Negara equatorial guinea

negara equatorial guinea

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Negara yang secara astronomisnya berada di antara 7°-13°LU dan 7°-15°BB ini berbatasan dengan negara Guinea Bissau di barat laut, Senegal di sebelah utara, Mali di timur laut, Pantai Gading di tenggara serta berbatasan dengan Sierra Leone di barat daya dan Liberia di sebelah selatannya. Sedangkan di sebelah barat Guinea adalah Samudera Atlantik. Ibukota Guinea adalah Conakry. Oleh karena itu, Negara ini juga sering disebut dengan sebutan Guinea Conakry untuk membedakannya dengan negara tetangga yaitu Guinea Bissau dan Guinea Khatulistiwa (Equatorial Guinea).

Dalam sejarahnya, Guinea pernah merupakan bagian dari jajahan Perancis hingga berhasil memperoleh Kemerdekaan pada tahun 1958. Sejak kemerdekaan, negara yang sebelumnya disebut dengan Guinea Perancis ini dipimpin oleh penguasa otoriter Presiden Sekou TOURE hingga meninggal dunia pada tahun 1984.

Setelah kematian Sekou TOURE, pemerintahan direbut oleh Militer Jenderal CONTE yang kemudian menyelenggarakan Pemilihan Presiden sebanyak 3 kali yaitu tahun 1993, 1998 dan 2003, namun hasilnya dipertanyakan oleh dunia internasional karena kurangnya transparansi dan netralitas dalam pemilihannya.

Namun setelah kematian Jenderal CONTE pada tahun 2008, pemerintahan negara ini dikudeta oleh militer yang dipimpin oleh Kapten Moussa Dadis CAMARA. Atas tekanan domestik dan internasional serta terjadinya ketegangan politik di Guinea, CAMARA kemudian diasingkan ke Burkina Faso.

Kepemimpinan Guinea diganti oleh Jenderal Sekouba KONATE yang berhasil menyelenggarakan pemilihan presiden dan legislatif yang demokratis dan kompetitif pada tahun 2010 dan 2013. Luas wilayah Guinea adalah sebesar 245.857km 2 dengan jumlah penduduk sebanyak 12.527.440 jiwa (2020).

Penduduk Guinea mayoritas terdiri dari etnis Fulani (Peuhl) 33.4%, Malinke 29.4%, Susu 21.2%, Guerze 7.8%, Kissi 6.2% dan Toma 1.6%. Sebagian negara equatorial guinea penduduk menganut agama Islam yaitu sebanyak 89,1%. Bahasa resmi negara Guinea adalah bahasa Perancis. Guinea merupakan negara penganut sistem pemerintahan Republik Presidensil, namun berbeda dengan sistem pemerintahan Republik Presidensil pada umumnya, Guinea memiliki seorang Perdana Menteri sebagai kepala pemerintahan yang ditunjuk langsung oleh Presiden.

Presiden Guinea negara equatorial guinea memiliki masa jabatan selama 5 tahun dan dapat dipilih kembali hingga 2 periode (apabila terpilih lagi) ini memiliki kekuasaan tertinggi dan wewenang untuk menunjukan Perdana Menteri dan juga kabinetnya. Di bidang perekonomian, Guinea merupakan salah satu negara termiskin di dunia dengan Pendapatan Per Kapita hanya berkisar sekitar US$2.200,. Negara ini memiliki banyak cadangan bauksit dan biji besi yang belum dimanfaatkan secara baik. Guinea juga memiliki tanah yang subur, curah hujan yang cukup dan juga merupakan sumber dari beberapa sungai di Afrika Barat sehingga memiliki potensi yang sangat besar bagi sektor listrik dan sektor pertanian.

Tetapi karena ketidakstabilan politik, epidemi virus Ebola yang mewabah, harga komoditas internasional yang rendah dan warisan korupsi yang berkelanjutan, inefisiensi, dan kurangnya transparansi pemerintah perekonomian Guinea tidak bisa berjalan dengan baik seperti yang diharapkan.

Namun beberapa tahun belakangan ini, Pertumbuhan ekonomi Guinea bertumbuh dengan pesat hingga mencapai 8,2% di tahun 2017 dengan Pendapatan Domestik Bruto atau PDB Guinea sekitar US$27,97 miliar.

Di hubungan luar negeri, Guinea bergabung dengan organisasi internasional PBB pada tahun 12 Desemb er 1958 dan juga lembaga-lembaga internasional yang berada dibawah PBB seperti FAO, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, ITU, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO dan WTO. Guine juga aktif di beberapa organisasi internasional seperti African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP), African Development Bank (AfDB), Uni Afrika (AU), Organisasi Kerjasama Islam (OKI) dan Masyarakat Ekonomi Negara-Negara Afrika Barat (ECOWAS).

Baca juga : Negara-negara anggota Organisasi Kerjasama Islam (OKI). Profil Negara Guinea Berikut ini adalah profil Negara Guinea. • Nama Lengkap : Republik Guinea (Republic of Guinea) • Nama Lokal : Republique de Guinee • Bentuk Pemerintahan : Republik Presidensil • Kepala Negara : Presiden Alpha CONDE (sejak 21 December 2010) • Kepala Pemerintahan : Perdana Menteri Ibrahima FOFANA (sejak 22 May 2018) • Ibukota : Conakry • Luas Wilayah : 857 km 2 • Jumlah Penduduk : 527.440 jiwa (2020) • Pertumbuhan Penduduk : 2,76% (2020) • Angka Kelahiran : 36,1 bayi per 1000 penduduk (2020) • Bahasa Resmi : bahasa Perancis • Etnis : Fulani (Peuhl) 33,4%, Malinke 29,4%, Susu 21,2%, Guerze 7,8%, Kissi 6,2%, Toma 1,6%, etnis lainnya 0,4% (estiamsi 2018) • Agama : Islam 89,1%, Kristen 6,8%, animisme 1.6%, agama alinnya 0,1%, tidak beragama 2,4% (estimasi 2014) • Hari Kemerdekaan : 2 Oktober 1958 (dari Perancis) • Hari Nasional : 2 Oktober 1958 (Hari Kemerdekaan) • Lagu Kebangsaan : “Liberte” (Liberty) • Kode Domain Internet : .gn • Kode Telepon : 224 • Mata Uang : Franc Guinea (GNF) • Pendapatan Per Kapita : US$ 2.200,- (2017) • Negara equatorial guinea Domestik Bruto Nominal : US$27,97 miliar (2017) • Lokasi : Benua Afrika (Afrika Barat) Lambang Negara dan Bendera Guinea Pembagian Wilayah Administrasi Guinea Secara administratif, Republik Guinea terbagi atas 7 Region Administratif dan 1 Region Ibukota Negara.

Berikut ini adalah daftar 7 Region dan 1 Region Ibukota Negara di Republik Guinea. No. Provinsi Ibukota 1 Region Conakry (Ibukota) Conakry 2 RegionNzérékoré Nzérékoré 3 Region Kankan Kankan 4 Region Kindia Kindia 5 Region Boké Boké 6 Region Labé Labé 7 Region Faranah Faranah 8 Region Mamou Mamou Sumber referensi : Data-data Profil Negara Guinea ini dikutip dari World Factbook.

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Dulunya merupakan koloni Guinea Spanyol, nama pascakemerdekaannya membangkitkan lokasinya di dekat kedua pulau tersebut, Khatulistiwa dan Teluk Negara equatorial guinea. Guinea Khatulistiwa adalah satu-satunya negara Afrika yang berdaulat di mana bahasa Spanyol adalah bahasa resmi.

Pada 2015, negara ini memiliki populasi diperkirakan 1.222.245. [7] Guinea Khatulistiwa terdiri dari dua bagian, wilayah pulau dan daratan. Wilayah pulau itu terdiri dari pulau-pulau Bioko (sebelumnya Fernando Pó ) di Teluk Guinea dan Annobón, sebuah pulau vulkanik kecil yang merupakan satu-satunya bagian negara di selatan khatulistiwa. Pulau Bioko adalah bagian paling utara Guinea Khatulistiwa dan merupakan wilayah ibu kota negara, Malabo.

Negara pulau berbahasa Portugis, Sao Tome dan Principe terletak di antara Bioko dan Annobón. Wilayah daratan, Río Muni, berbatasan dengan Kamerun di utara dan Gabon di selatan dan timur.

Wilayah tersbut terdapat kota Bata, kota terbesar di Guinea Khatulistiwa, dan Ciudad de la Paz, ibu kota masa depan negara yang direncanakan. Rio Muni juga mencakup beberapa pulau lepas pantai kecil, seperti Corisco, Elobey Grande, dan Elobey Chico. Negara ini adalah anggota Uni Afrika, Francophonie, OPEC, dan CPLP.

Sejak pertengahan 1990-an, Guinea Khatulistiwa telah menjadi salah satu produsen minyak terbesar di sub-Sahara Afrika.Dan merupakan adalah negara per kapita terkaya di Afrika, [8] dan produk domestik bruto (PDB) disesuaikan dengan paritas daya beli (PPP) per kapita peringkat ke-43 di dunia; [9] Namun, kekayaannya didistribusikan sangat tidak merata, dengan sedikit orang yang mendapat manfaat dari kekayaan minyak.

Negara ini menempati urutan ke 135 pada Indeks Pembangunan Manusia 2016, [6] dengan kurang dari setengah populasi memiliki akses ke air minum bersih dan 20% anak-anak meninggal sebelum usia lima tahun. Pemerintah Guinea Khatulistiwa adalah otoriter dan mempunyai salah satu catatan hak asasi manusia terburuk di dunia, secara konsisten berada di antara "terburuk dari yang terburuk" dalam survei tahunan Freedom House tentang hak-hak politik dan sipil.

[10] Reporter Without Borders menempatkan Presiden Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo sebagai "pemangsa" kebebasan persnya. [11] Perdagangan manusia adalah masalah yang signifikan; Laporan US Trafficking in Persons 2012 menyatakan bahwa Guinea Khatulistiwa "adalah sumber dan tujuan bagi perempuan dan anak-anak yang menjadi sasaran kerja paksadan perdagangan seks paksa.

"Laporan tersebut menilai Guinea Ekuatorial sebagai pemerintah yang" tidak sepenuhnya memenuhi standar minimum dan tidak melakukan upaya signifikan untuk melakukannya." [12] Daftar isi • 1 Sejarah • 1.1 Kedatangan Bangsa Eropa (1472) • 1.2 Kemerdekaan (1968) • 2 Geografi • 2.1 Iklim • 2.2 Ekologi • 3 Politik • 3.1 Pembagian administratif • 4 Ekonomi • 5 Demografi • 6 Budaya • 7 Bacaan lebih lanjut • 8 Referensi • 9 Pranala luar Sejarah [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Pigmi mungkin pernah hidup di wilayah yang sekarang menjadi Guinea Khatulistiwa, tetapi saat ini hanya ditemukan di kantong terisolasi di Río Muni selatan.

Migrasi Bantu dimulai mungkin sekitar 2.000 SM dari antara tenggara Nigeria dan barat laut Kamerun (Grassfields). [13] Mereka paling lambat sampai Guinea Ekuatorial sekitar 500 SM. [14] [15]. [16] Pemukiman paling awal di Pulau Bioko sekitar 530 M.

[23] penduduk Annobon, awalnya asli Angola, diperkenalkan oleh Portugis melalui pulau São Tomé. Kedatangan Bangsa Eropa (1472) [ sunting - sunting sumber ] penjelajah Portugis Fernando Po, mencari jalan ke India, disebut sebagai orang Eropa pertama yang menemukan pulau Bioko, di 1472.

Dia menyebutnya Formosa ("Beautiful"), tapi dengan cepat mengambil nama penemunya Eropa. Fernando Pó dan Annobón dijajah oleh Portugal pada tahun 1474. Pada 1778, Ratu Maria I dari Portugal dan Raja Charles III dari Spanyol menandatangani Perjanjian El Pardo yang berisi penyerahan Bioko, pulau-pulau yang berdekatan, dan hak komersial ke Teluk Biafra antara sungai Niger dan sungai Ogoue ke Spanyol.

Spanyol berusaha mendapatkan akses ke sumber budak yang dikendalikan oleh pedagang Inggris. Antara 1778 dan 1810, wilayah Guinea Khatulistiwa dikelola oleh Viceroyalty dari Río de la Plata, yang berbasis di Buenos Aires. Negara equatorial guinea tahun 1827 hingga 1843, Britania Raya memiliki basis di Bioko untuk mengendalikan perdagangan budak, [17] yang dipindahkan ke Sierra Leone berdasarkan perjanjian dengan Spanyol pada tahun 1843.

Pada tahun 1844, tentang pemulihan kedaulatan Spanyol, daerah tersebut dikenal sebagai "Territorios Españoles del Golfo de Guinea." Spanyol telah lalai menduduki wilayah yang luas di Teluk Biafra yang menjadi haknya berdasarkan perjanjian, dan Prancis sibuk memperluas pekerjaan mereka dengan mengorbankan wilayah yang diklaim oleh Spanyol. The perjanjian dari Paris pada tahun 1900 meninggalkan Spanyol dengan benua kantong dari Rio Muni, hanya 26.000 km 2dari 300.000 yang membentang ke timur ke sungai Ubangi yang awalnya diklaim orang Spanyol.

[18] Perkebunan dari Fernando Po sebagian besar dijalankan oleh orang Creole, kemudian dikenal sebagai Fernandinos. Inggris menduduki pulau itu secara singkat pada awal abad ke-19, menempatkan sekitar 2.000 orang Sierra Leone dan membebaskan budak di sana. Imigrasi terbatas dari Afrika Barat dan Hindia Barat berlanjut setelah Inggris pergi.

Untuk ini ditambahkan Kuba, Filipina dan Spanyol dari berbagai warna yang dideportasi karena kejahatan politik atau lainnya, serta beberapa pemukim dibantu. Ada juga aliran imigrasi dari pulau-pulau Portugis yang berdekatan, melarikan diri dari budak dan calon penanam. Meskipun beberapa Fernandino berbahasa Katolik dan Spanyol, sekitar sembilan persepuluh dari mereka adalah Protestan dan berbahasa Inggris sebelum Perang Dunia Pertama, dan bahasa Inggris pidgin adalah lingua franca di pulau itu.

Orang-orang Sierra Leone ditempatkan dengan baik sebagai penanam sementara perekrutan tenaga kerja di pantai Windward berlanjut, karena mereka menjaga keluarga dan koneksi lainnya di sana dan dapat dengan mudah mengatur pasokan tenaga kerja. Tahun-tahun pembukaan abad ke-20 melihat generasi baru imigran Spanyol. Peraturan-peraturan pertanahan yang dikeluarkan pada tahun 1904–1905 mendukung orang-orang Spanyol, dan sebagian besar penanam besar kemudian datang dari Spanyol setelah itu. Perjanjian kerja Liberia tahun 1914 disukai orang kaya dengan akses siap ke negara, dan pergeseran pasokan tenaga kerja dari Liberia ke Rio Muni meningkatkan keuntungan ini.

Pada tahun 1940, sekitar 20% dari produksi kakao koloni berasal dari tanah milik Afrika, hampir semuanya berada di tangan Fernandinos. Corisco, 1910 Kendala terbesar terhadap pembangunan ekonomi adalah kekurangan tenaga kerja yang kronis.

Didorong ke pedalaman pulau dan hancur oleh kecanduan alkohol, penyakit kelamin, cacar, dan penyakit tidur, pribumi Bubi penduduk Bioko menolak untuk bekerja pada perkebunan. Bekerja di kebun kakao kecil mereka sendiri memberi mereka otonomi yang cukup besar. Menjelang akhir abad ke-19, Bubi dilindungi dari tuntutan para penanam oleh misionaris Claretian Spanyol, yang sangat berpengaruh di koloni dan akhirnya mengorganisir Bubi ke dalam sedikit teokrasi misi yang mengingatkan pada pengurangan Yesuit yang terkenal di Paraguay.

Penetrasi Katolik dilanjutkan oleh dua pemberontakan kecil pada tahun 1898 dan 1910 yang memprotes wajib militer atas kerja paksa untuk perkebunan. Bubi dilucuti pada tahun 1917, dan dibiarkan bergantung pada para misionaris. [18] Antara 1926 dan 1959 Bioko dan Rio Muni dipersatukan sebagai koloni Guinea Spanyol. Ekonomi didasarkan pada perkebunan kakao dan kopi besar dan konsesi penebangan dan tenaga kerja sebagian besar adalah pekerja kontrak imigran dari Liberia, Nigeria, dan Cameroun.

[19] Antara 1914 dan 1930, sekitar 10.000 warga Liberia pergi ke Fernando Po di bawah perjanjian perburuhan yang dihentikan sama sekali pada 1930. Karena tidak ada lagi pekerja Liberia, penanam Fernando Po beralih ke Rio Muni. Kampanye dipasang untuk menaklukkan orang- orang Fang pada 1920-an, pada saat Liberia mulai mengurangi perekrutan. Ada garnisun penjaga kolonial di seluruh kantong pada tahun 1926, dan seluruh koloni dianggap 'tenang' pada tahun 1929.

[20] Rio Muni memiliki populasi kecil, secara resmi sedikit lebih dari 100.000 pada tahun 1930-an, dan melarikan negara equatorial guinea melintasi perbatasan ke Cameroun atau Gabon sangat mudah. Juga, perusahaan kayu membutuhkan peningkatan jumlah pekerja, dan penyebaran penanaman kopi menawarkan cara alternatif untuk membayar pajak. Dengan demikian Fernando Pó terus menderita karena kekurangan tenaga kerja. Prancis hanya secara singkat mengizinkan perekrutan di Cameroun, dan sumber utama tenaga kerja adalah Igbo yang negara equatorial guinea dengan sampan dari Calabar di Nigeria.

Resolusi untuk kekurangan pekerja ini memungkinkan Fernando Pó menjadi salah satu daerah pertanian paling produktif di Afrika setelah Perang Dunia Kedua.

[18] Secara politis, sejarah kolonial pasca-perang memiliki tiga fase yang cukup berbeda: hingga 1959, ketika statusnya dinaikkan dari 'kolonial' ke 'provinsi', mengikuti pendekatan Kekaisaran Portugis ; antara tahun 1960 dan 1968, ketika Madrid berupaya melakukan dekolonisasi parsial yang bertujuan menjaga wilayah itu sebagai bagian dari sistem Spanyol; dan sejak 1968, setelah wilayah itu menjadi republik merdeka.

Fase pertama terdiri dari sedikit lebih dari kelanjutan dari kebijakan sebelumnya; ini sangat mirip dengan kebijakan Portugal dan Perancis, terutama dalam membagi penduduk menjadi mayoritas yang diperintah sebagai 'pribumi' atau non-warga negara, dan minoritas yang sangat kecil (bersama-sama dengan orang kulit putih) mengaku berstatus sipil sebagai emansipado,asimilasi dengan budaya metropolitan menjadi satu-satunya cara kemajuan yang diizinkan.

[21] Fase 'provinsi' melihat awal dari nasionalisme, tetapi terutama di kalangan kelompok-kelompok kecil yang berlindung dari Caudillo ' tangan ayah s di Kamerun dan Gabon. Mereka membentuk dua badan: Movimiento Nacional de Liberación de la Guinea (MONALIGE), dan Idea Popular de Guinea Ecuatorial (IPGE).

Tekanan yang bisa mereka timbulkan lemah, tetapi tren umum di Afrika Barat tidak. Sebuah keputusan 9 Agustus 1963, disetujui oleh referendum 15 Desember 1963, memberikan wilayah otonomi dan promosi administratif kelompok 'moderat', Movimiento de Unión Nacional de la Guinea Ecuatorial (MUNGE). Membuktikan instrumen yang lemah, dan, dengan tekanan yang semakin besar untuk perubahan dari PBB, Madrid memberi jalan kepada arus nasionalisme.

Kemerdekaan (1968) [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Kemerdekaan dideklarasikan pada 12 Oktober 1968 dan wilayah itu menjadi Republik Guinea Khatulistiwa. Francisco Macías Nguema terpilih sebagai presiden, [22] dan dengan cepat membentuk kediktatoran totaliter. [23] Pada Malam Natal 1969, Macías Nguema memerintahkan 150 komplotan kudeta dieksekusi.

[24] Pada Juli 1970, Macias Nguema menciptakan negara partai tunggal dan menjadikannya presiden seumur hidup pada tahun 1972. Dia memutuskan hubungan dengan Spanyol dan Barat. Terlepas dari kecamannya terhadap Marxisme, yang dianggapnya " neo-kolonialis ", Guinea Khatulistiwa mempertahankan hubungan yang sangat istimewa dengan negara-negara komunis, terutama Cina, Kuba, dan Uni Soviet. Macias Nguema menandatangani perjanjian perdagangan preferensial dan perjanjian pengiriman dengan Uni Soviet.

Soviet juga memberikan pinjaman kepada Guinea Khatulistiwa. [25] Perjanjian pengiriman memberi izin Soviet untuk proyek pengembangan perikanan percontohan dan juga pangkalan angkatan laut di Luba. Sebagai imbalannya, Uni Soviet akan memasok ikan ke Guinea Khatulistiwa. China dan Kuba juga negara equatorial guinea berbagai bentuk bantuan keuangan, militer, dan teknis kepada Guinea Khatulistiwa, yang memberi mereka pengaruh di sana.

Untuk Uni Soviet, ada keuntungan yang bisa diperoleh dalam Negara equatorial guinea di Angola dari akses ke pangkalan Luba dan kemudian negara equatorial guinea Bandara Internasional Malabo. [25] Pada tahun 1974 Dewan Gereja-Gereja Sedunia menegaskan bahwa sejumlah besar orang telah dibunuh sejak tahun 1968 dalam masa pemerintahan teror yang sedang berlangsung. Seperempat dari seluruh populasi telah melarikan diri ke luar negeri, kata mereka, sementara 'penjara-penjara meluap dan untuk semua maksud dan tujuan membentuk satu kamp konsentrasi yang luas'.

Dari populasi 300.000, diperkirakan 80.000 tewas. [26] [27] Terlepas dari dugaan melakukan genosida terhadap etnis minoritas orang Bubi, Macias Nguema memerintahkan kematian ribuan tersangka lawan, menutup gereja-gereja dan memimpin keruntuhan ekonomi ketika warga negara yang terampil dan orang asing meninggalkan negara itu. [28] Keponakan Macas Nguema, Teodoro Obiang menggulingkan pamannya pada 3 Agustus 1979, dalam kudeta berdarah ; lebih dari dua minggu perang saudara terjadi sampai Nguema ditangkap.

Dia diadili dan dieksekusi segera sesudahnya. [29] Pada 1995 Mobil, sebuah perusahaan minyak Amerika, menemukan minyak di Guinea Khatulistiwa. Negara itu kemudian mengalami perkembangan ekonomi yang cepat, tetapi pendapatan dari kekayaan minyak negara itu belum mencapai populasi dan negara itu berperingkat rendah dalam indeks pembangunan manusia PBB. Sekitar 20% anak-anak meninggal sebelum usia 5 tahun dan lebih dari 50% populasi tidak memiliki akses ke air minum bersih.

negara equatorial guinea

{INSERTKEYS} [30] Presiden Teodoro Obiang diduga banyak menggunakan kekayaan minyak negara itu untuk memperkaya dirinya sendiri [31] dan rekan-rekannya. Pada 2006, Forbes memperkirakan kekayaan pribadinya sebesar $ 600 juta.

[32] Pada tahun 2011, pemerintah mengumumkan akan merencanakan modal baru untuk negara tersebut, bernama Oyala. [33] [34] [35] [36] Kota ini berganti nama menjadi Ciudad de la Paz ( "Kota Damai" ) pada tahun 2017. Pada Februari 2016, Obiang adalah diktator terlama di Afrika. [37] Geografi [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Artikel utama: Geografi Guinea Khatulistiwa Guinea Khatulistiwa berada di pantai barat Afrika Tengah.

Negara ini terdiri dari wilayah daratan, Río Muni, yang berbatasan dengan Kamerun di utara dan Gabon di timur dan selatan, dan lima pulau kecil, Bioko, Corisco, Annobón, Elobey Chico (Elobey Kecil), dan Elobey Grande (Elobey Besar). Bioko, situs ibu kota, Malabo, terletak sekitar 40 kilometer (25 mi) di lepas pantai Kamerun.

Pulau Annobón berjarak sekitar 350 kilometer (220 mi) barat-selatan-barat Cape Lopez di Gabon. Corisco dan dua pulau Elobey berada di Teluk Corisco, di perbatasan Río Muni dan Gabon.

Guinea Khatulistiwa terletak di antara garis lintang 4°LU dan 2°LS, dan bujur 5° and 12°BT. Terlepas dari namanya, tidak ada bagian dari wilayah Guinea Khatulistiwa yang terletak di garis khatulistiwa, ia berada di belahan bumi utara, kecuali untuk provinsi Annobon yang picik, yang berjarak sekitar 155 km (96 mi) selatan khatulistiwa.

Iklim [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Klasifikasi Iklim Köppen Guinea Khatulistuwa. Guinea Khatulistiwa memiliki iklim tropis dengan musim hujan dan kemarau yang berbeda.

Dari Juni hingga Agustus, Río Muni kering dan Bioko basah; dari Desember hingga Februari, terjadi sebaliknya. Di antara ada transisi bertahap. Hujan atau kabut terjadi setiap hari di Annobón, di mana hari tanpa awan tidak pernah didaftarkan. Temperatur di Malabo, Bioko, berkisar antara 16 °C (61 °F) hingga 33 °C (91 °F), meskipun di Dataran Tinggi Moka selatan, suhu tinggi normal hanya 21 °C (70 °F).

Di Río Muni, suhu rata-rata sekitar 27 °C (81 °F). Curah hujan tahunan bervariasi dari 1.930 mm (76 in) di Malabo hingga 10.920 mm (430 in) di Ureka, Bioko, tetapi Río Muni agak kering. [38] Ekologi [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Guinea Khatulistiwa mencakup beberapa ekoregion. Wilayah Río Muni terletak di dalam ekoregion hutan pantai Khatulistiwa Atlantik kecuali untuk hutan bakau Afrika Tengah di pesisir, terutama di muara Sungai Muni.

Cross-Sanaga-Bioko hutan pantai ekoregion meliputi sebagian besar Bioko dan bagian yang berdekatan dari Kamerun dan Nigeria di daratan Afrika, dan Gunung Kamerun dan Bioko hutan pegunungan ekoregion meliputi dataran tinggi Bioko dan dekat Gunung Kamerun.

Ekoregion hutan lembap dataran rendah mencakup semua Annobon, serta Sao Tome dan Principe. Politik [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Guinea Khatulistiwa Presiden Guinea Khatulistiwa saat ini adalah Teodoro Obiang. Konstitusi Guinea Khatulistiwa tahun 1982 memberinya kekuasaan yang luas, termasuk memberi nama dan memberhentikan anggota kabinet, membuat undang-undang berdasarkan dekrit, membubarkan Kamar Perwakilan Rakyat, menegosiasikan dan meratifikasi perjanjian dan melayani sebagai panglima angkatan bersenjata.

Perdana Menteri Francisco Pascual Obama Asue diangkat oleh Obiang dan beroperasi di bawah kekuasaan yang didelegasikan oleh Presiden. Selama tiga dekade pemerintahannya, Obiang telah menunjukkan sedikit toleransi terhadap oposisi. Walaupun negara ini secara nominal merupakan negara demokrasi multi-partai, pemilihannya pada umumnya dianggap palsu. Menurut Human Rights Watch, kediktatoran Presiden Obiang menggunakan ledakan minyak untuk memperkuat dan memperkaya diri lebih jauh dengan mengorbankan rakyat negara itu.

[39] Sejak Agustus 1979, telah terjadi 12 upaya kudeta yang nyata dan tidak berhasil. [40] Menurut profil BBC Maret 2004, [41] politik di negara ini saat ini didominasi oleh ketegangan antara putra Obiang, Teodoro Nguema Obiang Mangue, dan kerabat dekat lainnya dengan posisi kuat dalam pasukan keamanan. Ketegangan mungkin berakar pada peralihan kekuasaan yang timbul dari peningkatan dramatis dalam produksi minyak yang telah terjadi sejak 1997.

Pada tahun 2004, sebuah muatan pesawat yang diduga tentara bayaran dicegat di Zimbabwe sementara diduga dalam perjalanan untuk menggulingkan Obiang. Laporan November 2004 [42] menyebut Mark Thatcher sebagai pendukung keuangan upaya kudeta Guinea Ekuatorial 2004 yang diselenggarakan oleh Simon Mann .

Berbagai akun juga menyebut MI6 Inggris, CIA Amerika Serikat, dan Spanyol sebagai pendukung diam-diam dari upaya kudeta. [43] Namun demikian, laporan Amnesty International dirilis pada Juni 2005 [44] pada persidangan berikutnya dari mereka yang diduga terlibat menyoroti kegagalan penuntutan untuk menghasilkan bukti konklusif bahwa upaya kudeta sebenarnya telah terjadi.

Simon Mann dibebaskan dari penjara pada 3 November 2009 karena alasan kemanusiaan. [45] Investigasi Senat AS 2004 ke Bank Riggs yang berbasis di Washington DC menemukan bahwa keluarga Presiden Obiang telah menerima pembayaran besar dari perusahaan minyak AS seperti Exxon Mobil dan Amerada Hess . Sejak 2005, Military Professional Resources Inc., sebuah perusahaan militer swasta internasional yang bermarkas di AS, telah bekerja di Guinea Ekuatorial untuk melatih pasukan polisi dalam praktik-praktik hak asasi manusia yang tepat.

Pada tahun 2006, Menteri Luar Negeri AS Condoleezza Rice memuji Obiang sebagai "teman baik" meskipun berulang kali dikritik atas catatan hak asasi manusia dan kebebasan sipilnya. The US Agency for International Development menandatangani nota kesepahaman (MOU) dengan Obiang, pada bulan April 2006, untuk mendirikan Dana pembangunan sosial di negara itu, pelaksanaan proyek-proyek di bidang kesehatan, pendidikan, urusan perempuan dan lingkungan.

[46] Pada tahun 2006, Obiang menandatangani dekrit anti-penyiksaan yang melarang semua bentuk perlakuan sewenang-wenang dan perlakuan tidak pantas di Guinea Khatulistiwa, dan menugaskan renovasi dan modernisasi penjara Black Beach pada 2007 untuk memastikan perlakuan manusiawi terhadap para tahanan, [47] Namun, pelanggaran hak asasi manusia terus berlanjut. Human Rights Watch dan Amnesty International di antara organisasi non-pemerintah lainnya telah mendokumentasikan pelanggaran HAM berat di penjara, termasuk penyiksaan, pemukulan, kematian yang tidak dapat dijelaskan dan penahanan ilegal.

[48] [49] Lobi anti-korupsi Transparency International menempatkan Guinea Khatulistiwa dalam 12 teratas dari daftar negara yang paling korup. Freedom House, sebuah LSM pro-demokrasi dan hak asasi manusia, menggambarkan Obiang sebagai salah satu "otokrat hidup paling kleptokratis di dunia," dan mengeluh tentang pemerintah AS yang menyambut pemerintahannya dan membeli minyak dari sana. [50] Mengabaikan suara internasional yang menyerukan transparansi lebih, Obiang telah lama berpendapat bahwa pendapatan minyak adalah rahasia negara.

Pada 2008 negara ini menjadi kandidat dari Prakarsa Transparansi Industri Ekstraktif - sebuah proyek internasional yang dimaksudkan untuk mempromosikan keterbukaan tentang pendapatan minyak pemerintah - tetapi gagal memenuhi syarat sebelum batas waktu April 2010.

Kelompok advokasi Global Witnesstelah melobi Amerika Serikat untuk bertindak terhadap putra Obiang, Teodorin, wakil presiden dan menteri pemerintah. Dikatakan ada bukti yang dapat dipercaya bahwa ia menghabiskan jutaan dolar untuk membeli sebuah rumah besar di Malibu, California, dan jet pribadi menggunakan dana yang diperoleh secara korup - alasan untuk menolaknya mendapatkan visa.

Pada bulan Februari 2010, Guinea Khatulistiwa menandatangani kontrak dengan anak perusahaan MPRI dari perusahaan pertahanan AS L3 Communications untuk pengawasan pantai dan keamanan maritim di Teluk Guinea. [51] [52] Obiang terpilih kembali untuk menjalani masa jabatan tambahan pada 2009 dalam pemilihan yang oleh Uni Afrika dianggap "sejalan dengan hukum pemilu".

[53] Obiang diangkat kembali menjadi Perdana Menteri Ignacio Milam Tang pada 2010." [54] Menurut BBC, Presiden Obiang Nguema "telah digambarkan oleh organisasi HAM sebagai salah satu diktator paling brutal di Afrika." [55] Di bawah Obiang, infrastruktur dasar Guinea Khatulistiwa telah membaik.

Aspal sekarang mencakup lebih dari 80% jalan nasional dan pelabuhan serta bandara sedang dibangun oleh kontraktor Cina, Maroko dan Prancis di sebagian besar negara. [55] Namun, ketika seorang anggota parlemen dan rombongan pers Inggris berkeliling negara itu sebagai tamu presiden pada tahun 2011, surat kabar The Guardian melaporkan bahwa sangat sedikit warga Guinea Ekuatorial yang mendapat manfaat dari perbaikan, dengan laporan jalan raya tiga jalur yang kosong dan banyak lainnya.

bangunan kosong. [56] Rezim Obiang adalah sekutu Amerika Serikat. Selama pertemuan 2010 di sela-sela Majelis Umum PBB, Obiang mendesak AS untuk memperkuat kerja sama antara Amerika Serikat dan Afrika.

[55] President Barack Obama posed for an official photograph with President Obiang at a New York reception. [39] Pada November 2011, sebuah konstitusi baru disetujui.

Pemilihan konstitusi dilakukan meskipun teks atau kontennya tidak diungkapkan kepada publik sebelum pemungutan suara. Di bawah konstitusi baru, presiden dibatasi maksimum dua masa jabatan tujuh tahun dan akan menjadi kepala negara dan kepala pemerintahan, karena itu menghilangkan perdana menteri. Konstitusi baru juga memperkenalkan sosok seorang wakil presiden dan menyerukan pembentukan 70 anggota senat dengan 55 senator yang dipilih oleh rakyat dan 15 lainnya ditunjuk oleh presiden.

Anehnya, dalam perombakan kabinet berikut diumumkan bahwa akan ada dua wakil presiden yang jelas melanggar konstitusi yang baru saja berlaku. [57] Pada Oktober 2012, selama wawancara dengan Christiane Amanpour di CNN, Obiang ditanya apakah ia akan mundur pada akhir masa jabatan saat ini (2009-2016) karena konstitusi baru membatasi jumlah syarat menjadi dua dan ia telah terpilih kembali di setidaknya 4 kali.

Obiang menjawab bahwa dia menolak untuk minggir karena konstitusi baru tidak berlaku surut dan batas dua masa hanya akan berlaku mulai 2016. [58] 26 Mei 2013 pemilu menggabungkan kontes senat, majelis rendah dan wali kota semua dalam satu paket. Seperti semua pemilihan sebelumnya, ini dikecam oleh oposisi dan juga dimenangkan oleh Obiang dari PDGE.

Selama kontes pemilihan, partai yang berkuasa menyelenggarakan pemilihan internal yang kemudian dibatalkan karena tidak ada kandidat favorit presiden yang memimpin daftar internal. Pada akhirnya, partai yang berkuasa dan satelit dari koalisi yang berkuasa memutuskan untuk mencalonkan diri bukan berdasarkan kandidat tetapi berdasarkan partai.

Ini menciptakan situasi di mana selama pemilihan koalisi partai yang berkuasa tidak memberikan nama-nama calon mereka sehingga secara efektif orang-orang tidak mencalonkan diri untuk jabatan, sebaliknya partai adalah yang mencalonkan diri untuk jabatan.

Pemilu Mei 2013 ditandai oleh serangkaian acara termasuk protes rakyat yang direncanakan oleh sekelompok aktivis dari MPP (Gerakan Protes Populer) yang mencakup beberapa kelompok sosial dan politik. MPP menyerukan protes damai di alun-alun Plaza de la Mujer pada 15 Mei. Koordinator MPP Enrique Nsolo Nzo ditangkap dan media resmi pemerintah menggambarkannya sebagai berencana untuk mengacaukan negara dan menggulingkan presiden.

Namun, dan meskipun berbicara di bawah tekanan dan dengan tanda-tanda penyiksaan yang jelas, Nsolo mengatakan bahwa mereka telah merencanakan protes damai dan memang telah memperoleh semua otorisasi hukum yang diperlukan untuk melakukan protes damai. Selain itu, ia dengan tegas menyatakan bahwa ia tidak berafiliasi dengan partai politik mana pun.

Lapangan Plaza de la Mujer di Malabo diduduki oleh polisi sejak 13 Mei dan telah dijaga ketat sejak itu. Pemerintah memulai aprogram sensor yang memengaruhi situs sosial termasuk Facebook dan situs web lain yang penting bagi pemerintah Guinea Ekuatorial. Sensor ini dilaksanakan dengan mengarahkan pencarian online ke situs web resmi pemerintah. Tak lama setelah pemilihan, partai oposisi CPDS mengumumkan bahwa mereka akan memprotes secara damai terhadap pemilihan 26 Mei pada 25 Juni.

[59] Menteri Dalam Negeri Clemente Engonga menolak untuk mengotorisasi protes dengan alasan bahwa hal itu dapat "mengacaukan" negara dan CPDS memutuskan untuk maju, mengklaim hak konstitusional. Pada malam 24 Juni, markas besar CPDS di Malabo dikelilingi oleh petugas polisi bersenjata lengkap untuk menjaga agar orang-orang di dalam tidak pergi dan dengan demikian secara efektif memblokir protes.

Beberapa anggota terkemuka CPDS ditahan di Malabo dan yang lainnya di Bata tidak naik beberapa penerbangan lokal ke Malabo. Pembagian administratif [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Provinsi di Guinea Khatulistiwa Wilayah Guinea Khatulistiwa dibagi kedalam 7 provinsi (ibu kota provinsi terletak di dalam kurung): • Provinsi Annobón ( San Antonio de Palé) • Provinsi Bioko Norte ( Malabo) • Provinsi Bioko Sur ( Luba) • Provinsi Centro Sur ( Evinayong) • Provinsi Kié-Ntem ( Ebebiyín) • Litoral ( Bata) • Provinsi Wele-Nzas ( Mongomo) Ekonomi [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Artikel utama: Ekonomi Guinea Khatulistiwa Sebelum kemerdekaan, Equatorial Guinea mengekspor kakao, kopi, dan kayu, sebagian besar ke penguasa kolonialnya, Spanyol, tetapi juga ke Jerman dan Inggris.

Pada 1 Januari 1985, negara itu menjadi anggota Afrika non-Francophone pertama di zona franc, [60] mengadopsi franc CFA sebagai mata uangnya. Mata uang nasional, ekwele, sebelumnya dikaitkan dengan peseta Spanyol.

Penemuan cadangan minyak besar pada tahun 1996 dan eksploitasi selanjutnya berkontribusi pada peningkatan dramatis dalam pendapatan pemerintah. Pada 2004, Guinea Ekuatorial adalah produsen minyak terbesar ketiga di Afrika Sub-Sahara. Produksi minyaknya telah meningkat menjadi 360.000 barel per hari (57.000 m3 / hari), naik dari 220.000 hanya dua tahun sebelumnya. Kehutanan, pertanian, dan perikanan juga merupakan komponen utama PDB. Pertanian subsisten mendominasi. Kemunduran ekonomi pedesaan di bawah rezim brutal berturut-turut telah mengurangi potensi pertumbuhan yang dipimpin oleh pertanian.

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"Equatorial Guinea Adds Portuguese as the Country's Third Official Language" . Diakses tanggal 18 July 2015. • ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Equatorial Guinea : Overview". UNHCR. 20 May 2008. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 13 January 2013 . Diakses tanggal 18 December 2012. • ^ Dickovick, James Tyler (2012). Africa 2012. Stryker Post. hlm. 180. ISBN 1-61048-882-2 . Diakses tanggal 18 December 2012. • ^ a b "2018 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme.

2016 . Diakses tanggal 21 March 2017. • ^ "INEGE - INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADÍSTICA DE GUINEA ECUATORIAL". www.inege.gq (dalam bahasa Spanyol) . Diakses tanggal 2017-04-19. • ^ GDP – per capita (PPP) – Country Comparison.

Indexmundi.com. {/INSERTKEYS}

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Retrieved on 5 May 2013. • ^ GDP – per capita (PPP), The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. • ^ Worst of the Worst 2010. The World's Most Repressive Societies. freedomhouse.org • ^ Equatorial Guinea – Reporters Without Borders Diarsipkan 15 October 2010 di Wayback Machine.

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• ^ Clist (B.). 1990, Des derniers chasseurs aux premiers métallurgistes: sédentarisation et débuts de la métallurgie du fer (Cameroun, Gabon, Guinée-Equatoriale). In Lanfranchi (R.) & Schwartz (D.) éds. Paysages quaternaires de l'Afrique Centrale Atlantique. Paris: ORSTOM, Collection didactiques: 458-478 • ^ Clist (B.).

1998. Nouvelles données archéologiques sur l'histoire ancienne de la Guinée-Equatoriale. L'Anthropologie 102 (2): 213-217 • ^ Sánchez-Elipe Lorente (M.). 2015. Las comunidades de la eda del hierro en África Centro-Occidental: cultura material e identidad, Tesi Doctoral, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid • ^ "Fernando Po", Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911.

• ^ a b c Clarence-Smith, William Gervase (1986) "Spanish Equatorial Guinea, 1898–1940" in The Cambridge History of Africa: From 1905 to 1940 Ed. J. D. Fage, A. D. Roberts, & Roland Anthony Oliver. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Diarsipkan 20 February 2014 di Wayback Machine. • ^ Martino, Enrique (2012). "Clandestine Recruitment Networks in the Bight of Biafra: Fernando Pó's Answer to the Labour Question, 1926–1945".

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doi: 10.1017/s0021853702008319. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2016-08-20. Diakses tanggal 2019-05-03. • ^ "Equatorial Guinea - EG Justice". www.egjustice.org. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2019-04-17. Diakses tanggal 17 April 2019. • ^ "Equatorial Guinea - Mass Atrocity Endings". Tufts University. 7 August 2015. • ^ a b Aworawo, David. "Decisive Thaw: The Changing Pattern of Relations between Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea, 1980–2005" (PDF). Journal of International and Global Studies.

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Diakses tanggal 3 May 2010. • ^ "True hell on earth: Simon Mann faces imprisonment in the cruellest jail on the planet". London: Dailymail.co.uk. 18 May 2007. Diakses tanggal 3 May 2010.

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"Well Oiled". Human Rights Watch. Diakses tanggal 21 January 2011. • ^ Shaxson, Nicholas (17 March 2004). "Profile: Equatorial Guinea's great survivor". BBC News. • negara equatorial guinea "Thatcher faces 15 years in prison". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 August 2004. • ^ MacKay, Neil (29 August 2004).

"The US knew, Spain knew, Britain knew. Whose coup was it?". Sunday Herald. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 14 May 2011. • ^ "Equatorial Guinea, A trial with too many flaws". Amnesty International. 7 June 2005. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 12 February 2006.

• ^ "Presidential Decree". Republicofequatorialguinea.net. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 26 April 2010. Diakses tanggal 3 May 2010. • ^ Heather Layman, LPA (11 April 2006). "USAID and the Republic of Equatorial Guinea Agree to Unique Partnership for Development". Usaid.gov. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 5 June 2011.

Diakses tanggal 3 May 2010. • ^ Organizational Reform & Institutional Capacity-Building. MPRI. Retrieved on 5 May 2013. • ^ Equatorial Guinea - Amnesty International. Amnesty.org. Retrieved on 5 May 2013. Diarsipkan 1 November 2014 di Wayback Machine. • ^ Equatorial Guinea - Human Rights Watch.

Hrw.org. Retrieved on 5 May 2013. • ^ Equatorial Guinea: Ignorance worth fistfuls of dollars.

negara equatorial guinea

Freedom House (13 June 2012). Retrieved on 2017-01-19. • ^ Tension Builds in the Gulf of Guinea as Competition for Economic Resources Increases Diarsipkan 2010-12-18 di Wayback Machine. Jutiagroup.com (5 April 2010). Retrieved on 5 May 2013. • ^ L3 Communications coast surveillance contract with Equatorial Guinea could be worth $250M. Business.gaeatimes.com (24 February 2010). Retrieved on 5 May 2013. • ^ "UPDATE 1-Tang renamed as Equatorial Guinea PM - News by Country - Reuters".

Af.reuters.com. 12 January 2010. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2010-03-23. Diakses tanggal 3 May 2010. • ^ " Equatorial Guinea country profile". BBC News. 8 May 2018. • ^ a b c Equatorial Guinea Minister Seeks Strong Ties With U.S Diarsipkan 2011-05-11 di Wayback Machine. Voanews.com (4 April 2010). Retrieved on 5 May 2013. • ^ Birrell, Ian (23 October 2011). "The strange and evil world of Equatorial Guinea". London: The Guardian. • ^ Ignacio Milam Tang, new Vice President of the Nation.

negara equatorial guinea. 22 May 2012. • ^ Interview with President Teodoro Obiang of Equatorial Guinea. CNN. 5 October 2012. • ^ "Convocatorial de Manifestacion, 25 de Junio 2013" (PDF). cpds-gq.org. Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal 2014-02-21. • ^ Mulyono, Agung. Sejarah Negara jajahan spanyol. Iwan gayo asociates. hlm. 257. Parameter -url-status= yang tidak diketahui akan diabaikan ( bantuan) Pranala luar [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Wikimedia Commons memiliki media mengenai Guinea Ecuatorial.

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Profil negara Guinea Khatulistiwa.

Nama Guinea Khatulistiwa Nama resmi Republik Guinea Khatulistiwa República de Guinea Ecuatorial (Spanyol) République de la Guinée Équatoriale (Prancis) Republica da Guiné Equatorial (Portugis) Ibu kota Malabo Semboyan Unidad, Paz, Justicia (Spanyol: "Persatuan, Kedamaian, Keadilan") Lagu kebangsaan Caminemos pisando las sendas de nuestra inmensa negara equatorial guinea Bentuk Pemerintahan Republik Presidensial Sistem Pemerintahan Presidensial Kemerdekaan 12 Oktober 1968 Kepala Negara Presiden Kepala Pemerintahan Perdana Menteri Badan Legislatif Parlemen (Senado + Cámara de los Diputados) Bahasa Nasional Spanyol Prancis Portugis Agama Katolik Roma Kristen Islam Baha'i Mata Uang Franc CFA Afrika Tengah (FCFA) (XAF) Zona Waktu Waktu Afrika Barat (WAT) (UTC+1) Kode Telepon +240 Domain .gq Situs https://www.guineaecuatorialpress.com/ Jumlah Penduduk 836.178 (estimasi Juli 2020) Guinea Khatulistiwa adalah sebuah negara berdaulat di Afrika Tengah.

Luas wilayah negara Guinea Khatulistiwa adalah 28.000 km². Dulunya merupakan koloni Spanyol, nama negara ini diambil dari lokasinya di dekat Khatulistiwa dan Teluk Guinea.

Guinea Ekuatorial adalah satu-satunya negara berdaulat di Afrika yang menggunakan bahasa Spanyol sebagai bahasa resmi. Pada 2015, setidaknya 1.222.245 orang tinggal di negara ini.

Batas-batas wilayah Guinea Khatulistiwa: • Utara: Kamerun, • Selatan: Gabon, • Barat: Samudra Atlantik, • Timur: Gabon.

Lambang negara Guinea Khatulistiwa Geografi Guinea Khatulistiwa berada di Afrika tengah bagian barat. Negara ini memiliki wilayah di daratan Afrika dan lima pulau kecil (Bioko, Corisco, Annobón, Elobey Chico, dan Elobey Grande). Pulau Bioko adalah lokasi ibu kota Malabo yang terletak sekitar 40 kilometer lepas pantai Kamerun. Istana Kepresidenan Teodoro Obiang di Malabo, Guinea Ekuatorial Demografi Kristen (93% populasi) adalah agama mayoritas di Guinea Khatulistiwa.

87% populasi adalah jemaat Gereja Katolik Roma dan Protestan 5% sisanya. 2% populasi memeluk agama Islam (terutama Sunni). 5% populasi adalah penganut animisme, Baha’i, dan keyakinan lainnya. Mayoritas populasi Guinea Ekuatorial adalah etnis Bantu. Kelompok etnis terbesarnya adalah Fang yang juga merupakan pribumi di wilayah daratan Guinea Khatulistiwa.

Baca juga: Profil & Informasi tentang Negara Sao Tome dan Príncipe [Lengkap] Fang membentuk 80% populasi yang setidaknya terdiri dari 67 klan. Mereka yang berada di bagian utara Río Muni menuturkan dialek Fang-Ntumu, negara equatorial guinea yang di selatan menuturkan dialek Fang-Okah. Dialek Fang juga diucapkan di beberapa wilayah Kamerun dan Gabon. Bubi (15% populasi) adalah pribumi Pulau Bioko.

Pelabuhan Malabo Bahasa Selama bertahun-tahun, bahasa resmi Guinea Khatulistiwa adalah bahasa Spanyol dan Prancis. Bahasa Portugis diadopsi sebagai bahasa resmi pada tahun 2010. Bahasa Spanyol telah menjadi bahasa resmi sejak 1844. 67,6% populasi dapat berbicara menggunakan bahasa Spanyol terutama yang tinggal di Malabo.

Bahasa Prancis dimasukkan dalam bahasa resmi hanya untuk bergabung dengan Francophonie. Bahasa pribumi Guinea Khatulistiwa adalah bahasa Fang, Bube, Benga, Ndowe, Balengue, Bujeba, Bissio, Gumu, Igbo, Pichinglis, Fa d’Ambô, dan Baseke yang hampir punah. Sebagian besar etnis Afrika berbicara bahasa Bantu. Benua dan Samudra Untuk mengetahui lebih lanjut mengenai di mana letak masing-masing benua atau samudra lengkap dengan apa saja yang terkait dengannya, termasuk negara-negara dalamnya, bisa klik tautan berikut.

• Benua Afrika • Benua Amerika • Benua Asia • Benua Eropa • Benua Australia • Benua Antartika • Kawasan Oseania • Samudra Pasifik • Samudra Atlantik • Samudra Hindia • Samudra Selatan • Samudra Arktik Wawasan Umum Berikut adalah wawasan penting yang berada dalam kategori Negara. • 10 Negara yang Berbatasan dengan Indonesia • 3 Negara yang Berbatasan Langsung dengan Indonesia • 3 Negara yang Berbatasan Langsung dengan Malaysia negara equatorial guinea Profil & Informasi Daftar Negara ASEAN [Lengkap] • Profil & Informasi tentang PBB [Lengkap] • Pengertian Negara yang Perlu Ketahui Lebih Jauh • Daftar Nama Negara dan Ibukota di Dunia [Lengkap] Negara di Afrika Tengah • Profil & Informasi tentang Negara Afrika Tengah [Lengkap] • Profil & Informasi tentang Negara Angola [Lengkap] • Profil & Informasi tentang Negara Chad [Lengkap] • Profil & Informasi tentang Negara Gabon [Lengkap] • Profil & Informasi tentang Negara Guinea Khatulistiwa [Lengkap] • Profil & Informasi tentang Negara Negara equatorial guinea [Lengkap] • Profil & Informasi tentang Negara Kongo [Lengkap] Buka Benua Afrika untuk melihat negara lain di Benua Afrika.

Daftar Isi • Peta Guinea Khatulistiwa • Negara perbatasan dengan Equatorial Guinea • Peta regional • Peta politik Guinea Khatulistiwa • Di mana letak Guinea Khatulistiwa? • Hal-hal yang Perlu diketahui • Kota penting Guinea Ekuatorial • Lokasi Guinea Ekuatorial • Sumber Daya Guinea Ekuatorial • Bahaya Alam Guinea Ekuatorial • Masalah Lingkungan Guinea Ekuatorial Peta Guinea Khatulistiwa – Nama resminya Guinea Khatulistiwa (Equatorial Guinea), letaknya di Teluk Guinea, sebuah pantai barat di Afrika, berbatasan langsung dengan negara Gabon di sebelah selatan, dan di sebelah utara dengan Kamerun.

Sebagian besar wilayahnya masih diselimuti hutan belantara. Republik Guinea Khatulistiwa merupakan satu-satunya negara di Afrika yang menggunakan bahasa Spanyol. Peta Guinea Khatulistiwa Sumber Daya Guinea Ekuatorial Guinea Ekuatorial negara equatorial guinea sumber daya bahan bakar yang mencakup minyak bumi, gas alam, dan kayu.

Beberapa dari berbagai sumber daya mineral negara ini adalah bauksit, pasir, kerikil, tanah liat, tantalum, emas dan berlian. Bahaya Alam Guinea Ekuatorial Guinea Ekuatorial rentan terhadap bahaya alam yang mencakup badai angin kencang, dan banjir bandang.

Masalah Lingkungan Guinea Ekuatorial Negara Guinea Ekuatorial di Afrika barat memiliki masalah lingkungan yang meliputi deforestasi. Selain itu, air leding negara tidak dapat diminum.
Pendidikan adalah salah satu hal yang terpenting bagi sebuah negara. Dengan pendidikan yang berkualitas, maka dapat dibentuk bibit-bibit unggul yang bisa berkontribusi untuk kemajuan bangsa. Majunya sistem pendidikan di suatu negara dipengaruhi oleh besarnya dana yang dialokasikan pemerintah untuk sector pendidikan.

Negara-negara di Eropa dan Amerika Utara dikenal memiliki sistem pendidikan yang paling maju di dunia. Tapi banyak juga negara equatorial guinea yang sistem pendidikannya sangat buruk, sehingga IQ warganya sangat rendah. Rendahnya tingkat intelijensi membuat negara-negara di bawah ini disebut sebagai negara terbodoh di dunia.

Inilah 10 negara terbodoh di dunia berdasarkan tingkat IQ, dengan melihat berapa besar dana yang diberikan pemerintah untuk pendidikannya.

1. Mozambik Menempati posisi ke-10 sebagai negara paling bodoh di dunia, rata-rata IQ warga Mozambik adalah 64. Sebagai salah satu negara miskin di dunia, pendidikan bukan menjadi hal utama di Mozambik. Sebagian besar anak harus bekerja di usia 14 tahun, sehingga mereka hanya menyelesaikan pendidikan dasar saja. Pada tahun 2016, pendapatan per kapita Mozambik hanya USD 419 dengan Pendapatan Domestik Bruto USD 12,04 miliar (USD 1 = Rp 14.246). Tidak ada dana khusus yang dialokasikan untuk pendidikan.

negara equatorial guinea

2. Gambia Masih dari negara Afrika, berikutnya ada Gambia yang terletak di Afrika Barat. Dengan penduduk sebanyak 1,7 juta jiwa, rata-rata IQ di Gambia adalah 66. PDB negara Gambia diperkirakan sekitar USD 825 juta dengan pendapatan per kapita USD 1.599. Sebagai negara miskin, Gambia mendapatkan bantuan dana pendidikan dari World Bank Group dan Global Partnership for Education sebesar USD 35 juta. Dana ini bertujuan untuk memperbaiki kualitas pendidikan di negara tersebut.

3. Lesotho Secara geografis, Lesotho berbatasan langsung dengan Afrika Selatan. Namun kondisi keduanya berbeda jauh, tidak hanya dalam pertumbuhan ekonomi tetapi juga tingkat kecerdasan. Rata-rata IQ rakyat Lesotho adalah 67.

Meski Lesotho adalah negara miskin, dana yang dialokasikan untuk pendidikan cukup besar, yaitu negara equatorial guinea dari total Pendapatan Domestik Bruto mereka. Pada tahun 2017, PDB negara Lesotho diperkirakan mencapai USD 2,7 miliar. 4. Haiti Dengan rata-rata IQ 67, masyarakat Haiti memiliki literasi yang buruk, yaitu hanya 61% dari seluruh warganya. Angka tersebut jauh di bawah rata-rata literasi untuk negara Karibia dan Amerika Latin yang mencapai angka 90%.

Dengan PDB sebesar USD 7,97 miliar pada tahun 2016, pemerintah Haiti hanya mengalokasikan dana untuk pendidikan sebesar 2,45% saja. 5. Liberia Satu lagi negara miskin yang negara equatorial guinea menjadi negara bodoh di dunia. Rata-rata IQ 67, Liberia menduduki negara paling bodoh keenam di dunia. Liberia menggratiskan pendidikan dasar untuk warganya, namun tanpa fasilitas memadai.

PDB Liberia pada tahun 2017 adalah USD 2,158 miliar dengan alokasi dana untuk pendidikan 3,82% dari jumlah tersebut. 6. Gabon Dilihat dari Pendapatan Domestik Bruto pada tahun 2017, perekonomian Gabon sebernanya lebih baik dibandingkan dengan negara miskin di Afrika lainnya.

Jumlahnya mencapai USD 1,62 miliar. Sayangnya dana yang dialokasikan untuk pendidikan sangat rendah, yaitu hanya 2,667% saja pada tahun 2014. Tanpa adanya perubahan signifikan pada indeks pendidikan di negara itu, jumlah rata-rata IQ warga Gabon hanya 64.

7. Saint Kitts and Nevis Dengan rata-rata IQ 67, Saint Kitts and Nevis menempati jajaran atas negara terbodoh di dunia. Negara kecil ini terletak di kepulauan Karibia, tepatnya di PulaU Leeward. Saint Kitts and Nevis adalah negara terkecil, baik dari segi jumlah penduduk maupun luas wilayah, di sisi Barat. Negara ini termasuk Persemakmuran Inggris, sehingga kepala negaranya adalah Ratu Elizabeth II. Nilai PDB Saint Kitts and Nevis pada 2015 ada di angka USD 878.3 juta, namun hanya 2,779% saja yang dialokasikan untuk pendidikan.

Meski literasi di negara ini mencapai 98% (jauh lebih tinggi dibandingkan negara miskin lainnya), rendahnya dana pendidikan membuat masyarakatnya memiliki tingkat intelijensi rendah.

8. Guinea-Bissau Negara Guinea-Bissau mungkin tidak familiar untuk sebagian besar orang. Terletak di wilayah Afrika Barat, negara ini memiliki luas wilayah 36.125 km persegi dengan jumlah penduduk 1.815.698 jiwa.

Dengan rata-rata IQ 67, Guinea-Bissau dan Saint Kitts and Nevis sama-sama menduduki peringkat ketiga sebagai negara terbodoh di dunia. Rendahnya kecerdasan di negara ini dipengaruhi oleh negara equatorial guinea dana yang diberikan pemerintah untuk pendidikan.

Pada tahun 2013, dengan jumlah total PDB sebesar USD 1.046 miliar, hanya 2.132% saja yang dialokasikan untuk pendidikan. 9. Saint Lucia Rata-rata IQ warga Saint Lucia cukup mengkhawatirkan, yaitu hanya 62 saja.

Tidak hanya itu, indeks perubahan pendidikan di negara ini juga terus menurun, pada tahun 2017 menunjukkan penurunan sebesar -0.94%.

Pada tahun 2016, jumlah PDB Saint Lucia adalah sebesar USD 1,667 miliar dan sebanyak 5,71% dialokasikan untuk dana pendidikan. Dengan demikian, Saint Lucia menempati urutan kedua sebagai negara terbodoh di dunia dilihat dari rata-rata IQ warganya. 10. Equatorial Guinea Negara ini terletak di wilayah Afrika Tengah. Sebenanrnya Equatorial Guinea bukanlah negara miskin, mengingat jumlah PDB pada tahun 2018 yang diperkirakan mencapai USD 12 miliar dengan pendapatan per kapita USD 13.350.

Namun rata-rata IQ warganya hanya 59 saja, membuat negara ini menjadi negara terbodoh di dunia. Penyebabnya adalah rendahnya investasi pemerintah untuk pendidikan.

Dengan jumlah pendapatan yang besar, pemerintah hanya menggunakan 1.97% saja untuk pendidikan pada tahun 2009, padahal jumlah PDB pada tahun itu mencapai USD 15,03 miliar. Daftar Negara Terpintar sampai Terbodoh berdasar Tingkatan IQ Rank Negara IQ 1 Hong Kong 108 1 Singapore 108 2 South Korea 106 3 Japan 105 4 Taiwan 104 5 Italy 102 6 Iceland 101 6 Mongolia 101 6 Switzerland 101 7 Austria 100 7 China 100 7 Luxembourg 100 7 Netherlands 100 7 Norway 100 7 United Kingdom 100 8 Belgium 99 8 Canada 99 8 Estonia 99 8 Finland 99 8 Germany 99 8 Poland 99 8 Sweden 99 9 Andorra 98 9 Australia 98 9 Czech Republic 98 9 Denmark 98 9 France 98 9 Hungary 98 9 Latvia 98 9 Spain 98 9 United States 98 10 Belarus 97 10 Malta 97 10 Russia 97 10 Ukraine 97 11 Moldova 96 11 Slovakia 96 11 Slovenia 96 11 Uruguay 96 12 Israel 95 12 Portugal 95 13 Armenia 94 13 Georgia 94 13 Kazakhstan 94 13 Romania 94 13 Vietnam 94 14 Argentina 93 14 Bulgaria 93 15 Greece 92 15 Ireland 92 15 Malaysia 92 16 Brunei 91 16 Cambodia 91 16 Cyprus 91 16 Macedonia 91 16 Lithuania 91 16 Sierra Leone 91 16 Thailand 91 17 Albania 90 17 Bosnia and Herzegovina 90 17 Chile 90 17 Croatia 90 17 Kyrgyzstan 90 17 Turkey 90 18 Costa Rica 89 18 Laos 89 18 Mauritius 89 18 Serbia 89 18 Suriname 89 19 Ecuador 88 19 Mexico 88 19 Samoa 88 20 Azerbaijan 87 20 Bolivia 87 20 Nauru 87 20 Guyana 87 20 Indonesia 87 20 Iraq 87 20 Myanmar 87 20 Tajikistan 87 20 Turkmenistan 87 20 Uzbekistan 87 21 Kuwait 86 21 Philippines 86 21 Seychelles 86 21 Tonga 86 22 Cuba 85 22 Eritrea 85 22 Fiji 85 22 Kiribati 85 22 Peru 85 22 Trinidad and Tobago 85 22 Yemen 85 23 Afghanistan 84 23 The Bahamas 84 23 Belize 84 23 Colombia 84 23 Iran 84 23 Jordan 84 23 Marshall Islands 84 23 Micronesia 84 23 Morocco 84 23 Nigeria 84 23 Pakistan 84 23 Panama 84 23 Paraguay 84 23 Saudi Arabia 84 23 Solomon Islands negara equatorial guinea 23 Uganda 84 23 United Arab Emirates 84 23 Vanuatu 84 23 Venezuela 84 24 Algeria 83 24 Bahrain 83 24 Libya 83 24 Oman 83 24 Papua New Guinea 83 24 Syria 83 24 Tunisia 83 25 Bangladesh 82 25 Dominican Republic 82 25 India 82 25 Lebanon 82 25 Madagascar 82 25 Zimbabwe 82 26 Egypt 81 26 Honduras 81 26 Maldives 81 26 Nicaragua 81 27 Barbados 80 27 Bhutan 80 27 El Salvador 80 27 Kenya 80 28 Guatemala 79 28 Sri Lanka 79 28 Zambia 79 29 Democratic Republic of the Congo 78 29 Nepal 78 29 Qatar 78 30 Comoros 77 30 South Africa 77 31 Cape Verde 76 31 Congo 76 31 Mauritania 76 31 Senegal 76 32 Mali 74 32 Namibia 74 33 Ghana 73 34 Tanzania 72 35 Central African Republic 71 35 Jamaica 71 35 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 71 35 Sudan 71 36 Antigua negara equatorial guinea Barbuda 70 36 Benin 70 36 Botswana 70 36 Rwanda 70 36 Togo 70 37 Burundi 69 37 Cote d’Ivoire 69 37 Ethiopia 69 37 Malawi 69 37 Niger 69 38 Angola 68 38 Burkina Faso 68 38 Chad 68 38 Djibouti 68 38 Somalia 68 38 Swaziland 68 39 Dominica 67 39 Guinea 67 39 Guinea-Bissau 67 39 Haiti 67 39 Lesotho 67 39 Liberia 67 39 Saint Kitts and Nevis 67 39 Sao Tome negara equatorial guinea Principe 67 40 The Gambia 66 41 Cameroon 64 41 Gabon 64 41 Mozambique 64 42 Saint Lucia 62 43 Equatorial Guinea 59 Artikel Terkait: • Negara-Negara Paling Bahagia Sedunia 2019 • Negara-Negara Paling Tidak Bahagia Sedunia • Cara Negara Berkembang Supaya Jadi Negara Maju • Apa Rasanya Tinggal di Negara dengan Hiperinflasi (HyperInflation)?

Demikianlah artikel tentang 10 negara terbodoh di dunia, semoga bermanfaat bagi Anda semua.
Bendera Jata Cogan kata: Unidad, Paz, Justicia (Sepanyol) Unité, Paix, Justice (Perancis) Unidade, Paz, Justiça (Portugis) Perpaduan, Kedamaian, Keadilan Lagu kebangsaan: Caminemos pisando la senda Ibu negara Malabo Bandar terbesar Bata Bahasa rasmi • Bahasa Sepanyol • Bahasa Perancis • Bahasa Portugis Bahasa umum • Musim panas ( DST) UTC+1 (not observed) Bahagian memandu right Kod panggilan 240 DPT internet .gq Guinea Khatulistiwa, secara rasmi Republik Guinea Khatulistiwa ( Sepanyol: República de Guinea Ecuatorial, Sebutan Sepanyol: [reˈpuβlika ðe ɣiˈnea ekwatoˈɾjal], Perancis: République de Guinée Équatoriale, Bahasa Portugis: República da Guiné Equatorial, Bahasa Inggeris: Republic of Equatorial Guinea) adalah sebuah negara yang terletak di Afrika Tengah.

Dengan keluasan 28,000 km 2 ia adalah salah satu negara terkecil di benua Afrika dan mempunyai negara equatorial guinea dianggarkan sebanyak setengah juta. Isi kandungan • 1 Ekonomi • 2 Sukan • 3 Rujukan • 4 Pautan luar Ekonomi [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Guinea Khatulistiwa pra-merdeka mengharapkan pengeluaran koko untuk pendapatan mata wang kukuh.

negara equatorial guinea

Ia mempunyai pendapatan per kapita tertinggi Afrika pada 1959. Penemuan simpanan minyak besar pada 1996 dan eksploitasinya yang berikutnya telah menyumbang kepada satu peningkatan dramatik dalam hasil kerajaan.

Seperti pada 2004, [4] Equatorial Guinea adalah pengeluar minyak ketiga terbesar di Sub Sahara Afrika. Pengeluaran minyaknya telah meningkat kepada 360,000 buah tong/hari, bertambah daripada 220,000 dua tahun terdahulu. Perhutanan, pertania, dan perikanan adalah juga komponen utama bagi KDNK negara ini.

Pertanian sara diri mendominasi. Kemerosotan ekonomi luar bandar di bawah rejim-rejim yang kejam telah mengurangkan potensi untuk pertumbuhan pertanian.

Walaupun KDNK per kapita (PPP) lebih daripada US$30,000 [5] [6], Equatorial Guinea berkedudukan ke-121 daripada 177 buah negara dalam Indeks Pembangunan Manusia Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu. Sukan [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Equatorial Guinea telah dipilih untuk menjadi tuan rumah bersama Piala Negara Negara equatorial guinea 2012 perkongsian dengan Gabon. Negara itu juga dipilih menjadi tuan rumah Kejohanan Bola Sepak Wanita Afrika 2008, yang kemudian dimenangi.

Rujukan [ sunting - sunting sumber ] • ^ Cia World Factbook; Equatorial Guinea • ^ a b c d "Equatorial Guinea".

negara equatorial guinea

International Monetary Fund. Dicapai pada 2008-10-09. • ^ http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDI_2008_EN_Tables.pdf • ^ Justin Blum ( September 7, 2004). "U.S. Oil Firms Entwined in Equatorial Guinea Deals". washingtonpost.com. Dicapai pada 2008-07-09. Check date values in: -date= ( bantuan) • ^ World Economic Outlook IMF Database, September 2005 • ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Equatorial Guinea Pautan luar [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Ketahui lebih lanjut tentang Equatorial Guinea di projek saudara Wikipedia: Takrifan dari Wikikamus Imej dan media dari Commons Sumber pembelajaran dari Wikiversity Berita dari Wikiberita Petikan dari Wikipetikan Teks sumber dari Wikisumber Buku teks dari Wikibuku Government • Official Government of Equatorial Guinea website (Spanish, English) • Honorary Consulate of Equatorial Guinea in Romania Diarkibkan 2011-07-18 di Wayback Machine (Spanish, Romanian, English) • Chief of State and Cabinet Members Diarkibkan 2009-10-26 di Wayback Machine General information • Country Profile from BBC News • Kemasukan Buku Fakta Dunia CIA di Equatorial Guinea • Equatorial Guinea from UCB Libraries GovPubs • Guinea Khatulistiwa di Curlie • Atlas Wikimedia Equatorial Guinea • Topographical map Diarkibkan 2007-09-11 di Wayback Machine (Spanish) • Wikivoyage memiliki panduan pelancongan bagi Equatorial Guinea.

News media • Equatorial Guinea news headline links from AllAfrica.com • Guinea-Ecuatorial.net (Spanish, some French) Cultural • The Bubis of Fernando Po Diarkibkan 2011-02-02 di Wayback Machine history of first inhabitants of Bioko Island, now an endangered people • Cultura Bubi Diarkibkan 2011-07-25 di Wayback Machine • Cultures de Mon: Los Bubis Diarkibkan 2011-02-02 di Wayback Machine • African Pygmies culture and music of the first inhabitants of Equatorial Guinea, with photos and ethnographic notes Other • Spanish Embassy's Plan for African 2006-2008 • http://www.icex.es/staticFiles/GuineaEcuatorial_6814_.pdf (Spanish) Afrika Selatan · Algeria · Angola · Benin · Botswana · Burkina Faso · Burundi · Cameroon · Chad · Comoros · Côte d'Ivoire · Djibouti · Eritrea · Eswatini · Habsyah · Guinea Khatulistiwa · Gabon · Gambia · Ghana · Guinea · Guinea-Bissau · Kenya · Lesotho · Liberia · Libya · Madagaskar · Malawi · Mali · Mauritania · Mauritius · Mesir · Mozambique · Namibia · Niger · Nigeria · Republik Afrika Tengah · Republik Demokratik Arab Sahrawi · Republik Congo · Republik Demokratik Congo · Rwanda · São Tomé dan Príncipe · Senegal · Seychelles · Sierra Leone · Somalia · Sudan · Tanjung Verde · Tanzania · Togo · Tunisia · Uganda · Zambia negara equatorial guinea Zimbabwe Afrika Utara Algeria · Mesir 1 · Libya · Mauritania · Maghribi · Sudan · Tunisia · Sahara Barat 2 Afrika Barat Benin · Burkina Faso · Cape Verde · Côte d'Ivoire · Gambia · Ghana · Guinea · Guinea-Bissau · Liberia · Mali negara equatorial guinea Mauritania · Niger · Nigeria · Senegal · Sierra Leone · Togo Afrika Tengah Angola · Burundi · Cameroon · Chad · Guinea Khatulistiwa · Gabon · Republik Afrika Tengah · Republik Demokratik Congo · Republik Congo · Rwanda · Negara equatorial guinea Tome dan Principe Afrika Timur Burundi · Comoros · Djibouti · Eritrea · Habsyah · Kenya · Madagascar · Malawi · Mauritius · Mozambique · Rwanda · Seychelles · Somalia · Tanzania · Uganda · Zambia · Zimbabwe Selatan Afrika Botswana · Lesotho · Namibia · Republik Afrika Selatan · Swaziland Wilayah tanggungan dan negara tidak diiktiraf Wilayah tanggungan di Afrika : Wilayah Lautan Hindi British, St.

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This disparity negara equatorial guinea explained by the fact that girls, negara equatorial guinea one reason or another, are more likely to drop out of school than boys, despite free education from the pre-school program to the secondary school level, and the government support to education in the country.

The pre-school program admits children from three to six years of age. It is divided into two parts: the nursery and kindergarten devoted mostly to games, creative activities, and other children events.

The primary education negara equatorial guinea for five years while the secondary education has four years in the first stage and negara equatorial guinea years in the second stage.

This level is a preparation for admission to college or the higher institution of higher learning. The primary school has also two levels, negara equatorial guinea the first for children aged six to 10, and the second for children aged 10 to 12.

The secondary school has two cycles to earn a baccalaureate degree. The first cycle consists of four years of study, and the second cycle, three years. The advanced cycle or college education has three levels: (1) three years of study (2) two years of specialized study, and (3) three years devoted to research. The educational system is supervised by the Ministry of Education and Sciences and is focused on the country’s transformation into negara equatorial guinea high-quality source of well-educated young men and women, the development of the youth not only with skills needed for the socio-economic advancement of the country, but also to be highly competitive in the global economy.

A plan for the country also includes giving priority to basic education, especially the pre-school and primary levels, and to girls’ education to discourage, among others, rampant marriages and pregnancies among the young undergraduate women.
Batas Negara Republik Guinea Khatulistiwa República de Guinea Ecuatorial ( Bahasa Spanyol) République de la Guinée Équatoriale ( Bahasa Perancis) Republica da Guiné Equatorial ( Bahasa Portugis) Guinea Khatulistiwa adalah sebuah negara di pantai barat Afrika Tengah, dengan luas 28.000 kilometer persegi.

Pada 2015, negara ini memiliki populasi 1.225.367. Guinea Khatulistiwa terletak di antara garis lintang 4°LU dan 2°S, dan garis bujur 5° dan 12°BT. Terlepas dari namanya, tidak ada bagian dari wilayah negara yang terletak di khatulistiwa—ia berada di belahan bumi utara, kecuali Provinsi Annobón yang terletak sekitar 155 km selatan khatulistiwa. Batas Wilayah Area Negara Tetangga Guinea Katulistiwa: Sebelah utara: Kamerun.

Sebelah timur laut: Kamerun. Sebelah timur: Gabon. Sebelah tenggara: Gabon. Sebelah selatan: Gabon. Sebelah barat daya: Gabon dan Samudra Atlantik, Sao Tome and Principe dipisahkan selat di smdra Atlantik. Sebelah barat: Samudra Atlantik. Sebelah barat laut: Samudra Atlantik. Ibu Kota Guinea Khatulistiwa berada di kota Malabo yang terletak di pulau kecil dan terpisah dari sebagian besar wilayah daratan Guinea Khatulistiwa. Kota Malabo berada dekat dengan negara Nigeria di sebelah Utara dan negara Kamerun di sebelah Timur namun keduanya dipisahkan oleh sebuah selat yang berada di Samudra Atlantik.

Arah Mata Angin Indonesia Batas wilayah map peta area negara tetangga guinea khatuslistiwa di dunia, dilut.com Batas Wilayah Negara Tetangga Guinea Bissau Batas Wilayah Negara Tetangga Gabon Batas Wilayah Negara Tetangga Guinea Batas Wilayah Negara Tetangga Kamerun ( Cameroon ) Batas Wilayah Negara Sao Tome dan Principe Batas Wilayah Negara Tetangga Kongo ( Congo ) Batas Wilayah Negara Tetangga Sahara Barat Batas Wilayah Negara Tetangga Barbados
• Including Equatoguinean Spanish ( Español ecuatoguineano).

Equatorial Guinea ( Spanish: Guinea Ecuatorial; [a] French: Guinée équatoriale; Portuguese: Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (Spanish: República de Guinea Ecuatorial, French: République de Guinée équatoriale, Portuguese: República da Guiné Equatorial), [b] is a country on the west coast of Central Africa, with an area of 28,000 square kilometres (11,000 sq mi).

Formerly the colony of Spanish Guinea, its post-independence name evokes its location near both the Equator and the Gulf of Guinea.

As of 2021 [update], the country had a population of 1,468,777. [13] Equatorial Guinea consists negara equatorial guinea two parts, an insular and a mainland region. The insular region consists of the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Pó) in the Gulf of Guinea and Annobón, a small volcanic island which is the only part of the country south of the equator. Bioko Island is the northernmost part of Equatorial Guinea and is the site of the country's capital, Malabo.

The Portuguese-speaking island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe is located between Bioko and Annobón. The mainland region, Río Muni, is bordered by Cameroon on the north and Gabon on the south and east. It is the location of Bata, Equatorial Guinea's largest city, and Ciudad de la Paz, the country's planned future capital.

Rio Muni also includes several small offshore islands, such as Corisco, Elobey Grande, and Elobey Chico. The country is a member of the African Union, Francophonie, OPEC and the CPLP. After becoming independent from Spain in 1968, Equatorial Guinea was ruled by President for life Francisco Macías Nguema until he was overthrown in a coup in 1979 by his nephew Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo who has served as the country's president since.

Both presidents have been widely characterized as dictators by foreign observers. Since the mid-1990s, Equatorial Guinea has become one of sub-Saharan Africa's largest oil producers. [14] It has subsequently become the richest country per capita in Africa, [15] and its gross domestic product (GDP) adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita negara equatorial guinea 43rd in the world; [16] however, the wealth is distributed extremely unevenly, with few people benefiting from the oil riches.

The country ranks 144th on the 2019 Human Development Index, [17] with less than half the population having access to clean drinking water and 7.9% of children dying before the age of five. [18] [19] As a former Spanish colony, the country maintains Spanish as its official language alongside French and recently (as of 2010) Portuguese, [20] being the only African country (aside from the largely unrecognized Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) where Spanish is an official language.

[21] It is also the most widely spoken language (considerably more than the other two official languages); according negara equatorial guinea the Instituto Cervantes, 87.7% of the population has a good command of Spanish. [22] Equatorial Guinea's government is authoritarian and has one of the worst human rights records in the world, consistently ranking among the "worst of the worst" in Freedom House's annual survey of political and civil rights.

[23] Reporters Without Borders ranks President Obiang among its "predators" of press freedom. [24] Human trafficking is a significant problem, with the U.S. Trafficking in Persons Report identifying Equatorial Guinea as a source and destination country for forced labour and sex trafficking.

The report also noted that Equatorial Guinea "does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts negara equatorial guinea do so." [25] Contents • 1 History • 1.1 First European contact and Portuguese rule (1472–1778) • 1.2 Early Spanish rule and lease to Britain (1778–1844) • 1.3 Late 19th century (1844–1900) • 1.4 Early 20th century (1900–1945) • 1.5 Final years of Spanish rule (1945–1968) • 1.6 Independence under Macías (1968–1979) • 1.7 Obiang (1979–present) • 2 Government and politics • 2.1 Armed forces • 3 Geography • 3.1 Climate • 3.2 Ecology • 3.2.1 Wildlife • 3.3 Administrative divisions • 4 Economy • 4.1 Transportation • 5 Demographics • 5.1 Languages • 5.2 Religion • 5.3 Health • 5.4 Education • 6 Culture • 6.1 Tourism • 6.2 Media and communications • 6.3 Music • 6.4 Cinema • 6.5 Sports • 7 See also • 8 Notes • 9 References • 10 Sources • 11 External links History Main article: History of Equatorial Guinea Pygmies probably once lived in the continental region that is now Equatorial Guinea, but are today found only in isolated pockets in southern Río Muni.

Bantu migrations started probably around 2,000 BC from between south-east Nigeria and north-west Cameroon (the Grassfields). [26] They must have settled continental Equatorial Guinea around 500 BC at the latest. [27] [28] The earliest settlements on Bioko Island are dated to AD 530.

[29] The Annobón population, originally native to Angola, was introduced by the Portuguese via São Tomé island. [ citation needed] Portuguese rule in Equatorial Guinea lasted from the arrival of Fernão do Pó (Fernando Pó) in 1472 until the 1778 Treaty of El Pardo. First European contact and Portuguese rule (1472–1778) The Portuguese explorer Fernando Pó, seeking a path to India, is credited as being the first European to see the island of Bioko, in 1472.

He called it Formosa ("Beautiful"), but it quickly took on the name of its European discoverer. Fernando Pó and Annobón were colonized by Portugal in 1474. The first factories were established on the islands around 1500 as the Portuguese quickly recognized the positives of the islands including volcanic soil and disease-resistant highlands.

Despite natural advantages, initial Portuguese efforts in 1507 to establish a sugarcane plantation and town near what is now Concepción on Fernando Pó failed due to Bubi hostility and fever. [30] The main island's rainy climate, extreme humidity and temperature swings took a major toll on European settlers from the negara equatorial guinea, and it would be centuries before attempts restarted.

[ citation needed] Early Spanish rule and lease to Britain (1778–1844) In 1778, Queen Maria I of Portugal and King Charles III of Spain signed the Treaty of El Pardo which ceded Bioko, adjacent islets, and commercial rights to the Bight of Biafra between the Niger and Ogoue rivers to Spain in exchange for large areas in South America negara equatorial guinea are now Western Brazil. Brigadier Felipe José, Count of Arjelejos sailed from Uruguay to formally take possession of Bioko from Portugal, landing on the island on 21 October 1778.

After sailing for Annobón to take possession, the Count died of disease caught on Bioko and the fever-ridden crew mutinied. The crew landed on São Tomé instead where they were imprisoned by the Portuguese authorities after having lost over 80% of their men to sickness. [31] As a result of this disaster, Spain was thereafter hesitant to invest heavily in its new possession. However, despite the setback Spaniards began to use the island as a base for slave trading on the nearby mainland.

Between 1778 and 1810, the territory of what became Equatorial Guinea was administered by the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, based in Buenos Aires. negara equatorial guinea Unwilling to invest heavily in the development of Fernando Pó, from 1827 to 1843, the Spanish leased a base at Malabo on Bioko to the United Kingdom which the UK had sought as part of its efforts to suppress the transatlantic slave trade.

[33] Without Spanish permission, the British moved the headquarters negara equatorial guinea the Mixed Commission for the Suppression of Slave Traffic to Fernando Pó in 1827, before moving it back to Sierra Leone under an agreement with Spain in 1843. Spain's decision to abolish slavery in 1817 at British insistence damaged the colony's perceived value to the authorities and so leasing naval bases was an effective revenue earner from an otherwise unprofitable possession.

[32] An agreement by Spain to sell its African colony to the British was cancelled in 1841 due to metropolitan public opinion and opposition by Spanish Congress. [34] Late 19th century (1844–1900) Map of the Spanish possessions in 1897, before the Treaty of Paris (1900). In 1844, the British returned the island to Spanish control and the area became known as the "Territorios Españoles del Golfo de Guinea." Due to epidemics Spain did not invest much in the colony, and in 1862 an outbreak of yellow fever killed many of the whites that had settled on the island.

Despite this, plantations continued to be established by private citizens through the second half of the 19th century. [35] The plantations of Fernando Pó were mostly run by a black Creole elite, later known as Fernandinos.

The British settled some 2,000 Sierra Leoneans and freed slaves there during their rule, and a trickle of immigration from West Africa and the West Indies continued after the British left. A number of freed Angolan slaves, Portuguese-African creoles and immigrants from Nigeria and Liberia also began to be settled in the colony where they quickly began to negara equatorial guinea the new group.

[36] To the local mix were added Cubans, Filipinos, Jews and Spaniards of various colours, many of whom had been deported to Africa negara equatorial guinea political or other crimes, as well as some settlers backed by the government. [37] By 1870 the prognosis of whites that lived on the island was much improved after recommendations that they live in the highlands, and by 1884 much of the minimal administrative machinery and key plantations had moved to Basile hundreds of meters above sea level.

Henry Morton Stanley had labeled Fernando Pó "a jewel which Spain did not polish" for refusing to enact such a policy. Despite the improved survival chances of Europeans living on the island, Mary Kingsley, who was staying on the island still described Fernando Pó as 'a more uncomfortable form of execution' for Spaniards appointed there.

[35] There was also a trickle of immigration from the neighboring Portuguese islands, escaped slaves, and prospective planters. Although a few of the Fernandinos were Catholic and Spanish-speaking, about nine-tenths of them were Protestant and English-speaking on the eve of the First World War, and pidgin English was the lingua franca of the island.

The Sierra Leoneans were negara equatorial guinea well placed as planters while labor recruitment on the Windward coast continued, for they kept family and other connections there and could easily arrange a supply of labor. The Fernandinos proved to become effective traders and middlemen between the natives and Europeans. [36] A freed slave from the West Indies by way of Sierra Leone named William Pratt established the cocoa crop on Fernando Pó, forever altering the destiny of the colony.

[ citation needed] Early 20th century (1900–1945) Borders after the agreement of 1900 on the land that would become Spanish Guinea, until the independence of 1968. Spain had not occupied the large area in the Bight of Biafra to which it had right by treaty, and the French had busily expanded their occupation at the expense of the territory claimed by Spain.

Madrid only partly backed the explorations of men like Manuel Negara equatorial guinea who had signed treaties in the interior as far as Gabon and Cameroon, leaving much of the land out of 'effective occupation' as demanded by the terms of the 1885 Berlin Conference. More important events such as the conflict in Cuba and the eventual Spanish–American War kept Madrid busy at an inopportune moment. Minimal government backing for mainland annexation came as a result of public opinion and a need for labour on Fernando Pó.

[38] The eventual treaty of Paris in 1900 left Spain with the continental enclave of Rio Muni, a mere 26,000 km 2 out of the 300,000 stretching east to the Ubangi river which the Spaniards had initially claimed.

[39] The tiny enclave was far smaller than what the Spaniards had considered themselves rightfully entitled to under their claims and the Treaty of El Pardo.

The humiliation of the Franco-Spanish negotiations, combined with the disaster in Cuba led to the head of the Spanish negotiating team, Pedro Gover y Tovar committing suicide on the voyage home on 21 October 1901. [40] Iradier himself died in despair in 1911, and it would be decades before his achievements would be recognised by Spanish popular opinion when the port of Cogo was renamed Puerto Iradier in his honour.

[ citation needed] The opening years of the twentieth century saw a new generation of Spanish immigrants. Land regulations issued in 1904–1905 favoured Spaniards, and most of the later big planters arrived from Spain after that.

An agreement made with Liberia in 1914 to import cheap labor greatly favoured wealthy men with ready access to the state, and the shift in labor supplies from Liberia to Río Muni increased this advantage.

Due to malpractice however, the Liberian government eventually ended the treaty after embarrassing revelations about the state of Liberian workers on Fernando Pó in the Christy Report which brought down the country's president Charles D. B. King in 1930. In 1940, an estimated 20% of negara equatorial guinea colony's cocoa production came from African-owned land, nearly all of it was in the hands of Fernandinos. [ citation needed] Corisco in 1910.

The greatest constraint to economic development was a chronic shortage of labour. Pushed into the interior of the island and decimated by alcohol addiction, venereal disease, smallpox, and sleeping sickness, the indigenous Bubi population of Bioko refused to work on plantations.

Working their own small cocoa farms gave them a considerable degree of autonomy. [ citation needed] By the late nineteenth century, the Bubi were protected from the demands of the planters by Spanish Claretian missionaries, who were very influential negara equatorial guinea the colony and eventually organised the Bubi into little mission theocracies reminiscent of the famous Jesuit reductions in Paraguay.

Catholic penetration was furthered by two small insurrections in 1898 and 1910 protesting conscription of forced labour for the plantations. The Bubi were disarmed in 1917, and left dependent on the missionaries. [39] Serious labour shortages were temporarily solved by a massive influx of refugees from German Kamerun, along with thousands of white German soldiers who stayed on the island for several years.

[40] Between 1926 and 1959 Bioko and Rio Muni were united as the colony of Spanish Guinea. The economy was based on large cacao and coffee plantations and logging concessions and the workforce was mostly immigrant contract labour from Liberia, Nigeria, and Cameroun. [41] Between 1914 and 1930, an estimated 10,000 Liberians went to Fernando Po under a labour treaty that was stopped altogether in 1930.

[42] With Liberian workers no longer available, planters of Fernando Po turned to Rio Muni. Campaigns were mounted to subdue the Fang people in the 1920s, at the time that Liberia was beginning to cut back on recruitment. There were garrisons of the colonial guard throughout the enclave by 1926, and the whole colony was considered 'pacified' by 1929. [43] Inaugural flight with Iberia from Madrid to Bata, 1941.

Negara equatorial guinea Spanish Civil War had a major impact on the colony. 150 Spanish whites, including the Governor-General and Vice-Governor-General of Río Muni created a socialist party called the Negara equatorial guinea Front in the enclave which served to oppose the interests of the Fernando Pó plantation owners.

negara equatorial guinea

When the War broke out Francisco Franco ordered Negara equatorial guinea forces based in the Canaries to ensure control over Equatorial Guinea. In Negara equatorial guinea 1936 Nationalist forces backed by Falangists from Fernando Pó, similarly to what happened in Spain proper took control of Río Muni, which under Governor-General Luiz Sanchez Guerra Saez and his deputy Porcel had backed the Republican government.

By November the Popular Front and its supporters had been defeated and Equatorial Guinea secured for Franco. The commander in charge of the occupation, Juan Fontán Lobé was appointed Governor-General by Franco and began to exert more effective Spanish control over the enclave negara equatorial guinea. [44] Rio Muni had a small population, officially a negara equatorial guinea over 100,000 in the 1930s, and escape across the frontiers into Cameroun or Gabon was very easy.

Also, the timber companies needed increasing numbers of workers, and the spread of coffee cultivation offered an alternative means of paying taxes [ clarification needed]. Fernando Pó thus continued to suffer from labour shortages. The French only briefly permitted recruitment in Cameroun, and the main source of labour came to be Igbo smuggled in canoes from Calabar in Nigeria. This resolution to the worker shortage allowed Fernando Pó to become one of Africa's most productive agricultural areas after the Second World War.

[39] Final years negara equatorial guinea Spanish rule (1945–1968) Signing of the independence of Equatorial Guinea by the then Spanish minister Manuel Fraga together with the new Equatorial Guinean president Macías Nguema on October 12, 1968. Politically, post-war colonial history has three fairly distinct phases: up to 1959, when its status was raised from 'colonial' to 'provincial', following the approach of the Portuguese Empire; between 1960 and 1968, when Madrid attempted a partial decolonisation aimed at keeping the territory as part of the Spanish system; and from 1968 on, after the territory became an independent republic.

The first phase consisted of little more than a continuation of previous policies; these closely resembled the policies of Portugal and France, notably in dividing the population into a vast majority governed as 'natives' or non-citizens, and a very small minority (together with whites) admitted to civic status as emancipados, assimilation to the metropolitan culture being the only permissible means of advancement. [45] This 'provincial' phase saw the beginnings of nationalism, but chiefly among small groups who had taken refuge from the Caudillo 's paternal hand in Cameroun and Gabon.

They formed two bodies: the Movimiento Nacional de Liberación de la Guinea (MONALIGE), and the Idea Popular de Guinea Ecuatorial (IPGE). The pressure they could bring to bear was weak, but the general trend in West Africa was not, and by the late 1960s much of the African continent had been granted independence. Aware of this trend, the Spanish began to increase efforts to prepare the country for independence and massively stepped up development.

The Gross National Product per capita in 1965 was $466 which was the highest in black Africa, and the Spanish constructed an international airport at Santa Isabel, a television station and increased the literacy rate to a relatively high 89%. At the same time measures were taken to battle sleeping sickness and leprosy in the enclave, and by 1967 the number of hospital beds per capita in Equatorial Guinea was higher than Spain itself, with 1637 beds in 16 hospitals.

All the same, measures to improve education floundered and like in the Democratic Republic of Congo by the end of colonial rule the number of Africans in higher education was in only the double digits, and political education necessary to a functioning state was negligible. [46] A decision of 9 August 1963, approved by a referendum of 15 December 1963, gave the territory a measure of autonomy and the administrative promotion of a 'moderate' group, the Movimiento de Unión Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial [ es] (MUNGE).

This proved a feeble instrument, and, with growing pressure for change from the UN, Madrid was gradually forced to give way to the currents of nationalism. Two General Assembly resolutions were passed in 1965 ordering Spain to grant negara equatorial guinea to the colony, and in 1966 a UN Commission toured the country before recommending the same thing.

In response, the Spanish declared that they would hold a constitutional convention on 27 October 1967 to negotiate a new constitution for an independent Equatorial Guinea. The conference was attended by 41 local delegates and 25 Spaniards.

The Africans were principally divided between Fernandinos and Bubi on one side, who feared a loss of privileges and 'swamping' by the Fang majority, and the Río Muni Fang nationalists on the other. At the conference the leading Fang figure, the later first president Francisco Macías Nguema gave a controversial speech in which he claimed that Adolf Hitler had 'saved Africa'.

[47] After nine sessions the conference was suspended due to deadlock between the 'unionists' and 'separatists' who wanted a separate Fernando Pó. Macías resolved to travel to the UN to bolster international awareness of the issue, and his firebrand speeches in New York contributed to Spain naming a date for both independence and general elections. In July 1968 virtually all Bubi leaders went to the UN in New York to try and raise awareness for their cause, but the world community was uninterested in quibbling over the specifics of colonial independence.

The 1960s were a time of great optimism over the future of the former African colonies, and groups that had been close to European rulers, negara equatorial guinea the Bubi, were not viewed positively.

negara equatorial guinea Independence under Macías (1968–1979) Francisco Macías Nguema, first president of Equatorial Guinea in 1968 and became a dictator until he was overthrown in a coup d'état in 1979. Independence from Spain was gained on 12 October 1968, at noon in the capital, Malabo. The new country became the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (the date is celebrated as the country's Independence Day [49]). Macías became president in negara equatorial guinea country's only free and fair election.

[50] The Spanish (ruled by Franco) had backed Macías in the election due to his perceived loyalty, however while on the campaign trail he had proven to be far less easy to handle than they had expected. Much of his campaigning involved visiting rural areas of Río Muni and promising young Fang that they would have the houses and wives of the Spanish if they voted for him.

In the towns he had instead presented himself as the urbane leader who had bested the Spanish at the UN, and he had won in the second round of voting; greatly helped by the vote-splitting of his rivals. [ citation needed] The euphoria of independence became quickly overshadowed by problems emanating from the Nigerian Civil War.

Fernando Pó was inhabited by many Biafra-supporting Ibo migrant workers and many refugees from the breakaway state fled to the island, straining it to breaking point. The International Committee of the Red Cross began running relief flights out of Equatorial Guinea, but Macías quickly became spooked and shut the flights down, refusing to allow them to fly diesel fuel for their trucks nor oxygen tanks for medical operations. Very quickly the Biafran separatists were starved into submission without international backing.

[51] After the Public Prosecutor complained about "excesses and maltreatment" by government officials, Macías had 150 alleged coup-plotters executed in a purge on Christmas Eve 1969, all of whom happened to be political opponents. [52] Macias Nguema further consolidated his totalitarian powers by outlawing opposition political parties in July 1970 and making himself president for life in 1972.

[53] [54] He broke off ties with Spain and the West. In spite of his condemnation of Marxism, which he deemed " neo-colonialist", Negara equatorial guinea Guinea maintained very special relations with communist states, notably China, Cuba, and the USSR.

Macias Nguema signed a preferential trade agreement and a shipping treaty with the Soviet Union. The Soviets also made loans to Equatorial Guinea. [55] The shipping agreement gave the Soviets permission for a pilot fishery development project and also a naval base at Luba.

In return the USSR was to supply fish to Equatorial Guinea. China and Cuba also gave different forms of financial, military, and technical assistance to Equatorial Guinea, which got them a measure of influence there. For the USSR, there was an advantage to be gained in the War in Angola from access to Luba base and later on to Malabo International Airport.

[55] Negara equatorial guinea 1974 the World Council of Churches affirmed that large numbers of people had been murdered since 1968 in an ongoing reign of terror. A quarter of the entire population had fled abroad, they said, while 'the prisons are overflowing and to all intents and purposes form one vast concentration camp'.

Out of a population of 300,000, an estimated 80,000 were killed. [56] Apart from allegedly committing genocide against the ethnic minority Bubi people, Macias Nguema ordered the deaths of thousands of suspected opponents, closed down churches and presided over the economy's collapse as skilled citizens and foreigners fled the country. [57] Obiang (1979–present) Obiang and U.S. president Obama with their wives in 2014. The nephew of Macías Nguema, Teodoro Obiang deposed his uncle on 3 August 1979, in a bloody coup d'état; over two weeks of civil war ensued until Macías Nguema was captured.

He was tried and executed soon afterward, with Obiang succeeding him as a less bloody, but still authoritarian president. [58] In 1995 Mobil, an American oil company, discovered oil in Equatorial Guinea. The country subsequently experienced rapid economic development, but earnings from the country's oil wealth have not reached the population and the country ranks low on the UN human development index.

7.9% of children die before the age of 5 and more than 50% of the population lacks access to clean drinking water. [19] President Teodoro Obiang is widely suspected of using the country's oil wealth to enrich himself [59] and his associates. In 2006, Forbes estimated his personal wealth at $600 million. [60] In 2011, the government announced it was planning negara equatorial guinea new capital for the country, named Oyala.

[61] [62] [63] [64] The city was renamed Negara equatorial guinea de la Paz ( "City of Peace") in 2017. As of February 2016 [update], Obiang is Africa's second-longest serving dictator after Cameroon's Paul Biya. [65] On 7 March 2021, there were munition explosions at a military base near the city of Bata causing 98 deaths and 600 people being injured and treated at the hospital.

[66] Government and politics Presidential palace of Teodoro Obiang in Malabo. The current president of Equatorial Guinea is Teodoro Obiang. The 1982 constitution of Equatorial Guinea gives him extensive powers, including naming and dismissing members of the cabinet, making laws by decree, dissolving the Chamber of Representatives, negotiating and ratifying treaties and serving as commander in chief of the armed forces.

Prime Minister Francisco Pascual Obama Asue was appointed by Obiang and operates under powers delegated by the President.

[ citation needed] Equatorial Guinea. During the four decades of his rule, Obiang has shown little tolerance for opposition. While the country is nominally a multiparty democracy, its elections have generally been considered a sham.

According to Human Rights Watch, the dictatorship of President Obiang used an oil boom to entrench and enrich itself further at the expense of the country's people.

[67] Since August 1979 some 12 real and perceived unsuccessful coup attempts have occurred. [68] According to a March 2004 BBC profile, [69] politics within the country were dominated by tensions between Obiang's son, Teodoro Nguema Obiang Mangue, and other close relatives with powerful positions in the security forces.

The tension may be rooted in a power shift arising from the dramatic increase in oil production which has occurred since 1997. [ citation needed] In 2004 a plane load of suspected negara equatorial guinea was intercepted in Zimbabwe while allegedly on the way to overthrow Obiang.

A November 2004 report [70] named Mark Thatcher as a financial backer of the 2004 Equatorial Guinea coup d'état attempt organized by Simon Mann. Various accounts also named the United Kingdom's MI6, the United States' CIA, and Spain as tacit supporters of the coup attempt. [71] Nevertheless, the Amnesty International report released in June 2005 [72] on the ensuing trial of those allegedly involved highlighted the prosecution's failure to produce conclusive evidence that a coup attempt had actually taken place.

Simon Mann was released from prison on 3 November 2009 for humanitarian reasons. [73] Since 2005, Military Professional Resources Inc., a US-based international private military company, has worked in Equatorial Guinea to train police forces in appropriate human rights practices.

In 2006, US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice hailed Obiang as a "good friend" despite repeated criticism of his human rights and civil liberties record. The US Agency for International Development entered into a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Obiang, in April 2006, to establish a social development Fund in the country, implementing projects in the areas of health, education, women's affairs and the environment.

[74] In 2006, Obiang signed an anti-torture decree banning all forms of abuse and improper treatment in Equatorial Guinea, and commissioned the renovation and modernization of Black Beach prison in 2007 to ensure the humane treatment of prisoners. [75] However, human rights abuses have continued.

Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International among other non-governmental organizations have documented severe human rights abuses in prisons, including torture, beatings, unexplained deaths and illegal detention. [76] [77] In their most recently publishing findings (2020), Transparency International awarded Equatorial Guinea a total score of 16 negara equatorial guinea their Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). CPI ranks countries by their perceived level of public corruption where zero is very corrupt and 100 is extremely clean.

Equatorial Guinea was the 174th lowest scoring nation out of a total of 180 countries. [78] Freedom House, a pro-democracy and human rights NGO, described Negara equatorial guinea as one of the world's "most kleptocratic living autocrats," and complained about the US government welcoming his administration and buying oil from it. [79] Obiang was re-elected to serve an additional term in 2009 in an election the African Union deemed "in line with electoral law".

[80] Obiang re-appointed Prime Minister Ignacio Milam Tang in 2010. [81] According to the BBC, President Obiang Nguema "has been described by rights organisations as one of Africa's most brutal dictators." [82] In Negara equatorial guinea 2011, a new constitution was approved.

Negara equatorial guinea vote on the constitution was taken though neither the text or its content was revealed to the public before the vote. Under the new constitution the president was limited to a maximum of two seven-year terms and would be both the head of state and head of the government, therefore eliminating the prime minister. The new constitution also introduced the figure of a vice president and called for the creation of a 70-member senate with 55 senators elected by the people and the 15 remaining designated by the president.

Surprisingly, in the following cabinet reshuffle it was announced that there would be two vice-presidents in clear violation of the constitution that was just taking effect. [83] In October 2012, during an interview with Christiane Amanpour on CNN, Obiang was asked whether he would step down at the end of the current term (2009–2016) since the new constitution limited the number of terms to two and he has been reelected at least 4 times.

Obiang answered he refused to step aside because the new constitution was not retroactive and the two- term limit would only become applicable from 2016. [84] The elections on 26 May 2013 combined the senate, lower house and mayoral contests all in a single package. Like all previous elections, this was denounced by the opposition and it too was won by Obiang's PDGE.

During the electoral contest, the ruling party hosted internal elections which were later scrapped as none of the president's favorite candidates led the internal lists. Ultimately, the ruling party and the satellites of the ruling coalition decided to run not based on the candidates but based on the party.

This created a situation where during the election the ruling party's coalition did not provide the names of their candidates so effectively individuals were not running for office, instead, the party was negara equatorial guinea one running for office. [ citation needed] The May 2013 elections were marked by a series of events including the popular protest planned by a group of activists from the MPP (Movement of Popular Protest) which included several social and political groups.

The MPP called for a peaceful protest at the Plaza de la Mujer square on 15 May. MPP coordinator Enrique Nsolo Nzo was arrested and official state media portrayed him as planning to destabilize the country and depose the president. However, despite speaking under duress and with clear signs of torture, Nsolo said that they had planned a peaceful protest and had indeed obtained all the legal authorizations required to carry out the peaceful protest.

In addition to that, he firmly stated that he was not affiliated with any political party. The Plaza de la Mujer square in Malabo was occupied by the police from 13 May and it has been heavily guarded ever since. The government embarked on a censorship program that affected social sites including Facebook and other websites that were critical to the government of Equatorial Guinea. The censorship was implemented by redirecting online searches to the official government website.

[ citation needed] Shortly after the elections, opposition party CPDS announced that they were going to protest peacefully against the 26 May elections on 25 June. [85] Interior minister Clemente Engonga refused to authorise the protest on the grounds that it could "destabilize" the country and CPDS decided to go forward, claiming constitutional right. On the night of 24 June, the CPDS headquarters in Malabo were surrounded by heavily armed police officers to keep those inside from leaving and thus effectively blocking the protest.

Several leading members of CPDS were detained in Malabo and others in Bata were kept from boarding several local flights to Malabo. [ citation needed] In 2016 Obiang was reelected for an additional seven-years negara equatorial guinea, in an election which, according to Freedom House, was plagued by police violence, detentions and torture against opposition factions.

[86] President Obiang's Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea holds 99 of the 100 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and all of those in the Senate.

negara equatorial guinea

The opposition is almost non-existent in the country and is organized from Spain mainly within the social-democratic Convergence for Social Democracy. Most of the media are under state control; the private television channels, those of the Asonga group, belong to the president's family. [87] Armed forces An Antonov An-72P of the Armed Forces of Equatorial Guinea on lift off. The Armed Forces of Equatorial Guinea consists of approximately 2,500 service members.

[88] The army has almost 1,400 soldiers, the police 400 paramilitary men, the navy 200 service members, and the air force about 120 members. There is also a gendarmerie, but the number of members negara equatorial guinea unknown. The Gendarmerie is a new branch of the service in which training and education is being supported by the French Military Cooperation in Equatorial Guinea.

[ citation needed] Geography Main article: Geography of Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea is on the west coast of Central Africa. The country consists of a mainland territory, Río Muni, which is bordered by Cameroon to the north and Gabon to the east and south, and five small islands, Bioko, Corisco, Annobón, Elobey Chico (Small Elobey), and Elobey Grande (Great Elobey). Bioko, the site of the capital, Negara equatorial guinea, lies about 40 kilometers (25 mi) off the coast of Cameroon.

Annobón Island is about 350 kilometers (220 mi) west-south-west of Cape Lopez in Gabon. Corisco and the two Elobey islands are in Corisco Bay, on the border of Río Muni and Gabon. Equatorial Guinea lies between latitudes 4°N and 2°S, and longitudes 5° and 12°E.

Despite its name, no part of the country's territory lies on the equator—it is in the northern hemisphere, except for the insular Annobón Province, which is about 155 km (96 mi) south of the equator. Climate Köppen climate classification of Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea has a tropical climate with distinct wet and dry seasons.

From June to August, Río Muni is dry and Bioko wet; from December to February, the reverse occurs. In between there is gradual transition.

Rain or mist occurs daily on Annobón, where a cloudless day has never been registered. The temperature at Malabo, Bioko, ranges from 16 °C (61 °F) to 33 °C (91 °F), though on the southern Moka Plateau normal high temperatures are only 21 °C (70 °F).

In Río Muni, the average temperature is about 27 °C (81 °F). Annual rainfall varies from 1,930 mm (76 in) at Malabo to 10,920 mm (430 in) at Ureka, Bioko, but Río Muni is somewhat drier. [89] Ecology Equatorial Guinea spans several ecoregions. Río Muni region lies within the Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests ecoregion except for patches of Central African mangroves negara equatorial guinea the coast, especially in the Muni River estuary. The Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests ecoregion covers most of Bioko and the adjacent portions of Cameroon and Nigeria on the African mainland, and the Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests ecoregion covers the highlands of Bioko and nearby Mount Cameroon.

The São Tomé, Príncipe, and Annobón moist lowland forests ecoregion covers all of Annobón, as well as São Tomé and Príncipe. [90] The country had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 7.99/10, ranking it 30th globally out of 172 countries.

[91] Wildlife Main article: Subdivisions of Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea is divided into eight provinces. [93] [94] The newest province is Djibloho, created in 2017 with its headquarters at Ciudad de la Paz, the country's future capital. [95] [96] The eight provinces are as follows (numbers correspond to those on the map; provincial capitals appear in parentheses): [93] • Annobón ( San Antonio de Palé) • Bioko Norte ( Malabo) • Bioko Sur ( Luba) • Centro Sur ( Evinayong) • Djibloho ( Ciudad de la Paz) • Kié-Ntem ( Ebebiyín) • Litoral ( Bata) • Wele-Nzas ( Mongomo) The provinces are further divided into 19 districts and 37 municipalities.

[97] Economy A proportional representation of Equatorial Guinea exports, 2019. Before independence Equatorial Guinea exported cocoa, coffee and timber, mostly to its colonial ruler, Spain, but also to Germany and the UK. On 1 January 1985, the country became the first non- Francophone African member of the franc zone, adopting the CFA franc as its currency.

The negara equatorial guinea currency, the ekwele, had previously been linked to the Spanish peseta. [98] Gepetrol Tower in Malabo 2013. The discovery of large oil reserves in 1996 and its subsequent exploitation contributed to a dramatic increase in government revenue. As of 2004 [update], [99] Equatorial Guinea is the third-largest oil producer in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Its oil production has risen to 360,000 barrels per day (57,000 m 3/d), up from 220,000 only two years earlier. Oil companies operating in Equatorial Guinea include ExxonMobil, Marathon Oil, Kosmos Energy and Chevron. [100] [101] Negara equatorial guinea, farming, and fishing are also major components of GDP.

Subsistence farming predominates. The deterioration of the rural economy under successive brutal regimes has diminished any potential for agriculture-led growth. Agriculture is the country's main source of employment, providing income for 57% of rural households and employment for 52% of the workforce.

[102] In July 2004, the United States Senate published an investigation into Riggs Bank, a Washington-based bank into which most of Equatorial Guinea's oil revenues were paid until recently, and which also banked for Chile's Augusto Pinochet. The Senate report showed at least $35 million siphoned off by Obiang, his family and regime senior officials.

The president has denied any wrongdoing. Riggs Bank in February 2005 paid $9 million in restitution for Pinochet's banking, no restitution was made with regard to Equatorial Guinea. [103] From 2000 to 2010, Equatorial Guinea had the highest average annual increase in GDP (Gross Domestic Product), 17%.

[104] Equatorial Guinea is a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa ( OHADA). [105] Equatorial Guinea is also a member of the Central African Monetary and Economic Union (CEMAC), a subregion that comprises more than 50 million people. [106] Equatorial Guinea tried to be validated as an Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)–compliant country, working toward transparency in reporting of oil revenues and prudent use of natural resource wealth.

The country obtained candidate status on 22 February 2008. It was then required to meet a number of obligations to do so, including committing to working with civil society and companies on EITI implementation, appointing a senior individual to lead on EITI implementation, and publishing a fully costed Work Plan with measurable targets, a timetable for implementation and negara equatorial guinea assessment of capacity constraints. However, when Equatorial Guinea applied to extend the deadline for completing EITI validation, the EITI Board did not agree to the extension.

[107] Torre de La Libertad ("Freedom Tower"). According to the World Bank, Equatorial Guinea has the highest GNI (Gross National Income) negara equatorial guinea capita of any African country, 83 times larger than the GNI per capita of Burundi, the poorest country. [108] Yet despite its impressive GNI figure, Equatorial Guinea is plagued by extreme poverty brought about by Wealth Inequality. Its Gini coefficient of 65.0 is the highest in the entire world. The economy of Equatorial Guinea was expected to grow about 2.6% in 2021, a projection based on the successful completion of a large gas project and the recovery of the world economy by the second half of the year.

But the country is expected to return to recession in 2022, with a real GDP decline of about 4.4%. [109] According to the 2016 United Nations Human Development Report, Equatorial Guinea had a gross domestic product per capita of negara equatorial guinea, one of the highest levels of wealth in Africa. However, it is one of the most unequal countries in the world according to the Gini index, with 70 percent of the population living on one dollar a day.

[110] The country ranks 145th out of 189 on the United Nations Human Development Index in 2019. [87] Hydrocarbons account for 97% of the state's exports and it is a member of the African Petroleum Producers Organization.

in 2020, it faces its eighth year of recession, due in part to endemic corruption. [87] Transportation Main article: Transport in Equatorial Guinea Due to the large oil industry in the country, internationally recognized carriers fly to Malabo International Airport which, in May 2014, had several direct connections to Europe and West Africa.

There are three airports in Equatorial Guinea — Malabo International Airport, Bata Airport and the new Annobón Airport on the island of Annobón. Malabo International Airport is the only international airport.

Every airline registered in Equatorial Guinea appears on the list of air carriers prohibited in the European Union (EU) which means that they are banned from operating services of any kind within the EU.

[111] However, freight carriers provide service from European cities to the capital. [112] Demographics Evolution of the Equatoguinean population between 1960 and 2017. Population in thousands of inhabitants. The majority of the people of Equatorial Guinea are of Bantu origin. [116] The largest ethnic group, the Fang, is indigenous to the mainland, but substantial migration to Bioko Island since the 20th century means the Fang population exceeds that of the earlier Bubi inhabitants.

The Fang constitute 80% of the population [117] and comprise around 67 clans. Those in the northern part of Río Muni speak Fang-Ntumu, while those in the south speak Fang-Okah; the two dialects have differences but are mutually intelligible. Dialects of Fang are also spoken in parts of neighboring Cameroon (Bulu) and Gabon. These dialects, while still intelligible, are more distinct. The Bubi, who constitute 15% of the population, are indigenous to Bioko Island.

The traditional demarcation line between Fang and 'Beach' (inland) ethnic groups was the village of Niefang (limit of the Fang), east of Bata. Coastal ethnic groups, sometimes referred to as Ndowe or "Playeros" ( Beach People in Spanish): Combes, Bujebas, Balengues, and Bengas on the mainland and small islands, and Fernandinos, a Krio community on Bioko Island together comprise 5% of the population. Europeans (largely of Spanish or Portuguese descent, some with partial African ancestry) also live in the country, but most ethnic Spaniards left after independence.

Equatorial Guinean children of Bubi descent. A growing number of foreigners from neighboring Cameroon, Nigeria, and Gabon have immigrated to the country.

According to the Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations (2002) 7% of Bioko islanders were Igbo, an ethnic group from southeastern Nigeria. [118] Equatorial Guinea received Asians and native Africans from other countries as workers on cocoa and coffee plantations.

Other black Africans came from Liberia, Angola, and Mozambique. Most of the Asian population is Chinese, with small numbers of Indians. Equatorial Guinea has also been a destination for fortune-seeking European immigrants from Britain, France and Germany. Israelis and Moroccans also live and work here. Oil extraction since the 1990s has contributed to a doubling of the population in Malabo.

After independence, thousands of Equatorial Guineans went to Spain. Another 100,000 Equatorial Guineans went to Cameroon, Gabon, and Nigeria negara equatorial guinea of the dictatorship of Francisco Macías Nguema. Some Equatorial Guinean communities are also found in Latin America, the United States, Portugal, and France. Languages Main articles: Equatoguinean Spanish and Academia Ecuatoguineana de la Lengua Española Since its independence in 1968, Equatorial Guinea main official language is Spanish (the local variant is Equatoguinean Spanish), which acts as a lingua franca among its different ethnic groups.

In 1970, during Macías' rule, Spanish was replaced by Fang, the language of its majority ethnic group, to which Macías belonged. That decision was reverted in 1979 after Macías' fall. Spanish remained as its lone official language until 1998, when French was added as its second one, as it had previously joined the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC), whose founding members are French-speaking nations, two of them (Cameroon and Gabon) surrounding its continental region.

[119] [5] Portuguese was adopted as its third official language in 2010. [120] [121] Spanish has been an official language since 1844. It is still the language of education and administration. 67.6% of Equatorial Guineans can speak it, especially those living in the capital, Malabo. [122] French was only made official in order to join the Francophonie and it is not locally spoken, except in some border towns.

Aboriginal languages are recognised as integral parts of the "national culture" (Constitutional Law No. 1/1998 21 January). Indigenous languages (some of them creoles) negara equatorial guinea Fang, Bube, Benga, Ndowe, Balengue, Bujeba, Bissio, Gumu, Igbo, Pichinglis, Fa d'Ambô and the nearly extinct Baseke. Most African ethnic groups speak Bantu languages. [123] Santa Isabel Cathedral in Malabo Fa d'Ambô, a Portuguese creole, negara equatorial guinea vigorous use in Annobón Province, in Malabo (the capital), and among some speakers in Equatorial Guinea's mainland.

Many residents of Bioko can also speak Spanish, particularly in the capital, and the local trade language Pichinglis, an English-based creole. Spanish is not spoken much in Annobón. In government and education Spanish is used. Noncreolized Portuguese is used as liturgical language by local Catholics.

[124] The Annobonese ethnic community tried to gain membership in the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP). The government financed an Instituto Internacional da Língua Portuguesa (IILP) sociolinguistic study in Annobón. It documented strong links with the Portuguese creole populations in São Tomé and Príncipe, Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau.

[121] Due to historical and cultural ties, in 2010 the legislature amended article four of the Constitution of Equatorial Guinea, to establish Portuguese as an official language of the Republic.

This was an effort by the government to improve its communications, trade, and bilateral relations with Portuguese-speaking countries. [125] [126] [127] It also recognises long historical ties with Portugal, and with Portuguese-speaking peoples of Brazil, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Cape Verde.

Some of the motivations for Equatorial Guinea's pursuit of membership in the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) included access to several professional and academic exchange programmes and facilitated cross-border circulation negara equatorial guinea citizens. [122] The adoption of Portuguese as an official language was the primary requirement to apply for CPLP acceptance.

In addition, the country was told it must adopt political reforms allowing effective democracy and respect for human rights. [128] The national parliament discussed this law in October 2011.

[129] In February 2012, Equatorial Guinea's foreign minister signed an agreement with the IILP on the promotion of Portuguese in the country. [130] [131] In July 2012, the CPLP refused Equatorial Guinea full membership, primarily because of its continued serious violations of human rights. The government responded negara equatorial guinea legalising political negara equatorial guinea, declaring a moratorium on the death penalty, and starting a dialog with all political factions. [121] [132] Additionally, the IILP secured land from the government for the construction of Portuguese language cultural centres in Bata and Malabo.

[121] At its tenth summit in Dili in July 2014, Equatorial Guinea was admitted as a CPLP member. Abolition of the death penalty and the promotion of Portuguese as an official language were preconditions of the approval. [133] Religion 2% The principal religion in Equatorial Guinea is Christianity, the faith of 93% of the population.

Roman Catholics make up the majority (88%), while a minority are Protestants (5%). 2% of the population follows Islam (mainly Sunni). The remaining 5% practise Animism, Baháʼí, and other beliefs. [134] Health Main article: Health in Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea's innovative malaria programs in the early 21st century achieved success in reducing malaria infection, disease, and mortality.

[135] Their program consists of twice-yearly indoor residual spraying (IRS), the introduction of artemisinin combination treatment (ACTs), the use of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant women (IPTp), and the introduction of very high coverage with long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito nets (LLINs). Their efforts resulted in a reduction in all-cause under-five mortality from 152 to 55 deaths per 1,000 live births (down 64%), a sharp drop that coincided with the launch of the program.

[136] In June 2014 four cases of polio were reported, the country's first outbreak of the disease. [137] Education Ministry of Education, Science and Sports ( Ministerio de Educación, Ciencia y Deportes in Spanish). Among sub-Saharan African countries, Equatorial Guinea has one of the highest literacy rates. [138] According to The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency as of 2015, 95.3% of the population age 15 and over can read and write in Equatorial Guinea were respectively literate.

[138] Under Francisco Macias, education was neglected, and few children received any type of education. Under President Obiang, the illiteracy rate dropped from 73% to 13%, [5] and the number of primary school students rose from 65,000 in 1986 to more than 100,000 in 1994.

Education is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 14. [98] The Equatorial Guinea government has partnered with Hess Corporation and The Academy for Educational Development (AED) to establish a $20 million education program for primary school teachers to teach modern child development techniques.

[139] There are now 51 model schools whose active pedagogy will be a national reform. [ needs update] In recent years, [ when?] with change in the economic and political climate and government social agendas, several cultural dispersion and literacy organizations have been founded, chiefly with the financial support of the Spanish government.

The country has one university, the Universidad Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial (UNGE), with a campus in Malabo and a Faculty of Medicine located in Bata on the mainland.

In 2009 the university produced the first 110 national doctors. The Bata Medical School is supported principally by the government of Cuba and staffed by Cuban medical educators and physicians. [140] Culture The port of Malabo. In June 1984, the First Hispanic-African Cultural Congress was convened to explore the cultural identity of Equatorial Guinea.

The congress constituted the center of integration and the marriage of the Hispanic culture with African cultures. [98] Tourism Equatorial Guinea currently has no UNESCO World Heritage Site or tentative sites for the World Heritage List. [141] The country also has no documented heritage listed in the Memory of the World Negara equatorial guinea of UNESCO nor any intangible cultural heritage listed in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List. [142] [143] Tourist attractions are the colonial quarter in Malabo, the southern part of the island Bioko where you can hike to the Iladyi cascades and to remote beaches to watch nesting turtles, Bata with its shoreline Paseo Maritimo and the tower of liberty, Mongomo with its basilica (the second largest Catholic church in Africa) and the new planned and built capital Ciudad de la Paz.

Media and communications Edition of the television magazine Malabeando at the Cultural Centre of Spain in Malabo. The principal means of communication within Equatorial Guinea are 3 state-operated FM radio stations. BBC World Service, Radio France Internationale and Gabon-based Africa No 1 broadcast on FM in Malabo. There is also an independent radio option called Radio Macuto, the voice of the voiceless. Radio Macuto is a web-based radio and news source known for publishing news that call out Obiang's regime and call for the mobilisation of the ecuatoguinean community to exercise freedom of speech and engage in politics.

There are also five shortwave radio stations. Television Nacional, the television network, is state operated. [5] [144] The international TV programme RTVGE is available via satellites in Africa, Europa, and the Americas and worldwide via Internet. [145] There are two newspapers and two magazines. Equatorial Guinea ranks at position 161 out of 179 countries in the 2012 Reporters Without Borders press freedom index. The watchdog says the national broadcaster obeys the orders of the information ministry.

Most of the media companies practice self-censorship, and are banned by law from criticising public figures. The state-owned media and the main private radio station negara equatorial guinea under the directorship of the president's son, Teodor Obiang. Landline telephone penetration is low, with only two lines available for every 100 persons. [5] There is one GSM mobile telephone operator, with coverage of Malabo, Bata, and several mainland cities. [146] [147] As of 2009 [update], approximately 40% of the population subscribed to mobile telephone services.

[5] The only telephone provider in Equatorial Guinea is Orange. There were more than 42,000 internet users by December 2011. Music Further information: Music of Equatorial Guinea There is little popular music coming out of Equatorial Guinea.

Pan-African styles like soukous and makossa are popular, as are reggae and rock and roll. Acoustic guitar bands based on a Spanish model are the country's best-known indigenous popular tradition. Cinema In 2014 the South African-Dutch-Equatorial Guinean drama film Where the Road Runs Out was shot in the country.

There is also the documentary The Writer From a Country Without Bookstores, [148] that has still to be internationally premiered. It focuses on one of Equatorial Guinea's most translated writers Juan Tomás Ávila Laurel.

It is the first feature film openly critical of Obiang's regime. Sports Estadio de Bata in Bata. Equatorial Guinea was chosen to co-host the 2012 African Cup of Nations in partnership with Gabon, and hosted the 2015 edition. The country was also chosen to host the 2008 Women's African Football Championship, which they won. The women's national team qualified for the 2011 World Cup in Germany.

In June 2016, Equatorial Guinea was chosen to host the 12th African Games in 2019. Equatorial Guinea is famous for the swimmers Eric Moussambani, nicknamed "Eric the Eel", [149] and Paula Barila Bolopa, "Paula the Crawler", who attended the 2000 Summer Olympics. [150] Basketball has been increasing in popularity. [151] See also • ^ Spanish: [giˈnea ekwatoˈɾjal] ( listen) • ^ Local pronunciation: • Spanish: República de Guinea Ecuatorial Spanish pronunciation: [reˈpuβlika ðe ɣiˈnea ekwatoˈɾjal] ( listen) • French: République de Guinée équatoriale [ʁepyblik d(ə) ɡine ekwatoˈʁjal] • Portuguese: República da Guiné Equatorial Portuguese pronunciation: [ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɐ giˈnɛ ˌekwɐtuɾiˈaɫ] References • ^ "History, language and culture in Equatorial Guinea".

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• Max Liniger-Goumaz, Small Is Not Always Beautiful: The Story of Equatorial Guinea (French 1986, translated 1989) ISBN 0-389-20861-2. • Ibrahim K. Sundiata, Equatorial Guinea: Colonialism, State Terror, and the Search for Stability (1990, Boulder: Westview Press) ISBN 0-8133-0429-6.

• Robert Klitgaard. 1990. Tropical Gangsters. New York: Basic Books. (World Bank economist tries to assist pre-oil Equatorial Guinea) ISBN 0-465-08760-4. • D.L. Claret. Cien años de evangelización en Guinea Ecuatorial (1883–1983) / One Hundred Years of Evangelism in Equatorial Guinea (1983, Barcelona: Claretian Missionaries).

• Adam Roberts, The Wonga Coup: Guns, Thugs and a Ruthless Determination to Create Mayhem in an Oil-Rich Corner of Africa (2006, PublicAffairs) ISBN 1-58648-371-4. External links Equatorial Guineaat Wikipedia's sister projects • Definitions from Wiktionary • Media from Commons • News from Wikinews • Texts from Wikisource • Travel guides from Wikivoyage • Data from Wikidata • Web dossier Equatorial Guinea from the Afrika-Studiecentrum Leiden Library.

• Equatorial Guinea at Curlie • Wikimedia Atlas of Equatorial Guinea • Official Government of Equatorial Guinea website • Guinea in Figures – Official Web Page of the Government of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea Archived 3 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine • Country Profile from BBC News. • Equatorial Guinea. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. • Equatorial Guinea from UCB Libraries GovPubs.

• Key Development Forecasts for Equatorial Guinea from International Futures. • Equatorial Guinea news headline links from AllAfrica.com.

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3.

Guinea Katulistiwa merdeka negara equatorial guinea Spanyol pada tahun 1968. 4. Guine Katulistiwa adalah negara paling kaya per kapita di Afrika. 5. Suku pertama yang mendiami Guine Katulistiwa adlaah Suku Kerdil dan suku Ndowe.

6. Suku terbesar di Guinea Katulistiwa adalah suku Fang (Fon, atau Pamue) yang masuk dari timur antara tahun 1687 sampai 1926. 7. Kota Bata adalah kota terbesar negara equatorial guinea menjadi ibu kota Guine Katulistiwa.

8. Bioko adalah pulau terbesar di Guine Katulistiwa dengan beribu kota Malabo. 9. Malabo adalah kota kecil di kawah alam yang telah membentuk pelabuhan di dasar Pico Basile dalam zona vulkanis dengan pemandangan yang menakjubkan.

10. Malabo awalnya dikenal dengan nama Port Clarence saat didirikan oleh orang Inggris pada tahun 1827. 11. Guinea Katulistiwa adalah satu-satunya negara merdeka di Afrika yang berbahasa resmi bahasa Spanyol. Selain bahasa Spanyol penduduk juga banyak yang memakai bahasa Perancis dan bahasa lokal, yaitu bahasa Fang, Annobonese, dan Bubi. 12. Guinea Katulistiwa mempunyai satu universitas, yaitu Universidad Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial, yang terletak 5 mil dari Malabo. 13. Playa Arena Blanca adalah satu-satunya pantai berpasir putih di Pulau Bioko, yang jaraknya perjalanan satu jam dari Malabo.

14. Moraka Playa adalah pantai berpasir hitam di Ureca, yaitu sebuah desa dekat dengan Malabo dan dianggap sebagai salah satu pantai paling indah di pulau tersebut. Pasir hitam berasal dari gunung berapi yang membentuk pulau itu. 15. Pulau Bioko dan Annobon adalah kepulauan dengan gunung berapi yang menjadi bagian dari barisan yang dimulai dari Dataran Tinggi Kamerun sampai ke Samudera Atlantik sejauh Gunung Helena. 16. Puncak tertinggi di Guine Katulistiwa adalah Pico Basile dengan ketinggian 3.008 m di Pulau Bioko.

17. Guinea Katulistiwa dianggap sebagai surganya daerah tropis. Musim kering hanya sebentar, yaitu dari bulan Desember sampai Februari. 18. Taman Nasional Monte Alen adalah area yang dilingungi dimana para pengunjung bisa melihat dan menikmati hutan tropis yang menjadi rumah bagi gorila, simpanse, harimau, gajah, buaya, dan banyak spesies binatang lainnya seperti burung dan kupu-kupu.

19. Meski industri kopi dan cokelat menjadi pemasukan ekonomi terbesar di Guinea Katulistiwa, namun rata-rata penduduk pada umumnya tidak megkonsumsi minuman tersebut. Mereka lebih suka minum teh Afrika yang dinamakan Osang, bir palm atau minuman lokal beralkohol yang terbuat dari tebu yang dikenal dengan nama Malamba.

20. Guinea Katulistiwa mempunyai tingkat baca tertinggi di seluruh Sub Sahara Afrika. 21. Kebiasaan orang Guinea Katulistiwa kalau berbicara sambil berdiri selalu berdekatan dan bahkan menyentuh atau memegang tangan. 22. Gune Katulistiwa mempunyai tradisi membuat ukiran atau pahatan dan membuat topeng. 23. Ajang olahraga terbesar Afrika, Africa Cup of Nations tahun 2012, diadakan di Guine Katulistiwa.

24. Produksi minyak di Guine Katulistiwa adimulai pada tahun 1991, dan sumber alam yang baru ditemukan pada tahun 1995.

negara equatorial guinea

Guine Katulistiwa adalah produsen minyak terbesar ketiga di Sub Sahara Afrika. 25. Di hari-hari spesial di Guine Katulistiwa, seperti hari ulang tahun dan upacara keagamaan, selalu disajikan menu masakan dari daging bebek panggang, daging ayam dan daging sapi.

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