Black fungus

black fungus

• • • • • • Just as we thought India’s COVID-19 second wave is plateauing in most states, mucormycosis or black fungus infection cases began to rise rapidly. The rising number of cases of this fungal infection took the healthcare infrastructure and administration by surprise and has now been declared an epidemic by the government. India has 71% of the total mucormycosis cases reported in the world.

What black fungus the Black Fungus Infection? Black fungus infection, also called mucormycosis, is caused by mucormycetes, a black fungus of fungus. It is a rare, deadly, non-contagious fungal infection and can prove fatal if not treated promptly. One can get infected with this fungus if they inhale the spores or come in contact with them in soil and decaying matter. Once an individual is infected, the fungus proliferates in their blood vessels, cutting off blood supply to the tissues and creating its own decaying food source.

Is Mucormycosis Contagious? Mucormycosis or black fungus infection black fungus not contagious. This means it cannot spread from an infected person to another person or animal. One can get infected by this fungal infection when they come in direct contact with the spores black fungus the fungus or inhale them. Who is at Risk of Getting the Black Fungus Infection?

The rise of this deadly fungal infection has been observed in recovering COVID-19 patients. What is the link between the two? Well, black fungus infection occurs more commonly in individuals with debilitating diseases and deficient immune systems. Black fungus risk factors/causes for black fungus infection include: • Diabetes (especially uncontrolled diabetes) • Long-term use of steroids • Patients undergoing cancer treatment • A weak or compromised immune system • Prolonged stay in the ICU (common in severe COVID-19 cases) • Excessive iron in the body • In people who are recovering from surgery, burns, or injuries Patients whose immune systems have been compromised due to illnesses like the COVID-19 disease find it black fungus to ward off infections like mucormycosis.

It has also been suspected that COVID-19 patients on prolonged oxygen support are at an increased risk of developing the black fungus infections due to unclean or contaminated water used to supply the oxygen. What are the Symptoms of Black Fungus? The key to successfully treating black fungus infections is early detection and prompt treatment.

The symptoms of mucormycosis depend upon the area of the body the fungus affects. Black fungus symptoms include: • Black coloured crusting or scabbing around the nose • Fever • Headache • Reddish swelling around the nose and sinuses • Black fungus facial swelling • Nasal or sinus congestions • Delirium • Memory loss • Blurry or double vision When mucormycosis affects the lungs, the symptoms vary from those above and include: • Coughing (which can sometimes produce dark fluid) • Chest pain • Shortness of breath Black fungus symptoms in the gastrointestinal tract include pain in the abdomen, nausea, vomiting, and bleeding.

Disseminated mucormycosis is a condition that can occur in people already suffering from other medical conditions and can have diffused symptoms, making it difficult to spot the condition due to overlapping symptoms.

How is a Black Fungus Infection Treated? Black fungus infection is usually diagnosed based on the patient’s medical history, symptoms, and history of hospitalisation.

A team of professionals, including specialists, surgeons, and microbiologists, are required to treat black fungus infections. The treatment for mucormycosis needs to begin immediately to stop the fungus spread, owing to the aggressive nature of the disease. The treatment of this disease includes medical and surgical measures based on the spread and severity of the infection in the individual.

Prescription medications used to treat black fungus infection include Amphotericin B, posaconazole, or isavuconazole, which may be given intravenously (through a vein) or orally (by mouth). Along with medications, surgical debridement is performed on the infected area to remove black fungus damaged and infected tissue. Apart from these treatment measures performed on a war footing, the patient’s underlying conditions like uncontrolled blood sugar levels are brought under control. Steroids are immediately discontinued in patients undergoing steroid therapy.

Long-term fungal medications may be advised to the patient to help in the complete resolution of the black fungus infection. What are the Complications of the Black Fungus Infection? If not treated in time, the black fungus infection can lead to severe complications such as: • Blindness • Bone infection • Meningitis • Abscess in the brain • Haemorrhages in the lungs or the gastrointestinal tract • Sepsis How to Black fungus Yourself From the Black Fungus Infection?

Many people today are fearing the black fungus infection and wish to prevent it. It is almost impossible to avoid breathing in air that may contain the spores of this fungus. Without a preventive vaccine, preventing mucormycosis may seem like a challenge. Here are some ways by which you can protect yourself from this black fungus infection: • Avoid areas that can be a breathing ground for this black fungus, such as excavation sites, water-damaged buildings, etc.

• If you have to touch the soil, for example, during gardening or other such activities, ensure you have a proper mask, gloves, appropriate shoes, and long pants to avoid coming in direct contact with the spores of the fungus. • If you fall in the high-risk group, your healthcare provider will prescribe black fungus to prevent fungal infections.

This is particularly true for people who have had transplants. • Change the water in the oxygen support regularly to avoid the development of fungus.

• Change your mask frequently, preferably after every use. The moist environment is a good breeding ground for the black fungus. The black fungus infection, commonly seen in patients recovering from a COVID-19 infection, is an aggressive yet rare fungal infection that can cause severe internal damage. Identifying the symptoms and administering immediate treatment can have better treatment outcomes in patients. Leaving this condition untreated can prove to be fatal.

If you wish to help a patient fund their treatment during these critical times, do your bit! Donate to a noble cause on Ketto and help save a life! Author Dr. Meenakshi Maruwada BDS (Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai), PGCAD (Mumbai) GMHE (IIM Bangalore) Black fungus ( Auricularia polytricha) is an edible wild mushroom sometimes known as tree ear or cloud ear fungus, given its dark, ear-like shape.

While predominantly found in China, it also thrives in tropical climates like the Pacific Islands, Nigeria, Hawaii, and India. It grows on tree trunks and fallen logs in the wild but can be cultivated as well ( 1). Known for its jelly-like consistency and distinct chewiness, black fungus is a popular culinary ingredient across a range of Asian dishes. It has likewise been used in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years ( 2).

This article reviews the uses, nutrients, and benefits of black fungus, as well as any precautions you may need to take. How is black fungus used? Black fungus is usually sold in dried form.

Before you eat it, it needs to be reconstituted in warm water for at least 1 hour. While soaking, the mushrooms expand 3–4 times in size. Keep this in mind when you’re cooking, as small amounts can go a long way. While black fungus is marketed under several names, it’s technically different than the wood ear mushroom ( Auricularia auricula-judae), its botanical cousin.

Nonetheless, these fungi boast similar nutrient profiles and culinary uses and are sometimes referred to interchangeably ( 1). Black fungus is a popular ingredient in Malaysian, Chinese, and Maori cuisine. It’s a bit coarser than the wood ear mushroom and frequently used in soups. As it has a fairly neutral taste, it’s even added to Cantonese desserts. Like tofu, it absorbs the flavors of the dish it’s a part of. Since the 19th century, black fungus has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate symptoms of several conditions, including jaundice and sore throats ( 2).

summary Black fungus is fairly neutral in taste and can take on many flavors. It’s quite popular in Asia, where it’s regularly added to soups, and it has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Nutritional profile One-quarter cup (7 grams) of dried black fungus provides ( 3): • Calories: 20 • Carbs: 5 grams • Protein: less than 1 gram • Fat: 0 grams • Fiber: 5 grams • Sodium: 2 mg • Cholesterol: 0 grams As you can see, this mushroom black fungus low in fat and calories but particularly high in fiber ( 3).

The same serving size offers small amounts of potassium, black fungus, phosphorus, folate, and magnesium. These vitamins and minerals are vital to heart, brain, and bone health ( 3, 4, 5, 6). summary Black fungus is notably low in fat, high in fiber, and loaded with many essential vitamins and minerals. Potential benefits of black fungus Despite the multiple uses of black fungus in traditional Chinese medicine, scientific research on it is still in the beginning stages.

All the same, this mushroom has been noted for its potential immune-enhancing and antimicrobial properties ( 7, 8). Just keep in mind that human research is limited, and further studies are needed. Packs powerful antioxidants Mushrooms, including Auricularia species, are generally high in antioxidants. These beneficial plant compounds help combat oxidative stress in your body, which has been linked to inflammation and a range of diseases ( 9, 10).

What’s more, mushrooms often contain powerful polyphenol antioxidants. A diet high in polyphenols is associated with a lower risk of cancer and chronic conditions, including heart disease ( 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14).

May promote gut and immune health Similarly to various other mushrooms, black fungus boasts prebiotics — mainly in the form of beta glucan ( 15, 16, 17). Prebiotics are a type of fiber that feeds your gut microbiome, or the friendly bacteria in your gut. These promote digestive health and maintain bowel regularity ( 15, 16, 17). Interestingly, the gut microbiome is closely linked to immune health.

Prebiotics like those in black fungus are thought to enhance your immune response to unfriendly pathogens that might otherwise make you sick ( 16). May lower your cholesterol The polyphenols in mushrooms may help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol ( 18). In turn, lower LDL cholesterol may decrease your risk of heart disease. One study in rabbits given wood ear mushrooms found that both total and LDL (bad) cholesterol decreased significantly ( 19). Still, researchers weren’t sure exactly how the fungi exerted this effect, and a single animal study in wood ears doesn’t necessarily apply to people eating black fungus.

May promote brain health Mushrooms are thought to preserve healthy brain function ( 17, 20). One test-tube study revealed that wood ear mushrooms and other fungi inhibited the activity of beta secretase, an enzyme that releases beta amyloid proteins ( 21). These proteins are toxic to the brain and have been linked to degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s ( 21). While these findings are promising, human research is needed. May protect your liver Black fungus may safeguard your liver from harm by certain substances.

In a rat study, a solution of water and powdered black fungus helped reverse and protect the liver from damage caused by an overdose of acetaminophen, which is often marketed as Tylenol in the United States ( 22).

Researchers linked this effect to the mushroom’s potent antioxidant properties ( 22). All the same, studies are lacking. summary Black fungus offers powerful antioxidants and gut-healthy prebiotics. It may help lower cholesterol and protect your liver and brain, but more research is needed.

Precautions for use Black fungus purchased from commercial suppliers is associated with few — if any — side effects. Yet, as most black fungus is sold dried, it’s important to always soak it black fungus use due to its density and brittleness.

Furthermore, it should always be cooked thoroughly to kill bacteria and remove residue. Studies show that boiling may even increase its antioxidant activity ( 23, 24).

However, foraging for black fungus is not generally recommended given the risk of misidentification or contamination. Not only do wild fungi absorb pollutants from their environment, but eating the wrong mushroom can be poisonous or even fatal. Instead, you should look for this unique mushroom at your local specialty store or online.

summary While black fungus isn’t associated with side effects, you should always soak it before eating and cook it thoroughly to eliminate potentially harmful bacteria.

It’s best to purchase the dried product rather than forage for it. The bottom line Black fungus is an edible mushroom that’s a popular ingredient in Chinese cuisine. It’s typically sold dry under various names, such as cloud ear or tree ear fungus.

It should be soaked and cooked thoroughly before consuming it. Emerging research indicates that black fungus offers many benefits, such as protecting your liver, lowering cholesterol, and boosting gut health. It’s also packed with fiber and antioxidants. While this fungus has also been used in traditional Chinese medicine, more studies are needed to assess its effects.

Last medically reviewed on November 11, 2019
Medical condition Mucormycosis Other names Zygomycosis, black fungus [2] black fungus [3] [4] Periorbital mucormycosis Specialty Infectious disease, Emergency medicine Symptoms Depends on location: runny nose, black area of black fungus, facial swelling, headache, fever, cough, blurred vision [5] [6] Complications Blindness, thrombosis [7] Usual onset Rapid [1] Types Sinuses and brain, lung, stomach and intestine, skin, disseminated, miscellaneous [8] Causes Fungi of the Mucorales type [8] Risk factors Diabetes, iron overload, low white cells, cancer, organ transplant, kidney problems, immunosuppressants, long-term steroids [7] Diagnostic method Biopsy, culture, medical imaging [5] Differential diagnosis Orbital cellulitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, aspergillosis [9] Prevention Face masks, avoiding contact with soil or water-damaged buildings, good diabetic control [7] [10] Treatment Antifungals, surgical debridement, treat underlying medical conditions [7] Medication Amphotericin B, isavuconazole, posaconazole [8] Prognosis Poor [9] Frequency Rare [8] Mucormycosis, also known as black fungus, [3] [4] is a serious fungal infection, usually in people who are immunocompromised.

[9] [11] Symptoms depend on where in the body the infection occurs. [12] [13] It most commonly infects the nose, sinuses, eye, and brain resulting in a runny nose, one-sided facial swelling and pain, headache, fever, blurred vision, bulging or displacement of the eye (proptosis), and tissue death.

[1] [6] Other forms of disease may infect the lungs, stomach and intestines, and skin. [6] It is spread by spores of molds of the order Mucorales, most often through inhalation, contaminated food, or contamination of open wounds. [14] These fungi are common in soils, decomposing organic matter (such as rotting fruit and vegetables), and animal manure, but usually do not affect people.

[15] It is not transmitted between people. [13] Risk factors include diabetes with persistently high blood sugar levels or diabetic ketoacidosis, low white cells, cancer, organ transplant, iron overload, kidney problems, long-term steroids or use of immunosuppressants, and to a lesser extent in HIV/AIDS. [7] [9] Diagnosis is by biopsy and culture, with medical imaging to help determine the extent of disease.

[5] It may appear similar to aspergillosis. [16] Treatment is generally with amphotericin B and surgical debridement. [8] Preventive measures include wearing a face mask in dusty areas, avoiding contact with water-damaged buildings, and protecting the skin from exposure to soil such as when gardening or certain outdoor work.

[10] It tends to progress rapidly and is fatal in about half of sinus cases and almost all cases of the widespread type. [2] [17] Mucormycosis is usually rare, affecting fewer than 2 people per million people each year in San Francisco, [8] but is now ~80 times more common in India.

[18] People of any age may be affected, including premature infants. [8] The first known case of mucormycosis was possibly the one described by Friedrich Küchenmeister in 1855.

[1] The disease black fungus been reported in natural disasters; 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Missouri tornado. [19] During the COVID-19 pandemic, an association between mucormycosis and COVID-19 has been reported. This association is thought to relate to reduced immune function during the course of the illness and may also be related to glucocorticoid therapy for COVID-19.

[4] [20] A rise in cases was particularly noted in India. [21] Contents • 1 Classification • 2 Signs and symptoms • 3 Cause • 3.1 Risk factors • 4 Mechanism • 5 Diagnosis • 5.1 Imaging • 5.2 Culture and biopsy • 5.3 Other • 5.4 Differential diagnosis • 6 Prevention • 7 Treatment • 7.1 Medication • 7.2 Surgery • 7.3 Other considerations • 8 Prognosis • 9 Epidemiology • 9.1 COVID-19–associated mucormycosis • 9.2 Recurrence of Mucormycosis during COVID-19 second wave in India • 10 History • 10.1 Naming • 10.2 COVID-19–associated mucormycosis • 11 Society and culture • 12 Other animals • 13 References • 14 Further reading • 15 External links Classification [ edit ] Generally, mucormycosis is classified into five main types according to the part of the body affected.

[13] [22] A sixth type has been described as mucormycosis of the kidney, [1] or miscellaneous, that is mucormycosis at other sites, although less commonly affected. [22] • Sinuses and brain (rhinocerebral); most common in people with poorly controlled diabetes and in people who have had a kidney transplant. [13] • Lungs (pulmonary); the most common type of mucormycosis in people with cancer and in people who have had an organ transplant or a stem cell transplant. [13] • Stomach and intestine (gastrointestinal); more common among young premature and low birth weight infants, who have had antibiotics, surgery, or medications that lower the body's ability to fight infection.

[13] • Skin (cutaneous); after a burn, or other skin injury, in people with leukaemia, poorly controlled diabetes, graft-versus-host disease, HIV and intravenous drug use. [5] [13] • Widespread (disseminated); when the infection spreads to other organs via the blood.

[13] Signs and symptoms [ edit ] Periorbital fungal infection Signs and symptoms of mucormycosis depend on the location in the body of the infection.

[6] Infection usually begins in the mouth or nose and enters the central nervous system via the eyes. [5] If the fungal infection begins in the nose or sinus and extends to brain, symptoms and signs may include one-sided eye pain or headache, and may be accompanied by pain in the face, numbness, fever, loss of smell, a black fungus nose or runny nose.

The person may appear to have sinusitis. [23] The face may look swollen on one side, with rapidly progressing "black lesions" across the nose or upper inside of mouth. One eye may look swollen and bulging, and vision may be blurred. [6] [23] [24] Fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing, or coughing up blood, can occur when the lungs are involved. [6] A stomach ache, nausea, vomiting and bleeding can occur when the gastrointestinal tract is involved.

[6] [25] Affected skin may appear as a dusky reddish black fungus patch with a darkening centre due to tissue death. [11] There may be an ulcer and it can be very painful. [5] [7] [11] Invasion into the blood vessels can result in thrombosis and subsequent death of surrounding tissue due to a loss of blood supply. [7] Widespread (disseminated) mucormycosis typically occurs in people who are already sick from other medical conditions, so it can be difficult to know which symptoms are related to mucormycosis.

People with disseminated infection in the brain can develop mental status changes or coma. [26] [27] Cause [ edit ] Mucormycosis is a fungal infection caused by fungi in the order Mucorales. [5] In most cases it is due to an invasion of the genera Rhizopus and Mucor, common bread molds.

[28] Most fatal infections are caused by Rhizopus oryzae. [16] It is less likely due to Lichtheimia, and rarely due to Apophysomyces.

[29] Others include Cunninghamella, Mortierella, and Saksenaea. [5] [30] The fungal spores are in the environment, can be found on for instance moldy bread and fruit and are breathed in frequently, but cause disease only in some people. [5] In addition to being breathed in to be deposited in the nose, sinuses and lungs, the spores black fungus also enter the skin via blood or directly through a cut or open wound, or black fungus in the intestine if eaten.

[13] [30] Once deposited, the fungus grows branch-like filaments which invade blood vessels, causing clots to form and surrounding tissues to die. [5] Other reported causes include contaminated wound dressings. [5] Mucormycosis has been reported following the use of elastoplast and the use of tongue depressors for holding in place intravenous catheters, [5] Outbreaks have also been linked to hospital bed sheets, negative-pressure rooms, water leaks, poor ventilation, contaminated medical equipment, and building works.

[31] Risk factors [ edit ] Predisposing factors for mucormycosis include conditions where people are less able to fight infection, have a low neutrophil count or metabolic acidosis. black fungus [9] Risk factors include poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (particularly DKA), organ transplant, iron overload, cancers such as lymphomas, kidney failure, long term corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy, liver disease and severe malnutrition.

[30] [10] Other risk factors include tuberculosis (TB), [19] deferoxamine [1] and to a lesser extent HIV/AIDS. [1] [7] Cases of mucormycosis in fit and healthy people are rare. [7] Corticosteroids are commonly used in the treatment of COVID-19 and reduce damage caused by the body's own immune system during a coronavirus infection. They are immunosuppressant and increase blood sugar levels in both diabetics and non-diabetic patients.

It is thought that both these effects may contribute to cases of mucormycosis. [32] [33] [20] Mechanism [ edit ] Most people are frequently exposed to Mucorales without developing the disease.

[30] Mucormycosis is generally spread by breathing in, eating food contaminated by, or getting spores of molds of the Mucorales type in an open wound. [14] It is not transmitted between people. [13] The precise mechanism black fungus which diabetics become susceptible is unclear.

black fungus

In vivo, a high sugar alone does not permit the growth of the fungus, but acidosis alone does. [1] [7] People with high sugars frequently have higher iron levels, also known to be a risk factor for developing mucormycosis.

[7] In people on deferoxamine, the iron removed is captured by siderophores on Rhizopus species, which uses the iron to grow. [34] Diagnosis [ edit ] There is no blood test that can confirm the diagnosis. [35] Diagnosis requires identifying the mold in the affected tissue by biopsy and confirming it with a fungal culture. [8] Because the causative fungi occur all around, a culture alone is not decisive.

[5] Tests may black fungus include culture and direct detection of the fungus in lung fluid, blood, serum, plasma and urine. [19] Blood tests include a complete blood count to look specifically for neutropenia. [35] Other blood tests include iron levels, blood glucose, bicarbonate, and electrolytes. [35] Endoscopic examination of the nasal passages may be needed. [35] Imaging [ edit ] Imaging is often performed, such as CT scan of lungs and sinuses.

[36] Signs on chest CT scans, such as nodules, cavities, halo signs, pleural effusion and wedge-shaped shadows, showing invasion of blood vessels may suggest a fungal infection, but does not confirm mucormycosis.

[16] A reverse halo sign in a person with a blood cancer and low neutrophil count, is highly suggestive of mucormycosis. [16] CT scan images of mucormycosis can be useful to distinguish mucormycosis of the orbit and cellulitis of the orbit, but imaging may look identical to those of aspergillosis. [16] MRI may also be useful. [37] Currently, MRI with gadolinium contrast is investigation of choice in rhinoorbito cerebral mucormycosis.

[ citation needed] Culture and biopsy [ edit ] To confirm the diagnosis, biopsy samples can be cultured. [12] [35] Culture from biopsy samples does not always give a result as the organism is very fragile.

[16] To precisely identify the species requires an expert. [16] The appearance of the fungus under the microscope will determine the genus and species. [35] The appearances can vary but generally show wide, ribbon-like filaments that generally don't have septa and that unlike in aspergillosis, branch at right angles, resembling antlers of a moose, which may be seen to be invading blood vessels. [11] • Mature sporangium of a Mucor [38] Other black fungus edit ] Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization may be used to identify the species.

[35] A blood sample from an artery may be useful to assess for metabolic acidosis. [35] Differential diagnosis [ edit ] Other filamentous fungi may however look similar. [31] It may be difficult to differentiate from aspergillosis.

[39] Other possible diagnoses include anthrax, cellulitis, bowel obstruction, ecthyma gangrenosum, lung cancer, clot in lungs, sinusitis, tuberculosis and fusariosis. [40] Prevention [ edit ] Preventive measures include wearing a face mask in dusty areas, washing hands, avoiding direct contact with water-damaged buildings, and protecting skin, feet, and hands where there is exposure to soil or manure such as gardening or certain outdoor work.

[10] In high risk groups such as organ transplant, antifungal drugs may be given as a preventative. [10] Treatment [ edit ] Treatment involves a combination of antifungal drugs, surgically removing infecting tissue and correcting underlying medical problems such as diabetic ketoacidosis.

[1] Medication [ edit ] Once mucormycosis is suspected, Amphotericin B at an initial dose of 1 mg is initially given slowly over 10–15 minutes into a vein, then given as a once daily dose according to body weight for the next 14 days. [41] It may need to be continued for longer.

[39] Isavuconazole and Posaconazole are alternatives. [19] [42] Surgery [ edit ] Surgery can be very drastic, and in some cases of disease involving the nasal black fungus and the brain, removal of infected brain tissue may be required. Removal of the palate, nasal cavity, or eye structures can be very disfiguring. [25] Sometimes more than one operation is required. [30] Other considerations [ edit ] The disease must be monitored carefully for any signs of reemergence.

[30] [43] Treatment also requires correcting sugar levels and improving neutrophil counts. [1] [7] Hyperbaric oxygen may be considered as an adjunctive therapy, because higher oxygen pressure increases the ability of neutrophils to kill the fungus. [7] The efficacy of this therapy is uncertain. [31] Prognosis [ edit ] It tends to progress rapidly and is fatal in about half of sinus cases, two thirds of lung cases, and almost all cases of the widespread type. [17] Skin involvement carries the lowest mortality rate of around 15%.

[30] Possible complications of mucormycosis include the partial loss of neurological function, blindness and clotting of blood vessels in the brain or lung. [25] As treatment usually black fungus extensive and often disfiguring facial surgery, the effect on life after surviving, particularly sinus and brain involvement, is significant.

[30] Epidemiology [ edit ] The true incidence and black fungus of mucormycosis may be higher than appears. [34] Mucormycosis is rare, affecting fewer than 1.7 people per million population each year in San Francisco. [8] [44] It is around 80 times more prevalent in India, where it is estimated that there are around 0.14 cases per 1000 population, [18] and where its incidence has been rising.

[45] Causative fungi are highly dependent on location. Apophysomyces variabilis has its highest prevalence in Asia and Lichtheimia spp. in Europe. [19] It is the third most common serious fungal infection to infect people, black fungus aspergillosis and candidiasis.

[46] Diabetes is the main underlying disease in low and middle-income countries, whereas, blood cancers and organ transplantation are the more common underlying problems in developed countries. [18] As new immunomodulating drugs and diagnostic tests are developed, the statistics for mucormycosis have been changing.

[18] In addition, the figures change as new genera and species are identified, and new risk factors reported such as tuberculosis and kidney problems. [18] COVID-19–associated mucormycosis [ edit ] Countries where COVID-associated mucormycosis has been detected black fungus of June 2021 During the COVID-19 pandemic in India, the Indian government reported that more than 11,700 people were receiving care for mucormycosis as of 25 May black fungus.

Many Indian media outlets called it "black fungus" because of the black discoloration of dead and dying tissue the fungus causes. Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, rates of mucormycosis in India were estimated to be about 70 times higher than in the rest of the world.

[3] [47] Due to its rapidly growing number of cases some Indian state governments have declared it an epidemic. [48] One treatment was a daily injection for eight weeks of anti-fungal intravenous injection of amphotericin B which was in short supply.

The injection could be standard amphotericin B deoxycholate or the liposomal form.

black fungus

The liposomal form cost more but it was considered "safer, more effective and [with] lesser side effects".§ [49] The major obstacle of using antifungal drugs in black fungus is the lack of clinical trials. [27] Recurrence of Mucormycosis during COVID-19 second wave in India [ edit ] Pre-COVID mucormycosis was a very rare infection even in India.

They are so black fungus that an ENT doctor would have been considered lucky if they witnessed a case during their University time. So, the documentation available on the treatment of Mucormycosis is limited. In fact, there used to be a couple of mucormycosis expert ENT surgeons for millions of people pre-pandemic. The sudden rise in mucormycosis cases has left a majority black fungus the ENT doctors with no option but to accept mucormycosis cases as the expert doctors were very much occupied and the patient would die if black fungus untreated.

The majority of the ENT doctors had to manage with minimal or no experience on Mucormycosis, this has led to the recurrence of mucormycosis in the patients they treated. When a highly experienced doctor in mucormycosis treats a patient even he cannot guarantee that the individual is completely cured and won't have a relapse of mucormycosis, an inexperienced ENT surgeon will definitely have a high number of patients with recurrence due to which there were many recurrent cases of mucormycosis although it didn't get the limelight of media or the Indian Government.

[50] [ unreliable medical source?] History [ edit ] The first case of mucormycosis was possibly one described by Friedrich Küchenmeister in 1855. [1] Fürbringer first described the disease in the lungs in 1876. [51] In 1884, Lichtheim established the development of the disease in rabbits and described two species; Mucor corymbifera and Mucor rhizopodiformis, later known as Lichtheimia and Rhizopus, respectively.

[1] In 1943, its association with poorly controlled diabetes was reported in three cases with severe sinus, brain and eye involvement. [1] In 1953, Saksenaea vasiformis, found to cause several cases, was isolated from Indian forest soil, and in 1979, P. C. Misra examined soil from an Indian mango orchard, from where they isolated Apophysomyces, later found to be a major cause of mucormycosis.

[1] Several species of mucorales have since been described. [1] When cases were reported in the United States in the mid-1950s, the author black fungus it to be a new disease resulting from the use of antibiotics, ACTH and steroids.

[51] [52] Until the latter half of the 20th century, the only available treatment was potassium iodide. In a review of cases involving the lungs diagnosed following flexible bronchoscopy between 1970 and 2000, survival was found to be better in those who received combined surgery and medical treatment, mostly with amphotericin B.

[51] Naming [ edit ] Arnold Paltauf coined the term " Mycosis Mucorina" in 1885, black fungus describing a case with systemic symptoms involving the sinus, brain and gastrointestinal tract, following which the term "mucormycosis" became popular.

[1] "Mucormycosis" is often used interchangeably with " zygomycosis", a term made obsolete following changes in classification of the kingdom Fungi. The former phylum Zygomycota included Mucorales, Entomophthorales, and others. Mucormycosis describes infections caused by fungi of the order Mucorales. [39] COVID-19–associated mucormycosis [ edit ] COVID-19 associated mucormycosis cases were reported during first and second(delta) wave, with maximum number of cases in delta wave.

[53] There were no cases reported during the Omicron wave. [53] A number of cases of mucormycosis, aspergillosis, and candidiasis, linked to immunosuppressive treatment for COVID-19 were reported during the COVID-19 pandemic in India in 2020 and 2021.

[4] [37] One review in early 2021 relating to the association of black fungus and COVID-19 reported eight cases of mucormycosis; three from the U.S., two from India, and one case each from Brazil, Italy, and the UK. [20] The most common underlying medical condition was diabetes. [20] Most had been in hospital with severe breathing problems due to COVID-19, had recovered, and developed mucormycosis 10–14 days following treatment for COVID-19. Five had abnormal kidney function tests, three involved the sinus, eye and brain, three the lungs, one the gastrointestinal tract, and in one the disease was widespread.

[20] In two of the seven deaths, the diagnosis of mucormycosis was made at postmortem. [20] That three had no traditional risk factors led the authors to question the use of steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. [20] Although, there were cases without diabetes or use of immunosuppressive drugs. There were cases reported even in children. [53] In May 2021, the BBC reported increased cases in India. [32] In a review of COVID-19-related eye problems, mucormycosis affecting the eyes was reported to occur up to several weeks following recovery from COVID-19.

[37] It was observed that people with COVID-19 were recovering from mucormycosis a bit easily when compared to non-COVID-19 patients.

This is because unlike non-COVID-19 patients with severe diabetes, cancer or HIV, the recovery time required for the main cause of immune suppression is temporary. [53] Other countries affected included Pakistan, [54] Nepal, [55] Bangladesh, [56] Russia, [57] Uruguay, [58] Paraguay, [59] Chile, [60] Egypt, [61] Iran, [62] Black fungus, [63] Iraq, [64] Mexico, [65] Honduras, [66] Argentina [67] Oman, [68] and Afghanistan.

[69] One explanation for why the association has surfaced remarkably in India is high rates of COVID-19 infection and high rates of diabetes. [70] In May 2021, the Indian Council of Medical Research issued guidelines for recognising and treating COVID-19–associated mucormycosis. [71] In India, as of 28 June 2021, over 40,845 people have been confirmed to have mucormycosis, and 3,129 have died. From these cases, 85.5% (34,940) had a history of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and 52.69% (21,523) were on steroids, also 64.11% (26,187) had diabetes.

[72] [73] Society and culture [ edit ] The disease has been reported in natural disasters and catastrophes; 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Missouri tornado. [19] [74] The first international congress on mucormycosis was held in Chicago in 2010, set up by the Hank Schueuler 41 & 9 Foundation, which was established in 2008 for the research of children with leukaemia and fungal infections.

[1] A cluster of infections occurred in the wake of the 2011 Joplin tornado. By July 19, 2011, a total of 18 suspected cases of mucormycosis of the skin had been identified, of which 13 were confirmed. A confirmed case was defined as 1) necrotizing soft-tissue infection requiring antifungal treatment or surgical debridement in a person injured in the tornado, 2) with illness onset on or after May 22 and 3) positive fungal culture or black fungus and genetic sequencing consistent with a mucormycete.

No additional cases related to that outbreak were reported after June 17. Ten people required admission to an intensive-care unit, and five died. [75] [76] In 2014, details of a lethal mucormycosis outbreak that occurred in 2008 emerged after television and newspaper reports responded to an article in a pediatric medical journal.

[77] [78] Contaminated hospital linen was found to be spreading the infection. A 2018 study found many freshly laundered hospital linens delivered to U.S. transplant hospitals were contaminated with Mucorales. [79] Another study attributed an outbreak of hospital-acquired mucormycosis to a laundry facility supplying linens contaminated with Mucorales.

The outbreak stopped when major changes were made at the laundry black fungus. The authors raised concerns on the regulation black fungus healthcare linens. [80] Other animals [ edit ] Mucormycosis in other animals is similar, in terms of frequency and types, as in people. [81] Cases have been described in cats, dogs, cows, horses, dolphin, bison, and seals. [81] Black fungus [ edit ] • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Chander J (2018).

"26. Mucormycosis". Textbook of Medical Mycology (4th ed.). New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Ltd. pp. 534–596. ISBN 978-93-86261-83-0. • ^ a b "Orphanet: Zygomycosis". Archived from the original on May 13, 2021. Retrieved May 13, 2021. • ^ a b c Dyer O (May 2021). "Covid-19: India sees record deaths as "black fungus" spreads fear".

BMJ. 373: n1238. doi: 10.1136/bmj.n1238. PMID 33985993. • ^ a b c d Quarterly Current Affairs Vol. 4 - October to December 2020 for Competitive Exams. Vol. 4. Disha Publications. 2020. p. 173. ISBN 978-93-90486-29-8. • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Grossman ME, Fox LP, Kovarik C, Rosenbach M (2012). "1. Subcutaneous and deep mycoses: Zygomucosis/Mucormycosis". Cutaneous Manifestations of Infection in the Immunocompromised Host (2nd ed.).

Springer. pp. 51–58. ISBN 978-1-4419-1577-1. • ^ a b c d e f g "Symptoms of Mucormycosis". January 14, 2021. Retrieved May 25, 2021. • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Spellberg B, Edwards J, Ibrahim A (July 2005). "Novel perspectives on mucormycosis: pathophysiology, presentation, and management". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 18 (3): 556–69. doi: 10.1128/CMR.18.3.556-569.2005. PMC 1195964. PMID 16020690. • ^ a b c d e f g h i "Mucormycosis". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders).

Archived from the original on May 26, 2021. Retrieved May 25, 2021. • ^ a b c d e Hernández, J. L.; Buckley, C. J. (January 2021). "Mucormycosis". PMID 31335084. {{ cite journal}}: Cite journal requires -journal= ( help) • ^ a b c d e "People at Risk For Mucormycosis and prevention". February 2, 2021. Retrieved May 25, 2021. • ^ a b c d e Johnstone RB (2017). "25. Mycoses and Algal infections". Weedon's Skin Pathology Essentials (2nd ed.). Elsevier. p. 461. ISBN 978-0-7020-6830-0. • ^ a b "ICD-11 - ICD-11 for Mortality and Morbidity Statistics". Retrieved May 25, 2021. • ^ a b c d e f g h i j "About Mucormycosis". May 25, 2021. • ^ a b Reid G, Lynch JP, Fishbein MC, Clark NM black fungus 2020).

"Mucormycosis". Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 41 (1): 99–114. doi: 10.1055/s-0039-3401992. PMID 32000287. S2CID 210984392. • ^ "Where Mucormycosis Comes From". February 1, 2021. Retrieved May 25, 2021. • ^ a b c d e f g Thornton CR (2020). "1. Detection of the 'Big Five' mold killers of humans: Aspergillus, Fusarium, Lomentospora, Scedosporium and Mucormycetes". In Gadd GM, Sariaslani S (eds.). Advances in Applied Microbiology. Academic Press. pp.

4–22. ISBN 978-0-12-820703-1. • ^ a b black fungus Statistics - Mucormycosis - Fungal Diseases - CDC".

May 5, 2020. Retrieved May 25, 2021. • ^ a black fungus c d e Skiada A, Pavleas I, Drogari-Apiranthitou M (November 2020). "Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Mucormycosis: An Update". Journal of Fungi. 6 (4): 265. doi: 10.3390/jof6040265. PMC 7711598.

PMID 33147877. • ^ a b c d e f Dannaoui E, Lackner M (December 2019). "Special Issue: Mucorales and Mucormycosis". Journal of Fungi. 6 (1): 6. doi: 10.3390/jof6010006.

PMC 7151165. PMID 31877973. • ^ a b c d e f g Garg D, Muthu V, Sehgal IS, Ramachandran R, Kaur H, Bhalla A, et al. (May 2021). "Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19) Associated Mucormycosis (CAM): Case Report and Systematic Review of Literature". Mycopathologia. 186 (2): 289–298. doi: 10.1007/s11046-021-00528-2. PMC 7862973. PMID 33544266. • ^ Singh AK, Singh R, Joshi SR, Misra A (May 2021). "Mucormycosis in COVID-19: A systematic review of cases reported worldwide and in India".

Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome. 15 (4): 102146. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2021.05.019. PMC 8137376. PMID 34192610. • ^ a b Riley TT, Muzny CA, Swiatlo E, Legendre DP (September 2016). "Breaking the Mold: A Review of Mucormycosis and Current Pharmacological Treatment Options".

The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 50 (9): 747–57. doi: 10.1177/1060028016655425. PMID 27307416. S2CID 22454217. • ^ a b McDonald PJ. "Mucormycosis (Zygomycosis) Clinical Presentation: History and Physical Examination". Retrieved May 28, 2021. • ^ Lee S (2001). BrainChip for Microbiology. Blackwell Science. p. 70. ISBN 0-632-04568-X. • ^ black fungus b c "MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Mucormycosis".

Retrieved May 19, 2008. • ^ Lewis RE, Kontoyiannis DP (September 2013). "Epidemiology and treatment of mucormycosis".

black fungus

Future Microbiology. 8 (9): 1163–75. doi: 10.2217/fmb.13.78. PMID 24020743. • ^ a b Spellberg B, Edwards J, Ibrahim A (July 2005). "Novel perspectives on mucormycosis: pathophysiology, presentation, and management". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 18 (3): 556–69. doi: 10.1128/cmr.18.3.556-569.2005. PMC 1195964. PMID 16020690. • ^ Lee SC, Idmurm A (2018). "8. Fingal sex: The Mucoromycota". In Heitman J, Howlett BJ, Black fungus PW, Stukenbrock EH, James TY, Gow NA (eds.). The Fungal Kingdom.

Wiley. pp.

black fungus

177–192. ISBN 978-1-55581-958-3. • ^ Martínez-Herrera E, Frías-De-León MG, Julián-Castrejón A, Cruz-Benítez L, Xicohtencatl-Cortes J, Hernández-Castro R (August 2020). "Rhino-orbital mucormycosis due to Apophysomyces ossiformis in a patient with black fungus mellitus: a case report". BMC Infectious Diseases. 20 (1): 614. doi: 10.1186/s12879-020-05337-4. PMC 7437167. PMID 32811466. • ^ a b c d e f g h McDonald PJ (September 10, black fungus. "Mucormycosis (Zygomycosis): Background, Etiology and Pathophysiology, Epidemiology".

Medscape. • ^ a b c "For Healthcare Professionals - Mucormycosis - CDC". June 17, 2020. Retrieved May 25, 2021. • ^ a b Biswas S (May 9, 2021). "Mucormycosis: The 'black fungus' maiming Covid patients in India". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved May 11, 2021. • ^ Koehler P, Bassetti M, Chakrabarti A, Chen SC, Colombo AL, Hoenigl M, et al.

(June 2021). "Defining and managing COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis: the 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria for research and clinical guidance". The Lancet. Infectious Diseases. 21 (6): e149–e162. doi: 10.1016/s1473-3099(20)30847-1. PMC 7833078. PMID 33333012. • ^ a b Prakash H, Chakrabarti A (March 2019). "Global Epidemiology of Mucormycosis". Journal of Fungi.

5 (1): 26. doi: 10.3390/jof5010026.

black fungus

PMC 6462913. PMID 30901907. • ^ a b c d e f g h McDonald PJ. "Mucormycosis (Zygomycosis) Workup: Approach Considerations, Laboratory Tests, Radiologic Studies".

Retrieved May 25, 2021. • ^ "Diagnosis and Testing of Mucormycosis - Mucormycosis - CDC". January black fungus, 2021. • ^ a b c Sen M, Honavar SG, Sharma N, Sachdev MS (March 2021). "COVID-19 and Eye: A Review of Ophthalmic Manifestations of COVID-19". Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 69 (3): 488–509. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_297_21. PMC 7942063. PMID 33595463. • ^ "Details - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)".

Retrieved May 26, 2021. • ^ a b c Cornely OA, Alastruey-Izquierdo A, Arenz D, Chen SC, Dannaoui E, Hochhegger B, et al. (December 2019). "Global guideline for the diagnosis and management of mucormycosis: an initiative of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology in cooperation with the Mycoses Study Group Education and Research Consortium".

The Lancet. Infectious Diseases. 19 (12): e405–e421. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30312-3. PMC 8559573. PMID 31699664. (several authors) • ^ McDonald PJ. "Mucormycosis (Zygomycosis) Differential Diagnoses". Retrieved May black fungus, 2021. • ^ BNF (80 ed.). BMJ Group and the Pharmaceutical Press. September 2021 – March 2021. pp. 629–635. ISBN 978-0-85711-369-6. • ^ McDonald PJ (September 10, 2018). "What is the role of isavuconazole (Cresemba) in the treatment of mucormycosis (zygomycosis)?". Retrieved May 25, 2021. • ^ Rebecca J. Frey. "Mucormycosis". Health A to Z. Archived black fungus the original on May 18, 2008. Retrieved May 19, black fungus.

• ^ "Mucormycosis Statistics - Mucormycosis - Fungal Diseases - CDC". June 5, 2020. Archived from the original on May 21, 2021. Retrieved May 22, 2021. • ^ Vallabhaneni S, Mody RK, Walker T, Chiller T (2016). "1. The global burden of fungal disease". In Sobel J, Ostrosky-Zeichner L (eds.). Fungal Infections, An Issue of Infectious Disease Clinics of North America.

Philadelphia: Elsevier. pp. 5–12. ISBN 978-0-323-41649-8. • ^ Petrikkos G, Skiada A, Lortholary O, Roilides E, Walsh TJ, Kontoyiannis DP (February 2012). "Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of mucormycosis". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 54 (suppl_1): S23-34. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir866. PMID 22247442. • ^ Schwartz I, Chakrabarti A (June 2, 2021). " 'Black fungus' is creating a whole other health emergency for Covid-stricken India". The Guardian. Retrieved June 3, 2021.

• ^ Wadhawan DW, Jain P, Shrivastava S, Kunal K (May 19, 2021). "Rajasthan declares black fungus an epidemic; cases pile up in several states - 10 points". India Today. Retrieved May 20, 2021. • ^ "Black fungus in India: Concern over drug shortage as cases rise". BBC News. May 19, 2021. Retrieved July 8, 2021. black fungus ^ "Recurrence of Mucormycosis due to partial treatments". • ^ a b c Yamin HS, Alastal AY, Bakri I (January 2017). "Pulmonary Mucormycosis Over 130 Years: A Case Report and Literature Review".

Turkish Black fungus Journal. 18 (1): 1–5. doi: 10.5152/TurkThoracJ.2017.16033. PMC 5783164. PMID 29404149. • ^ Baker RD (March 1957).

"Mucormycosis; a new disease?". Journal of the American Medical Association. 163 (10): 805–8. doi: 10.1001/jama.1957.02970450007003. PMID 13405736. • ^ a b c d Meghanadh KR (May 15, 2021). "Mucormycosis / Black fungus infection". Medy Blog. Retrieved June 27, 2021. • ^ " 'Cases of Black Fungus emerge across Pakistan' ". The News International. May 12, 2021. • ^ "Focused COVID-19 Media Monitoring, Nepal (May 24, 2021)". ReliefWeb. May 24, 2021. • ^ "Bangladesh reports 1st death by black fungus".

Anadolu Agency. May 25, 2021. • ^ "Russia Confirms Rare, Deadly 'Black Fungus' Infections Seen in India". The Moscow Times. May 17, 2021. • ^ "Paciente con COVID-19 se infectó con el "hongo negro" ". EL PAÍS Uruguay (in Spanish). May 25, 2021. • ^ "Confirman dos casos de "hongo negro" en Paraguay". RDN (in Spanish). May 27, 2021. • ^ "Detectan primer caso de "hongo negro" en Chile en paciente con Covid-19: es el segundo reportado en Latinoamérica". El Mostrador (in Spanish).

May 28, 2021. • ^ "Mansoura University Hospital reports black fungus fungus cases". Egypt Independent. May 28, 2021. • ^ "Coronavirus in Iran: Power outages, black fungus, and warnings of a fifth surge".

Black fungus Persia. May 29, 2021. • ^ "Casos suspeitos de fungo preto são investigados no Brasil; entenda". Catraca Livre (in Portuguese). May 31, 2021. • ^ "Iraq detects five cases of the deadly "black fungus" among coronavirus patients". Globe Live Media. June 1, 2021. • ^ "Detectan en Edomex posible primer caso de hongo negro en México".

Uno TV (in Spanish). June 3, 2021. • ^ "Salud confirma primer caso de hongo negro en Honduras". Diario El Heraldo (in Spanish). June 7, 2021. • ^ " "Hongo negro": advierten que hay que estar atentos a la coinfección fúngica en pacientes con covid". Clarín (in Spanish). June 16, 2021. • ^ " 'Black fungus' detected in 3 COVID-19 patients in Oman".

Al Jazeera. June 15, 2021. • ^ "Afghanistan finds deadly 'black fungus' in virus patients – latest updates". TRT World. Retrieved July 17, 2021. • ^ Runwal P (May 14, 2021). "A rare black fungus is infecting many of India's COVID-19 patients—why?". National Geographic. • ^ "ICMR releases diagnosis and management guidelines for COVID-19-associated Mucormycosis".

Firstpost. May 17, 2021. • ^ "India reports 40,854 cases of black fungus so far". Mint. June 28, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021. • ^ "Delhi has more black fungus infections than active Covid-19 cases: Govt data". Mint. July 14, 2021. Retrieved July 16, black fungus. • ^ Fanfair, Robyn Neblett; et al. (July 29, 2011). "Notes from the Field: Fatal Fungal Soft-Tissue Infections After a Tornado – Joplin, Missouri, 2011".

MMWR Weekly. 60 (29): 992. • ^ Williams, Timothy (June 10, 2011) Rare Infection Strikes Victims of a Tornado in Missouri. New York Times. • ^ Neblett Fanfair R, Black fungus K, Bos J, Bennett SD, Lo YC, Adebanjo T, et black fungus. (December 2012). "Necrotizing cutaneous mucormycosis after a tornado in Joplin, Missouri, in 2011". The New England Journal of Medicine.

367 (23): 2214–25. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1204781. PMID 23215557. • ^ Catalanello, Rebecca (April 16, 2014). "Mother believes her newborn was the first to die from fungus at Children's Hospital in 2008". • ^ "5 Children's Hospital patients died in 2008, 2009 after contact with deadly fungus". We acknowledge that Children's Hospital is Hospital A in an upcoming article in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal.

black fungus

The safety and well-being of our patients are our top priorities, so as soon as a problem was suspected, the State Health Department and CDC were notified and invited to assist in the investigation.

The hospital was black fungus aggressive in trying to isolate and then eliminate the source of the fungus. • ^ Sundermann AJ, Clancy CJ, Pasculle AW, Liu G, Cumbie RB, Driscoll E, et al. (February 2019). "How Clean Is the Linen at My Hospital? The Mucorales on Unclean Linen Discovery Study of Large United States Transplant and Cancer Centers".

Clinical Infectious Diseases. 68 (5): 850–853. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy669. PMC 6765054.

black fungus

PMID 30299481. • ^ Sundermann, Alexander J.; Clancy, Cornelius J.; Pasculle, A. William; Liu, Guojun; Cheng, Shaoji; Cumbie, Richard B.; Driscoll, Eileen; Ayres, Ashley; Donahue, Lisa; Buck, Michael; Streifel, Andrew (July 20, 2021).

"Remediation of Mucorales-contaminated Healthcare Linens at a Laundry Facility Following an Investigation of a Case Cluster of Hospital-acquired Mucormycosis". Clinical Infectious Diseases: ciab638. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab638. ISSN 1537-6591. PMID black fungus. • ^ a b Seyedmousavi S, Bosco SM, de Hoog S, Ebel F, Elad D, Gomes RR, et al. (April 2018). "Fungal infections in animals: a patchwork of different situations".

Medical Mycology. 56 (suppl_1): 165–187. doi: 10.1093/mmy/myx104. PMC 6251577. PMID 29538732. Further reading [ edit ] • Cornely OA, Alastruey-Izquierdo A, Arenz D, Chen SC, Dannaoui E, Hochhegger B, et al. (December 2019). "Global guideline for the diagnosis and management of mucormycosis: an initiative of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology in cooperation with the Mycoses Study Group Education and Research Consortium". The Lancet. Infectious Diseases. 19 (12): e405–e421.

doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30312-3. PMC 8559573. PMID 31699664. External links [ edit ] • Tinea barbae/ tinea capitis • Kerion • Tinea corporis • Ringworm • Dermatophytids • Tinea cruris • Tinea manuum • Tinea pedis (athlete's foot) • Tinea unguium/onychomycosis • White superficial onychomycosis • Distal subungual onychomycosis • Proximal subungual onychomycosis • Tinea corporis gladiatorum • Tinea faciei • Tinea imbricata • Tinea incognito • Favus By organism • Coccidioides immitis/ Coccidioides posadasii • Coccidioidomycosis • Disseminated coccidioidomycosis • Primary cutaneous coccidioidomycosis.

Primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis • Histoplasma capsulatum • Histoplasmosis • Primary cutaneous histoplasmosis • Primary pulmonary histoplasmosis • Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis • Histoplasma duboisii • African histoplasmosis • Lacazia loboi • Lobomycosis • Paracoccidioides brasiliensis • Paracoccidioidomycosis Other Hidden categories: • CS1 errors: missing periodical • CS1 Spanish-language sources (es) • CS1 Portuguese-language sources (pt) • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Use mdy dates from October 2016 • All articles with unsourced statements • Articles with unsourced statements from June 2021 • All articles lacking reliable references • Articles lacking reliable references from February 2022 • AC with 0 elements • العربية • বাংলা • Català • Deutsch • Ελληνικά • Español • فارسی • Français • हिन्दी • Bahasa Indonesia • Italiano • ಕನ್ನಡ • മലയാളം • Bahasa Melayu • Nederlands • ଓଡ଼ିଆ • Oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча • پښتو • Polski • Português • Русский • Саха тыла • Simple English • Suomi • Tagalog • தமிழ் • Татарча/tatarça • Українська • اردو • 中文 Edit links • This page was last edited on 7 May 2022, at 15:00 (UTC).

• Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. By using black fungus site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • • Menu • Read Articles • Saved Articles black fungus Liked Articles • Food • Fruits • Herbs • Vegetables • Seeds & Nuts • Cereals • Fish & Meat • View All • Beverage • Teas • Juices • Types & Benefits • Recipes • View All • Submit Recipe • Essential Oils • Types & Benefits • Best Oils • Mental Health • View All • Weight Loss • Diet Plans • Honey • Top Remedies • Black Seed Oil • Best Teas • View All • Lifestyle • View All • Wellness • Fitness • Minerals • Vitamins black fungus Other • Conditions A-Z • Diseases • Remedies • Videos • View All • Report Error While the name black fungus may not sound particularly healthy, these mushrooms do have a surprisingly large number of health benefits!

What is Black Fungus? Black fungus mushrooms ( Auricularia auricula) have been a staple of traditional Chinese medicine for centuries.

The genus Auricularia comprises 10–15 recognized species worldwide, many of which look similar to each other. Black fungus are also commonly known as wood ear, due to their resemblance to a human ear, these dark black and brown fungi have a chewy texture when fresh, and a very hard texture when dry.

Black fungus are known to be used quite commonly in both Chinese and Japanese cuisine. The taste is comparative to an oyster or shiitake mushrooms. They are closely related to cloud ear mushrooms (Auricularia polytricha) and jelly ear fungus (Auricularia auricula-judae). [1] [2] [3] Black fungus is known for its chewy texture and is used in Asian soups and salads. Photo Credit: Shutterstock Benefits of Black Fungus There can be many impressive benefits of black fungus, which may include its plausibly positive effects on blood circulation, heart health, and chronic disease, among others.

May Help Improve Blood Circulation Black fungus is known for its possibly high iron content and is a popular potential remedy for relieving symptoms of anemia. It is considered to be rich in iron, protein, vitamins, and polysaccharides. The terpenoids in this fungus are thought to help allergy sufferers by preventing antigen activity. May Help Reduce Inflammation The possibly high polysaccharide content in these types of mushrooms has several medical benefits.

It prevents inflammation, which may be particularly in mucous tissue, and can inhibit a key enzyme that may be responsible for Alzheimer’s disease. [4] Might Aid In Improving Heart Health Polysaccharides found in this type of fungus can lower blood cholesterol and black fungus. They may also inhibit platelet clumping, acting as black fungus possible anticoagulant, which may regulate blood viscosity and might reduce the risk of heart disease or stroke.

This fungus can be used to provide relief from hypertension, blood clots, and thrombosis. [5] [6] Potential Antioxidant Properties Vitamin B2 in black fungus can act as a powerful antioxidant, potentially protecting cells from free radicals and thus perhaps reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

It can also have a possibly beneficial effect on physical stress and may support a healthy immune system. May Detoxify the Body This fungus can act as a detoxifier often paired with foods that might have slight toxic qualities, to possibly reduce the impact of pesticides or heavy metal residue.

This type of fungus is thought to pull impurities from the lungs and digestive system, as well as possibly counteract the effects of radiation and chemotherapy. May Aid in Weight Loss The pectin and dietary fiber in this culinary fungus are thought to help prevent obesity and encourage weight loss by discouraging fat absorption. Side Effects Black fungus should be consumed with caution if you have the following health conditions. • Blood Clotting: Patients who are on medications for blood disorders should not take black fungus, as it may prevent clotting.

Stop taking black fungus at least two weeks before a scheduled surgery. • Pregnancy: Women who black fungus pregnant or breastfeeding should not use this fungus in any form, as it can have potentially negative effects on the baby. John Staughton is a traveling writer, editor, publisher and photographer with English and Integrative Biology degrees from the University of Illinois in Champaign-Urbana (USA).

He co-founded the literary journal, Sheriff Nottingham, and now serves as the Content Director for Stain’d Arts, a non-profit based in Denver, Colorado. On a perpetual journey towards the idea of home, he uses words to educate, inspire, uplift and evolve. Report Error in this Article © 2022 Organic Information Services Pvt Ltd. All the information on this website is for education purpose only. Consult a medical practitioner for health problems. Images are provided by Shutterstock & our contributors.

Organic Facts may receive a portion of revenues if you click on the sponsored ads and links by Google, Ezoic, or the Amazon Affiliate program. Our articles are evidence-based and contain scientific references, fact-checked by experts. We source information from studies, clinical trial findings, and meta-analyses published in peer-reviewed journals. To increase transparency to the user, we provide reference links marked by numbers in parentheses in the copy of the article.

The entire list of reference links is also provided at the bottom of black fungus article.
Menu Lung Disease & Respiratory Health Center • Bronchitis • COPD • Emphysema • Pneumonia • News • Reference • Slideshows • Quizzes • Videos • Find a Pulmonologist Related to Lung Disease & Respiratory Health • Asthma • Tuberculosis • Cystic Fibrosis • Pulmonary Hypertension • Tuberous Black fungus • Allergies • Cold, Flu & Cough • Lung Cancer • Smoking Cessation • Quit-Smoking Assessment What Is Mucormycosis?

black fungus

Mucormycosis, also known as black fungus, is a rare but dangerous infection. It's caused by a group of molds called mucormycetes and often affects the sinuses, lungs, skin, and brain. You can inhale the mold spores or come into contact with them in things like soil, rotting produce or bread, or compost piles. Who Is at Risk? The infection can happen to anyone at any age. Most people will come into contact with the fungus at some point in their everyday lives.

But you're more likely to get sick if you have a weakened immune system because of a medication you're taking or because you have a health condition like: • Diabetes, especially when it isn't under control • HIV or AIDS • Cancer • Organ transplant • Stem cell transplant • Neutropenia (low white blood cell count) • Long-term steroid use • Injected drug use • High levels of iron in your body ( hemochromatosis) • Bad health from poor nutrition • Uneven levels of acid in your body ( metabolic acidosis) • Premature birth or low birth weight It's also more likely if black fungus have a skin injury like a burn, cut, or wound.

Black fungus cases have been reported in people with COVID-19. Mucormycosis isn't contagious. Symptoms of Mucormycosis Black fungus symptoms of mucormycosis will depend on where in your body the fungus is growing. They may include: • Fever • Cough • Chest pain • Shortness of breath • Swelling on one side of your face • Headache • Sinus congestion • Black lesions on the bridge of your nose or the inside of your mouth • Belly pain • Nausea and vomiting • Gastrointestinal bleeding • Blood in your stool • Diarrhea If your skin is infected, the area can look blistered, red, or swollen.

It might turn black or feel warm or painful. The infection can also spread to other parts of your body through your blood. This is called disseminated mucormycosis. When this happens, the fungus can affect organs like your spleen and heart. In severe cases, you may have changes to your mental state or go into a coma.

It can even be deadly. Diagnosis and Treatment of Mucormycosis If you suspect mucormycosis, your doctor will give you a physical exam and ask about your medical history. Let them know if you've been around spoiled foods or other places in which fungal spores are often found.

If it looks like you have a lung or sinus infection, your doctor may take a sample of the fluid from your nose or throat and send it to be tested in a lab. They might also do a tissue biopsy, taking out a small piece of infected tissue black fungus testing. Your doctor may do imaging tests like CT or MRI scans to find out whether the infection has spread to your brain or other organs. If you're diagnosed with mucormycosis, you should start treatment as soon black fungus possible with prescription antifungal medications.

These medicines stop the growth of the fungus, destroy it, and bring the infection under control. You might take: • Amphotericin B • Isavuconazole • Posaconazole You get these medications through a vein (intravenous or IV) or as pills that you swallow. Your doctor may start with high doses through an IV until the infection is under control, which can black fungus several weeks. Then, you'll switch to pills. Let your doctor know if a medication has troublesome side effects like stomach pain, heartburn, or trouble breathing.

They may be able to change your treatment plan. In severe cases, your doctor may recommend surgery to remove infected or dead tissue to keep the fungus from spreading.

This might include removing parts of your nose or eyes. It can be disfiguring. But it's crucial to treat this life-threatening infection. Mucormycosis Complications and Outlook Complications of mucormycosis include: • Blindness • Blood clots or blocked vessels • Nerve damage Mucormycosis can be deadly without treatment.

Because the infection is so rare, the exact mortality rate isn't clear. But researchers estimate that overall, 54% of people with mucormycosis die. The likelihood of death depends on which part of the body is affected.

The outlook is better for people who have sinus infections than it is for lung or brain infections. Mucormycosis Prevention There's no way to avoid breathing in spores. But you can do a few things to lower your chances of mucormycosis.

It's especially important if you have a health condition that raises your risk. Stay away from areas with a lot of dust or soil, like construction or excavation sites.

If you have to be in these areas, wear a face mask like an N95. Avoid infected water. This can include floodwater or water-damaged buildings, especially after natural disasters like hurricanes or floods. If you have a weakened immune system, avoid activities that involve dust and soil, like gardening or yard work. If you can't, protect your skin with shoes, gloves, long pants, and long sleeves.

Wash cuts or scrapes with soap and water as soon as you can. If you get mucormycosis, be sure to take your medications as directed. If side effects cause problems or the infection doesn't get better, let your doctor know right away.

SOURCES: CDC: “About Mucormycosis,” “People at Risk & Prevention,” “Mucormycosis statistics,” “Diagnosis and Testing for Mucormycosis,” “Symptoms of Mucormycosis,” “Treatment for Mucormycosis.” Mount Sinai: “Mucormycosis.” National Organization for Rare Disorders: “Mucormycosis.” Journal of Medical Cases: “Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis and COVID-19 Pneumonia.” MedlinePlus: “Amphotericin B Injection.” Health Solutions • Penis Curved When Erect?

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• There has been an increased incidence of this fungal infection in patients suffering from COVID 19 disease. • Several factors including underlying diabetes, immunosuppressives, host factors, pancreatic endocrine dysfunction by COVID 19 have been proposed as the putative causative mechanisms for Mucormycosis.

• However, the judicious use of steroids and/or other immunosuppressants should not be withheld in patients with severe COVID 19, as they can be life-saving.

• Treatment is long term and involves a combination of drugs and surgical measures. It is advised to visit the best ent hospital in Bangalore if the infection has spread in the ear, nose, and throat. What Black Fungus/Mucormycosis? Mucormycosis, popularly termed “Black fungus” by the media and public, is a disease caused by ubiquitously occurring mold found in decaying vegetation and soil.

It leads to necrotic black tissue at the infected sites, hence the name. In the Indian setting, it was more commonly seen in uncontrolled diabetics or people on extensive immunosuppression. We have seen the surge in cases of Mucormycosis during this COVID pandemic.

We have also published such an initial series of patients ( ). There have been black fungus reasons proposed for this sudden surge in the deadly fungus. These include: • Uncontrolled diabetes • Prolonged use of steroids and other immunosuppressives • Inborn errors of immunity COVID19 could affect the pancreas which in turn can disturb the glycemic balance leading to prolonged periods of increased sugar levels in these patients.

Thus, Mucormycosis can also be seen among COVID affected patients who were not treated with steroids or other immune-suppressing drugs. Mucormycosis is caused by Rhizopus oryzae, the most common fungus responsible for the disease which causes about 70% of the cases. Despite advanced treatment and aggressive therapy, the mortality rate of the black fungus disease is over 50%. Further, the mortality rate in disseminated disease or with persistent neutropenia is even black fungus.

The condition requires urgent and aggressive medical intervention; else it may result in debilitating or fatal consequences. Who is Affected? People with the following conditions/procedures are at increased risk for developing black fungus disease: • Compromised immunity • Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus in ketoacidosis • Organ or bone marrow transplantation • Malignant hematologic disorders • Other forms of metabolic acidosis • HIV/AIDS • Surgery • Treatment with corticosteroids • Trauma and burns • Neutropenia • Deferoxamine therapy in patients receiving hemodialysis How Can They Get It?

The cause of black fungus is due to exposure to mucormycetes mold. The fungus is present in the soil, rotting wood, a pile of compost, and leaves. You may contract black fungus infection through the skin. If you have any cut or scratch on the skin and comes in contact with the fungus, you may get black fungus disease. Visit a dermatologist in Bangalore if the skin is affected by black fungus. Another way of developing this condition is through pulmonary exposure via inhaling the mould spores.

Through inhalation, you may have an infection in your lungs and sinuses that may progress to the brain, eyes, and face. However, not all people exposed to these moulds develop this disease.

People with low immunity are at high risk for developing black fungus disease. Does It Spread Through The Air? Black fungus is not a contagious disease and does not spread from animals to the human. The fungal spores are present in the environment, including air. In most cases, when the person inhales these spores, they are attacked and destroyed by the immune system.

However, in immunocompromised patients, the moulds survive and cause infection. What Are The Black Fungus Infection Symptoms? Some of the black fungal symptoms are: • Sinus and respiratory: Sinus, oral cavity and nasal involvement with extension to the eye is the commonest type of presentation.

• Skin Infections: Due to cut, scratches or burnt skin, there is an exposure of the inner tissue to the black fungus. It may result in symptoms, such as ulcers, redness, swelling, tenderness, blisters, and blackened skin tissue.

• Brain Infection: Disseminated black fungus infection in the brain may result in coma or altered mental status. • Ocular infection: Infection of black fungus in the eyes may result in eye pain, redness, swelling, blurred vision, and blindness. In some cases, there is a need to remove the eyes to prevent the progression of infection. • Gastrointestinal Infection: Black fungus infection in the gastrointestinal tract may result in Nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, and gastrointestinal bleeding.

How The Doctor Diagnoses Black Fungus Disease? There are various methods to diagnose black fungal disease. Some of them are: • Clinical diagnosis: Headache is the most common presenting feature. Tissue necrosis is the evident clinical sign and looking out for eschar (black scab) in the oral or nasal cavity helps in diagnosing the same.

Redness and protrusion of the eye with swelling along with the loss of vision, severe facial pain and focal numbness should raise the suspicion of the disease • Imaging Techniques: CT Scan of paranasal sinuses and brain helps in picking up the rhino- orbital disease. CT lungs can help in looking for pulmonary nodule and effusion helps in diagnosing pulmonary disease. • Histopathological and microbiological examination: Identifying the fungus on the microscopic examination of the tissue and looking for uptake of special attains to identify the fungus is the most important step in diagnoses • Molecular assays: Molecular assays, such as restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses (RFLP), conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), melt curve analysis of PCR products, and DNA sequencing of defined gene regions, helps in determining the presence of Mucorales (pathogen responsible for black fungus disease).

These tests are not commonly carried out as usually microscopic examination suffices What Are The Treatment Options? Management of black fungus disease requires a comprehensive approach.

It includes managing the underlying predisposing factors, removing the necrotic tissues, initiating antifungal treatment, and adjunctive therapy. Following are the methods to manage black fungus disease: • Antifungal medications: The doctor may prescribe various antifungal medications.

Some of them are liposomal amphotericin B, isavuconazole, and posaconazole. • Black fungus debridement: Several infection specialists believe that surgical debridement of the infected part is required to save the patient's life. It helps in preventing the progression of the disease. After the successful outcome of treatment, the patient may undergo plastic surgery.

Problems This disease usually has prolonged treatment duration and the drugs used are toxic, expensive and requires a long-term hospital stay. Apart from this, procurement of these lifesaving drugs has become problematic due to a sudden spike in the demand. It can lead to severe comorbidities such as vision loss, focal deficits and even death at times particularly when the disease is not adequately treated at the early stages.

How to Prevent Mucormycosis Infection? Having a high index of suspicion helps!! If diagnosed early it can be treated better with improved outcomes.

Taking care of diabetes and having well-controlled sugars are the most important factor to prevent the invasion. Staying in touch with your endocrinologist and the ID physician post-COVID is also critical.

Following hygienic measures and frequent hand wash with minimizing the exposure of the fungal spores to the mucosal surface is also important. You must take good care of yourself if you have compromised immunity. You should bandage all your wounds and use a mask while working in the yard. One must understand that steroid can be a lifesaving drug while managing COVID and shouldn’t shy away from its optimal use.

Frequently Asked Questions What is the black fungus disease?

black fungus

Mucormycosis is a rare fungal disease caused by a group of molds called mucormycetes. It black fungus affects people who are on medication for health problems and are immuno-compressed. Usually, people with a healthy immune system does not pose threat to mucormycetes. Can black fungus spread? The excessive use of steroids and antibiotics and the contamination through the pipes and prongs used for the mechanical supply of oxygen to patients are the main reason for rising in black fungus.

Mucormycosis is not contagious which means it does not spread from one person to another. The fungal infection can also occur if clean masks are not worn and the rooms are not ventilated properly.

What are the symptoms of mucormycosis? The black fungus disease symptoms depend on the part of the body it has infected. Symptoms of sinus and brain (rhinocerebral mucormycosis) include: • One-sided facial swelling • Headache • Nasal or sinus congestion • Black lesions on the nasal bridge • Fever Symptoms of pulmonary (lung) mucormycosis include: • Fever • Cough • Chest pain • Shortness of breath Symptoms of Cutaneous (skin) mucormycosis include: • Blisters or ulcers • Pain • Excessive redness, or swelling around a wound Symptoms of gastrointestinal mucormycosis include: • Abdominal pain • Nausea and vomiting • Gastrointestinal bleeding Where is mucormycosis found?

Mucormycetes are particularly found in soil and in leaves, compost piles, and animal dung. They are more common in soil than in the air. What does mucor mold look like? Mucor is a microbial genus usually found in soil, organic decaying matter and old, damp carpets where moisture levels are high enough. They are white or greyish in color and grow rapidly. Is there any treatment for black fungus? First intravenous (IV) antifungal medications (amphotericin B, posaconazole, or isavuconazole) are given to the patient and then surgery is performed to cut away the infected tissue.

How does black fungus start? One may catch mucormycosis when the fungus enters the skin through a cut, burn or any other types of skin problems. The black fungus sticks to a body part and travels inwards through black fungus nose, sinus or lungs.

If the fungus goes through the sinus, it can affect the eyes and the brain which can lead to a fatal situation. Why Covid patients are getting black fungus? In Covid-19 patients, their airway mucosa and blood vessels are damaged and serum iron is increased which results in a favourable environment for the black fungus to grow. Steroids are given to covid-19 patients which increases the sugar levels and the long term ventilation reduces the immunity of the patients.

These all factors create a favourable environment for the fungus to grow and infect the patient. Dr. Neha Mishra Consultant – Infectious Diseases Manipal Hospitals Bangalore – Old Airport RoadIn India, COVID-19 has led to a surge in cases of a potentially fatal fungal infection called mucormycosis, popularly known as “black fungus.” The infection is every bit as dangerous as the media have portrayed it, but several myths are circulating on social media about potential sources of the infection and its treatment.

Share on Pinterest A doctor examines a patient for mucormycosis at a hospital in Bhopal, India, on May 29, 2021. Xinhua News Agency/Getty Images All data and statistics are based on publicly available data at the time of publication. Some information may be out of date. Visit our coronavirus hub and follow our live updates page for the most recent information on the COVID-19 pandemic.

The human body is black fungus the usual habitat for fungi that belong black fungus the order Mucorales, which includes species typically found in soil, dust, decomposing vegetation, and animal dung. Our immune system is usually more than a match for the fungi, but an “ unholy trinity” of diabetes, COVID-19, and steroid treatment can weaken a person’s immunity to such an extent that these microorganisms can gain a foothold.

Diabetes not only increases a person’s risk of severe COVID-19 but also provides conditions in which fungal infections can thrive. To make matters worse, both COVID-19 and the steroid dexamethasone, which intensive care doctors use to treat it, suppress immunity.

The ensuing infection, known as mucormycosis or zygomycosis, spreads rapidly from the nose and sinuses to black fungus face, jaw, black fungus, and brain. On May 26, 2021, there were 11,717 confirmed cases of mucormycosis in India, which has more people living with diabetes than any other country in the world, except China. Stay informed with live updates on the current COVID-19 outbreak and visit our coronavirus black fungus for more advice on prevention and treatment.

Even before the pandemic, the prevalence of mucormycosis may have been 70 times higher in India than the overall figure for the rest of the world.

The fungus blocks blood flow, which kills infected tissue, and it is this dead, or necrotic, tissue that causes the characteristic black discoloration of people’s skin, rather than the fungus itself. Nonetheless, the term “black fungus” seems to have stuck. Prof. Malcolm Richardson, a professor of medical mycology at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom, told Medical News Today that the name is “totally inappropriate.” “The agents of mucormycosis — Rhizopus oryzae, for example — are hyaline (transparent),” he wrote in an email.

“From a mycological point of view, the term ‘black fungus’ (or ‘black yeasts’) is restricted to fungi called dematiaceous, which have melanin in their cell walls. Many people have tried to correct this on Twitter but to no avail.” He said the media in India were now using the black fungus misleading terms “white fungus” and “yellow fungus” to describe supposed variants of mucormycosis.

Article highlights: Fatality rates Without immediate treatment with an antifungal medication and a surgery to remove necrotic tissue, mucormycosis is often fatal. Before the pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported an overall mortality rate of 54%.

A 2021 systematic review of all COVID-19-related cases published in the scientific literature found 101 cases: 82 of them in India and 19 from the rest of the world.

Among these cases, 31% were fatal. Dr. Awadhesh Kumar Singh and his co-authors report that around 60% of all the cases occurred during an active SARS-CoV-2 infection and that 40% occurred after recovery.

In total, 80% of the patients had diabetes, and 76% had been treated with corticosteroids. Myths about transmission Several theories about the source of mucormycosis infections are circulating on social media, black fungus of them unfounded. Person-to-person transmission Crucially, mucormycosis cannot be transmitted from person to person, so there is no need for people to isolate — unless, of course, black fungus have an ongoing SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Rather, the source of infection is environmental, from airborne spores produced by the fungi. Fungi growing in water, oxygen cylinders, humidifiers Some media pundits have concluded that the fungi must be growing in dirty water in hospital oxygen cylinders or humidifiers. However, there is no evidence that this can occur, and mycologists have pointed out that fungi cannot produce spores in fluid.

What is more, the pure oxygen stored in cylinders is likely to be detrimental to the growth of microorganisms of all kinds.

Face masks harbor black fungus This is a myth. There is no evidence that face masks can harbor the fungi. Onions are to blame Black fungus popular theory is that the black black fungus sometimes seen on onions in refrigerators is Mucorales fungus and, therefore, a potential source of infection.

As we have seen, the species in black fungus are not black. In fact, the black mold found on onions and garlic is usually the fungus Aspergillus niger. In a 2019 paper, Prof. Richardson and his co-author explain that Mucorales fungi grow on moldy bread, decaying fruit and vegetables, crop debris, soil, compost, and animal excreta.

He points out that they have a high moisture requirement and are unlikely to survive on common building materials, such as wood, painted surfaces, and ceramic tiles. He concludes: “All of these observations suggest that house residents are not generally exposed to zygomycetes in their home environment, apart from mould-contaminated food items, such as bread and fruit.” Possible routes of transmission Published evidence points to several potential sources of the infection in hospitals, but it does not mention oxygen tanks, black fungus, or face masks.

Two studies — published in 2014 and 2016, respectively — implicate hospital linens from poorly managed laundries as a source. A 2009 review of research into hospital outbreaks identifies ventilation systems, wooden tongue depressors, adhesive bandages, and ostomy bags as other possible sources of infection. Pathologists at the University of Kentucky in Lexington report that another possible transmission route is the inhalation of spores in dust from nearby building works, or contaminated air-conditioning filters.

They also highlight the importance of infection through the skin, for example via burns, catheter insertion sites, needlestick injuries, insect bites, and stings. Proven treatments A video doing the rounds on social media proposes that a concoction of mustard oil, potash alum, rock salt, and turmeric can cure mucormycosis. In reality, the only proven treatments are surgery to remove necrotic tissue, and the antifungal amphotericin B. However, India now faces severe shortages of the drug. Just as importantly, doctors are advised to address the underlying causes of impaired immunity, especially poorly managed diabetes and overzealous use of corticosteroids.

In their recent review, Dr. Singh and his colleagues black fungus “An unholy trinity of diabetes, rampant use of corticosteroid in a background of COVID-19 appears to increase mucormycosis. All efforts should be made to maintain optimal glucose and only judicious use of corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19.” For live updates on the latest developments regarding the novel coronavirus and COVID-19, click here.

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Black fungus commonly affects the sinuses or lungs after a person inhales fungal spores in the air, and can also affect the skin following a surface injury like a cut or burn. Symptoms depend on where in the body the fungus is growing, but can include facial swelling, fever, skin ulcers and black lesions in the mouth.

The disease "begins to manifest as skin infection in the air pockets located behind our forehead, nose, cheekbones, and in between the eyes and teeth," said the Indian Health Ministry in a statement on May 14. "It then spreads to eyes, lungs and can even spread to the brain.

It leads to blackening or discoloration over the nose, blurred or double vision, chest pain, breathing difficulties and coughing of blood." "One of the ways mucormycosis travels is by invading the blood vessels," said Dr.

Hemant Thacker, consultant physician and cardiometabolic specialist at Breach Candy Hospital in Mumbai. "It compromises the circulation to the distal organ, and thus produces what is called as necrosis or death of tissue, which then becomes black. So it is then given the name black fungus." Covid patients are particularly susceptible because not only does the virus affect their immune system -- treatment drugs can also suppress their immune response. black fungus to these factors, COVID-19 patients face a renewed risk of failing the battle against attacks mounted by organisms such as mucormycetes," said the ministry, referring to the fungi that cause mucormycosis.

There are several possible reasons why -- there is a higher rate of "uncontrolled diabetes" in India, said the study. Many patients they studied didn't even know they had diabetes until they were diagnosed with black fungus, demonstrating "the lack of regular health check-ups in the Indian population," said the study.

"These cases are being found in patients who have recovered from Covid, so there are a number of complications," said J.

V. Modi, medical superintendent at Gujarat's Ahmedabad Civil Hospital. He added the hospital has seen a rise of cases in the past 10 days, as the country appeared to pass the peak of its second coronavirus wave.
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black fungus

Learn more. by • Mucormycosis, or "black fungus," is a rare fungal infection that produces life-threatening health complications with a high risk of death. • Rising cases of black fungus in India have been linked to widespread steroid use, underlying health conditions, and immunosuppression from COVID-19.

People with diabetes, in particular, are at an increased risk of developing the infection. • Treating black fungus requires antifungal medications and surgical removal of infected tissue if it has spread to the brain.

Black fungus after people have recovered, there is a chance of long-term neurological complications. As India faces a rising death toll from a second COVID wave, the country is also experiencing an increase in a fungal infection called mucormycosis, or "black fungus." According to the BBC, India has reported over 8,800 black fungus cases, and the Indian government recently declared black fungus an epidemic. Black fungus is a rare but serious infection. An immunocompromised state and overuse of steroid medications—two factors associated with COVID-19 infections—make the infection more likely.

If not treated quickly, a black fungus infection can lead to life-threatening complications and carries a high risk of death.

You have a high chance of coming into contact with the fungus, but your chances of developing an infection are low if black fungus have a strong immune system. Desai tells Verywell about an outbreak of mucormycosis during the 2011 tornado in Joplin, Missouri.

“After the tornado, dirt and soil were all turned upside down, and people had cuts and bruises on them," recalls Desai. "People were found with mucormycosis after the tornado because people had lacerations and wounds here and there.” People at high risk for infections caused by black fungus include: • People who are immunocompromised • People taking immunosuppressant medications or receiving treatments like steroid therapy (this includes people with blood cancers or other hematological malignancies) • People with uncontrolled diabetes (who can develop ketoacidosis, a condition that provides an acidic medium for the fungus to thrive) • People who have received an organ transplant • People using drugs, especially intravenous drugs (IV) • People who are malnourished Organ Transplant Recipients Desai says that one reason people who have had an organ transplant are at risk for black fungus is that they usually need to be on steroid medication for life, putting them in a constant state of suppressed immunity.

“A typical mortality rate with rhino orbital cerebral mucormycosis black fungus anywhere from 25% to 60%," says Desai. "If you have pulmonary mucormycosis, which I do not see a lot of reports in India, but if you have COPD, chronic asthma, or another lung condition, then you can develop the same fungus mucormycosis pulmonary variant with a mortality rate as high as 87%." Complications and Treatment The good news is black fungus infection is treatable—but only if it's diagnosed in time.

Desai says that a lot of black fungus have infections in their sinuses or around their nose, but that "the problem happens when the blood drains from those areas, they go into the brain because they're just right there." Debridment and Antibiotics Treating mucormycosis can be complicated.

When the fungal infection has taken hold, surgeons have to remove dead or infected brain tissue surgically. “The treatment is very drastic," says Desai. "Doctors will have to debride you and clean out every tissue inch by inch around the mucormycosis and get rid of all the dead tissue.” “This is a bad situation if you have either pulmonary or rhino orbital cerebral mucormycosis," says Desai. Not only is the treatment drastic, but it also carries a high mortality risk.

Even if a person survives the initial black fungus, Desai says that "there's a lot of operative intervention with repeat debridement to remove necrotic tissue," and a person "may end up on an IV antifungal medication for weeks.” Lasting Neurological Symptoms For some patients, the neurological complications of a black fungus infection can lead to long-term health complications, such as vision problems.

Desai says that this can happen because some of the muscles or nerves (like the optic nerve ) that are involved in eye movement can be affected by inflammation in the muscles nearby. “You only know what you measure, and India is not measuring the entire population," says Desai. "In some rural areas or poor communities where hospital facilities and access are limited, they might not be able to diagnose cases. So, the reporting of data in India is unfortunately skewed because you are not catching everything.” Steroid Use Steroid treatments have become a mainstay of COVID-19 treatment because of the prolonged inflammation and cytokine storm the virus induces in the body.

There are specific indications for using steroids, but Desai says that the surge of COVID-19 cases has led to the overprescribing of steroids and other immunosuppressants without proper supervision. Will COVID Vaccines Help? Being fully vaccinated with one of the approved COVID-19 vaccines can make you less likely to get black fungus because you’re less likely to get severely sick from COVID.

Avoiding the virus means that you won't need to receive steroid treatment or immunosuppressive therapy—both of which put you in an immunocompromised state, as would getting sick with COVID in the first place. • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Where Mucormycosis Comes From. • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

black fungus

Mucormycosis Statistics. • Singh AK, Singh R, Joshi SR, black fungus al. Mucormycosis in COVID-19: A systematic review of cases reported worldwide and in India. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. Published online May 2021. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2021.05.019 Sign Up You're in! Thank you, {{}}, black fungus signing up. There was an error. Please try black fungus.

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These little mushrooms are often used in Asian-style stir-fries and stews. But they're also hailed for their healing properties.

Black fungus has been used by practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine since the 19 th century, who relied on it for treating conditions like jaundice and sore throats, according to a June 2019 article published in the ​ Journal of Food Quality​. • 18% of the DV for riboflavin • 11% of the DV for vitamin B3 • 3% of the DV for vitamin B5 • 3% of the DV for folate • 2% of the DV for vitamin B6 • 9% of the DV for iron • 6% of the DV for magnesium • 4% of the DV for potassium • 4% of the DV for phosphorus • 3% of the DV for calcium • 3% of the DV for zinc

Successful Treatment Of Unusual Case Of Black Fungus