Toona sinensis

toona sinensis

The plant bark is Astringent, Carminative, Febrifuge, Ophthalmic and Styptic in nature. A decotion of the bark is used in the treatment of Diarrhea, Chronic Dysentery, Flatulence, Bloody Stool, Leucorrhea and Gonorrhea. The powdered root of the plant is Diuretic in nature. It is used as toona sinensis. The leaves are carminative in nature. Recently Posted Reviews Baldness Disease - As the first treatment you have mentioned jequirity seeds to. Obesity Disease - Hello, 4/18/21 I just came across your page today a.

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toona sinensis

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More >>> Common Name Chinese Cedar Family Meliaceae USDA hardiness 6-11 Known Hazards None known Habitats Woodland[109]. Range E. Asia - China, northern India, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia. Edibility Rating (3 of 5) Other Uses (4 of 5) Weed Potential No Medicinal Rating (2 of 5) Care (info) Toona sinensis is a deciduous Tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a fast rate. See above for USDA hardiness.

It is hardy to UK zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in July. Toona sinensis species is toona sinensis (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil.

Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils. It cannot grow in the toona sinensis. It prefers moist soil. UK Hardiness Map US Hardiness Map Synonyms Toona sinensis flavescens.

Cedrella sinensis. Juss. Habitats Woodland Garden Canopy; Sunny Edge; Edible Uses Edible Parts: Fruit Leaves Shoots Edible Uses: Tea Young shoots and leaves - cooked[11, 105, 177, 183].

This is toona sinensis highly esteemed food in China[109], it is said to resemble onions in flavour and is usually boiled.

toona sinensis

Rich in vitamin A, the leaves also contain about 6% protein, 1% fat, 6.6% carbohydrate, 1.5% ash[179]. The leaves can be used as a tea substitute[183]. Fruit[177, 183]. No further details are given. References More on Edible Uses Medicinal Uses Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility toona sinensis any adverse effects from the use of plants.

Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

toona sinensis

Astringent Carminative Dysentery Febrifuge Ophthalmic Styptic The bark is astringent, carminative, febrifuge, ophthalmic and styptic[147, 178]. A decoction is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, chronic dysentery, flatulence, bloody stools, seminal emissions, leucorrhoea, metrorrhagia and gonorrhoea[147].

References More on Medicinal Uses Now available: PLANTS FOR YOUR FOOD FOREST: 500 Plants for Temperate Food Forests and Permaculture Gardens. An important new toona sinensis from PFAF. It focuses on the attributes of plants suitable for food forests, what each can contribute to a food forest ecosystem, toona sinensis carbon sequestration, and the kinds of foods they yield.

The book suggests that community and small-scale food forests can provide a real alternative to intensive industrialised agriculture, and help to combat the many inter-related environmental crises that threaten the very future of life on Earth.

Read More Incense Wood Wood - very durable, easily worked, takes a good polish. It is a very valuable timber, resembling mahogany, and is used for making furniture, window frames etc[109, 178]. The wood is delicately scented and is burnt in temples as an incense[245].

Special Uses Food Forest Scented Toona sinensis References More on Other Uses Cultivation details Thrives in most fertile well-drained soils in a sunny position[200]. Prefers a rich loamy soil[1], growing well on calcareous soils[11]. The fully dormant tree is hardy to about -25°c[200], though the young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts.

The tree is fast growing[200] and is said to resist all insects and diseases[160]. It is also long-lived[245]. A very ornamental tree[1], the flowers diffuse a powerfully rich scent[245]. It is cultivated in China for its edible leaves[109]. The plant is heat tolerant in zones 12 through 10.

(Plant Hardiness Zones show how well plants withstand cold winter temperatures. Plant Heat Zones show when plants would start suffering from the heat. The Plant Heat Zone map is based on the number of "heat days" experienced in a given area where the temperature climbs to over 86 degrees F (30°C).

At this temperature, many plants begin to suffer physiological damage. Heat Zones range from 1 (no heat days) to 12 (210 or more heat days).

For example Heat Zone. 11-1 indicates that the plant is heat tolerant in zones 11 through 1.) For polyculture design as well as the above-ground architecture (form - tree, shrub etc.

toona sinensis

and size shown above) information on the habit and root pattern is also useful and given here if available. A sprouting standard sending up shoots from the base [1-2]. The root pattern is suckering with new plants from underground runners away from the plant [1-2]. References Carbon Farming Information and Carbon Sequestration Information Temperature Converter Type a value in the Celsius field to convert the value to Fahrenheit: Celsius Fahrenheit: The PFAF Bookshop Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form.

Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees, and Woodland Gardening. Our new book to be released soon is Edible Shrubs. Shop Now Propagation Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[200]. Stored seed germinates better if given a 3 month cold stratification[113]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out toona sinensis individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter.

Plant them out in late spring or early summer and consider giving them some protection from the cold in their first winter outdoors. Root cuttings, 4 - 5cm long, taken in December and potted up horizontally in pots in a greenhouse[78]. Other Names If available other names are mentioned here Kuruk, Mahaneem, Mahanim, Malarveppu, Mandurike, Mathagiri, Moulmein cedar, Nandichettu, Nandivriksha, Poma, Santhanavembu, Tawtama, Thevatharam, Todu, Tun, Tundu, Tuni, Tunna, Tunumaram, kinesisk toon, red toon, suren, xiang chun.

Found In Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available Africa, Asia, Australia, China, East Africa, Himalayas, India, Indochina, Indonesia, Laos, Malawi, Malaysia, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, PNG, SE Asia, South Africa, Southern Africa, Swaziland, Thailand, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Weed Potential Right plant wrong place.

We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking. Conservation Status IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : Latin Name Common Name Habit Height Hardiness Growth Soil Shade Moisture Edible Medicinal Other Toona ciliata Mountain Cedar, Toona sinensis Red Cedar, Toona Tree toona sinensis 9-12 F MH FSN MWe 2 2 toona sinensis Toona sureni Suren Tree 35.0 9-12 F MH N M 2 2 4 Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast.

Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade.

Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water. Expert comment Toona sinensis Administrator. Jan 8 2011 12:00AM I have a Toona sinensis that is about 15 years old and has been growing in almost complete summer shade, maybe 5% dappled sunlight, for about five years, with no sign of dying.

toona sinensis

I live on the west coast outside of Vancouver, B.C. Will provide update this summer. Author (A.Juss.)M.Roem. Botanical References 11109200 Links / References For a list of references used on this page please go here A special thanks to Ken Fern for some of the information used on this page.

Readers comment Jonathan Lee Wed Dec 1 13:58:47 2004 Dear Sirs: Please kindly go to www.avrdc.org and search the PUBLICATIONS for annual research reports and download REPORT 2003; then read page 117 to 119. You will find somthing new about Cedrela sinensis. We are planter, manufacturer and exporter of Cedrela sinensis. We are now promoting Cedrela sinensis Tea for international market.

If you find any toona sinensis who is intereted in this line please kindly recommend us to him. Thank you, we remain, Sincerely yours, Jonathan Lee Beon International, Inc. No. 10, Lane 118 Minchuan West Road Taipei, Taiwan 103 Tel: (886-2)25574388, 25531740 Fax: (886-2)25574980 E-Mail: beon@ms2.hinet.net Rommel Sauerbronn Mon Jul 19 00:45:41 2004 I would like to receive seeds of Toona sinensis. Thanks Rommel Sauerbronn Elaine Chittenden Fri May 5 2006 Reference #1 is Chittenden, not Chittendon Thanks for the nice site!

yayat hidayat Wed May 17 2006 Dear sir, I hape a spesimen Toona spp. Acoording "Herbarieun Bogoriensis isntitute" in Indonesia that is toona sinensis. But the charateristic differ from yours.

I wouldlike you send me a fotograph about mhorfology 0f leaf, flower and fruit of Toona sinensis. Thanks alot. Sincerely yours Yayat Hidayat Email : yahiday@yahoo.com Song Lu Sat Jun 3 2006 Dear Sirs, Can you let me know where can I get some seeds or trees of Toona toona sinensis I would great appreciate.

My eamil is lusong98@yahoo.com Bjarne Dinesen Mon Jul 31 2006 asperupgaard Photos of flowering Cedrela/Toona sinensis in Denmark Johnny Mon Sep 18 2006 After mass media reporting that it has anti cancer and antioxidant therapeutic property, Toona Sinensis tree has been widely cultivated, packaged and sell commercially in various forms in Taiwan.

and this was happened only in recent years, although it was widely used as culinary herb in northern China traditionally. maysaroh nasution Mon Oct 30 2006 my name is Maysaroh nasution. My collage at North Sumatera University. My reaserch about Toona sinensis but i don't have much information about it.

so, i need article or information about suren. maybe you can help me. My E-mail : maysaroh_nst@yahoo.com thankyou for yaur attention. Susie Thu Oct 23 2008 Dear Friends, Where can I buy lots of Toona sinensis seeds? if any one who have some ideas, write me back at seabluerdrd@yahoo.com Thanks Susie Jerry Hensley Sat Dec 27 2008 want to buy the toona sinensis tree, that the leves can be eaten, urb Mon Jul 6 2009 I've been growing Toona sinensis for a few years in the Pacific Northwest.

It grows well and is fully hardy; the shoots and leaves have an excellent flavour, the variety "north red" in particular. Easy from seed, fairly fast growing. this is the page of B & T world seeds where you can order Toona seeds.

May 13 2012 12:00AM You toona sinensis find Toona sinsensis seeds at B & T world seeds. My friend found this species when researching the ecosystem where most ornamental horticultural plants grown toona sinensis in the Pacific Northwest are from, searching through the ethnobotanical lists.

Here is the website where you toona sinensis order the seeds: http://b-and-t-world-seeds.com/carth.asp?species=Toona%20sinensis&sref=543 B & T World Seeds Mar 7 2014 12:00AM New leaves sprouts as red. They toona sinensis be picked, salted and preserved - after a few weeks, you can dice them and mix them in with scrambled eggs.

More advanced chefs can also dice them, mix them with "thousand year eggs," and form tofu for a nice summer Chinese salad. They can also be dried without the salt and crumbled (like oregeno) in the same way but you lose a flavor versus the salted version. If you have one growing, new sprouts spring up around the tree so look around to see if you see a new tree growing - then carefully did it up and place in planter. The tree is pretty hardy. I had one entire tree split in half from winds and I figured it was dead but when springtime rolled around (I'm in Cali), branches and leaves sprout up everywhere around toona sinensis break so it might look dead but it's hardy.

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toona sinensis

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College of Agricultural Sciences - Department of Horticulture » Landscape Plants • • About • Latin Names • Common Names • Woody Plants of Oregon • Woody Plant Search • Woody Broadleaf Search • Conifer Search • Additional Information • Plant Identification: Examining Leaves • Scientific Plant Names • Glossary of technical terms • USDA Hardiness Zone Maps of the United States • Sunset's Climate Zones • References • Oregon Master Gardener Training: Identifying Woody Plants • • Calendar • Library • Maps • Online Services • Make a Gift • Broadleaf deciduous tree to 30-40(70) ft [9-12(21) m] tall and 20-30 ft (6-12 m) wide; suckers and forms clones.

Bark gray to dark brown, fissured; inner bark pink to red, fibrous; sap-wood cream-colored to red, fibrous, smelling strongly of garlic and pepper when cut. Leaves pinnately compound, large, 30-60 cm long, with 10-20 leaflets, each about 6-14 cm long, oblong to ovate, pointed tip, base unequal, margin remotely to slightly serrate or nearly entire; emerging reddish bronze and when toona sinensis have a oniony odor, finally medium to dark green, fading to yellow-gold in fall.

Leaves resemble those of the Tree of Heaven ( Ailanthus altissima). Flowers white to cream, small, about 5 mm, fragrant, in terminal, pendulous, clusters to 30 cm.

Fruit a woody, star-shaped capsule, about 2.5 cm long and wide, looks like wood rose. • Sun or partial shade, adaptable to many soil types. • Hardy to USDA Zone 5 Native to eastern and southeastern Asia (North Korea, China, Nepal, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia). • "Tree Vegetable": The young leaves and shoots of Toona sinensis are popular as a vegetable in China, called Hsiang Chun Ya (Xiang Chun Ya ).

They have an aromatic oniony flavor and are used in stir fry, especially with egg, salads, fried, pickled, and as a seasoning. The Chinese Toon is widely planted in China and in gardens it is often kept low to facilitate the easy harvest of young shoots in spring. Leaves, fruits and bark are used in traditional Chinese medicine.

• Portland, Oregon: Hoyt Arboretum. Synonyms list • • Ailanthus flavescens Carrière • Ailanthus mairei Gagnep. • Cedrela longiflora var. kumaona C. Toona sinensis. • Cedrela serrata var. puberula C. DC. • Cedrela sinensis Juss. • Cedrela sinensis var. lanceolata H.L. Li • Cedrela sinensis var. schensiana C. DC. • Mioptrila odorata Raf. • Surenus glabra (C. DC.) Kuntze • Surenus serrata (Royle) Kuntze • Surenus serrulata (Miq.) Kuntze • Surenus sinensis (Juss.) Kuntze • Toona glabra (C.

DC.) Harms • Toona microcarpa var. denticulata A. Chev. • Toona microcarpa var. toona sinensis A. Chev. • Toona serrata (Royle) M. Roem. • Toona serrulata (Miq.) Harms • Toona sinensis var.

hupehana (C. DC.) A. Chev. • Toona sinensis var. incarvillei A. Chev. • Toona sinensis var. schensiana (C. DC.) H. Li ex X.M. Chen [1] Toona sinensis - MHNT Toona sinensis, commonly called Chinese mahogany, [2] Chinese cedar, Toona sinensis toon, beef and onion plant, [3] or red toon ( Chinese: 香椿; pinyin: xiāngchūn; Hindi: डारलू, romanized: d̩āralū; Malay: suren; Vietnamese: hương xuân) is a species of Toona native to eastern and southeastern Asia, from North Korea south through most of eastern, central and southwestern China to Nepal, northeastern India, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, and western Indonesia.

[4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Toona sinensis young leaves It is a deciduous tree growing to 25 metres (82 ft) tall with a trunk up to 70 cm diameter. The bark is brown, smooth on young trees, becoming scaly to shaggy on old trees. The leaves are pinnate, 50–70 cm long and 30–40 cm broad, with 10–40 leaflets, the terminal leaflet usually absent (paripinnate) but sometimes present (imparipennate); the individual leaflets 9–15 cm long and 2.5–4 cm broad, with an entire or weakly serrated margin.

The young leaves are reddish-brown or purple, and have a smell. The flowers are produced in summer in panicles 30–50 cm long at the end of a branch; each flower is small, 4–5 mm diameter, with five white or pale pink petals. The fruit is a golden capsule 2–3.5 cm long, containing several winged seeds. [4] [7] [8] [9] It is similar to Ailanthus altissima in appearance, but their leaves smell differently.

Toona has rough bark, while A. altissima has smooth bark. Cultivation [ edit ] Toona sinensis can reproduce both sexually and asexually, including seed propagation, cutting propagation and tissue culture. Seed propagation can provide large quantity of seedlings, which is suitable for the need of mass cultivation. Seeds soaked in warm water for a moderate amount of time before sowing are more likely to bud. Normally, seeds of T. sinensis are sowed between the late March and early April in Toona sinensis Asia, and the time may vary depending on the actual planting area.

Saplings grown from seeds in spring can be transplanted with leaves in fall. [10] Toona sinensis propagation uses a piece of stem or root of mature plant to grow toona sinensis new plant in media like moist soil. This method has a higher survival rate in saplings than other methods. Usually semi- lignified stems are used in planting because those toona sinensis have undergone full lignification process are hard to take root or root slowly and stems that have not lignified are easy toona sinensis decay after planting.

NAA or Vitamin D solutions can help with the rooting of cut stems. Normally, T. sinensis stems are cut from mature plant and cultivated between late June and early July in East Asia, and time may differ depending on the actual planting area. [11] Tissue culture of T. sinensis starts from late 1980s in China. Successful cases include the culture of T. sinensis seedlings on MS medium together with IAA and BA hormones.

Since 1980s, researches have collected stems of mature T. sinensis trees from different regions and build a set of method specific for the tissue culture of rare variety of Toona sinensis. [12] Uses [ edit ] Food and Nutritions [ edit ] The young leaves of T. sinensis are extensively used as a toona sinensis in China; they have a floral, yet onion-like flavor, attributed to volatile organosulfur compounds.

[13] Plants with red young leaves are considered of better flavour than those where the young leaves are green. [4] [14] [15] In China and Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia, the young leaves of Toona sinensis or commonly known as Chinese Mahogany is used to make Toona paste, which is used as a condiment to serve with plain rice porridge as breakfast and simple meals, or to enhance the flavour of a dish or soup.

Common dishes made with Toona paste are Chinese Mahogany fried rice, Chinese Mahogany beancurd, and Chinese Mahogany mushroom soup. The leaves contains Vitamin E, and high amounts of iron, calcium and chlorophyll. [16] Material [ edit ] The timber is hard and reddish; it is valuable, used for furniture making [4] [9] and for bodies of electric guitars, as a common (and substantially cheaper) replacement for Swietenia mahogany ("true mahogany"), which is now commercially restricted from being sourced natively.

[17] Outside its native region T. sinensis is valued more as a large ornamental tree for its haggard aspect. [8] [18] It is by far the most cold-tolerant species in the Meliaceae and the only member of the family that can be cultivated successfully in northern Europe.

Medicine [ edit ] According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the leaves of T. sinensis are beneficial for digestion and cough problems, and can help to stop bleeding.

[19] Recent researches find out that polysaccharides contained in T. sinensis leaves can protect liver cells in high-fat or high-carbohydrate diets. [20] [21] Quercetrin extracted from leaves is found to be one of natural antioxidant, and can act as an anticancer agent in breast, colon, prostate, ovary, endometrium, and lung tumor. [22] Potential danger [ edit ] The leaves of T.

sinensis has a relative high content of nitrite, which is about 157 to 160 mg/kg. [23] However, after boiling with water, the amount of nitrite left is only about 7 mg/kg, toona sinensis is safe to eat. Because the content of nitrite will increase as time passes, T.

sinensis leaves are not suitable for toona sinensis time storage. The bark of Chinese Toon tree The quercetrin contained in T. sinensis leaves can induce cell cycle arrest and leaves to apoptosis of cells. As more rearches around T.

sinensis are in the process, more findings may be annouonced. [24] Culture [ edit ] In Chinese literature, Toona sinensis is often used for a rather extreme metaphor, with a mature tree representing a father.

This manifests itself occasionally when expressing best wishes to a friend's father and mother in a letter, where one can write "wishing your Toona sinensis and daylily are strong and happy" ( simplified Chinese: 椿萱并茂; traditional Chinese: 椿萱並茂; pinyin: chūnxuānbìngmào), with Toona sinensis metaphorically referring to the father and daylily to the mother.

References [ edit ] • ^ "Toona sinensis (Juss.) M.Roem. — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org. • ^ Yousheng, C.; Sziklai, O. (1985), "Preliminary study on the germination of Toona sinensis (A.

Juss.) roem. seed from eleven Chinese provenances", Forest Ecology and Management, 10 (3): 269–281, doi: 10.1016/0378-1127(85)90119-7 {{ citation}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter ( link) • ^ "Beef and Onion Plant Seeds - Suttons". www.suttons.co.uk. • ^ a b c d Hua Peng, David J. Mabberley, Caroline M. Pannell, Jennifer M. Edmonds & Bruce Bartholomew. " Toona sinensis". Flora of China. Missouri Botanical Garden, St.

Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. Retrieved 25 May 2012. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link) • ^ " Toona sinensis sinensis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 1 January 2018.

toona sinensis

• ^ University of Melbourne: Sorting Toona names • ^ a b Hong Kong trees: Toona sinensis (in Chinese, with photos; google translation) • ^ a b c Rushforth, K.

(1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9. • ^ a b Taiwan Forestry: Toona sinensis (in Chinese, with photos; google translation) • ^ "香椿树_香椿树的养殖方法/香椿树的养护知识 - 花卉网". www.aihuhua.com.

Retrieved toona sinensis. • ^ "香椿树_香椿树的养殖方法/香椿树的养护知识 - 花卉网". www.aihuhua.com .

toona sinensis

Retrieved 2022-04-25. • ^ "香椿的繁殖与栽培技术". www.agri.cn. Retrieved 2022-04-25. • ^ Li J.-X., Eidman K., Gan X.-W., Haefliger O. P., J. Carroll P. J., Pika J. "Identification of ( S, S)‑γ-glutamyl‑( cis- S‑1-propenyl)thioglycine, a naturally occurring norcysteine derivative, from the Chinese vegetable Toona sinensis." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2013 61 (7470−7476). • ^ Plants for a Future: Toona sinensis • ^ Oriental Vegetable Seeds: Toona sinensis • ^ Brassica (2022-03-25).

"Chinese toon (Toona sinensis)". World Vegetable Center. Retrieved 2022-04-19. • ^ "CITES TRADE CONTROLS TO TAKE EFFECT FOR MAHOGANY - Meetings Coverage and Press Releases". web.archive.org. 2016-06-05.

Retrieved 2021-10-18. • ^ More, D. & White, J. (2003). Cassell's Trees of Britain & Northern Europe. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 709 • ^ You, Cixiong; 尤次雄 (2013). Xiang cao yang sheng shu shi. Yizhen Cai, 蔡怡贞 (Chu ban ed.). Taibei Shi. ISBN 978-986-5837-11-2. OCLC 872323641. • ^ Cao, Juan-Juan; Lv, Qing-Qing; Zhang, Bao; Chen, Han-Qing (2019-05-15). "Structural characterization and hepatoprotective activities of polysaccharides from the leaves of Toona sinensis (A. Juss) Roem". Carbohydrate Polymers.

212: 89–101. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.02.031. ISSN 0144-8617. • ^ Zhang, Yali; Dong, Huanhuan; Wang, Mimi; Zhang, Jingfang (2016). "Quercetin Isolated from Toona sinensis Leaves Attenuates Hyperglycemia and Protects Hepatocytes in High-Carbohydrate/High-Fat Diet and Alloxan Induced Experimental Diabetic Mice".

Journal of Diabetes Research. 2016: 8492780. doi: 10.1155/2016/8492780. ISSN 2314-6753. PMC 5126429. Toona sinensis 27975068. • ^ Mil, Foppe (2007-11-29). "Editorial". Pharmacy World & Science. 30 (2): 146–146.

doi: 10.1007/s11096-007-9175-2. ISSN 0928-1231. • ^ "香椿亚硝酸盐含量高 用沸水焯后再吃--环保--人民网". web.archive.org. 2007-03-07. Retrieved 2022-04-25. • ^ Zhang, Yali; Guo, Yucheng; Wang, Mimi; Dong, Huanhuan; Zhang, Jingfang; Zhang, Liyu (2017-12-01). "Quercetrin from Toona sinensis leaves induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via enhancement of oxidative stress in human colorectal cancer SW620 cells".

Oncology Reports. 38 (6): 3319–3326. doi: 10.3892/or.2017.6042. ISSN 1021-335X. • Wikidata: Q855853 • Wikispecies: Toona sinensis • APDB: 56927 • EoL: 2877841 • EPPO: TOOSI • FoC: 200012513 • GBIF: 7271504 • GRIN: 36754 • iNaturalist: 426848 • IPNI: 579315-1 • IUCN: 125202132 • NCBI: 443222 • NZOR: 81f5363b-9059-4f10-a4f1-9a910f05ee73 • NZPCN: 7681 • Plant List: kew-2515062 • POWO: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:579315-1 • Tropicos: 20400497 • WFO: wfo-0000455502 Cedrela sinensis Hidden categories: • CS1 maint: uses authors parameter • CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Articles with 'species' microformats • Articles containing Chinese-language text • Articles containing Hindi-language text • Instances of Lang-hi using toona sinensis unnamed parameter • Articles containing Malay (macrolanguage)-language text • Articles containing Vietnamese-language text • Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text • Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text • Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms Edit links • This page was last edited on 26 April 2022, at 09:17 (UTC).

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Toona Sinensis Extracts of Toona sinensis and Graptopetalum paragugayene stop the development of AGEs made by glucose and GO (Hsieh et al., 2005).

From: Food Research International, 2020 Related terms: • Antioxidant • Resin • Parasitoid • Activated Carbon • Glycation • Host Plants • Antioxidant Activity • Parasitism • Polysaccharides • Anastatus HongKai Liu. . ShuJie Zhang, in Journal of Functional Foods, 2019 1 1.Introduction Sprouts are forming from seeds during germination. They can grow from the seeds of vegetables such as radish, from grains such as rice, from beans such as soybean, and from the seeds of trees such as Toona sinensis and pepper.

Sprouts have been consumed as a common food in China for more than 5000 years and then are gradually spread to other eastern countries. As part of the changing lifestyle in the West toward convenience and health, the consumption of sprouts in western populations has grown ( Sikin, Zoellner, & Rizvi, 2017). Sprouts has been more and more popular among toona sinensis all over the world due to their nutritional values and health benefits.

A large number of epidemiological studies have consistently shown that the daily consumption of plant-based foods are associated with the reduction of risk factors for chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity ( Raiola et al., 2018). The healthy effects of plant-based foods may be related to the presence of several bioactive compounds in the edible parts, such as phenolic compounds, carotenoids, glucosinolates, vitamin C and tocopherols, exhibiting diverse biological properties ( Barba et al., 2017).

Numerous studies have proven that germination is an inexpensive and effective way to toona sinensis bioactive compounds in pulses, cereal, vegetable, fruit, flower and medicinal plant seeds ( Bartalné-Berceli et al., 2016; Gan et al., 2017). Germination can lead to the catabolism and degradation of main macronutrients, and reduction of anti-nutritional and non-digestible factors. The concentration of different bioactive compounds increased during seed germination, providing to sprouts many bioactivities such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, hyplipidemic and anticarcinogenic activities ( Gan et al., 2017; Singh & Sharma, 2015).

toona sinensis

Therefore, sprouts are good vegetables for human health. According to toona sinensis evidences, many studies have focused on strategies aimed at increasing the content of bioactive compounds in sprouts. Germination conditions can affect the synthesis and therefore the content of bioactive compounds in sprouts ( Liu et al., 2016; López-Martínez, Leyva-López, Gutiérrez-Grijalva, & Basilio Heredia, 2018; Natella et al., 2016; Świeca, Baraniak, & Gawlik-Dziki, 2013).

Therefore specific treatments can be used to increase metabolite production in the plant and to enhance its toona sinensis value for fresh produce ( Baenas, García-Viguera, & Moreno, 2014a). Elicitation seems to be a promising alternative to other conventional toona sinensis techniques used for improving bioactive compounds and biological activities of sprouts.

In recent years, different elicitors have been evaluated for improving the content of bioactive compounds and biological activities in sprouts. But there is a lack of an updated review to summarize the effect of elicitation on the bioactive compounds and biological activities of sprouts.

Therefore, in this review, we first briefly described elicitors used for accumulating bioactive compounds in sprouts, then summarized the influence of elicitation on contents of bioactive compounds and in sprouts, followed by discussion of the potential mechanisms of elicitation on changes in these bioactive compounds, and finally highlighted the biological activities of sprouts by the action of elicitation. M. Reverter. . P. Sasal, in Aquaculture, 2014 2.3.1.2 Tests in vivo Indian major carp ( Labeo rohita) fed with enriched diets in Indian ginseng ( Achyrantes aspera) (0.2%) and prickly chaff flower ( Withania somnifera) (0.5%) showed 41% and 49% respectively of reduced mortality when it was challenged against A.

hydrophila compared to control groups ( Sharma et al., 2010; Vasudeva Rao et al., 2006). In other studies, tilapia ( Oreochromis mossambicus) intraperitoneally injected with water extracts of purple fruited pea eggplant ( Solanum trilobatum) (400 mg/kg) and Chinese cedar ( Toona sinensis) (8 mg/kg) presented 27% and 57% respectively of reduced mortality when they were challenged against A.

hydrophila compared to control toona sinensis ( Divyagnaneswari et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2010). Moreover, Divyagnaneswari et al., 2007 found that a single herbal extract injection at the highest dose (400 mg/kg) of Solanum trilobatum water extract exhibited the best protection, but when administered twice, ethanol lowest dose extract (4 mg/kg) presented the lowest mortality (16.7%). Harikrishnan et al.

(2012a) observed that kelp grouper ( Epinephelus bruneus) fed with different doses of chaga mushroom ( Inonotus obliquus) ethanolic extract had a lower cumulative mortality (20% and 15% for 1% and 2% enriched diet respectively) after 30 days of Vibrio harveyi infection compared to control group (90% mortality) (See Table 3).

Yang Yi. . Li-Mei Wang, in Carbohydrate Polymers, 2020 3.2 Decoloration Decoloration procedure benefits both the further chromatographic purification and application of polysaccharides ( Shi et al., 2017).

The pretreatment of raw materials with organic solvents can remove most of natural pigments and reduce the substrate concentration of browning reactions (such as Maillard reaction, caramelization and enzymatic browning) during extraction.

The commonly used decoloration methods include macroporous resin adsorption, activated carbon adsorption and H 2O 2 oxidation.

Unlike anion exchange macroporous resin and activated carbon, H 2O 2 strikingly decreased the MW of Toona sinensis polysaccharides from 98.45 kDa to 54.78 kDa ( Shi et al., 2017). The hydroxyl radicals derived from H 2O 2 could break the glycosidic linkages by attacking their hydrogen atoms, leading to the degradation of polysaccharides in a nonselective pathway ( Wang, Hollingsworth, & Kasper, 1999) and a concentration-independent manner ( Tang et al., 2014).

This radical-induced degradation of β- d-glucan, which was initiated by the presence of an unpaired electron on the anomeric carbon, might be accompanied by the formation of new oxidized functional groups, such as lactones, carboxylic acids, ketones and aldehydes ( Faure, Sánchez-Ferrer, Zabara, Andersen, & Nyström, 2014).

Moreover, H 2O 2 might also cause the deamination of polysaccharides ( Qin, Du, & Xiao, 2002; Zhang, Lv et al., 2013; Zhang, Wang, Mo, & Qi, 2013). As a moderate and versatile approach, microporous resin adsorption showed both satisfying effects on decoloration and deproteinization ( Liu et al., 2010). In fact, the further procedures including precipitation, precipitate washing and dialysis can all contribute to the decoloration of polysaccharides. Doo-Hyung Lee. . Tracy C. Leskey, in Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 2019 Damage & economic importance Lycorma delicatula damage plants directly by feeding plant sap as well as indirectly by excreting large amount of honeydew which can cause sooty mold and interfere photosynthesis ( Dara et al., 2015).

In China, L. delicatula is reported as a pest of diverse shrubs and trees including tree of heaven ( Ailanthus altissima), Chinese Mahogany ( Toona sinensis), white cedar, black locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia), cottonwoods, willows ( Salix spp.), grapes ( Vitis spp.), and apples ( Malus spp.) ( Xiao, 1992; Zhang, 1993). In the invaded toona sinensis, the agricultural impact of L. delicatula primarily threatens grape industries ( Park et al., 2009; Lee et al., 2011a; Barringer et al., 2015).

Indeed, Lee et al. (2009) demonstrated that V. vinifera was the most suitable host plant, along with A. altissima, yielding the greatest survivorship and successful molting rates from 3rd to 4th instars among 7 plant species tested. However, it is currently unknown if L. delicatula can successfully complete life cycle and produce eggs exclusively on a single preferred plant including A. altissima or V. vinifera. In addition, the impact of toona sinensis diets on survivorship and developmental rates as well as the possibility that A.

altissima or V. vinifera is an obligatory host at some points in their lifecycle remains unknown. Economic importance of L. delicatula toona sinensis to increase as the pest populations have rapidly spread in invaded regions, resulting in elevated damages to cultivated crops including grape. In South Korea, the density of nymphs and adults toona sinensis in early June and early October, respectively ( Lee et al., 2011a). In toona sinensis USA, cultivated grape vines appear to be affected at this early stage in the invasion.

In South Korea, the geographical range and population size of L. delicatula have exponentially increased since 2006 ( Lee et al., 2011a): the distribution range of this invasive species was thought to be within 1 ha in the Cheonan area in 2006, but their geographical distribution in South Korea expanded to 8378 ha in 2011. Similarly, this invasive species has quickly spread in the USA. In 2014, it was first discovered toona sinensis found in an area of 3200 toona sinensis ( Parra et al., 2017).

In 2015, it was believed that the distribution of L. delicatula was restricted to Berks, Montgomery, and Chester counties in eastern Pennsylvania ( Barringer et al., 2015; Dara et al., 2015). Despite of eradication efforts by the Pennsylvania Toona sinensis of Agriculture, the quarantine zone area for L.

delicatula in 2017 has expanded to 17,945 km 2, and populations have been detected in three other states; Virginia, New Jersey, and Delaware, with interceptions made in New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts and Maryland ( Fig. 1). While this species has not yet reached key agricultural areas within these states, some of the areas of concern include grape production areas present in Pennsylvania and Virginia.

For tree fruit growers, the full risk that L. delicatula poses toona sinensis unknown, but certainly sooty mold and toona sinensis potential for feeding on fruit buds are a cause for concern.

Moreover, reported declines of black walnut in Pennsylvania also raise concerns for forest ecosystems. Additionally, this insect has become a significant nuisance pest in the USA as large numbers of adults, in particular, can be found aggregating on trees, shrubs, and human-made objects affecting the quality of life of communities by their presence and the presence of sooty mold.

To our knowledge, this species is not known to transmit plant pathogens or human diseases. In China, L. delicatula is also considered as a medicinal insect and a method to extract indole alkaloid from L. delicatula was developed by Xue and Yuan (1996). In addition, three major Bacillus spp. were identified from the intestine of L. delicatula ( Liu et toona sinensis, 2006): B. polymyxa, B. metaterium, and B. subtliss. Ice-temperature technology has been demonstrated to have dramatic effects on various fruits and vegetables in terms of inhibiting ethylene production, respiration rate, the degradation of nutrition, texture, and sensory quality, the peroxidation of membrane lipids, and the growth of microorganism ( Peng et al., 2009; Lu et al., 2010; Fan et al., 2019).

Increasing numbers of fruit and vegetable species have been found to be suitable for ice-temperature preservation, such as lotus sprouts ( Li, 2011), swedes and turnips ( Helland et al., 2016 ), toona sinensis ( Yang et al., 2017), hawthorn ( Wang et al., 2018b), tomatoes ( Wang et al., 2018c), and other species summarized previously ( Peng et al., 2009; Lu et al., 2010; Fan et al., 2019). Furthermore, several innovative and effective combined ice-temperature technologies ( Table toona sinensis for the preservation of fruits and vegetables have been explored and successfully applied.

Combined technology Ice temperature Effectiveness Reference Hot air treatment and permeability film package −0.2 °C Effectively prolonged the storage period of green beans up to 28 days Elfalleh et al. (2015) Low temperature acclimation −0.7 °C Rapid acclimation effectively reduced oxidative damages, enhanced antioxidant capacity, maintained cell membrane stability and postharvest quality of peaches, and extended its shelf life Wang et al., 2018a Heat treatment-antistaling agent-ice temperature storage −0.7−0 °C The optimum technological condition, the combination of 65 °C heat treatment for 5 min, then soaking 30 min in the proportion of antistaling agent (CaCl 2 0.3%, vitamin C 0.25% and citric acid 0.3%), storage at −0.7–0 °C, effectively suppressed browning, decay rate, polyphenol oxidase ( PPO) activity, and sugar loss, and maintained the good hardness of lotus root Wu et al.

(2018) Out-store mode of stepwise heating −0.7−0.4 °C Effectively suppressed respiratory intensity, ethylene generation rate, and the activities of catalase and lipoxygenase, so extending the storage period of blueberries. Gradually heating at 4 °C for 12 h, then at 10 °C for 12 h was more effective Xue et al. (2015) 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) −1.0 °C 1.0 μL/L toona sinensis effectively inhibited ethylene production and respiratory rate, mass loss percentage and browning rate, the conversion rate of protopectin into soluble pectin, the loss of pulp hardness, soluble solids and titratable acid, the degradation of flavonoids in pulp and the increase of anthocyanin toona sinensis in pericarp of hawthorn fruits Wang et al., 2018b ε-polylysine toona sinensis °C 300 μL/g ε-polylysine effectively lowered decay incidence, respiratory intensity, ethylene generation rate, the degradation of vitamin C and anthocyan of blueberry, protected blueberries'bloom, and extended the storage period Yu et al., 2015a Ozone −1.0 °C 2.5 mg L −1 ozone effectively reduced rotting rate, threshing rate, the decreases of soluble solid content, and titratable acidity of red grapes Li et al.

(2016) Natamycin −0.7−-0.4 °C 1200 mg/L natamycin effectively inhibited respiratory intensity, ethylene toona sinensis rate, the decreases of total soluble solid and chlorophyll, PPO activity, and cell membrane permeability, and increased superoxide dismutase activity of broccolis Lin et al.

(2013) Chitosan coating −1.6 ± 0.5 °C Immersing 1.5% chitosan for 5 min effectively maintained the contents of total anthocyanins, vitamin C, total phenols, and flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity in blueberries Yu et al., 2015b Modified atmosphere packaging −2.4 toona sinensis 5% O 2 concentration and 0.5% CO 2 concentration effectively reduced weight loss rate, maintained brittleness, peel hardness (1 grade jujube), the contents of soluble toona sinensis and vitamin C, and delayed the decay incidence of winter jujube Song et al.

(2016) Modified humidity package −0.5 °C 141.3 mm 2 perforation area of polyethylene bags effectively reduced weight loss, the degradation of ascorbic acid, soluble protein, total polyphenol, soluble sugar, chlorophyll, flavonoids, the accumulation of malondialdehyde, and the activity of polyphenol oxidase of toona sinensis Yang et al. (2017) Red and blue light-emitting diode (LED) light irradiation 4 °C, light ratio of red and blue lights, 1:1 30 μmol m −2·s −1 and 20–30 μmol m −2·s −1 LED light effectively enhanced the harvest quality toona sinensis the contents of ascorbic acid and chlorophyll of celery and broccoli, respectively Wang (2016) Short-wave ultraviolet −2.0 ± 0.5 °C 5 kJ/m 2 short-wave ultraviolet effectively decreased respiration intensity, weight loss rate, decay incidence, enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and phenylalnine toona sinensis, and kept fresh quality of blueberries Dong et al.

(2017) As is well known, the precise control of ice temperature is a crucial challenge in successful ice-temperature preservation of fruits and vegetables because if the temperature even slightly decreases in such a narrow near-FT zone, freezing injury to the cellular tissues will occur, while a slight temperature increase prevents the maximization of the shelf life. Zhao et al., 2019c modified a traditional refrigerated storage system to allow precise control of its temperature in real-time.

They successfully controlled the storage temperatures of two sweet cherry varieties, ‘Hongdeng’ (FT, −1.7 °C) and ‘Lapins’ (FT, −2.1 °C), at −1.5 ± 0.1 °C and −1.9 ± 0.1 °C, respectively, and dramatically preserved their sensory qualities and antioxidant abilities while retarding their senescence by suppressing their respiration rates, softening, the accumulation of malondialdehyde, and decay rate, so as to extending the storage period up to 100 days.

The chilling damage of nectarines (FT, −1.5 °C) has been significantly diminished by enhancing the levels of sucrose, adenosine triphosphate, and energy therein at the precisely controlled temperature toona sinensis −1.4 ± 0.1 °C ( Zhao et al., 2019a).

In the study by Liu et al. (2019) on the impact of storage temperature on the flavor quality of apricots (FT, −2.6 °C), “green” and “fruity” aroma volatiles of green-mature apricots were found to be unrecoverable after 40-days storage at 5 °C, whereas these aroma volatiles were recovered to a large extent after long-term storage (40 days and 60 days) at −2.5 ± 0.2 °C. Furthermore, precisely controlling the storage temperature of green beans at 0.2 °C (within the freezing zone of 0 to −0.66 °C) significantly inhibited the activity of cell-wall-degrading enzymes therein and delayed or their softening more effectively compared to storage at 25 and 8 °C ( Elfalleh et al., 2015).

These studies demonstrate that methods for maintaining precise and stable temperatures during ice-temperature preservation have made great progress. Clearly, the optimal selection toona sinensis preservation temperature is a vital precondition for the successful application of ice-temperature technology. However, this aspect is typically overlooked or poorly addressed. As is well known, the FTs of fruits and vegetables are different and can vary with species as well as tissue, origin, maturity, and composition, among others, even within the same species.

Different individual samples show different sensitivities to low temperatures, and these should be seriously considered. Thus, it is unscientific and inappropriate to directly store one variety at a selected or mean FT obtained from a large range of values determined by conventional methods.

Accordingly, hierarchical and accurate ice-temperature preservation based on the specific FT of an individual product is more effective. For instance, Sun et al. (2019) designed a preservation method for bergamot pears. Their system can detect the FT of the bergamot pears online.

According to the detected FT, bergamot pears can be graded and stored in their corresponding freezers at different temperatures. This solves the problems associated with storage-temperature distribution and ensures that the fruits are always stored close to their individual FTs without causing freezing injury. In addition, multi-warehouse freezers with integrated cooling systems can also have temperature zones controlled according to the requirements of individual products.

However, ice temperatures are not considered in such setups and design of the storage temperatures therein is not based on the gradient descent law, making freezing injury and subsequent degradation of the quality of the fruits and vegetables likely ( Sun et al., 2019). However, to the best of our knowledge, these innovative developments are limited to the research stage and are not universally applied during cold-chain circulation.

Furthermore, effective and universally applicable equipment for different fruit and vegetable species is currently lacking. Although great progress has been made, some bottleneck problems, such as the applicability of ice-temperature technologies to different fruit and vegetable varieties, the determination and accurate maintenance of ice temperatures during cold-chain circulation, the development and systematic application of effective equipment, and striking a balance between preventing postharvest senescence and inhibiting beneficial biosynthetic processes, are still challenges for researchers in this field.

toona sinensis

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Phonetic Spelling SEED-rel-uh sy-NEN-sis Description Chinese Toon is a tree in the mahogany family that can grow up to 65 feet tall and 30 feet wide with an oval spreading form. It produces small flowers in pendulous clusters in spring and the fruit is a star-shaped capsule resembling a wooden rose.

The tree will spread by suckers and form stands if let be. It will also spread by seeds. Chinese Toon is tolerant of any pH and adapts to various soil types but prefers moist well-drained soil in full sun to partial shade.

It is often cut back to keep it shorter and to have more of a shrub shape. Use as a shade tree, specimen or street tree. See this plant in the following landscape: Cultivars / Varieties: • 'Flamingo' Bight pink flowers 'Flamingo' Tags: #deciduous #shade tree #full sun tolerant #white flowers #street tree #fast growing #adaptable #single trunk #suckers #multitrunked • Attributes: Genus: Toona Species: sinensis Family: Meliaceae Uses (Ethnobotany): Timber is hard and reddish and used for furniture and guitars.

Life Cycle: Woody Country Or Region Of Origin: Asia Edibility: Young leaves are used as a vegetable in China and reddish leaves taste best. They have a floral yet onion-like flavor. Leaves are aslo used toona sinensis make toona paste and used as a condiment. Dimensions: Height: 30 ft. 0 in. - 65 ft. 0 in. Width: 15 ft. 0 in. - 30 ft. 0 in. • Whole Plant Traits: Plant Type: Tree Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics: Deciduous Habit/Form: Erect Oval Growth Rate: Toona sinensis Maintenance: Medium Texture: Medium • Cultural Conditions: Light: Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day) Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours) Soil Texture: Clay Loam (Silt) Sand Soil pH: Acid (<6.0) Alkaline (>8.0) Neutral (6.0-8.0) Soil Drainage: Good Drainage Moist NC Region: Coastal Mountains Piedmont Toona sinensis Plant Hardiness Zone: 5a, 5b, 6b, 6a, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b • Fruit: Fruit Color: Brown/Copper Fruit Type: Capsule Fruit Length: < 1 inch Fruit Width: < 1 inch Fruit Description: Fruit is a woody, star-shaped capsule .5-1 inch long • Flowers: Flower Color: White Flower Inflorescence: Panicle Flower Bloom Time: Spring Summer Flower Size: < 1 inch Flower Description: 4 mm white to pale pink, flowers on 12 in.

pendulous panicles in May-June • Leaves: Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics: Deciduous Leaf Color: Green Purple/Lavender Red/Burgundy Deciduous Leaf Fall Color: Gold/Yellow Leaf Type: Compound (PinnatelyBipinnately, Palmately) Leaf Arrangement: Alternate Leaf Margin: Entire Serrate Hairs Present: No Leaf Length: 1-3 inches Leaf Width: 1-3 inches Leaf Description: 10-20 in. long alternate, pinnately compound leaves with 10-22 leaflets that are 2.5-5.5 inches long with entire or slightly serrate margins.

The end leaflet is usually absent, but not always. New growth opens reddish-purple. • Bark: Bark Color: Dark Brown Dark Gray Surface/Attachment: Exfoliating Fissured Bark Description: Bark gray to dark brown and smooth when young, becoming fissured and peeling with age. Inner bark pink to red. Has a garlic and pepper smell when cut.

• Stem: Stem Is Aromatic: No • Landscape: Landscape Location: Lawn Design Feature: Shade Tree Specimen Toona sinensis Tree NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians.

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Oogsten van de Uiensoepboom (Toona sinensis) op Utopia-eiland.




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