology-Derived Crops Planted in 2006 National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy, Washington Canola oil, February 2008.

Retrieved 12 August 2010. • ^ "Biotech Canola – Annual Update 2011" (PDF). International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2013. • ^ Gilbert, Canola oil (2010). "GM crop escapes into the American wild". Nature. doi: 10.1038/news.2010.393. • ^ Paull, John (2019). "Genetically Modified (GM) Canola: Price Penalties and Contaminations".

Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research. 17 (2): 1–4. doi: 10.26717/BJSTR.2019.17.002965. • ^ a b c "Rapeseed oil production, canola oil Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity; unofficial data (pick lists)".

UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2022. Retrieved 17 March 2022. • ^ "ICE Futures: Canola". Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2017. • ^ Bonjean, Alain. P.; Dequidt, Céline; Sang, Canola oil Limagrain, Groupe (18 November 2016). "Rapeseed in China".

OCL. 23 (6): D605. doi: 10.1051/ocl/2016045. ISSN 2272-6977 canola oil. Retrieved 20 March 2019. • ^ "Why China needs canola imports". Country Guide. Glacier FarmMedia Limited Partnership. 12 February 2018. • ^ eurofins. Last updated 31 January 2014 Genetically Modified Canola • ^ "GM canola gets the green light".

Sydney Morning Herald. 1 April 2003. Retrieved 20 October 2007. • ^ for example Price, Libby (6 September 2005). "Network of concerned farmers demands tests from Bayer". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 10 October 2007. and "Greenpeace has the last laugh on genetic grains talks". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 13 March 2003. Retrieved 20 October 2007. also Cauchi, Stephen (25 October 2003). "GM: food for thought".

Canola oil Age. Retrieved 20 October 2007. • ^ "GM Crops and Stockfeed" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012. • ^ GM Carnations in Australia Archived 8 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine • ^ Federal Court of Canola oil of Canada. Monsanto Canada Inc. v. Schmeiser (C.A.) [2003] 2 F.C. 165. Retrieved 25 March 2006.

• ^ Hartley, Matt (20 March 2008). "Grain Farmer Claims Moral Victory in Seed Battle Against Monsanto".

Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2016. • ^ Paull, John (2015). "Gmos and Organic Agriculture: Six Lessons from Australia". Agriculture and Forestry. canola oil (1): 7–14. doi: 10.17707/AgricultForest.61.1.01.

• ^ USDA Economic Research Service. Last canola oil 10 October 2012 Canola Archived 24 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine • ^ a b c "Steps in Oil and Meal Processing". Canola Council of Canada. 2016. Retrieved 30 April 2016. • ^ Crosby, Guy (2017). "Ask the Expert: Concerns about canola oil". The Nutrition Source. Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Retrieved 23 April 2017. • ^ "Section 3.1: Leaking Tank Experiments with Orimulsion and Canola Oil" (PDF).

NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS OR&R 6. National Ocean Service. December 2001. • ^ a b "What is canola oil?". Canola Council of Canada. 2016. Retrieved 30 April 2016.

• ^ Ash, Mark (15 March 2016). "Soybeans & Oil Crops". Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture. Archived canola oil the original canola oil 23 April 2016.

Retrieved 30 April 2016. • ^ "Canola Oil Myths and Truths". UC Berkeley School of Public Health. 17 February 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2017. • ^ "Southwest China's Foundational Rapeseed Oil". New Cookery Recipes.

Retrieved 6 April 2021. • ^ Dave Edwards, Jacqueline Batley, Isobel Parkin, Chittaranjan Kole (editors) (2011). Genetics, genomics and breeding of oilseed Brassicas (1st ed.). Taylor & Francis Inc. ISBN 9781578087204. {{ cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter ( link) • canola oil Sen, Indrani (1 November 2011).

"American Chefs Discover Mustard Oil". The New Canola oil Times. • ^ Thring, Oliver (12 June 2012). "The rise of rapeseed oil". The Guardian.

• ^ "Which oil should I use for canola oil. AkerCare. Aker Solutions. Retrieved 6 April 2021.

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• ^ Dupont, J; White, PJ; Johnston, HA; McDonald, BE; Grundy, SM; Bonanome, A (October 1989). "Food safety and health effects of canola oil". Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 8 (5): 360–375. doi: 10.1080/07315724.1989.10720311. PMID 2691543. • ^ a b Zeratsky, Katherine (2009).

"Canola Oil: Does it Contain Toxins?". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 10 August 2011. • ^ a b Lin L, Allemekinders H, Dansby A, Campbell L, Durance-Tod S, Berger A, Jones PJ (2013).

"Evidence of health benefits of canola oil". Nutr. Rev. 71 (6): 370–85. doi: 10.1111/nure.12033. PMC 3746113. PMID 23731447. • ^ Schneeman BO (6 October 2006). "Qualified Health Claims, Letter of Enforcement Discretion U.S.

Food and Drug Administration: Unsaturated Fatty Acids from Canola Oil and Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease". US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2008. • ^ Rajaram, S (2014). "Health benefits of plant-derived α-linolenic acid".

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 100 Suppl 1: 443S–8S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.071514. PMID 24898228. • ^ Ghobadi S, Hassanzadeh-Rostami Z, Mohammadian F, Zare M, Faghih S.

(2019). "Effects of Canola Oil Consumption on Lipid Profile: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials". Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 38 (2): 185–196. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2018.1475270. PMID 30381009. S2CID canola oil. {{ cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link) • ^ Raeisi-Dehkordi H, Amiri M, Humphries KH, Salehi-Abargouei A.

(2019). "The Effect of Canola Oil on Body Weight and Composition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials". Advances in Nutrition. 10 (3): 419–432.

doi: 10.1093/advances/nmy108. PMC 6520036. PMID 30809634. {{ cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link) • ^ a b c d "Comparison of Dietary Fats Chart" (PDF). Canola Council of Canada. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2006. Retrieved 3 September 2008. • ^ a b c USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21 (2008) • ^ DeFilippis, Andrew P.; Sperling, Laurence S.

"Understanding omega-3's" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 October 2007. • ^ USDA National Nutrient Database canola oil Standard Reference, Release 22 (2009) • ^ a b J. Barthet, Véronique Canola oil. (2015). "Quality of western Canadian Canola 2015" (PDF) (Press release). Canadian Grain Research Laboratory: Canadian Grain Commission. ISSN 1700-2222.

Retrieved 21 December 2016. • ^ a b D.E., Seberry; D.W., McCaffery; T.M., Kingham (2016). "Quality of Australian canola 2015–16" (PDF) (Press release).

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Australia: NSW Department of Primary Industries – Australian Oilseeds Federation. ISSN 1322-9397. Retrieved 21 December 2016. • ^ a b Heidy Aguilera Fuentes, Paula; Jose Ogliaria, Paulo; Carlos Deschamps, Francisco; Barrera Arellano, Daniel; Mara Block, Jane (2011). "Centro de Ciências Agrárias" [Agricultural Science Center].

Avaliação da Qualidade de Óleos de Soja, Canola, Milho e Girassol Durante o Armazenamento (PDF) (Thesis) (in Portuguese). Florianópolis, Brazil: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. OCLC 817268651. Retrieved 21 December 2016. • ^ "Protect Your Heart: Choose Fats Wisely" (PDF).

American Diabetes Association. 2004. Archived from canola oil original (PDF) on 12 September 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2008. canola oil ^ Sahasrabudhe, M. R. (1977). "Crismer values and erucic acid contents of rapeseed oils".

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Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 54 (8): 323–324. doi: 10.1007/BF02672436. S2CID 84400266. • ^ a b U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, CFR – Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 1 April 2010. • ^ Food Standards Australia New Zealand (June 2003) Erucic acid in food: A Toxicological Review and Risk Assessment Technical report series No. canola oil Page 4 paragraph 1; ISBN 0-642-34526-0, ISSN 1448-3017 • ^ a b Luger CL et al.

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Food Safety and Foodborne Toxicants. Chapter 14 in Hayes' Principles and Methods of Toxicology, Sixth Edition. Eds A. Wallace Hayes, Claire L. Kruger. CRC Press, 2014 ISBN 9781842145371. Quote: "In humans. however. although canola oil long-term use of Lorenzo's oil (oleic acid and erucic acid) in the treatment of adrenoleukodystrophy or adrenomyeloneuropathy leads to thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia (Unkrig et al.

1994), adverse effects from dietary consumption of erucic acid have not been reported." • ^ Reddy, Chada S.; Hayes, A. Wallace (2007). "Foodborne Toxicants". In Hayes, A. Wallace (ed.). Principles and methods of toxicology (5th ed.). London, UK: Informa Healthcare. p. 640. ISBN 978-0-8493-3778-9.

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• ^ D.R., DeClercq; J.K., Daun; K.H., Tipples (1997). "Quality of Western Canadian Canola 1997" (PDF) (Press release). Canadian Grain Research Laboratory: Canadian Grain Commission. ISSN 0836-1657. Retrieved 21 December 2016. • ^ a b c "US National Nutrient Database, Release 28". United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. All values in this table are from this database unless otherwise cited. • ^ "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details").

Example: Avocado oil (user can search for other oils)". Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Standard Release 21. 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2017. Values from Nutritiondata.com (SR 21) may need to be reconciled with most recent release from the USDA SR 28 as of Sept 2017.

• ^ "USDA Specifications for Vegetable Oil Margarine Effective August 28, 1996" (PDF). • ^ "Avocado oil, fat composition, 100 g". Canola oil National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. • ^ Feramuz Ozdemir; Ayhan Topuz (May 2003).

"Changes in dry matter, oil content and fatty acids composition of avocado during harvesting time and post-harvesting ripening period" (PDF).

Elsevier. Retrieved 15 January 2020. • ^ Marie Wong; Cecilia Requejo-Jackman; Allan Woolf (April 2010). "What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?". Aocs.org. The American Oil Chemists’ Society. Retrieved 26 December 2019. canola oil ^ "Brazil nut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.

• ^ a b c d e Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59–65. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070. • ^ "Canola oil, fat composition, 100 g".

US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. • ^ "Coconut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture.

May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. • ^ "Corn oil, industrial and retail, all purpose salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. • ^ a b c d e Wolke, Robert L. (16 May 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 March 2011. • ^ "Cottonseed oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture.

May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. • ^ "Linseed/Flaxseed oil, cold pressed, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. • ^ Garavaglia J, Markoski MM, Oliveira A, Marcadenti A (2016). "Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health". Nutrition and Metabolic Insights. 9: 59–64. doi: 10.4137/NMI.S32910. PMC 4988453.

PMID 27559299. • ^ Callaway J, Schwab U, Harvima I, Halonen P, Canola oil O, Hyvönen P, Järvinen T (April 2005). "Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis". The Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 16 (2): 87–94. doi: 10.1080/09546630510035832. PMID 16019622. S2CID 18445488. • ^ "Smoke points of oils" (PDF). • ^ "Olive oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g".

US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. • ^ "Palm oil, fat composition, 100 g".

US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. • ^ "FoodData Central". fdc.nal.usda.gov. • ^ Orthoefer, F. T. (2005). canola oil 10: Rice Bran Oil". In Shahidi, F.

(ed.). Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products. Vol. 2 (6 ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 465. doi: 10.1002/047167849X. ISBN 978-0-471-38552-3. • ^ "Rice bran oil".

RITO Partnership. Retrieved 22 January 2021. • ^ "Safflower oil, salad or cooking, high oleic, primary commerce, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture.

May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. • ^ "Oil, sesame, salad or cooking". FoodData Central. fdc.nal.usda.gov. • ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated), fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. • ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture.

May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. • ^ "Walnut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, United States Department of Agriculture. • ^ "Smoke Point of Oils". Baseline of Health. Jonbarron.org. • ^ "FoodData Central". fdc.nal.usda.gov. • ^ "Cottonseed oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture.

Canola oil 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. • canola oil "Palm oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, filling fat, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.

External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Canola oil. • USDA-ERS Topic – Canola Summary of canola production, trade, and consumption as well as links to relevant USDA reports.

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