Apa itu omega dan alpha

apa itu omega dan alpha

none Berikut adalah 5 majalah game Indonesia yang sering kita beli dan menjadi “guru” game ketika bocah dulu. Kalau kamu gamer yang besar pada dekade 90an dan 2000an, pastinya kamu ingat banget dengan keberadaan majalah game di Indonesia.

Ya pada dua dekade ini, kepopuleran media cetak ini sangatlah laris manis. Majalah game ini dulu kita beli sebagai media untuk membimbing kita dalam menyelesaikan (namatin) game yang sedang kita mainkan.

Juga gak jarang, media ini sering kita gunakan untuk mencari dan menerapkan kode cheats. Namun pasca mendekati dekade 2010an, secara perlahan seperti media-media cetak lainnya. Keberadaan majalah game di Indonesia tergeser dengan kepopularitasan media online.

apa itu omega dan alpha

Gara-gara ini, akhirnya satu per satu majalahnya pun juga mulai bertransisi menjadi majalah game online. Bahkan gak sedikit juga yang sayangnya menjadi bangkrut total.

Nah untuk mengenang jasa-jasa mereka dalam kehidupan gaming kita dulu. Yuk mari kita kenang semuanya lagi melalui pembahasan 5 majalah game Indonesia yang sering kita beli ketika bocah dulu berikut ini. • Majalah Game Indonesia • 1. Game Master • 2. Ultima • 3. Zigma/Omega • 4. GameStation • 5. HotGame Majalah Game Indonesia 1. Game Master Game Master - Bukalapak Majalah game Indonesia yang sering kita beli ketika bocah dulu adalah Game Master.

Oke, gue paham kalau banyak dari kalian yang gak familiar. Karena memang inilah majalah game yang paling pertama yang keluar di Indonesia.

Game Master digawangi oleh kreator majalah game Ultima dan Zigma Omega, Ami Raditya. Ia jugalah yang merupakan kreator dari situs Duniaku.net yang kini bernama Duniaku.com. Majalah ini pertama kali terbit pada tahun 1997. Alias kala era kejayaan PS1, Sega Saturn, dan Nintendo 64. Game Master kala itu menampilkan ulasan-ulasan game terbaru, cheats, dan trik-trik lainnya. Entahlah apakah walkthrough juga tampil dalam majalah ini. Namun walau bagaimanapun. Intinya, tanpa adanya Game Master, mustahil banget kita kala itu melihat adanya majalah-majalah game lainnya.

Dengan kata lain, Game Master adalah pelopor dari keeksistensian majalah game di Indonesia. 2. Ultima Ultima - Shopee Indonesia Majalah game Indonesia selanjutnya adalah Ultima. Juga masih merupakan buah karya dari Ami Raditya, gue ingat banget kala itu, banyak juga teman gue yang membeli majalah ini.

Ultima bisa kita katakan penyempurnaan keren dari Game Master. Mulai dari tampilan fisik termasuk cover, dan juga semua pembahasannya jauh lebih sempurna dan mendalam. Bahkan bisa kita katakan juga, mungkin inilah majalah game Indonesia pertama yang menampil rubrik liputan dari even-event video game kala itu. Nah apa itu omega dan alpha majalah ini bernama Ultima Nation (1999-2002).

Namun karena setelahnya majalah ini di bawah naungan Jawa Pos, alhasil nama majalahnya pun berganti menjadi Ultima Next Generation. 3. Zigma/Omega Nah inilah “adik” Ultima yang benar-benar langsung mengalahkan kepopuleran kakaknya tersebut. Bahkan kekalahannya sampai melibatkan pemecahan rekor di Museum Rekor Indonesia (MURI).

Spesifiknya, adalah permainan kartu ala Yu-gi-oh, Vandaria Wars, yang masuk rekor sebagai salah satu produk inovatif karya Indonesia kala itu. Tentunya kalau kamu pernah memainkannya, pasti setuju sih dengan rekor yang MURI berikan ini. Selain rekor keren tersebut, keseluruhan konten majalah Zigma dan Omega ini kala itu juga menjadi panutan banget. Makanya gak heran walau kala itu sudah ada HotGame dan GameStation, Zigma dan Omega (terutama Zigma) masih laris manis banget penjualannya.

Lalu apa bedanya antara Zigma dan Omega? Zigma adalah majalah yang khusus membahas game-game console sedangkan Omega adalah majalah khusus game online. Dan kerennya apa itu omega dan alpha detik ini, Omega masih menjadi satu-satunya yang memegang rekor sebagai majalah game online pertama di Indonesia.

apa itu omega dan alpha

4. GameStation GameStation - росинкаплюс.рф/education Inilah salah satu majalah game Indonesia langganan gue ketika SMP dulu awal 2000an. Apa itu omega dan alpha ya kalau boleh jujur banget-banget. Alasan gue kala itu langganan majalah ini karena majalahnya menyisipkan pembahasan mengenai WWE yang kala itu masih bernama WWF. Nah yang pasti sering dibahas adalah hasil program pay per-view (PPV) bulanan WWF. Gue yang kala itu lagi gila banget dengan WWF, terang saja langsung berlangganan GameStation.

Sedangkan untuk konten game-nya gue hanya membaca sekedarnya saja. Walau demikian, gue juga salut dengan pembahasan game mereka. Karena dalam 1 edisinya, mereka bisa borong banyak walkthrough, cheats, serta tips dan triknya. Selain itu keunikan majalah ini adalah konsep fisik majalahnya yang gue anggap seperti semi tabloid dan bukan full tebal seperti majalah pada umumnya. Oh ya satu lagi yang gue salut dari Gamestation.

Majalah ini mungkin adalah satu-satunya majalah game “veteran” yang bertahan cukup lama. Bahkan ketika melakukan transisi menjadi media online pun, mereka bertahan dengan sangat hebat. Terbukti seperti yang terlihat dari situs resminya, GameStation baru benar-benar tidak begitu aktif lagi pada awal bulan Maret 2022 ini.

Namun entahlah guys. Apakah mereka gak aktif hanya untuk sementara saja atau memang sudah full tidak aktif lagi. 5. HotGame Hot Game - Kaskus FJB Nah inilah majalah game Indoensia yang merupakan favorit gue.

Gue kala itu membeli HotGame memang untuk membaca konten game-nya. Dan sampai sekarang nih, gue masih ingat banget edisi HotGame pertama yang gue beli. Yaitu, edisi yang membahas walkthrough Silent Hill (1999). Mungkin kala itu gue membeli ini karena sedang frustasi dengan susahnya gue untuk menamatkan game horor terseram itu.

Anyway, semenjak membeli edisi tersebut, gue langsung jatuh cinta. Karena gak hanya gaya bahasanya enak banget serta juga selalu memberikan bonus ini dan itu. Adalah pemilihan tampilan cover setiap edisinya yang selalu menarik kedua mata ini.

Cara mereka menentukan dan menyunting foto cover-nya benar-benar membuat semua orang ingin langsung membeli majalahnya. Seperti GameStation, HotGame juga bertransisi ke media online. Namun ketika tulisan ini gue buat dan unggah, sayangnya situsnya sudah gak ada lagi. Walau demikian, sekali lagi gue gak akan melupakan jasa-jasa majalah ini sampai kapanpun. Itulah tadi 5 majalah game Indoenesia yang sering kita beli dan baca ketika bocah dulu. Dari kelimanya, majalah game manakah yang sering kalian baca/langganan?
Book-length publication in digital form E-commerce Online goods and services • Digital distribution • Ebooks • Software • Streaming media Retail services • Banking • DVD-by-mail • Delivery (commerce) • Flower delivery • Food delivery • Online food ordering • Grocery • Pharmacy • Travel Marketplace services • Advertising • Auctions • Comparison shopping • Auction software • Social commerce • Trading communities • Wallet Mobile commerce • Payment • Ticketing Customer service • Call centre • Help desk • Live support software E-procurement Purchase-to-pay Super-apps Reading an e-book on an e-reader An ebook (short for electronic book), also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices.

[1] Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a printed book", [2] some e-books exist without a printed equivalent. E-books can be read on dedicated e-reader devices, but also on any computer device that features a controllable viewing screen, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones.

In the 2000s, there was a trend of print and e-book sales moving to the Internet, [ citation needed] where readers buy traditional paper books and e-books on websites using e-commerce systems.

With print books, readers are increasingly browsing through images of the covers of books on publisher or bookstore websites and selecting and ordering titles online; the paper books are then delivered to the reader by mail or another delivery service.

With e-books, users can browse through titles online, and then when they select and order titles, the e-book can be sent to them online or the user can download the e-book. [3] By the early 2010s, e-books had begun to overtake hardcover by overall publication figures in the U.S. [4] The main reasons for people buying e-books are possibly lower prices, increased comfort (as they can buy from home or on the go with mobile devices) and a larger selection of titles. [5] With e-books, "electronic bookmarks make referencing easier, and e-book readers may allow the user to annotate pages." [6] "Although fiction and non-fiction books come in e-book formats, technical material is especially suited for e-book delivery because it can be digitally searched" for keywords.

In addition, for programming books, code examples can be copied. [6] The amount of e-book reading is increasing in the U.S.; by 2014, 28% of adults had read an e-book, compared to 23% in 2013; and by 2014, 50% of American adults had an e-reader or a tablet, compared to 30% owning such devices in 2013. [7] Contents • 1 Terminology • 2 History • 2.1 The Readies (1930) • 2.2 Inventor • 2.2.1 Roberto Busa (1946–1970) • 2.2.2 Ángela Ruiz Robles (1949) • 2.2.3 Douglas Engelbart and Andries van Dam (1960s) • 2.2.4 Michael S.

Hart (1971) • 2.3 Early implementations • 2.4 E-book formats • 2.5 Libraries • 2.5.1 Challenges • 2.6 Archival storage • 2.7 Dedicated hardware readers and mobile software • 2.7.1 Applications • 2.8 Timeline • 2.8.1 Before the 1980s • 2.8.2 1980s and 1990s • 2.8.3 2000s • 2.8.4 2010s • 3 Formats • 3.1 Digital rights management • 4 Production • 5 Reading data • 6 Comparison to printed books • 6.1 Advantages • 6.2 Disadvantages • 7 Market share • 7.1 United States • 7.2 Canada • 7.3 Spain • 7.4 UK • 7.5 Germany • 7.6 Brazil • 7.7 China • 8 Public domain books • 9 See also • 10 References • 11 External links Terminology [ edit ] E-books are also referred to as "ebooks", "eBooks", "Ebooks", "e-Books", "e-journals", "e-editions", or "digital books".

A device that is designed specifically for reading e-books is called an "e-reader", "ebook device", or "eReader". History [ edit ] The Readies (1930) [ edit ] Some trace the concept of an e-reader, a device that would enable the user to view books on a screen, to a 1930 manifesto by Bob Brown, written after watching his first " talkie" (movie with sound). He titled it The Readies, playing off the idea of the "talkie". [8] In his book, Brown says movies have outmaneuvered the book by creating the "talkies" and, as a result, reading should find a new medium: A simple reading machine which I can carry or move around, attach to any old electric light plug and read hundred-thousand-word novels in 10 minutes if I want to, and I want to.

Brown's notion, however, was much more focused on reforming orthography and vocabulary, than on medium ("It is time to pull out the stopper" and begin "a bloody revolution of the word."): introducing huge numbers of portmanteau symbols to replace normal words, and punctuation to simulate action or movement; so it is not clear whether this fits into the history of "e-books" or not.

Later e-readers never followed a model at all like Brown's; however, he correctly predicted the miniaturization and portability of e-readers. Apa itu omega dan alpha an article, Jennifer Schuessler writes, "The machine, Brown argued, would allow readers to adjust the type size, avoid paper cuts and save trees, all while hastening the day when words could be 'recorded directly on the palpitating ether.'" [9] Brown believed that the e-reader (and his notions for changing text itself) would bring a completely new life to reading.

Schuessler correlates it with a DJ spinning bits of old songs to create a beat or an entirely new song, as opposed to just a remix of a familiar song. [9] Inventor [ edit ] The inventor of the first e-book is not widely agreed upon. Some notable candidates include the following: Roberto Busa (1946–1970) [ edit ] The first e-book may be the Index Thomisticus, a heavily annotated electronic index to the works of Thomas Aquinas, prepared by Roberto Busa, S.J.

beginning in 1946 apa itu omega dan alpha completed in the 1970s. [10] Although originally stored on a single computer, a distributable CD-ROM version appeared in 1989. However, this work is sometimes omitted; perhaps because the digitized text was a means for studying written texts and developing linguistic concordances, rather than as a published edition in its own right.

[11] In 2005, the Index was published online. [12] Ángela Ruiz Robles (1949) [ edit ] In 1949, Ángela Ruiz Robles, a teacher from Ferrol, Spain, patented the Enciclopedia Mecánica, or the Mechanical Encyclopedia, a mechanical device which operated on compressed air where text and graphics were contained on spools that users would load onto rotating spindles.

Her idea was to create a device which would decrease the number of books that her pupils carried to school. The final device was planned to include audio recordings, a magnifying glass, a calculator and an electric light for night reading. [13] Her device was never put into production but a prototype is kept in the National Museum of Science and Technology in A Coruña. [14] Douglas Engelbart and Andries van Dam (1960s) [ edit ] Alternatively, some historians consider electronic books to have started in the early 1960s, with the NLS project headed by Douglas Engelbart at Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and the Hypertext Editing System and FRESS projects headed by Andries van Dam at Brown University.

[15] [16] [17] FRESS documents ran on IBM mainframes and were structure-oriented rather than line-oriented; they were formatted dynamically for different users, display hardware, window sizes, and so on, as well as having automated tables of contents, indexes, and so on.

All these systems also provided extensive hyperlinking, graphics, and other capabilities. Van Dam is generally thought to have coined the term "electronic book", [18] [19] and it was established enough to use in an article title by 1985. [20] FRESS was used for reading extensive primary texts online, as well as for annotation and online discussions in several courses, including English Poetry and Biochemistry.

Brown's faculty made extensive use of FRESS; for example the philosopher Roderick Chisholm used it to produce several of his books.

Thus in the Preface to Person and Object (1979) he writes "The book would not have been completed without the epoch-making File Retrieval and Editing System." [21] Brown University's work in electronic book systems continued for many years, including US Navy funded projects for electronic repair-manuals; [22] a large-scale distributed hypermedia system known as InterMedia; [23] a spinoff company Electronic Book Technologies that built DynaText, the first SGML-based e-reader system; and the Scholarly Technology Group's extensive work on the Open eBook standard.

Michael S. Hart (left) and Gregory Newby (right) of Project Gutenberg, at Hackers apa itu omega dan alpha Planet Earth (HOPE) Conference, 2006 Michael S. Hart (1971) [ edit ] Despite the extensive earlier history, several publications report Michael S. Hart as the inventor of the e-book. [24] [25] [26] In 1971, the operators of the Xerox Sigma V mainframe at the University of Illinois gave Hart extensive computer-time.

Seeking a worthy use of this resource, he created his first electronic document by typing the United States Declaration of Independence into a computer in plain text. [27] Hart planned to create documents using plain text to make them as easy as possible to download and view on devices.

Early implementations [ edit ] After Hart first adapted the U.S. Declaration of Independence into an electronic document in 1971, Project Gutenberg was launched to create electronic copies of more texts, especially books. [27] Another early e-book implementation was the desktop prototype for a proposed notebook computer, the Dynabook, in the 1970s at PARC: a general-purpose portable personal computer capable of displaying books for reading.

[28] In 1980, the U.S. Department of Defense began concept development for a portable electronic delivery device for technical maintenance information called project PEAM, the Portable Electronic Aid for Maintenance. Detailed specifications were completed in FY 1981/82, and prototype development began with Texas Instruments that same year. Four prototypes were produced and delivered for testing in 1986, and tests were completed in 1987.

The final summary report was produced in 1989 by the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, authored by Robert Wisher and J. Peter Kincaid. [29] A patent application for the PEAM device, [30] titled "Apparatus for delivering procedural type instructions", was submitted by Texas Instruments on December 4, 1985, listing John K. Harkins and Stephen H. Morriss as inventors. The first portable electronic book, the US Department of Defense's "Personal Electronic Aid to Maintenance" In 1992, Sony launched the Data Discman, an electronic book reader that could read e-books that were stored on CDs.

One of the electronic publications that could be played on the Data Discman was called The Library of the Future. [31] Early e-books were generally written for specialty areas and a limited audience, meant to be read only by small and devoted interest groups.

The scope of the subject matter of these e-books included technical manuals for hardware, manufacturing techniques, and other subjects. [ citation needed] In the 1990s, the general availability of the Internet made transferring electronic files much easier, including e-books. [ citation needed] In 1993, Paul Baim released a freeware HyperCard stack, called EBook, that allowed easy import of any text file to create a pageable version similar to an electronic paperback book.

A notable feature was automatic tracking of the last page read so that on returning to the 'book' you were taken back to where you had previously left off reading. The title of this stack may have been the first instance of the term 'ebook' used in the modern context. [32] E-book formats [ edit ] Reading an e-book on a third-generation Kindle As e-book formats emerged and proliferated, [ citation needed] some garnered support from major software companies, such as Adobe with its PDF format that was introduced in 1993.

[33] Unlike most other formats, PDF documents are generally tied to a particular dimension and layout, rather than adjusting dynamically to the current page, window, or another size. Different e-reader devices followed different formats, most of them accepting books in only one or a few formats, thereby fragmenting the e-book market even more.

Due to the exclusiveness and limited readerships of e-books, the fractured market of independent publishers and specialty authors lacked consensus regarding a standard for packaging and apa itu omega dan alpha e-books. [ citation needed] Meanwhile, scholars formed the Text Encoding Initiative, which developed consensus guidelines for encoding apa itu omega dan alpha and other materials of scholarly interest for a variety of analytic uses as well as reading, and countless literary and other works have been developed using the TEI approach.

In the late 1990s, a consortium formed to develop the Open eBook format as a way for authors and publishers to provide a single source-document which many book-reading software and hardware platforms could handle.

Several scholars from the TEI were closely involved in the early development of Open eBook [1]. Focused on portability, Open eBook as defined required subsets of XHTML and CSS; a set of multimedia formats (others could be used, but there must also be a fallback in one of the required formats), and an XML schema for a "manifest", to list the components of a given e-book, identify a table of contents, cover art, and so on. [ citation needed] This format led to the open format EPUB.

Google Books has converted many public domain works to this open format. [34] In 2010, e-books continued to gain in their own specialist and underground markets. [ citation needed] Many e-book publishers began distributing books that were in the public domain. [ citation needed] At the same time, authors with books that were not accepted by publishers offered their works online so they could be seen by others. Unofficial (and occasionally unauthorized) catalogs of books became available on the web, and sites devoted to e-books began disseminating information about e-books to the public.

[35] Nearly two-thirds of the U.S. Consumer e-book publishing market are controlled by the "Big Five". The "Big Five" publishers are: Hachette, HarperCollins, Macmillan, Penguin Random House and Simon & Schuster. [36] Apa itu omega dan alpha [ edit ] U.S. libraries began to offer free e-books to the public in 1998 through their websites and associated services, [37] although the e-books were primarily scholarly, technical or professional in nature, and could not be downloaded.

In 2003, libraries began offering free downloadable popular fiction and non-fiction e-books to the public, launching an e-book lending model that worked much more successfully for public libraries. [38] The number of library e-book distributors and lending models continued to increase over the next few years. From 2005 to 2008, libraries experienced a 60% growth in e-book collections.

[39] In 2010, a Public Library Funding and Technology Access Study by the American Library Association [40] found that 66% of public libraries in the U.S.

were offering e-books, [41] and a large movement in the library industry began to seriously examine the issues relating to e-book lending, acknowledging a " tipping point" when e-book technology would become widely established.

[42] Content from public libraries can be downloaded to e-readers using application software like Overdrive and Hoopla. [43] The U.S. National Library of Medicine has for many years provided PubMed, a comprehensive bibliography of medical literature.

In early 2000, NLM set up the PubMed Central repository, which stores full-text e-book versions of many medical journal articles and books, through cooperation with scholars and publishers in the field.

Pubmed Central also now provides archiving and access to over 4.1 million articles, maintained in a standard XML format known as the Journal Article Tag Apa itu omega dan alpha (or "JATS").

Despite the widespread adoption of e-books, some publishers and authors have not endorsed the concept of electronic publishing, citing apa itu omega dan alpha with user demand, copyright infringement and challenges with proprietary devices and systems.

[44] In a survey of interlibrary loan (ILL) librarians, it was found that 92% of libraries held e-books in their collections and that 27% of those libraries had negotiated ILL rights for some of their e-books. This survey found significant barriers to conducting interlibrary loan for e-books. [45] Patron-driven acquisition (PDA) has been available for several years in public libraries, allowing vendors to streamline the acquisition process by offering to match a library's selection profile to the vendor's e-book titles.

[46] The library's catalog is then populated with records for all of the e-books that match the profile. [46] The decision to purchase the title is left to the patrons, although the library can set purchasing conditions such as a maximum price and purchasing caps so that the dedicated funds are spent according to the library's budget.

[46] The 2012 meeting of the Association of American University Presses included a panel on the PDA of books produced by university presses, based on a preliminary report by Joseph Esposito, a digital publishing consultant who has studied the implications of PDA with a grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. [47] Challenges [ edit ] Although the demand for e-book services in libraries has grown in the first two decades of the 21st century, difficulties keep libraries from providing some e-books to clients.

[48] Publishers will sell e-books to libraries, but in most cases they will only give libraries a limited license to the title, meaning that the library does not own the electronic text but is allowed to circulate it for either a certain period of time, or a certain number of check outs, or both.

When a library purchases an e-book license, the cost is at least three times what it would be for a personal consumer. [48] E-book licenses are more expensive than apa itu omega dan alpha editions because publishers are concerned that an e-book that is sold could theoretically be read and/or checked out by a huge number of users, potentially damaging sales.

However, some studies have found the opposite effect to be true (for example, Hilton and Wikey 2010). [49] Archival storage [ edit ] The Internet Archive and Open Library offer more apa itu omega dan alpha six million fully accessible public domain e-books. Project Gutenberg has over 52,000 freely available public domain e-books. Dedicated hardware readers and mobile software [ edit ] The BEBook e-reader An e-reader, also called an e-book reader or e-book device, is a mobile electronic device that is designed primarily for the purpose of reading e-books and digital periodicals.

An e-reader is similar in form, but more limited in purpose than a tablet. In comparison to tablets, many e-readers are better than tablets for reading because they are more portable, have better readability in sunlight and have longer battery life. [50] In July 2010, online bookseller Amazon.com reported sales of e-books for its proprietary Kindle outnumbered sales of hardcover books for the first time ever during the second quarter of 2010, saying it sold 140 e-books for every 100 hardcover books, including hardcovers for which there was no digital edition.

[51] By January 2011, e-book sales at Amazon had surpassed its paperback sales. [52] In the overall US market, paperback book sales are still much larger than either hardcover or e-book; the American Publishing Association estimated e-books represented 8.5% of sales as of mid-2010, up from 3% a year before.

[53] At the end of the first quarter of 2012, e-book sales in the United States surpassed hardcover book sales for the first time. [4] Until late 2013, use of an e-reader was not allowed on airplanes during takeoff and landing by the FAA. [54] In November 2013, the FAA allowed use of e-readers on airplanes at all times if it is in Airplane Mode, which means all radios turned off, and Europe followed this guidance the next month. [55] In 2014, The New York Apa itu omega dan alpha predicted that by 2018 e-books will make up over 50% of total consumer publishing revenue in the United States and Great Britain.

[56] Applications [ edit ] Reading applications on different devices Some of the major book retailers and multiple third-party developers offer free (and in some third-party cases, premium paid) e-reader software applications (apps) for the Mac and PC computers as well as for Android, Blackberry, iPad, iPhone, Windows Phone and Palm OS devices to allow the reading of e-books and other documents independently of dedicated e-book devices.

Examples are apps for the Amazon Kindle, [57] Barnes & Noble Nook, iBooks, Kobo eReader and Sony Reader. Timeline [ edit ] Before the 1980s [ edit ] c. 1949 • Ángela Ruiz Robles patents the idea of the electronic book, called the Mechanical Encyclopedia, in Galicia, Spain. • Roberto Busa begins planning the Index Thomisticus.

[11] c. 1963 • Douglas Engelbart starts the NLS (and later Augment) projects. [15] c. 1965 • Andries van Dam starts the HES (and later FRESS) apa itu omega dan alpha, with assistance from Ted Nelson, to develop and use electronic textbooks for humanities and in pedagogy. [16] [17] 1971 • Michael S. Hart types the US Declaration of Independence into a computer to create the first e-book available on the Internet and launches Project Gutenberg in order to create electronic copies of more books.

[27] 1978 • The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy radio series launches (novel published in 1979), featuring an electronic reference book containing all knowledge in the Galaxy. This vast amount of data could be fit into something the size of a large paperback book, with updates received over the "Sub-Etha".

[58] c. 1979 • Roberto Busa finishes the Index Thomisticus, a complete lemmatisation of the 56 printed volumes of Saint Thomas Aquinas and of a few related authors. [59] 1980s and 1990s [ edit ] 1986 • Judy Malloy writes and programmes the first online hypertext fiction, Uncle Roger, with links that take the narrative in different directions depending on the reader's choice.

[60] 1989 • Franklin Computer releases an electronic edition of the Bible that can only be read with a stand-alone device. [61] 1990 • Eastgate Systems publishes the first hypertext fiction released on floppy disk, afternoon, a story, by Michael Joyce.

[62] • Electronic Book Technologies releases DynaText, the first SGML-based system for delivering large-scale books such as aircraft technical manuals. It was later tested on a US aircraft carrier as replacement for paper manuals. [ citation needed] • Sony launches the Data Discman e-book player. [63] [64] 1991 • Voyager Company develops Expanded Books, which are books on CD-ROM in a digital format.

[65] 1992 The DD-8 Data Discman • F. Crugnola and I. Rigamonti design and create the first e-reader, called Incipit, as a thesis project at the Polytechnic University of Milan.

[66] [67] • Apple starts using its DocViewer [68] format "to distribute documentation to developers in an electronic form", [69] which effectively meant Inside Macintosh books. 1993 • Peter James publishes his novel Host on two floppy disks, which at the time was called the "world's first electronic novel"; a copy of it is stored at the Science Museum. [70] • Hugo Award and Nebula Award nominee works are included on a CD-ROM by Brad Templeton.

[71] • Launch of Bibliobytes, a website for obtaining e-books, both for free and for sale on the Internet. [72] • Paul Baim releases the EBook 1.0 HyperCard stack that allows the user to easily convert any text file into a HyperCard based pageable book. [32] 1994 • C & M Online is founded in Raleigh, North Carolina and apa itu omega dan alpha publishing e-books through its imprint, Boson Books; authors include Fred Chappell, Kelly Cherry, Leon Katz, Richard Popkin, and Robert Rodman. • More than two dozen volumes of Inside Macintosh are published [73] together on a single CD-ROM in Apple DocViewer format.

Apple subsequently switches to using Adobe Acrobat. [74] • The popular format for publishing e-books changes from plain text to HTML. 1995 • Online poet Alexis Kirke discusses the need for wireless internet electronic apa itu omega dan alpha readers in his article "The Emuse".

[75] 1996 • Project Gutenberg reaches 1,000 titles. [76] • Joseph Jacobson works at MIT to create electronic ink, a high-contrast, low-cost, read/write/erase medium to display e-books.

[77] 1997 • E Ink Corporation is co-founded by MIT undergraduates J.D. Apa itu omega dan alpha, Barrett Comiskey, MIT professor Joseph Jacobson, as well as Jeremy Rubin and Russ Wilcox to create an electronic printing technology.

[78] This technology is later used on the displays of the Sony Reader, Barnes & Noble Nook, and Amazon Kindle. 1998 Bookeen's Cybook Gen1 • NuvoMedia releases the first handheld e-reader, the Rocket eBook. [79] • SoftBook launches its SoftBook reader. This e-reader, with expandable storage, could store up to 100,000 pages of content, including text, graphics and pictures. [80] • The Cybook is sold and manufactured at first by Cytale (1998–2003) and later by Bookeen.

1999 • The NIST releases the Open eBook format based on XML to the public domain; most future e-book formats derive from Open eBook. [81] • Publisher Simon & Schuster creates a new imprint called iBooks and becomes the first trade publisher to simultaneously publish some of its titles in e-book and print format. • Oxford University Press makes a selection of its books available as e-books through netLibrary.

• Publisher Baen Books opens up the Baen Free Library to make available Baen titles as free e-books. [82] • Kim Blagg, via her company Books OnScreen, begins selling multimedia-enhanced e-books on CDs through retailers including Amazon, Barnes & Noble and Borders Books. [83] 2000s [ edit ] 2000 • Joseph Jacobson, Barrett O. Comiskey and Jonathan D. Albert are granted US patents related to displaying electronic books, these patents are later used in the displays for most e-readers.

[84] • Stephen King releases his novella Riding the Bullet exclusively online and it became the first mass-market e-book, selling 500,000 copies in 48 hours. [85] • Microsoft releases the Microsoft Reader with ClearType for increased readability on PCs and handheld devices. [86] • Microsoft and Amazon work together to sell e-books that can be purchased on Amazon, and using Microsoft software downloaded to PCs and handhelds.

• A digitized version of the Apa itu omega dan alpha Bible is made available online at the British Library. [87] 2001 • Adobe releases Adobe Acrobat Reader 5.0 allowing users to underline, take notes and bookmark. 2002 • Palm, Inc and OverDrive, Inc make Palm Reader e-books available worldwide, offering over 5,000 e-books in several languages; these could be read on Palm PDAs or using a computer application. [88] • Random House and HarperCollins start to sell digital versions of their titles in English.

[ citation needed] 2004 • Sony Librie, the first e-reader using an E Ink display is released; it has a six-inch screen. [89] • Google announces plans to digitize the holdings of several major libraries, [90] as part of what would later be called the Google Books Library Project. 2005 • Amazon buys Mobipocket, the creator of the mobi e-book file format and e-reader software. [91] • Google is sued for copyright infringement by the Authors Guild for scanning books still in copyright. [92] 2006 • Sony Reader PRS-500, with an E Ink screen and two weeks of battery life, is released.

[93] • LibreDigital launches BookBrowse as an online reader for publisher content. [ citation needed] 2007 Size comparison of the Kindle 2 with the larger Kindle DX • The International Digital Publishing Forum releases EPUB to replace Open eBook.

[94] • In November, Amazon.com releases the Kindle e-reader with 6-inch E Ink screen in the US and it sells outs in 5.5 apa itu omega dan alpha. [95] Simultaneously, the Kindle Store opens, with initially more than 88,000 e-books available. [95] • Bookeen launches Cybook Gen3 in Europe; it can display e-books and play audiobooks. [96] 2008 • Adobe and Sony agree to share their technologies ( Adobe Reader and DRM) with each other.

[ citation needed] • Sony sells the Sony Reader PRS-505 in UK and France. apa itu omega dan alpha • Bookeen releases the Cybook Opus in the US and Europe. • Sony releases the Reader Pocket Edition and Reader Touch Edition.

• Amazon releases the Kindle 2 that includes a text-to-speech feature. • Amazon releases the Kindle DX that has a 9.7-inch screen in the U.S. • Barnes & Noble releases the Nook e-reader in the US. • Amazon releases the Kindle for PC application in late 2009, making the Kindle Store library available for the first time outside Kindle hardware.

[97] 2010s [ edit ] 2010 • January – Amazon releases the Kindle DX International Edition worldwide. [98] • April – Apple releases the iPad bundled with an e-book app called iBooks.

[99] • May – Kobo Inc. releases its Kobo eReader to be sold at Indigo/ Chapters in Canada and Borders in the United States. • July – Amazon reports that its e-book sales outnumbered sales of hardcover books for the first time during the second quarter of 2010. [51] • August – PocketBook expands its line with an Android e-reader. [100] • August – Amazon releases the third generation Kindle, available in Wi-Fi and 3G & Wi-Fi versions. • October – Bookeen reveals the Cybook Orizon at CES.

[101] • October – Kobo Inc. releases an updated Apa itu omega dan alpha eReader, which includes Wi-Fi capability. • November – The Sentimentalists wins the prestigious national Giller Prize in Canada; due to the small scale of the novel's publisher, the book is not widely available in printed form, so the e-book edition becomes the top-selling title on Kobo devices for 2010.

[102] • November – Barnes & Noble releases the Nook Color, a color LCD tablet. • December – Google launches Google eBooks offering over 3 million titles, becoming the world's largest e-book store to date.

[103] 2011 • May – Amazon.com announces that its e-book sales in the US now exceed all of its printed book sales. [104] • June – Barnes & Noble releases the Nook Simple Touch e-reader and Nook Tablet. [105] • August – Bookeen launches its own e-books store, BookeenStore.com, and starts to sell digital versions of titles in French. [106] • September – Nature Publishing releases the pilot version of Principles of Biology, a customizable, modular textbook, with no corresponding paper edition.

[107] • June/November – As the e-reader market grows in Spain, companies like Telefónica, Fnac, and Casa del Libro launch their e-readers with the Spanish brand "bq readers". • November – Amazon launches the Kindle Fire and Kindle Touch, both devices designed for e-reading.

2012 • E-book sales in the US apa itu omega dan alpha collect over three billion in revenue. [108] • January – Apple releases iBooks Author, software for creating iPad e-books to be directly published in its iBooks bookstore or to be shared as PDF files.

[109] • January – Apple opens a textbook section in its iBooks bookstore. [110] • February – Nature Publishing announces the worldwide release of Principles of Biology, following the success of the pilot version some months earlier. [107] • February – Library.nu (previously called ebooksclub.org and gigapedia.com, a popular linking website for downloading e-books) is accused of copyright infringement and closed down by court order.

[111] • March – The publishing companies Random House, Holtzbrinck, apa itu omega dan alpha arvato bring to market an e-book library called Skoobe. [112] • March – US Department of Justice prepares anti-trust lawsuit against Apple, Simon & Schuster, Hachette Book Group, Penguin Group, Macmillan, and HarperCollins, alleging collusion to increase the price of books sold on Amazon.

[113] [114] • March – PocketBook releases the PocketBook Touch, an E Ink Pearl e-reader, winning awards from German magazines Tablet PC and Computer Bild. [115] [116] • June – Kbuuk releases the cloud-based e-book self-publishing SaaS platform [117] on the Pubsoft digital publishing engine.

• September – Amazon releases the Kindle Paperwhite, its first e-reader with built-in front LED lights. 2013 • April – Kobo releases the Kobo Aura HD with a 6.8-inch screen, which is larger than the current models produced by its US competitors. [118] • May – Mofibo launches the first Scandinavian unlimited access e-book subscription service.

[119] • June – Association of American Publishers announces that e-books now account for about 20% of book sales. Barnes & Noble estimates it has a 27% share of the US e-book market. [120] • June – Barnes & Noble announces its intention to discontinue manufacturing Nook tablets, but to continue producing black-and-white e-readers such as the Nook Simple Touch. [120] • June – Apple executive Keith Moerer testifies in the e-book price fixing trial that the iBookstore held approximately 20% of the e-book market share in the United States within the months after launch – a figure that Publishers Weekly reports is roughly double many of the previous estimates made by third parties.

Moerer further testified that iBookstore acquired about an additional 20% by adding Random House in 2011. [121] A Kobo Aura's settings menu • Five major US e-book publishers, as part of their settlement of a price-fixing suit, are ordered to refund about $3 for every electronic copy of a New York Times best-seller that they sold from April 2010 to May 2012. [108] This could equal $160 million in apa itu omega dan alpha charges.

• Barnes & Noble releases the Nook Glowlight, which has a 6-inch touchscreen using E Ink Pearl and Regal, with built-in front LED lights. • July – US District Court Judge Denise Cote finds Apple guilty of conspiring to raise the retail price of e-books and schedules a trial in 2014 to determine damages.

[122] • August – Kobo releases the Kobo Aura, a baseline touchscreen six-inch e-reader. • September – Oyster launches its unlimited access e-book subscription service. [123] • November – US District Judge Chin sides with Google in Authors Guild v. Google, citing fair use. [124] The authors said they would appeal. [125] • December – Scribd launches the first public unlimited access subscription service for e-books.

[126] 2014 • April – Kobo releases the Aura H₂0, the world's first waterproof commercially produced e-reader. [127] • June – US District Court Judge Cote grants class action certification to plaintiffs in a lawsuit over Apple's alleged e-book price conspiracy; the plaintiffs are seeking $840 million in damages.

[128] Apple appeals the decision. • June – Apple settles the e-book antitrust case that apa itu omega dan alpha Apple conspired to e-book price fixing out of court with the States; however if Judge Cote's ruling is overturned in appeal the settlement would be reversed.

[129] • July – Amazon launches Kindle Unlimited, an unlimited-access e-book and audiobook subscription service. [130] 2015 • June – The 2nd US Circuit Court of Appeals with a 2:1 vote concurs with Judge Cote that Apple conspired to e-book price fixing and violated federal antitrust law.

[131] Apple appealed the decision. • June – Amazon releases the Kindle Paperwhite (3rd generation) that is the first e-reader to feature Bookerly, a font exclusively designed for e-readers.

[132] • September – Oyster announces its unlimited access e-book subscription service would be shut down in early 2016 and that it would be acquired by Google. [133] • September – Malaysian e-book company, e-Sentral, introduces for the first time geo-location distribution technology for e-books via bluetooth beacon.

It was first demonstrated in a large scale at Kuala Lumpur International Airport. [134] • October – Amazon releases the Kindle Voyage that has a 6-inch, 300 ppi E Ink Carta HD display, which was the highest resolution and contrast available in e-readers as of 2014.

[135] It also features adaptive LED lights and page turn sensors on the sides of the device. • October – Barnes & Noble releases the Glowlight Plus, its first waterproof e-reader. [136] • October – The US appeals court sides with Google instead of the Authors' Guild, declaring that Google did not violate copyright law in its book scanning project. [137] • December – Playster launches an unlimited-access subscription service including e-books and audiobooks.

[138] • By the end of 2015, Google Books scanned more than 25 million books. [9] • By 2015, over 70 million e-readers had been shipped worldwide.

[9] 2016 • March – The Supreme Court of the United States declines to hear Apple's appeal against the court's decision of July 2013 that the company conspired to e-book price fixing, hence the previous court decision stands, obliging Apple to pay $450 million.

[139] • April – The Supreme Court declines to hear the Authors Guild's appeal of its book scanning case, so the lower court's decision stands; the result means that Google can scan library books and display snippets in search results without violating US copyright law.

[140] • April – Amazon apa itu omega dan alpha the Kindle Oasis, its first e-reader in five years to have physical page turn buttons and, as a premium product, it includes a leather case with a battery inside; without including the case, it is the lightest e-reader on the market to date. [141] • August – Kobo releases the Aura One, the first commercial e-reader with a 7.8-inch E Ink Carta HD display. [142] • By the end of the year, smartphones and tablets have both individually overtaken e-readers as methods for reading an e-book, and paperback book sales are now higher than e-book sales.

[143] 2017 • February – The Association of American Publishers releases data showing that the US adult e-book market declined 16.9% in the first nine months of 2016 over the same period in 2015, and Nielsen Book determines that the e-book market had an overall total decline of 16% in 2016 over 2015, including all age groups. [144] This decline is partly due apa itu omega dan alpha widespread e-book price increases by major publishers, which has increased the average e-book price from $6 to almost $10.

[145] • February – The US version of Kindle Unlimited comprises more than 1.5 million titles, including over 290,000 foreign language titles. [146] • March – The Guardian reports that sales of physical books are outperforming digital titles in the UK, since it can be cheaper to buy the physical version of a book when compared to the digital version due to Amazon's deal with publishers that allows apa itu omega dan alpha pricing. [143] • April – The Los Angeles Times reports that, in 2016, sales of hardcover books were higher than e-books for the first time in five years.

[145] • October – Amazon releases the Oasis 2, the first Kindle to be IPX8 rated meaning that it is water resistant up to 2 meters for up to 60 minutes; it is also the first Kindle to enable white text on a black background, a feature that may be helpful for nighttime reading. [147] 2018 • January – U.S. public libraries report record-breaking borrowing of OverDrive e-books over the course of the year, with more than 274 million e-books loaned to card holders, a 22% increase over the 2017 figure.

[148] • October – The EU allowed its member countries to charge the same VAT for ebooks as for paper books.

[149] 2019 • May – Barnes & Noble releases the GlowLight Plus e-reader, the largest Nook e-reader to date with a 7.8-inch E Ink screen. [150] Formats [ edit ] Main article: Comparison of e-book formats Writers and publishers have many formats to choose from when publishing e-books.

Each format has advantages and disadvantages. The most popular e-readers [151] and their natively supported formats are apa itu omega dan alpha below: Reader Native e-book formats Amazon Kindle and Fire tablets [152] AZW, AZW3, KF8, non-DRM MOBI, PDF, PRC, TXT Barnes & Noble Nook and Nook Tablet [153] EPUB, PDF Apple iPad [154] EPUB, IBA (Multitouch books made via iBooks Author), PDF Sony Reader [152] EPUB, PDF, TXT, RTF, DOC, BBeB Kobo eReader and Kobo Arc [155] [156] EPUB, PDF, TXT, RTF, HTML, CBR (comic), CBZ (comic) Android devices with Google Play Books preinstalled EPUB, PDF PocketBook Reader and PocketBook Touch [157] [158] EPUB DRM, EPUB, PDF DRM, PDF, FB2, FB2.ZIP, TXT, DJVU, HTM, HTML, DOC, DOCX, RTF, CHM, TCR, PRC (MOBI) Digital rights management [ edit ] See also: Digital rights management § DRM and e-books Most e-book publishers do not warn their customers about the possible implications of the digital rights management tied to their products.

Generally, they claim that digital rights management is meant to prevent illegal copying of the e-book. However, in many cases, it is also possible apa itu omega dan alpha digital rights management will result in the complete denial of access by the purchaser to the e-book. [159] The e-books sold by most major publishers and electronic retailers, which are Amazon.com, Google, Barnes & Noble, Kobo Inc. and Apple Inc., are DRM-protected and tied to the publisher's e-reader software or hardware.

The first major publisher to omit DRM was Tor Books, one of the largest publishers of science fiction and fantasy, in 2012. Smaller e-book publishers such as O'Reilly Media, Carina Press and Baen Books had already forgone DRM previously.

[160] Production [ edit ] See also: Book scanning Some e-books are produced simultaneously with the production of a printed format, as described in electronic publishing, though in many instances they may not be put on sale until later. Often, e-books are produced from pre-existing hard-copy books, generally by document scanning, sometimes with the use of robotic book scanners, having the technology to quickly scan books without damaging the original print edition.

Scanning a book produces a set of image files, which may additionally be converted into text format by an OCR program. [161] Occasionally, as in some projects, an e-book may be produced by re-entering the text from a keyboard.

Sometimes only the electronic version of a book is produced by the publisher. [ example needed] It is possible to release an apa itu omega dan alpha chapter by chapter as each chapter is written. [ example needed] This is useful in fields such as information technology where topics can change quickly in the months that it takes to write a typical book.

It is also possible to convert an electronic book to a printed book by print on demand. However, these are exceptions as tradition dictates that a book be launched in the print format and later if the author wishes an electronic version is produced.

The New York Times keeps a list of best-selling e-books, for both fiction [162] and non-fiction. [163] Reading data [ edit ] All of the e-readers and reading apps are capable of tracking e-book reading data, and the data could contain which e-books users open, how long the users spend reading each e-book and how much of each e-book is finished. [164] In December 2014, Kobo released e-book reading data collected from over 21 million of its users worldwide.

Some of the results were that only 44.4% of UK readers finished the bestselling e-book The Goldfinch and the 2014 top selling e-book in the UK, "One Cold Night", was finished by 69% of readers; this is evidence that while popular e-books are being completely read, some e-books are only sampled. [165] Comparison to printed books [ edit ] Advantages [ edit ] iLiad e-book reader equipped with an e-paper display visible in sunlight In the space that a comparably sized physical book takes up, an e-reader can contain thousands of e-books, limited only by its memory capacity.

Depending on the device, an e-book may be readable in low light or even total darkness. Many e-readers have a built-in light source, can apa itu omega dan alpha or change fonts, use text-to-speech software to read the text aloud for visually impaired, elderly or dyslexic people or just for convenience.

[166] Additionally, e-readers allow readers to look up words or find more information about the topic immediately using an online dictionary. [167] [168] [169] Amazon reports that 85% of its e-book readers look up a word while reading. [170] Printed books use three times more raw materials and 78 times more water to produce when compared to e-books.

[171] A 2017 study found that even when accounting for the emissions created in manufacturing the e-reader device, substituting more than 4.7 print books a year resulted in less greenhouse gas emissions than print. [172] While an e-reader costs more than most individual books, e-books may have a lower cost than paper books. [173] E-books may be made available for less than the price of traditional books using on-demand book printers.

[174] Moreover, numerous e-books are available online free of charge on sites such as Project Gutenberg. [175] For example, all books printed before 1923 are in the public domain in the United States, which enables websites to host ebook versions of such titles for free. [176] Depending on possible digital rights management, e-books (unlike physical books) can be backed up and recovered in the case of loss or damage to the device on which they are stored, a new copy can be downloaded without incurring an additional cost from the distributor.

Readers can synchronize their reading location, highlights and bookmarks across several devices. [177] Disadvantages [ edit ] The spine of the printed book is an important aspect in book design and of its beauty as an object There may be a lack of privacy for the user's e-book reading activities; for example, Amazon knows the user's identity, what the user is reading, whether the user has finished the book, what page the user is on, how long the user has spent on each page, and which passages the user may have highlighted.

[178] One obstacle to wide adoption of the e-book is that a large portion of people value the printed book as an object itself, including aspects such as the texture, smell, weight and appearance on the shelf.

[179] Print books are also considered valuable cultural items, and symbols of liberal education and the humanities. [180] Kobo found that 60% of e-books that are purchased from their e-book store are never opened and found that the more expensive the book is, the more likely the reader would at least open the e-book. [181] Joe Queenan has written about the pros and cons of e-books: Electronic books are ideal for people who value the information contained in them, or who have vision problems, or who like to read apa itu omega dan alpha the subway, or who do not want other people to see how they are amusing themselves, or who have storage and clutter issues, but they are useless for people who are engaged in an intense, lifelong love affair with books.

Books that we can touch; books that we can smell; books that we can depend on. [182] Apart from all the emotional and habitual aspects, there are also some readability and usability issues that need to be addressed apa itu omega dan alpha publishers and software developers. Many e-book readers who complain about eyestrain, lack of overview and distractions could be helped if they could use a more suitable device or a more user-friendly reading application, but when they buy or borrow a DRM-protected e-book, they often have to read the book on the default device or application, even if it has insufficient functionality.

[183] While a paper book is vulnerable to various threats, including water damage, mold and theft, e-books files may be corrupted, deleted or otherwise lost as well as pirated. Where the ownership of a paper book is fairly straightforward (albeit subject to restrictions on renting or copying pages, depending on the book), the purchaser of an e-book's digital file has conditional access with the possible loss of access to the e-book due to digital rights management provisions, copyright issues, the provider's business failing or possibly if the user's credit card expired.

[184] Market share [ edit ] United States [ edit ] According to the Association of American Publishers 2018 annual report, ebooks accounted for 12.4% of the total trade revenue. [185] Publishers of books in all formats made $22.6 billion in print form and $2.04 billion in e-books, according to the Association of American Publishers’ annual report 2019.

[186] Canada [ edit ] 12.0% Spain [ edit ] In 2013, Carrenho estimates that e-books would have a 15% market share in Spain in 2015. [188] UK [ edit ] According to Nielsen Book Research, e-book share went up from 20% to 33% between 2012 and 2014, but down to 29% in the first quarter of 2015. Amazon-published and self-published titles accounted for 17 million of those books (worth £58m) in 2014, representing 5% of the overall book market and 15% of the digital market.

The volume and value sales, although similar to 2013, had seen a 70% increase since 2012. [189] Germany [ edit ] The Wischenbart Report 2015 estimates the e-book market share to be 4.3%. [190] Brazil [ edit ] The Brazilian e-book market is only emerging. Brazilians are technology savvy, and that attitude is shared by the government. [190] In 2013, around 2.5% of all trade titles sold were in digital format.

This was a 400% growth over 2012 when only 0.5% of trade titles were digital. In 2014, the growth was slower, and Brazil had 3.5% of its trade titles being sold as e-books. [190] China [ edit ] The Wischenbart Report 2015 estimates the e-book market share to be around 1%. [190] Public domain books [ edit ] Main article: Public domain Public domain books are those whose copyrights have expired, meaning they can be copied, edited, and sold freely without restrictions.

[191] Many of these books can be downloaded for free from websites like the Internet Archive, in formats that many e-readers support, such as PDF, TXT, and EPUB. Books in other formats may be converted to an e-reader-compatible format using e-book writing software, for example Calibre. See also [ edit ] • Accessible publishing • Book scanning • Blook • Cell phone novel • Digital library • Braille e-book • Electronic publishing • List of digital library projects • Networked book • Online book • TeX and LaTeX • Web fiction • Braille translator • Perkins Brailler • Comparison of e-readers References [ edit ] • ^ Gardiner, Eileen and Ronald G.

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Perlu diketahui, pada tanggal 25 Januari 2021, Bursa Efek Indonesia memberlakukan aturan terbaru apa itu omega dan alpha Perubahan Klasifikasi Industri Perusahaan Tercatat. Perubahan ini menunjukkan klasifikasi JASICA (Jakarta Stock Exchange Industrial Classification) digantikan oleh klasifikasi IDX-IC apa itu omega dan alpha Stock Exchange Industrial Classification). Dengan kata lain, IDX-IC adalah pedoman utama untuk klasifikasi industri di BEI. IDX-IC adalah klasifikasi industri di BEI yang mengelompokkan perusahaan tercatat (emiten) berdasarkan eksposur pasar atas produk (barang dan jasa) yang diproduksi.

Tujuan utama IDX-IC adalah untuk memberikan pedoman kepada pengguna terkait masing-masing kelompok emiten. Apa yang baru? IDX-IC terdiri dari 4 tingkat klasifikasi, yakni 12 Sektor; 35 Sub-sektor; 69 Industri; 130 Sub-industri. Kita akan membahas daftar perusahaan di BEI berdasarkan IDX-IC Contents • 1 12 Sektor di IDX-IC • 2 Perbedaan IDX-IC dan JASICA • 3 Daftar Perusahaan IDX-IC • 3.1 A.

Sektor Energi (Energy) atau IDXENERGY • 3.2 B. Sektor Barang Baku (Basic Materials) atau IDXBASIC • 3.3 C. Sektor Perindustrian (Industrials) atau IDXINDUST • 3.4 D. Sektor Barang Konsumen Primer (Consumer Non-Cyclicals) atau IDXNONCYC • 3.5 E. Sektor Barang Konsumen Non-Primer (Consumer Cyclicals) atau IDXCYCLIC • 3.6 F. Sektor Kesehatan (Healthcare) atau IDXHEALTH • 3.7 G.

Sektor Keuangan (Financials) atau IDXFINANCE • 3.8 H. Sektor Properti & Real Estat (Properties & Real Estate) atau IDXPROPERT • 3.9 I. Sektor Teknologi (Technology) atau IDXTECHNO • 3.10 J. Sektor Infrastruktur (Infrastructures) atau IDXINFRA • 3.11 K. Sektor Transportasi & Logistik (Transportation & Logistic) atau IDXTRANS • 3.12 Z. Produk Investasi Tercatat (Listed Investment Product) • 4 Simpulan 12 Sektor di IDX-IC Indonesia Stock Exchange Industrial Classification atau disingkat IDX-IC adalah klasifikasi industri yang terdiri dari 12 sektor utama, yaitu sebagai berikut.

• Energi (Energy) – Kode A • Barang Baku (Basic materials) – Kode B • Perindustrian (Industrials) – Kode C • Barang Konsumen Primer (Consumer Non-Cyclicals) – Kode D • Barang Konsumen Non-Primer (Consumer Cyclicals) – Kode E • Kesehatan (Healthcare) – Kode F • Keuangan (Financials) – Kode G • Properti & Real Estat (Properties & Real Estate) – Kode H • Teknologi (Technology) – Kode I • Infrastruktur (Infrastructures) – Kode J • Transportasi & Logistik (Transportation & Logistic) – Kode K • Produk Investasi Tercatat (Listed Investment Product) – Kode Z Perbedaan IDX-IC dan JASICA Apa yang berbeda dari klasifikasi JASICA?

IDX-IC memiliki apa itu omega dan alpha sektor utama. Sementara itu, JASICA adalah Jakarta Stock Exchange Industrial Classification yang terdiri dari 9 sektor utama, yaitu sebagai berikut: • Industri Barang Konsumsi • Industri Dasar dan Kimia • Aneka Industri • Pertanian • Pertambangan • Keuangan • Infrastruktur, Utilitas, dan Transportasi • Properti, Real Estat, dan Konstruksi • Perdagangan, Jasa, dan Investasi Dari 9 sektor di atas, no 1, 2, dan 3 adalah masuk kategori (A) Sektor Manufaktur.

Sedangkan no 4 dan 5 adalah masuk kategori (B) Sektor Penghasil Apa itu omega dan alpha Baku. Sementara itu, no 6, 7, 8, dan 9 adalah masuk kategori (C) Sektor Jasa. Jadi, ketika Anda melakukan penelitian yang mengacu pada klasifikasi JASICA dengan sampel perusahaan Manufaktur, maka perusahaan pada no 1, 2, dan 3 akan masuk sebagai populasi. Begitu juga dengan sampel pada perusahaan Penghasil Bahan Baku dan Jasa. Sampai di sini paham, ya?

Daftar Perusahaan IDX-IC Berikut akan kami tampilkan semua daftar perusahaan tercatat di BEI berdasarkan klasifikasi IDX-IC. A. Sektor Energi (Energy) atau IDXENERGY Ada 66 perusahaan Sektor Energi di Bursa Efek Indonesia (baca: IDX Sektor Energi) tahun 2021. Daftar lengkap perusahaan Sektor Energi (Energy) di BEI 2021 pada klasifikasi IDX-IC adalah sebagai berikut.

Kode Nama Saham Sub-Industri 1 BIPI Astrindo Nusantara Infrastruktur Tbk. Oil & Gas Production & Refinery 2 ENRG Energi Mega Persada Tbk. Oil & Gas Production & Refinery 3 MEDC Medco Energi Internasional Tbk. Oil & Gas Production & Refinery 4 MITI Mitra Investindo Tbk. Oil & Gas Production & Refinery 5 SUGI Sugih Energy Tbk. Oil & Gas Production & Refinery 6 SURE Super Energy Tbk. Oil & Gas Production & Refinery 7 AKRA AKR Corporindo Tbk.

Oil & Gas Storage & Distribution 8 BULL Buana Lintas Lautan Tbk. Oil & Gas Storage & Distribution 9 HITS Humpuss Intermoda Transportasi Tbk. Oil & Gas Storage & Distribution 10 INPS Indah Prakasa Sentosa Tbk.

Oil & Gas Storage & Distribution 11 KOPI Mitra Energi Persada Tbk. Oil & Gas Storage & Distribution 12 LEAD Logindo Samudramakmur Tbk. Oil & Gas Storage & Distribution 13 MTFN Capitalinc Investment Tbk. Oil & Gas Storage & Distribution 14 PGAS Perusahaan Gas Negara Tbk.

Oil & Gas Storage & Distribution 15 RAJA Rukun Raharja Tbk. Oil & Gas Storage & Distribution 16 SHIP Sillo Maritime Perdana Tbk. Oil & Gas Storage & Distribution 17 SOCI Soechi Lines Tbk. Oil & Gas Storage & Distribution 18 ADRO Adaro Energy Tbk. Coal Production 19 AIMS Akbar Indo Makmur Stimec Tbk Coal Production 20 ARII Atlas Resources Tbk. Coal Production 21 BOSS Borneo Olah Sarana Sukses Tbk. Coal Production 22 BSSR Baramulti Suksessarana Tbk. Coal Production 23 BUMI Bumi Resources Tbk.

Coal Production 24 BYAN Bayan Resources Tbk. Coal Production 25 DSSA Dian Swastatika Sentosa Tbk Coal Production 26 GEMS Golden Energy Mines Tbk.

Coal Production 27 GTBO Garda Tujuh Buana Tbk Coal Production 28 HRUM Harum Energy Tbk. Coal Production 29 INDY Indika Energy Tbk. Coal Production 30 ITMG Indo Tambangraya Megah Tbk.

Coal Production 31 KKGI Resource Alam Indonesia Tbk. Coal Production 32 MBAP Mitrabara Adiperdana Tbk. Coal Production 33 PTBA Bukit Asam Tbk. Coal Production 34 SMMT Golden Eagle Energy Tbk. Coal Production 35 TOBA TBS Energi Utama Tbk. Coal Production 36 TRAM Trada Alam Minera Tbk.

Coal Production 37 BBRM Pelayaran Nasional Bina Buana Raya Tbk. Coal Distribution 38 BESS Batulicin Nusantara Maritim Tbk. Coal Distribution 39 CANI Capitol Nusantara Indonesia Tbk. Coal Distribution 40 CNKO Exploitasi Energi Indonesia Tbk. Coal Distribution 41 DWGL Dwi Guna Laksana Tbk. Coal Distribution 42 FIRE Alfa Energi Investama Tbk. Coal Distribution 43 MBSS Mitrabahtera Segara Sejati Tbk. Coal Distribution 44 PSSI Pelita Samudera Shipping Tbk.

Coal Distribution 45 PTIS Indo Straits Tbk. Coal Distribution 46 RIGS Rig Tenders Indonesia Tbk. Coal Distribution 47 SGER Sumber Global Energy Tbk. Coal Distribution 48 TCPI Transcoal Pacific Tbk. Coal Distribution 49 TEBE Dana Brata Luhur Tbk. Coal Distribution 50 TPMA Trans Power Marine Tbk. Coal Distribution 51 APEX Apexindo Pratama Duta Tbk.

Oil & Gas Drilling Service 52 ELSA Elnusa Tbk. Oil & Gas Drilling Service 53 ARTI Ratu Prabu Energi Tbk Oil, Gas & Coal Equipment & Services 54 DEWA Darma Henwa Tbk Oil, Gas & Coal Equipment & Services 55 DOID Delta Dunia Makmur Tbk. Oil, Gas & Coal Equipment apa itu omega dan alpha Services 56 ITMA Sumber Energi Andalan Tbk. Oil, Gas & Coal Equipment & Services 57 MYOH Samindo Resources Tbk. Oil, Gas & Coal Equipment & Services 58 PKPK Perdana Karya Perkasa Tbk Oil, Gas & Coal Equipment & Services 59 PTRO Petrosea Tbk.

Oil, Gas & Coal Equipment & Services 60 RUIS Radiant Utama Interinsco Tbk. Oil, Gas & Coal Equipment & Services 61 Apa itu omega dan alpha SMR Utama Tbk.

Oil, Gas & Coal Equipment & Services 62 TAMU Pelayaran Tamarin Samudra Tbk. Oil, Gas & Coal Equipment & Services 63 WINS Wintermar Offshore Marine Tbk. Oil, Gas & Coal Equipment & Services 64 WOWS Ginting Jaya Energi Tbk. Oil, Gas & Coal Equipment & Services 65 JSKY Sky Energy Indonesia Tbk. Alternative Energy Equipment 66 ETWA Eterindo Wahanatama Tbk Alternative Fuels Masing-masing perusahaan di Sektor Energi IDX-IC di atas terdiri dari sub-industri tertentu, yakni: • Oil & Gas Production & Refinery • Oil & Gas Storage & Distribution • Coal Production • Coal Distribution • Oil & Gas Drilling Service • Oil, Gas & Coal Equipment & Services • Alternative Energy Equipment • Alternative Fuels B.

Sektor Barang Baku (Basic Materials) atau IDXBASIC Ada 89 perusahaan Sektor Barang Baku di Bursa Efek Indonesia (baca: IDX Sektor Barang Baku) tahun 2021.

Daftar lengkap perusahaan Sektor Barang Baku (Raw Materials) di BEI 2021 pada klasifikasi IDX-IC adalah sebagai berikut. Apa itu omega dan alpha. Kode Nama Saham Sub-Industri 1 ADMG Polychem Indonesia Tbk Basic Chemicals 2 AGII Aneka Gas Industri Tbk.

Basic Chemicals 3 BMSR Bintang Mitra Semestaraya Tbk Basic Chemicals 4 BRPT Barito Pacific Tbk. Basic Chemicals 5 ESSA Surya Esa Perkasa Tbk. Basic Chemicals 6 FPNI Lotte Chemical Titan Tbk. Basic Chemicals 7 INCI Intanwijaya Internasional Tbk Basic Chemicals 8 LTLS Lautan Luas Tbk. Basic Chemicals 9 MDKI Emdeki Utama Tbk.

Basic Chemicals 10 MOLI Madusari Murni Indah Tbk. Basic Chemicals 11 OKAS Ancora Indonesia Resources Tbk. Basic Chemicals 12 PLTM Polytama Propindo Basic Chemicals 13 SRSN Indo Acidatama Tbk Basic Chemicals 14 TDPM Tridomain Apa itu omega dan alpha Materials Tbk.

Basic Chemicals 15 TPIA Chandra Asri Petrochemical Tbk. Basic Chemicals 16 UNIC Unggul Indah Cahaya Tbk. Basic Chemicals 17 PIHC PT Pupuk Indonesia (Persero) Agricultural Chemicals 18 SAMF Saraswanti Anugerah Makmur Tbk. Agricultural Chemicals 19 AKPI Argha Karya Prima Industry Tbk. Specialty Chemicals 20 APLI Asiaplast Industries Tbk.

Specialty Chemicals 21 CLPI Colorpak Indonesia Tbk. Specialty Chemicals 22 DPNS Duta Pertiwi Nusantara Tbk. Specialty Chemicals 23 EKAD Ekadharma International Tbk. Specialty Chemicals 24 AYLS Agro Yasa Lestari Tbk.

Construction Materials 25 INTP Indocement Tunggal Prakarsa Tbk. Construction Materials 26 JKSW Jakarta Kyoei Steel Works Tbk. Construction Materials 27 SMBR Semen Baturaja (Persero) Tbk. Construction Materials 28 SMCB Solusi Bangun Indonesia Tbk. Construction Materials 29 SMGR Semen Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Construction Materials 30 WSBP Waskita Beton Precast Tbk.

Construction Materials 31 WTON Wijaya Karya Beton Tbk. Construction Materials 32 ALDO Alkindo Naratama Tbk. Containers & Packaging 33 BRNA Berlina Tbk. Containers & Packaging 34 EPAC Megalestari Epack Sentosaraya Tbk. Containers & Packaging 35 ESIP Sinergi Inti Plastindo Tbk. Containers & Packaging 36 FASW Fajar Surya Wisesa Tbk. Containers & Packaging 37 IGAR Champion Pacific Indonesia Tbk. Containers & Packaging 38 IPOL Indopoly Swakarsa Industry Tbk. Containers & Packaging 39 KDSI Kedawung Setia Industrial Tbk.

Containers & Packaging 40 PANI Pratama Abadi Nusa Industri Tbk. Containers & Packaging 41 PBID Panca Budi Idaman Tbk.

Containers & Packaging 42 PICO Pelangi Indah Canindo Tbk Containers & Packaging 43 SIMA Siwani Makmur Tbk Containers & Packaging 44 SMKL Satyamitra Kemas Lestari Tbk. Containers & Packaging 45 SPMA Suparma Tbk. Containers & Packaging 46 TALF Tunas Alfin Tbk. Containers & Packaging 47 TRST Trias Sentosa Tbk.

Containers & Packaging 48 YPAS Yanaprima Hastapersada Tbk Containers & Packaging 49 ALKA Alakasa Industrindo Tbk Aluminum 50 ALMI Alumindo Light Metal Industry Tbk. Aluminum 51 CITA Cita Mineral Investindo Tbk. Aluminum 52 INAI Indal Aluminium Industry Tbk. Aluminum 53 TBMS Tembaga Mulia Semanan Tbk. Cooper 54 MDKA Merdeka Copper Gold Tbk. Gold 55 PSAB J Resources Asia Pasifik Tbk.

Gold 56 SQMI Wilton Makmur Indonesia Tbk. Gold 57 BAJA Saranacentral Bajatama Tbk. Iron & Steel 58 BTON Betonjaya Manunggal Tbk. Iron & Steel 59 CTBN Citra Tubindo Tbk. Iron & Steel 60 GDST Gunawan Dianjaya Steel Tbk.

Iron & Steel 61 GGRP Gunung Raja Paksi Tbk. Iron & Steel 62 HKMU HK Metals Utama Tbk. Iron & Steel 63 ISSP Steel Pipe Industry of Indonesia Tbk. Iron & Steel 64 KRAS Krakatau Steel (Persero) Tbk. Iron & Steel 65 LMSH Lionmesh Prima Tbk. Iron & Steel 66 OPMS Optima Prima Metal Sinergi Tbk. Iron & Steel 67 ANTM Aneka Tambang Tbk. Diversified Metals & Minerals 68 BRMS Bumi Resources Minerals Tbk.

Diversified Metals & Minerals 69 DKFT Central Omega Resources Tbk. Diversified Metals & Minerals 70 IFSH Ifishdeco Tbk. Diversified Metals & Minerals 71 INCO Vale Indonesia Tbk.

Diversified Metals & Minerals 72 NIKL Pelat Timah Nusantara Tbk. Diversified Metals & Minerals 73 PURE Trinitan Metals and Minerals Tbk.

Diversified Metals & Minerals 74 TINS Timah Tbk. Diversified Metals & Minerals 75 ZINC Kapuas Prima Coal Tbk. Diversified Metals & Minerals 76 IFII Indonesia Fibreboard Industry Tbk. Timber 77 KAYU Darmi Bersaudara Tbk. Timber 78 SULI SLJ Global Tbk. Timber 79 TIRT Tirta Mahakam Resources Tbk Timber 80 INKP Indah Kiat Pulp & Paper Tbk. Paper 81 INRU Toba Pulp Lestari Tbk. Paper 82 INTD Inter Delta Tbk Paper 83 KBRI Kertas Basuki Rachmat Indonesia Tbk.

Paper 84 LPPI Lontar Papyrus Pulp & Paper Industry Paper 85 SWAT Sriwahana Adityakarta Tbk. Paper 86 TKIM Pabrik Kertas Tjiwi Kimia Tbk. Paper 87 INCF Indo Komoditi Korpora Tbk.

Diversified Forest 88 KMTR Kirana Megatara Tbk. Diversified Forest 89 PNGO Pinago Utama Tbk. Diversified Forest Masing-masing perusahaan di Sektor Barang Baku IDX-IC di atas terdiri dari sub-industri: • Basic Chemicals • Agricultural Chemicals • Specialty Chemicals • Construction Materials • Containers & Packaging • Aluminum • Cooper • Gold • Iron & Steel • Diversified Metals & Minerals • Timber • Paper • Diversified Forest C.

Sektor Perindustrian (Industrials) atau IDXINDUST Ada 50 perusahaan Sektor Perindustrian di Bursa Efek Indonesia (baca: IDX Sektor Perindustrian) tahun 2021. Daftar lengkap perusahaan Sektor Perindustrian (Industrials) di BEI 2021 pada klasifikasi IDX-IC adalah sebagai berikut.

No. Kode Nama Saham Sub-Industri 1 AMFG Asahimas Flat Glass Tbk. Building Products & Fixtures 2 ARNA Arwana Citramulia Tbk. Building Products & Fixtures 3 CAKK Apa itu omega dan alpha Asa Keramik Tbk.

Building Products & Fixtures 4 CTTH Citatah Tbk. Building Products & Fixtures 5 IMPC Impack Pratama Industri Tbk.

Building Products & Fixtures 6 KIAS Keramika Indonesia Assosiasi Tbk. Building Products & Fixtures 7 KOIN Kokoh Inti Arebama Tbk Building Products & Fixtures 8 MLIA Mulia Industrindo Tbk Building Products & Fixtures 9 SINI Singaraja Putra Tbk.

Building Products & Fixtures 10 SPTO Surya Pertiwi Tbk. Building Products & Fixtures 11 TOTO Surya Toto Indonesia Tbk. Building Products & Fixtures 12 CCSI Communication Cable Systems Indonesia Tbk. Electrical Components & Equipment 13 IKBI Sumi Indo Kabel Tbk.

Electrical Components & Equipment 14 JECC Jembo Cable Company Tbk. Electrical Components & Equipment 15 KBLI KMI Wire & Cable Tbk. Electrical Components & Equipment 16 KBLM Kabelindo Murni Tbk. Electrical Components & Equipment 17 SCCO Supreme Cable Manufacturing & Commerce Tbk. Apa itu omega dan alpha Components & Equipment 18 VOKS Voksel Electric Tbk. Electrical Components & Equipment 19 HEXA Hexindo Adiperkasa Tbk.

Construction Machinery & Heavy Vehicles 20 INTA Intraco Penta Tbk. Construction Machinery & Heavy Vehicles 21 KOBX Kobexindo Tractors Tbk. Construction Machinery & Heavy Vehicles 22 KPAL Steadfast Marine Tbk. Construction Machinery & Heavy Vehicles 23 SKRN Superkrane Mitra Utama Tbk. Construction Machinery & Heavy Vehicles 24 UNTR United Tractors Tbk. Construction Machinery & Heavy Vehicles 25 AMIN Ateliers Mecaniques D Indonesie Tbk.

Industrial Machinery & Components 26 APII Arita Prima Indonesia Tbk. Industrial Machinery & Components 27 ARKA Arkha Jayanti Persada Tbk. Industrial Machinery & Components 28 KRAH Grand Kartech Tbk. Industrial Machinery & Components 29 MARK Mark Dynamics Indonesia Tbk. Industrial Machinery & Components 30 TIRA Tira Austenite Tbk Diversified Industrial Trading 31 TRIL Triwira Insanlestari Tbk. Diversified Industrial Trading 32 JTPE Jasuindo Tiga Perkasa Tbk.

Commercial Printing 33 BLUE Berkah Prima Perkasa Tbk. Office Supplies 34 KONI Perdana Bangun Pusaka Tbk Office Supplies 35 LION Lion Metal Works Tbk. Office Supplies 36 MDRN Modern Internasional Tbk. Office Supplies 37 ASGR Astra Graphia Tbk. Business Support Services 38 DYAN Dyandra Media International Tbk. Business Support Services 39 ICON Island Concepts Indonesia Tbk. Business Support Services 40 MFMI Multifiling Mitra Indonesia Tbk.

Business Support Services 41 SOSS Shield On Service Tbk. Human Resource & Employment Apa itu omega dan alpha 42 TFAS Telefast Indonesia Tbk. Human Resource & Employment Services 43 INDX Tanah Laut Tbk Research & Consulting Services 44 ABMM ABM Investama Tbk. Multi-sector Holdings 45 ASII Astra International Tbk. Multi-sector Holdings 46 BHIT MNC Investama Tbk.

Multi-sector Holdings 47 BMTR Global Mediacom Tbk. Multi-sector Holdings 48 BNBR Bakrie & Brothers Tbk Multi-sector Holdings 49 EMTK Elang Mahkota Teknologi Tbk. Multi-sector Holdings 50 MLPL Multipolar Tbk.

Multi-sector Holdings Masing-masing perusahaan di Sektor Perindustrian IDX-IC terdiri dari sub-industri: • Building Products & Fixtures • Electrical Components & Equipment • Construction Machinery & Heavy Vehicles • Industrial Machinery & Components • Diversified Industrial Trading • Commercial Printing • Office Supplies • Business Support Services • Human Resource & Employment Services • Research & Consulting Services • Multi-sector Holdings D.

Sektor Barang Konsumen Primer (Consumer Non-Cyclicals) atau IDXNONCYC Ada 87 perusahaan Barang Konsumen Primer di Bursa Efek Indonesia (baca: IDX Sektor Barang Konsumen Primer) tahun 2021. Daftar lengkap perusahaan Sektor Barang Konsumen Primer (Consumer Non-Cyclicals) di BEI 2021 pada klasifikasi IDX-IC adalah sebagai berikut.

No. Kode Nama Saham Sub-Industri 1 DAYA Duta Intidaya Tbk. Drug Retail & Distributors 2 EPMT Enseval Putera Megatrading Tbk. Drug Retail & Distributors 3 SDPC Millennium Pharmacon International Tbk. Drug Retail & Distributors 4 DMND Diamond Food Indonesia Tbk. Drug Retail & Distributors 5 KMDS Kurniamitra Duta Sentosa Tbk. Drug Retail & Distributors 6 PCAR Prima Cakrawala Abadi Tbk. Drug Retail & Distributors 7 WICO Wicaksana Overseas International Tbk.

Drug Retail & Distributors 8 AMRT Sumber Alfaria Trijaya Tbk. Supermarkets & Convenience Store 9 HERO Hero Supermarket Tbk. Apa itu omega dan alpha & Convenience Store 10 MIDI Midi Utama Indonesia Tbk. Supermarkets & Convenience Store 11 MPPA Matahari Putra Prima Tbk. Supermarkets & Convenience Store 12 RANC Supra Boga Lestari Tbk.

Supermarkets & Convenience Store 13 DLTA Delta Djakarta Tbk. Liquors 14 MLBI Multi Bintang Indonesia Tbk. Liquors 15 ADES Akasha Wira International Tbk. Soft Drinks 16 ALTO Tri Banyan Tirta Tbk. Soft Drinks 17 CLEO Sariguna Primatirta Tbk.

Soft Drinks 18 CAMP Campina Ice Cream Industry Tbk. Dairy Products 19 KEJU Mulia Boga Raya Tbk. Dairy Products 20 ULTJ Ultra Jaya Milk Industry & Trading Company Tbk. Dairy Products 21 AISA Tiga Pilar Sejahtera Food Tbk. Processed Foods 22 BEEF Estika Tata Tiara Tbk. Processed Foods 23 BUDI Budi Starch & Sweetener Tbk. Processed Foods 24 CEKA Wilmar Cahaya Indonesia Tbk. Processed Foods 25 COCO Wahana Interfood Nusantara Tbk.

Processed Foods 26 FOOD Sentra Food Indonesia Tbk. Processed Foods 27 GOOD Garudafood Putra Putri Jaya Tbk. Processed Foods 28 HOKI Buyung Poetra Sembada Tbk. Processed Foods 29 ICBP Indofood CBP Sukses Makmur Tbk. Processed Foods 30 INDF Indofood Sukses Makmur Tbk. Processed Foods 31 MYOR Mayora Indah Tbk. Processed Foods 32 PMMP Panca Mitra Multiperdana Tbk. Processed Foods 33 PSDN Prasidha Aneka Niaga Tbk Processed Foods 34 ROTI Nippon Indosari Corpindo Tbk.

Processed Foods 35 SKBM Sekar Bumi Tbk. Processed Foods 36 SKLT Sekar Laut Tbk. Processed Foods 37 STTP Siantar Top Tbk. Processed Foods 38 TBLA Tunas Baru Lampung Tbk. Processed Foods 39 TGKA Tigaraksa Satria Tbk. Processed Foods 40 AGAR Asia Sejahtera Mina Tbk. Fish, Meat, & Poultry 41 CPIN Charoen Pokphand Indonesia Tbk Fish, Meat, & Poultry 42 CPRO Central Proteina Prima Tbk. Fish, Meat, & Poultry 43 DPUM Dua Putra Utama Makmur Tbk. Fish, Meat, & Poultry 44 DSFI Dharma Samudera Fishing Industries Tbk.

Fish, Meat, & Poultry 45 ENZO Morenzo Abadi Perkasa Tbk. Fish, Meat, & Poultry 46 IKAN Era Mandiri Cemerlang Tbk. Fish, Meat, & Poultry 47 JPFA Japfa Comfeed Indonesia Tbk. Fish, Meat, & Poultry 48 MAIN Malindo Feedmill Tbk. Fish, Meat, & Poultry 49 SIPD Sreeya Sewu Indonesia Tbk. Fish, Meat, & Poultry 50 AALI Astra Agro Lestari Tbk.

Plantations & Crops 51 ANDI Andira Agro Apa itu omega dan alpha. Plantations & Crops 52 ANJT Austindo Nusantara Jaya Tbk. Plantations & Crops 53 BISI BISI International Tbk. Plantations & Crops 54 BTEK Bumi Teknokultura Unggul Tbk Plantations & Crops 55 BWPT Eagle High Plantations Tbk.

Plantations & Crops 56 CSRA Cisadane Sawit Raya Tbk. Plantations & Crops 57 DSNG Dharma Satya Nusantara Tbk. Plantations & Crops 58 FAPA FAP Agri Tbk. Plantations & Crops 59 FISH FKS Multi Agro Tbk. Plantations & Crops 60 GOLL Golden Plantation Tbk. Plantations & Crops 61 GZCO Gozco Plantations Tbk. Plantations & Crops 62 JAWA Jaya Agra Wattie Tbk. Plantations & Crops 63 LSIP PP London Sumatra Indonesia Tbk.

Plantations & Crops 64 MAGP Multi Agro Gemilang Plantation Tbk. Plantations & Crops 65 MGRO Mahkota Group Tbk. Plantations & Crops 66 PALM Provident Agro Tbk. Plantations & Crops 67 PGUN Pradiksi Gunatama Tbk. Plantations & Crops 68 PSGO Palma Serasih Tbk. Plantations & Crops 69 SGRO Sampoerna Agro Tbk. Plantations & Crops 70 SIMP Salim Ivomas Pratama Tbk. Plantations & Crops 71 SMAR Smart Tbk. Plantations & Crops 72 SSMS Sawit Sumbermas Sarana Tbk.

Plantations & Crops 73 UNSP Bakrie Sumatera Plantations Tbk. Plantations & Crops 74 WAPO Wahana Pronatural Tbk. Plantations & Crops 75 GGRM Gudang Garam Tbk. Tobacco 76 HMSP H.M. Sampoerna Tbk. Tobacco 77 ITIC Indonesian Tobacco Tbk. Tobacco 78 RMBA Bentoel Internasional Investama Tbk. Tobacco 79 WIIM Wismilak Inti Makmur Tbk. Tobacco 80 KINO Kino Indonesia Tbk. Personal Care Products 81 KPAS Cottonindo Ariesta Tbk. Personal Care Products 82 MBTO Martina Berto Tbk.

Personal Care Products 83 MRAT Mustika Ratu Tbk. Personal Care Products 84 TCID Mandom Indonesia Tbk. Personal Care Products 85 UCID Uni-Charm Indonesia Tbk. Personal Care Products 86 UNVR Unilever Indonesia Tbk. Personal Care Products 87 VICI Victoria Care Indonesia Tbk. Personal Care Products Masing-masing perusahaan di Sektor Barang Konsumen Primer IDX-IC terdiri dari sub-industri: • Drug Retail & Distributors • Food Retail & Distributors • Supermarkets & Convenience Store • Liquors • Soft Drinks • Dairy Products • Apa itu omega dan alpha Foods • Fish, Meat, & Poultry • Plantations & Crops • Tobacco • Personal Care Products E.

Sektor Barang Konsumen Non-Primer (Consumer Cyclicals) atau IDXCYCLIC Ada 123 perusahaan Barang Konsumen Non-Primer di Bursa Efek Indonesia (baca: IDX Sektor Barang Konsumen Non-Primer) tahun 2021. Daftar lengkap perusahaan Sektor Barang Konsumen Non-Primer (Consumer Cyclicals) di BEI 2021 pada klasifikasi IDX-IC adalah sebagai berikut.

No. Kode Nama Saham Sub-Industri 1 AUTO Astra Otoparts Tbk. Auto Parts & Equipment 2 BOLT Garuda Metalindo Tbk. Auto Parts & Equipment 3 Apa itu omega dan alpha Indospring Tbk. Auto Parts & Equipment 4 LPIN Multi Prima Sejahtera Tbk Auto Parts & Equipment 5 Apa itu omega dan alpha Nipress Tbk. Auto Parts & Equipment 6 PRAS Prima Alloy Steel Universal Tbk.

Auto Parts & Equipment 7 SMSM Selamat Sempurna Tbk. Auto Parts & Equipment 8 BRAM Indo Kordsa Tbk. Tires 9 GDYR Goodyear Indonesia Tbk.

Tires 10 GJTL Gajah Tunggal Tbk. Tires 11 MASA Multistrada Arah Sarana Tbk. Tires 12 CBMF Cahaya Bintang Medan Tbk. Home Furnishings 13 CINT Chitose Internasional Tbk. Home Furnishings 14 GEMA Apa itu omega dan alpha Grahasarana Tbk. Home Furnishings 15 SOFA Boston Furniture Industries Tbk.

Home Furnishings 16 WOOD Integra Indocabinet Tbk. Home Furnishings 17 SCNP Selaras Citra Nusantara Perkasa Tbk. Household Appliances 18 KICI Kedaung Indah Can Tbk Housewares & Specialties 19 LMPI Langgeng Makmur Industri Tbk. Housewares & Specialties 20 MICE Multi Indocitra Tbk. Housewares & Specialties 21 IIKP Inti Agri Resources Tbk Sport Equipment & Hobbies Goods 22 TOYS Sunindo Adipersada Tbk. Sport Equipment & Hobbies Goods 23 ERTX Eratex Djaja Tbk. Clothing, Accessories & Bags 24 HRTA Hartadinata Abadi Tbk.

Clothing, Accessories & Bags 25 PBRX Pan Brothers Tbk. Clothing, Accessories & Bags 26 POLU Golden Flower Tbk. Clothing, Accessories & Bags 27 RICY Ricky Putra Globalindo Tbk Clothing, Accessories & Bags 28 TRIS Trisula International Tbk.

Clothing, Accessories & Bags 29 BATA Sepatu Bata Tbk. Footwear 30 BIMA Primarindo Asia Infrastructure Tbk. Footwear 31 ARGO Argo Pantes Tbk Textiles 32 BELL Trisula Textile Industries Tbk. Textiles 33 CNTB Saham Seri B ( Centex Tbk ) Textiles 34 CNTX Century Textile Industry Tbk. Textiles 35 ESTI Ever Shine Tex Tbk. Textiles 36 HDTX Panasia Indo Resources Tbk.

Textiles 37 INDR Indo-Rama Synthetics Tbk. Textiles 38 INOV Inocycle Technology Group Tbk. Textiles 39 MYTX Asia Pacific Investama Tbk. Textiles 40 POLY Asia Pacific Fibers Tbk Textiles 41 SBAT Sejahtera Bintang Abadi Textile Tbk. Textiles 42 SRIL Sri Rejeki Isman Tbk. Textiles 43 SSTM Sunson Textile Manufacture Tbk Textiles 44 TFCO Tifico Fiber Indonesia Tbk. Textiles 45 UNIT Nusantara Inti Corpora Tbk Textiles 46 AKKU Anugerah Kagum Karya Utama Tbk.

Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 47 ARTA Arthavest Tbk Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 48 BUVA Bukit Uluwatu Villa Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 49 CLAY Citra Putra Realty Tbk. Apa itu omega dan alpha, Resorts & Cruise Lines 50 DFAM Dafam Property Indonesia Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 51 EAST Eastparc Hotel Tbk.

Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 52 ESTA Esta Multi Apa itu omega dan alpha Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Apa itu omega dan alpha Lines 53 FITT Hotel Fitra International Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 54 HOME Hotel Mandarine Regency Tbk. Hotels, Apa itu omega dan alpha & Cruise Lines 55 HOTL Saraswati Griya Lestari Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 56 HRME Menteng Heritage Realty Tbk.

Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 57 IKAI Intikeramik Alamasri Industri Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 58 JIHD Jakarta International Hotels & Development Tbk.

Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 59 JSPT Apa itu omega dan alpha Setiabudi Internasional Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 60 KPIG MNC Land Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 61 MABA Marga Abhinaya Abadi Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 62 MAMI Mas Murni Indonesia Tbk Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 63 MINA Sanurhasta Mitra Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 64 NASA Andalan Perkasa Abadi Tbk.

Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 65 NATO Surya Permata Andalan Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 66 NUSA Sinergi Megah Internusa Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 67 PGLI Pembangunan Graha Lestari Indah Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 68 PLAN Planet Properindo Jaya Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 69 PNSE Pudjiadi & Sons Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 70 PSKT Red Planet Indonesia Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 71 RISE Jaya Sukses Makmur Sentosa Tbk.

Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 72 SHID Hotel Sahid Jaya International Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 73 SOTS Satria Mega Kencana Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 74 UANG Pakuan Tbk. Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines 75 BAYU Bayu Buana Tbk Travel Agencies 76 PANR Panorama Sentrawisata Tbk. Travel Agencies 77 PDES Destinasi Tirta Nusantara Tbk Travel Agencies 78 BLTZ Graha Layar Prima Tbk. Recreational & Sports Facilities 79 BOLA Bali Bintang Sejahtera Tbk.

Recreational & Sports Facilities 80 JGLE Graha Andrasentra Propertindo Tbk. Recreational & Sports Facilities 81 PJAA Pembangunan Jaya Ancol Tbk. Recreational & Sports Facilities 82 CSMI Cipta Selera Murni Tbk. Restaurants 83 DUCK Jaya Bersama Indo Tbk. Restaurants 84 FAST Fast Food Indonesia Tbk. Restaurants 85 MAPB MAP Boga Adiperkasa Tbk. Restaurants 86 PTSP Pioneerindo Gourmet International Tbk. Restaurants 87 PZZA Sarimelati Kencana Tbk.

Restaurants 88 YELO Yelooo Integra Datanet Tbk. Consumer Support Services 89 FORU Fortune Indonesia Tbk Advertising 90 WIFI Solusi Sinergi Digital Tbk. Advertising 91 MARI Mahaka Radio Integra Tbk. Broadcasting 92 MDIA Intermedia Capital Tbk.

Broadcasting 93 MNCN Media Nusantara Citra Tbk. Broadcasting 94 SCMA Surya Citra Media Tbk. Broadcasting 95 VIVA Visi Media Asia Tbk. Broadcasting 96 IPTV MNC Vision Networks Tbk. Cable & Satellite 97 MSKY MNC Sky Vision Tbk. Cable & Satellite 98 ABBA Mahaka Media Tbk. Consumer Publishing 99 DIGI Arkadia Digital Media Tbk. Consumer Publishing 100 TMPO Tempo Intimedia Tbk.

Consumer Publishing 101 FILM MD Pictures Tbk. Entertainment & Movie Production 102 MSIN MNC Studios International Tbk. Entertainment & Movie Production 103 MKNT Mitra Komunikasi Nusantara Tbk. Consumer Distributors 104 LPPF Matahari Department Store Tbk. Department Stores 105 RALS Ramayana Lestari Sentosa Tbk.

Department Stores 106 SONA Sona Topas Tourism Industry Tbk. Department Stores 107 MAPA Map Aktif Adiperkasa Tbk. Apparel & Textile Retail 108 MAPI Mitra Adiperkasa Tbk.

Apparel & Textile Retail 109 ZONE Mega Perintis Tbk. Apparel & Textile Retail 110 ECII Electronic City Indonesia Tbk. Electronics Retail 111 ERAA Erajaya Swasembada Tbk. Electronics Retail 112 GLOB Global Teleshop Tbk. Electronics Retail 113 SLIS Gaya Abadi Sempurna Tbk. Electronics Retail 114 TELE Tiphone Mobile Indonesia Tbk. Electronics Retail 115 TRIO Trikomsel Oke Tbk. Electronics Retail 116 ACES Ace Hardware Indonesia Tbk.

Home Improvement Retail 117 CSAP Catur Sentosa Adiprana Tbk. Home Improvement Retail 118 BOGA Bintang Oto Global Tbk. Automotive Retail 119 CARS Industri dan Perdagangan Bintraco Dharma Tbk.

Automotive Retail 120 IMAS Indomobil Sukses Internasional Tbk. Automotive Retail 121 MPMX Mitra Pinasthika Mustika Tbk. Automotive Retail 122 PMJS Putra Mandiri Jembar Tbk.

Automotive Retail 123 TURI Tunas Ridean Tbk. Automotive Retail Masing-masing perusahaan di Sektor Barang Konsumen Non-Primer IDX-IC terdiri dari sub-industri: • Auto Parts & Equipment • Tires • Home Furnishings • Household Appliances • Housewares & Specialties • Sport Equipment & Hobbies Goods • Clothing, Accessories & Bags • Footwear • Textiles • Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines • Travel Agencies • Recreational & Sports Facilities • Restaurants • Consumer Support Services • Advertising • Broadcasting • Cable & Satellite • Consumer Publishing • Entertainment & Movie Production • Consumer Distributors • Department Stores • Apparel & Textile Retail • Electronics Retail • Home Improvement Retail • Automotive Retail F.

Sektor Kesehatan (Healthcare) atau IDXHEALTH Ada 21 perusahaan Kesehatan di Bursa Efek Indonesia (baca: IDX Sektor Kesehatan) tahun 2021. Daftar lengkap perusahaan Sektor Kesehatan (Healthcare) di BEI 2021 pada klasifikasi IDX-IC adalah sebagai berikut. No. Kode Nama Saham Sub-Industri 1 IRRA Itama Ranoraya Tbk. Healthcare Supplies & Distributions 2 CARE Metro Healthcare Indonesia Tbk. Healthcare Providers 3 DGNS Diagnos Laboratorium Utama Tbk.

Healthcare Providers 4 HEAL Medikaloka Hermina Tbk. Healthcare Providers 5 MIKA Mitra Keluarga Karyasehat Tbk. Healthcare Providers 6 PRDA Prodia Widyahusada Tbk. Healthcare Providers 7 PRIM Royal Prima Tbk. Healthcare Providers 8 SAME Sarana Meditama Metropolitan Tbk.

Healthcare Providers 9 SILO Siloam International Hospitals Tbk. Healthcare Providers 10 Apa itu omega dan alpha Sejahteraraya Anugrahjaya Tbk. Healthcare Providers 11 DVLA Darya-Varia Laboratoria Tbk. Pharmaceuticals 12 INAF Indofarma Tbk. Pharmaceuticals 13 KAEF Kimia Farma Tbk.

Pharmaceuticals 14 KLBF Kalbe Farma Tbk. Pharmaceuticals 15 MERK Merck Tbk. Pharmaceuticals 16 PEHA Phapros Tbk. Pharmaceuticals 17 PYFA Pyridam Farma Tbk Pharmaceuticals 18 SCPI Merck Sharp Dohme Pharma Tbk.

Pharmaceuticals 19 SIDO Industri Jamu dan Farmasi Sido Muncul Tbk. Pharmaceuticals 20 SOHO Soho Global Health Tbk. Pharmaceuticals 21 TSPC Tempo Scan Pacific Tbk. Pharmaceuticals Masing-masing perusahaan di Sektor Kesehatan IDX-IC terdiri dari sub-industri: • Healthcare Supplies & Distributions • Healthcare Providers • Pharmaceuticals G. Sektor Keuangan (Financials) atau IDXFINANCE Ada 139 perusahaan Keuangan di Bursa Efek Indonesia (baca: IDX Sektor Keuangan) tahun 2021.

Daftar lengkap perusahaan Sektor Keuangan (Financials) di BEI 2021 pada klasifikasi IDX-IC adalah sebagai berikut. No. Kode Nama Saham Sub-Industri 1 AGRO Bank Rakyat Indonesia Agroniaga Tbk. Banks 2 AGRS Bank IBK Indonesia Tbk. Banks 3 AMAR Bank Amar Indonesia Tbk. Banks 4 ARTO Bank Jago Tbk. Banks 5 BABP Bank MNC Internasional Tbk. Banks 6 BACA Bank Capital Indonesia Tbk.

Banks 7 BBCA Bank Central Asia Tbk. Banks 8 BBHI Bank Harda Internasional Tbk. Banks 9 BBIA PT Bank UOB Indonesia Banks 10 BBKP Bank Bukopin Tbk. Banks 11 BBMD Bank Mestika Dharma Tbk. Banks 12 BBNI Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Banks 13 BBRI Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Banks 14 BBSI Bank Bisnis Internasional Tbk. Banks 15 BBTN Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero) Tbk. Banks 16 BBYB Bank Neo Commerce Tbk. Banks 17 BCIC Bank JTrust Indonesia Tbk.

Banks 18 BCOM Bank Commonwealth Banks 19 BDKI Bank DKI Banks 20 BDMN Bank Danamon Indonesia Tbk. Banks 21 BEKS Bank Pembangunan Daerah Banten Tbk. Banks 22 BGTG Bank Ganesha Tbk. Banks 23 BINA Bank Ina Perdana Tbk. Banks 24 BJBR Bank Pembangunan Daerah Jawa Barat dan Banten Tbk. Banks 25 BJTG Bank Pembangunan Daerah Jawa Tengah Banks 26 BJTM Bank Pembangunan Daerah Jawa Timur Tbk.

Banks 27 BKSW Bank QNB Indonesia Tbk. Banks 28 BLAM Bank Pembangunan Daerah Lampung Banks 29 BMAS Bank Maspion Indonesia Tbk. Banks 30 BMLK PT Bank Pembangunan Daerah Maluku dan Maluku Utara Banks 31 BMRI Bank Mandiri (Persero) Tbk.

Banks 32 BMTP PT Bank Mandiri Taspen Banks 33 BNBA Bank Bumi Arta Tbk. Banks 34 BNGA Bank CIMB Niaga Tbk. Banks 35 BNII Bank Maybank Indonesia Tbk. Banks 36 BNLI Bank Permata Tbk.

Banks 37 BNTT Bank Pembangunan Daerah Nusa Tenggara Timur Banks 38 BRIS Bank BRIsyariah Tbk. Banks 39 BSBR Bank Pembangunan Daerah Sumatera Barat Banks 40 BSIM Bank Sinarmas Tbk. Banks 41 BSMT Bank Pembangunan Daerah Sumatera Utara Banks 42 BSSB Bank Pembangunan Daerah Sulawesi Selatan Dan Barat Banks 43 BSWD Bank Of India Indonesia Tbk.

Banks 44 BTPN Bank BTPN Tbk. Banks 45 BTPS Bank BTPN Syariah Tbk. Banks 46 BVIC Bank Victoria International Tbk. Banks 47 DNAR Bank Oke Indonesia Tbk.

Banks 48 INPC Bank Artha Graha Internasional Tbk. Banks 49 KEHA PT Bank KEB Hana Indonesia Banks 50 MAYA Bank Mayapada Internasional Tbk. Banks 51 MCOR Bank China Construction Bank Indonesia Tbk.

Banks 52 MEGA Bank Mega Tbk. Banks 53 NISP Bank OCBC NISP Tbk. Banks 54 NOBU Bank Nationalnobu Tbk. Banks 55 PNBN Bank Pan Indonesia Tbk Banks 56 PNBS Bank Panin Dubai Syariah Tbk. Banks 57 SDRA Bank Woori Saudara Indonesia 1906 Tbk. Banks 58 ABSM AB Sinar Mas Multifinance Consumer Financing 59 ADMF Adira Dinamika Multi Finance Tbk. Consumer Financing 60 ASDF Astra Sedaya Finance Consumer Financing 61 BAFI PT Bussan Auto Finance Consumer Financing 64 BBLD Buana Finance Tbk.

Consumer Financing 65 BCAF BCA Finance Consumer Financing 66 BFIN BFI Finance Indonesia Tbk. Consumer Financing 67 BIIF PT Maybank Indonesia Finance Consumer Financing 68 BPFI Batavia Prosperindo Finance Tbk. Consumer Financing 69 CFIN Clipan Finance Indonesia Tbk. Consumer Financing 70 DEFI Danasupra Erapacific Tbk.

Consumer Financing 71 FIFA Federal International Finance Consumer Financing 72 FINN First Indo American Leasing Tbk. Consumer Financing 73 FUJI Fuji Finance Indonesia Tbk. Consumer Financing 74 HDFA Radana Bhaskara Finance Tbk. Consumer Financing 75 IBFN Intan Baruprana Finance Tbk. Consumer Financing 76 IMFI Indomobil Finance Indonesia Consumer Financing 77 IMJS Apa itu omega dan alpha Multi Jasa Tbk. Consumer Financing 78 MFIN Mandala Multifinance Tbk. Consumer Financing 79 MPMF PT Mitra Pinasthika Mustika Finance Consumer Financing 80 OTMA Oto Multiartha Consumer Financing 81 PPGD Pegadaian (Persero) Consumer Financing 82 SANF Surya Artha Nusantara Finance Consumer Financing 83 SMMF Sinarmas Multifinance Consumer Financing 84 TAFS Toyota Astra Financial Services Consumer Financing 85 TIFA KDB Tifa Finance Tbk.

Consumer Financing 86 TRUS Trust Finance Indonesia Tbk Consumer Financing 87 TUFI Mandiri Tunas Finance Consumer Financing 88 VRNA Verena Multi Finance Tbk. Consumer Financing 89 WOMF Wahana Ottomitra Multiartha Tbk. Consumer Financing 90 BEXI Indonesia Eximbank Specialize Business Financing 91 IIFF PT Indonesia Infrastructure Finance Specialize Business Financing 92 PNMP PT Permodalan Nasional Madani (Persero) Specialize Business Financing 93 SMFP Sarana Multigriya Finansial (Persero) Specialize Business Financing 94 SMII PT Sarana Multi Infrastruktur (Persero) Specialize Business Financing 95 AMOR Ashmore Asset Management Indonesia Tbk.

Investment Management 96 PADI Minna Padi Investama Sekuritas Tbk. Investment Banking & Brokerage Services 97 PANS Panin Sekuritas Tbk. Investment Banking & Brokerage Services 98 RELI Reliance Sekuritas Indonesia Tbk. Investment Banking & Brokerage Services 99 TRIM Trimegah Sekuritas Indonesia Tbk. Investment Banking & Brokerage Services 100 YULE Yulie Sekuritas Indonesia Tbk.

Investment Banking & Brokerage Apa itu omega dan alpha 101 ABDA Asuransi Bina Dana Arta Tbk. General Insurance 102 AHAP Asuransi Harta Aman Pratama Tbk.

General Insurance 103 AMAG Asuransi Multi Artha Guna Tbk. General Insurance 104 ASBI Asuransi Bintang Tbk. General Insurance 105 ASDM Asuransi Dayin Mitra Tbk. General Insurance 106 ASJT Asuransi Jasa Tania Tbk. General Insurance 107 ASMI Asuransi Kresna Mitra Tbk. General Insurance 108 ASRM Asuransi Ramayana Tbk. General Insurance 109 LPGI Lippo General Insurance Tbk. General Insurance 110 MTWI Malacca Trust Wuwungan Insurance Tbk. General Insurance 111 PNIN Paninvest Tbk.

General Insurance 112 TUGU Asuransi Tugu Pratama Indonesia Tbk. General Insurance 113 VINS Victoria Insurance Tbk. General Insurance 114 BHAT Bhakti Multi Artha Tbk. Life Insurance 115 JMAS Asuransi Jiwa Syariah Jasa Mitra Abadi Tbk.

Life Insurance 116 LIFE Asuransi Jiwa Sinarmas MSIG Tbk. Life Insurance 117 PNLF Panin Financial Tbk. Life Insurance 118 MREI Maskapai Reasuransi Indonesia Tbk. Reinsurance 119 APIC Pacific Strategic Financial Tbk. Financial Holdings 120 BCAP MNC Kapital Indonesia Tbk. Financial Holdings 121 BPII Batavia Prosperindo Internasional Tbk.

Financial Holdings 122 CASA Capital Financial Indonesia Tbk. Financial Holdings 123 GSMF Equity Development Investment Tbk. Financial Holdings 124 KREN Kresna Graha Investama Tbk. Financial Holdings 125 OCAP Onix Capital Tbk. Financial Holdings 126 PEGE Panca Global Kapital Tbk. Financial Holdings 127 PLAS Polaris Investama Tbk Financial Holdings 128 POOL Pool Advista Indonesia Tbk.

Financial Holdings 129 SFAN Surya Fajar Capital Tbk. Financial Holdings 130 SMMA Sinarmas Multiartha Tbk. Financial Holdings 131 STAR Buana Artha Anugerah Tbk. Financial Holdings 132 VICO Victoria Investama Tbk. Financial Holdings 133 DNET Indoritel Makmur Internasional Tbk. Investment Companies 134 LPPS Lenox Pasifik Investama Tbk. Investment Companies 135 MGNA Magna Investama Mandiri Tbk. Investment Companies 136 NICK Charnic Capital Tbk.

Investment Companies 137 POLA Pool Advista Finance Tbk. Investment Companies 138 PPAP Perusahaan Pengelola Aset (Persero) Investment Companies 139 SRTG Saratoga Investama Sedaya Tbk.

Investment Companies Masing-masing perusahaan di Sektor Keuangan IDX-IC terdiri dari sub-industri: • Banks • Consumer Financing • Specialize Business Financing • Investment Management • Investment Banking & Brokerage Services • General Insurance • Life Insurance • Reinsurance • Financial Holdings • Investment Companies H.

Sektor Properti & Real Estat (Properties & Real Estate) atau IDXPROPERT Ada 78 perusahaan Properti & Real Estat di Bursa Efek Indonesia (baca: IDX Sektor Properti & Real Estat) tahun 2021.

Daftar lengkap perusahaan Sektor Properti & Real Estat (Properties & Real Estate) di BEI 2021 pada klasifikasi IDX-IC adalah sebagai berikut. No. Kode Nama Saham Sub-Industri 1 AMAN Makmur Berkah Amanda Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 2 APLN Agung Podomoro Land Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 3 ARMY Armidian Karyatama Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 4 ASPI Andalan Sakti Primaindo Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 5 ASRI Alam Sutera Realty Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 6 ATAP Trimitra Prawara Goldland Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 7 BAPA Bekasi Asri Pemula Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 8 BAPI Bhakti Agung Propertindo Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 9 BBSS Bumi Benowo Sukses Sejahtera Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 10 BCIP Bumi Citra Permai Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 11 BEST Bekasi Fajar Industrial Estate Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 12 BIKA Binakarya Jaya Abadi Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 13 BIPP Bhuwanatala Indah Permai Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 14 BKDP Bukit Darmo Property Tbk Real Estate Development & Management 15 BKSL Sentul City Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 16 BSDE Bumi Serpong Damai Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 17 CITY Natura City Developments Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 18 COWL Cowell Development Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 19 CPRI Capri Nusa Satu Properti Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 20 CSIS Cahayasakti Investindo Sukses Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 21 CTRA Ciputra Development Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 22 CTRR PT Ciputra Residence Real Estate Development & Management 23 DADA Diamond Citra Propertindo Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 24 DART Duta Anggada Realty Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 25 DILD Intiland Development Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 26 DMAS Puradelta Lestari Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 27 DUTI Duta Pertiwi Tbk Real Estate Development & Management 28 ELTY Bakrieland Development Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 29 EMDE Megapolitan Developments Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 30 FMII Fortune Mate Indonesia Tbk Real Estate Development & Management 31 FORZ Forza Land Indonesia Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 32 GAMA Aksara Global Development Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 33 GMTD Gowa Makassar Tourism Development Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 34 GPRA Perdana Gapuraprima Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 35 GWSA Greenwood Sejahtera Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 36 HOMI Grand House Mulia Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 37 INPP Indonesian Paradise Property Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 38 JRPT Jaya Real Property Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 39 KBAG Karya Bersama Anugerah Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 40 KIJA Kawasan Industri Jababeka Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 41 KOTA DMS Propertindo Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 42 LAND Trimitra Propertindo Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 43 LCGP Eureka Prima Jakarta Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 44 LPCK Lippo Cikarang Tbk Real Estate Development & Management 45 LPKR Lippo Karawaci Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 46 LPLI Star Pacific Tbk Real Estate Development & Management 47 MDLN Modernland Realty Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 48 MKPI Metropolitan Kentjana Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 49 MMLP Mega Manunggal Property Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 50 MPRO Maha Properti Indonesia Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 51 MTLA Metropolitan Land Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 52 MTSM Metro Realty Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 53 MYRX Hanson International Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 54 NIRO City Retail Developments Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 55 NZIA Nusantara Almazia Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 56 OMRE Indonesia Prima Property Tbk Real Estate Development & Management 57 PAMG Bima Sakti Pertiwi Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 58 PLIN Plaza Indonesia Realty Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 59 POLI Pollux Investasi Internasional Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 60 POLL Pollux Properti Indonesia Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 61 POSA Bliss Properti Indonesia Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 62 PPRO PP Properti Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 63 PUDP Pudjiadi Prestige Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 64 PURI Puri Global Sukses Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 65 PWON Pakuwon Jati Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 66 RBMS Ristia Bintang Mahkotasejati Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 67 RDTX Roda Vivatex Tbk Real Estate Development & Management 68 REAL Repower Asia Indonesia Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 69 RIMO Rimo International Lestari Tbk Real Estate Development & Management 70 ROCK Rockfields Properti Indonesia Tbk. Real Apa itu omega dan alpha Development & Management 71 RODA Pikko Land Development Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 72 SATU Kota Satu Properti Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 73 SMDM Suryamas Dutamakmur Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 74 SMRA Summarecon Agung Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 75 TARA Agung Semesta Sejahtera Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 76 TRIN Perintis Triniti Properti Tbk.

Real Estate Development & Management 77 URBN Urban Jakarta Propertindo Tbk. Real Estate Development & Management 78 INDO Royalindo Investa Wijaya Tbk. Real Estate Services Masing-masing perusahaan di Sektor Properti & Real Estat IDX-IC terdiri dari sub-industri: • Real Estate Development & Management • Real Estate Services I. Sektor Teknologi (Technology) atau IDXTECHNO Ada 19 perusahaan Teknologi di Bursa Efek Indonesia (baca: IDX Sektor Teknologi) tahun 2021.

Daftar lengkap perusahaan Sektor Teknologi (Technology) di BEI 2021 pada klasifikasi IDX-IC adalah sebagai berikut. No. Kode Nama Saham Sub-Industri 1 CASH Cashlez Worldwide Indonesia Tbk. Online Applications & Services 2 DIVA Distribusi Voucher Nusantara Tbk. Online Applications & Services 3 HDIT Hensel Davest Indonesia Tbk. Online Applications & Services 4 KIOS Kioson Komersial Indonesia Tbk.

Online Applications & Services 5 MCAS M Cash Integrasi Tbk. Online Applications & Services 6 NFCX NFC Indonesia Tbk. Online Applications & Services 7 PGJO Tourindo Guide Indonesia Tbk. Online Applications & Services 8 ATIC Anabatic Technologies Tbk. IT Services & Consulting 9 DCII DCI Indonesia Tbk. IT Services & Consulting 10 DMMX Digital Mediatama Maxima Tbk.

IT Services & Consulting 11 ENVY Envy Technologies Indonesia Tbk. IT Services & Consulting 12 LMAS Limas Indonesia Makmur Tbk IT Services & Consulting 13 MLPT Multipolar Technology Tbk.

IT Services & Consulting 14 TECH Indosterling Technomedia Tbk. IT Services & Consulting 15 SKYB Northcliff Citranusa Indonesia Tbk. Software 16 PTSN Sat Nusapersada Tbk Networking Equipment 17 LUCK Sentral Mitra Informatika Tbk. Computer Hardware 18 MTDL Metrodata Electronics Tbk. Computer Hardware 19 GLVA Galva Technologies Tbk.

Electronic Equipment & Instruments Masing-masing perusahaan di Sektor Teknologi IDX-IC terdiri dari sub-industri: • Online Applications & Services • IT Services & Consulting • Software • Networking Equipment • Computer Hardware • Electronic Equipment & Instruments J. Sektor Infrastruktur (Infrastructures) atau IDXINFRA Ada 69 perusahaan Infrastruktur di Bursa Efek Indonesia (baca: IDX Sektor Infrastruktur) tahun 2021.

Daftar lengkap perusahaan Sektor Infrastruktur (Infrastructures) di BEI 2021 pada klasifikasi IDX-IC adalah sebagai berikut. No. Kode Nama Saham Sub-Industri 1 APAI PT Angkasa Pura I (Persero) Airport Operators 2 APIA PT Angkasa Pura II (Persero) Airport Operators 3 CASS Cardig Aero Services Tbk.

Airport Operators 4 GMFI Garuda Maintenance Facility Aero Asia Tbk. Airport Operators 5 CMNP Citra Marga Nusaphala Persada Tbk. Highways & Railtracks 6 JLBS PT Jakarta Lingkar Baratsatu Highways & Railtracks 7 JSMR Jasa Marga (Persero) Tbk.

Highways & Railtracks 8 META Nusantara Infrastructure Tbk. Highways & Railtracks 9 MLJK PT Marga Lingkar Jakarta Highways & Railtracks 10 IPCC Indonesia Kendaraan Terminal Tbk. Marine Ports & Services 11 IPCM Jasa Armada Indonesia Tbk.

Marine Ports & Services 12 KARW ICTSI Jasa Prima Tbk. Marine Ports & Services 13 PIGN Pelabuhan Indonesia I (Persero) Marine Ports & Services 14 PIKI PT Pelabuhan Indonesia IV (Persero) Marine Ports & Apa itu omega dan alpha 15 PORT Nusantara Pelabuhan Handal Tbk. Marine Ports & Services 16 ACST Acset Indonusa Tbk. Heavy Constructions apa itu omega dan alpha Civil Engineering 17 ADHI Adhi Karya (Persero) Tbk.

Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 18 BUKK Bukaka Teknik Utama Tbk. Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 19 DGIK Nusa Konstruksi Enjiniring Tbk. Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 20 IDPR Indonesia Pondasi Raya Tbk. Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 21 JKON Jaya Konstruksi Manggala Pratama Tbk.

Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 22 MTPS Meta Epsi Tbk. Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 23 MTRA Mitra Pemuda Tbk. Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 24 NRCA Nusa Raya Cipta Tbk. Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 25 PBSA Paramita Bangun Sarana Tbk. Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 26 PPRE PP Presisi Tbk. Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 27 PTDU Djasa Ubersakti Tbk.

Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 28 PTHK PT Hutama Karya (Persero) Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 29 PTPP PP (Persero) Tbk. Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 30 PTPW Pratama Widya Tbk. Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 31 RONY Aesler Grup Internasional Tbk. Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 32 SSIA Surya Semesta Internusa Tbk.

Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 33 TAMA Lancartama Sejati Tbk. Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 34 TOPS Totalindo Eka Persada Tbk. Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 35 TOTL Total Bangun Persada Tbk.

Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 36 WEGE Wijaya Karya Bangunan Gedung Tbk. Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 37 WIKA Wijaya Karya (Persero) Tbk. Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 38 WSKT Waskita Karya (Persero) Tbk. Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering 39 JAST Jasnita Telekomindo Tbk. Wired Telecommunication Service 40 KBLV First Media Tbk.

Wired Telecommunication Service 41 KETR Ketrosden Triasmitra Wired Telecommunication Service 42 LINK Link Net Tbk. Wired Telecommunication Service 43 MORA PT Mora Telematika Indonesia Wired Telecommunication Service 44 TLKM Telkom Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Integrated Telecommunication Service 45 BALI Bali Towerindo Sentra Tbk.

Wireless Telecommunication Services 46 BTEL Bakrie Telecom Tbk. Wireless Telecommunication Services 47 CENT Centratama Telekomunikasi Indonesia Tbk. Wireless Telecommunication Services 48 EXCL XL Axiata Tbk. Wireless Telecommunication Services 49 FREN Smartfren Telecom Tbk.

Wireless Telecommunication Services 50 GHON Gihon Telekomunikasi Indonesia Tbk. Wireless Telecommunication Services 51 GOLD Visi Telekomunikasi Infrastruktur Tbk. Wireless Telecommunication Services 52 IBST Inti Bangun Sejahtera Tbk.

Wireless Telecommunication Services 53 ISAT Indosat Tbk. Wireless Telecommunication Services 54 LCKM LCK Global Kedaton Tbk. Wireless Telecommunication Services 55 OASA Protech Mitra Perkasa Tbk. Wireless Telecommunication Services 56 PRTL PT Profesional Telekomunikasi Indonesia Wireless Telecommunication Services 57 SUPR Solusi Tunas Pratama Tbk.

Wireless Telecommunication Services 58 TBIG Tower Bersama Infrastructure Tbk. Wireless Telecommunication Services 59 TOWR Sarana Menara Nusantara Tbk.

Wireless Telecommunication Services 60 KEEN Kencana Energi Lestari Tbk. Electric Utilities 61 LAPD Leyand International Tbk. Electric Utilities 62 MEDP PT Medco Power Indonesia Electric Utilities 63 MPOW Megapower Makmur Tbk.

Electric Utilities 64 POWR Cikarang Listrindo Tbk. Electric Utilities 65 PPLN Perusahaan Listrik Negara (Persero) Electric Utilities 66 SSMM Sumberdaya Sewatama Electric Utilities 67 TGRA Terregra Asia Energy Tbk. Electric Utilities 68 HADE Himalaya Energi Perkasa Tbk. Gas Utilities 69 ZBRA Zebra Nusantara Tbk Gas Utilities Masing-masing perusahaan di Sektor Infrastruktur IDX-IC terdiri dari sub-industri: • Airport Operators • Highways & Railtracks • Marine Ports & Services • Heavy Constructions & Civil Engineering • Wired Telecommunication Service • Wired Telecommunication Service • Apa itu omega dan alpha Telecommunication Service • Wireless Telecommunication Services • Apa itu omega dan alpha Telecommunication Services • Electric Utilities • Gas Utilities K.

Sektor Transportasi & Logistik (Transportation & Logistic) atau IDXTRANS Ada 29 perusahaan Transportasi & Logistik di Bursa Efek Indonesia (baca: IDX Sektor Transportasi & Logistik) tahun 2021. Daftar lengkap perusahaan Sektor Transportasi & Logistik (Transportation & Logistic) di BEI 2021 pada klasifikasi IDX-IC adalah sebagai berikut.

No. Kode Nama Saham Sub-Industri 1 CMPP AirAsia Indonesia Tbk. Airlines 2 GIAA Garuda Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Airlines 3 HELI Jaya Trishindo Tbk. Airlines 4 IATA Indonesia Transport & Infrastructure Tbk. Airlines 5 KAII PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) Rail 6 ASSA Adi Sarana Armada Tbk. Road Transportation 7 BIRD Blue Bird Tbk.

Road Transportation 8 BPTR Batavia Prosperindo Trans Tbk. Apa itu omega dan alpha Transportation 9 LRNA Eka Sari Lorena Transport Tbk. Road Transportation 10 SAFE Steady Safe Tbk Road Transportation 11 TAXI Express Transindo Utama Tbk. Road Transportation 12 TRAC Serasi Autoraya Road Transportation 13 TRJA Transkon Jaya Tbk.

Road Transportation 14 WEHA WEHA Transportasi Indonesia Tbk. Road Transportation 15 AKSI Maming Enam Sembilan Mineral Tbk. Logistics & Deliveries 16 BLTA Berlian Laju Tanker Tbk Logistics & Deliveries 17 DEAL Dewata Freightinternational Tbk. Logistics & Deliveries 18 JAYA Armada Berjaya Trans Tbk.

Logistics apa itu omega dan alpha Deliveries 19 KJEN Krida Jaringan Nusantara Tbk. Logistics & Deliveries 20 MIRA Mitra International Resources Tbk. Logistics & Deliveries 21 NELY Pelayaran Nelly Dwi Putri Tbk. Logistics & Deliveries 22 PPGL Prima Globalindo Logistik Tbk. Logistics & Deliveries 23 PURA Putra Rajawali Kencana Tbk. Logistics & Deliveries 24 SAPX Satria Antaran Prima Tbk.

Logistics & Deliveries 25 SDMU Sidomulyo Selaras Tbk. Logistics & Deliveries 26 SMDR Samudera Indonesia Tbk. Logistics & Deliveries 27 TMAS Temas Tbk. Logistics & Deliveries 28 TNCA Trimuda Nuansa Citra Tbk. Logistics & Deliveries 29 TRUK Guna Timur Raya Tbk. Logistics & Deliveries Masing-masing perusahaan di Sektor Transportasi & Logistik IDX-IC terdiri dari sub-industri: • Airlines • Rail • Road Transportation • Logistics & Deliveries Z.

Produk Investasi Tercatat (Listed Investment Product) Pada dasarnya, ini bukan daftar perusahaan, melainkan daftar produk investasi tercatat.

Sektor Produk Investasi Tercatat adalah produk-produk investasi yang tercatat di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI). Berikut daftarnya. No. Kode Nama Sektor Sub-Industri Instrumen 1 R-ABFII Asian Bond Fund – Indonesia Bond Index Fund Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 2 R-LQ45X Premier ETF LQ-45 (R-LQ45X) Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 3 XAFA Reksa Dana Avrist ETF Fixed Rate Bond I Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 4 XAQA Reksa Dana Ashmore ETF LQ45 ALPHA Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 5 XASG Reksa Dana Indeks Aurora ETF FTSE Indonesia ESG Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 6 XBES Reksa Dana Indeks BNI-AM ETF MSCI Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF ESG Leaders Indonesia Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 7 XBID Reksa Dana Indeks Batavia IDX30 ETF Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 8 XBIN Reksa Dana Indeks Bahana ETF Bisnis – 27 Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 9 XBLQ Reksa Dana Batavia Smart Liquid ETF Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 10 XBNI Reksa Dana Indeks BNI-AM Nusantara ETF MSCI Indonesia Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 11 XBSK Reksa Dana Indeks Batavia SRI-KEHATI ETF Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 12 XCLQ Reksa Dana Indeks Cipta ETF Index LQ45 Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 13 XDIF Reksa Dana Danareksa ETF Indonesia Top 40 Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 14 XDSG Reksa Dana Indeks Danareksa ETF MSCI Indonesia ESG Screened Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 15 XIHD Reksa Dana Indeks Premier ETF IDX High Dividend 20 Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 16 XIIC Reksa Dana Premier ETF Indonesia Consumer Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 17 XIID Reksa Dana Indeks Premier ETF Index IDX30 Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 18 XIIF Reksa Dana Premier ETF Indonesia Financial Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 19 XIIT Reksa Dana Premier ETF IDX30 Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 20 XIJI Reksa Dana Syariah Premier ETF JII Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 21 XILV RDI Insight ETF FTSE Indonesia Low Volatility Factor Index Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 22 XIML Reksa Dana Indeks Premier ETF MSCI Indonesia Large Cap Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 23 XIPI Reksa Dana Indeks Premier ETF PEFINDO i-Grade Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 24 XISB Reksa Dana Premier ETF Indonesia Sovereign Bonds Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 25 XISC Reksa Dana Premier ETF Indonesia Stated- Owned Companies Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 26 XISI Premier ETF SMinfra18 Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 27 XISR Premier ETF SRI- KEHATI Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 28 XKIV Reksa Dana Indeks KISI IDX Value30 ETF Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 29 XKMS Reksa Dana Indeks KISI MSCI Indonesia ETF Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 30 XMIG Reksa Dana Indeks Majoris Pefindo I- Grade ETF Indonesia Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 31 XMTS Reksa Dana ETF MNC36 Likuid Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 32 XNVE Reksa Dana Indeks Nusadana ETF IDX Value30 Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 33 XPCR Reksa Dana PNM ETF CORE LQ45 Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 34 XPDV Reksa Dana Pinnacle Core High Dividend ETF Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 35 XPES Reksa Dana Syariah KIK Pinnacle Enhanced Sharia ETF Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 36 XPFT Reksa Dana Indeks Pinnacle FTSE Indonesia ETF Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 37 XPID Reksa Dana Indeks Pinnacle IDX30 ETF Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 38 XPLC Reksa Dana Pinnacle Indonesia Large-Cap ETF Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 39 XPLQ Reksa Dana Pinnacle Enhanced Liquid ETF Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 40 XPMI ETF Phillip MSCI Indonesia Equity Index Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 41 XPSG Reksa Dana Pinnacle Indonesia ESG ETF Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 42 XPTD Reksa Dana Indeks Panin ETF IDX30 Dinamis Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 43 XSBC Reksa Dana Indeks Simas ETF IDX30 Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 44 XSMU RD Syailendra ETF MSCI Indonesia ESG Universal Index Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 45 XSRI Reksa Dana Indeks STAR ETF SRI- Apa itu omega dan alpha Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 46 XSSI Reksa Dana Syariah Indeks Simas ETF JII Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 47 XSSK Reksa Dana Indeks SAM ETF SRI- KEHATI Mutual Fund / ETFs ETF 48 XCID DIRE Ciptadana Properti Ritel Indonesia Real Estate Investment Trusts DIRE 49 XCIS DIRE Ciptadana Properti Perhotelan Padjajaran Real Estate Investment Trusts DIRE 50 XSPI DIRE Simas Plaza Indonesia Real Estate Investment Trusts DIRE 51 XMJM DINFRA TOLL ROAD MANDIRI-001 Infrastructure Investment Trusts DINFRA 52 BM05 Benchmark Bond 05 Government Bonds Obligasi Negara 53 BM10 Benchmark Bond 10 Government Bonds Obligasi Negara 54 GB05 Basket Bond 05Y Government Bonds Obligasi Negara 55 GB10 Basket Bond 10Y Government Bonds Obligasi Negara Simpulan Well, IDX-IC adalah sebuah klasifikasi industri terbaru yang diresmikan pada tanggal 25 Januari 2021.

IDX-IC menggantikan klasifikasi industri JASICA. Perusahaan yang terdaftar di BEI akan tetap sama, namun mereka dikelompokkan berdasarkan industri terbaru.

Bagi Anda yang mungkin ingin melakukan penelitian, Anda masih bisa menggunakan populasi perusahaan yang terdaftar di BEI pada JASICA. Namun, jika memungkinkan, Anda bisa menggunakan versi terbaru, IDX-IC. We are the best blockchain technology and crypto media platform in Indonesia, and also professionally managed trusted site that cover stocks, CFDs, forex, derivatives, and other popular financial instruments.

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Radiasi benda-hitam adalah salah satu jenis radiasi elektromagnetik termal yang terjadi di dalam atau di sekitar benda dalam keadaan kesetimbangan termodinamika dengan lingkungannya atau saat ada proses pelepasan dari benda hitam. Benda hitam merupakan benda yang buram dan tidak memantulkan cahaya. Diasumsikan demi perhitungan dan teori berada pada suhu konstan dan seragam.

Radiasi ini memiliki spektrum dan intensitas spesifik yang bergantung hanya benda temperatur benda. [1] [2] [3] [4] Radiasi panas yang dilepaskan spontan oleh banyak benda dapat diperkirakan sebagai radiasi benda hitam. Sebuah daerah terinsulasi sempurna yang berada pada kesetimbangan termal secara internal berisi radiasi benda-hitam dan akan melepaskannya melalui lubang yang dibuat pada dinding, lubang dibuat kecil sehingga tidak berpengaruh pada kesetimbangan.

Benda-hitam pada suhu ruang terlihat hitam, karena semua energi yang ia radiasikan adalah inframerah dan tak dapat dilihat mata manusia. Karena mata manusia tak dapat melihat warna pada intensitas cahaya sangat rendah, sebuah benda hitam jika dilihat dalam gelap terlihat berwarna abu-abu (namun ini hanya karena mata manusia hanya sensitif terhadap hitam dan putih pada intensitas cahaya sangat rendah- pada kenyataanya, frekuensi cahaya pada range terlihat tetaplah berwarna merah), meski spektrum puncaknya berada pada kisaran inframerah.

[5] Jika sedikit dipanaskan, warnanya terlihat merah tua. Jika temperatur dinaikkan terus maka menjadi biru-putih. Meski planet dan bintang tidak berada pada kesetimbangan termal dengan sekitarnya dan juga bukanlah benda hitam sempurna, radiasi benda-hitam digunakan pertama kali sebagai perkiraan untuk energi yang mereka lepas. [6] Lubang hitam adalah benda hitam yang mendekati sempurna, karena ia menyerap semua radiasi yang datang padanya.

Telah diajukan bahwa mereka melepas radiasi benda hitam (disebut radiasi Hawking), dengan suhu tergantung massa lubang hitam. [7] Istilah benda hitam pertama kali diperkenalkan oleh Gustav Kirchhoff tahun 1860.

Radiasi benda-hitam disebut juga radiasi sempurna atau radiasi temperatur atau radiasi termal. Daftar isi • 1 Spektrum • 2 Penjelasan • 3 Persamaan • 3.1 Hukum Planck tentang radiasi benda-hitam • 3.2 Hukum perpindahan Wien • 3.3 Hukum Stefan–Boltzmann • 4 Emisi tubuh manusia • 5 Hubungan temperatur antara sebuah planet dan bintangnya • 5.1 Suhu virtual bumi • 6 Efek Doppler untuk benda hitam bergerak • 7 Lihat juga • 8 Referensi • 8.1 Bibliografi • 9 Pranala luar Spektrum [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Radiasi benda-hitam memiliki karakteristik yaitu spektrum frekuensi kontinu yang bergantung hanya pada suhu benda, [8] disebut spektrum Planck atau Hukum Planck.

Spektrum ini berpuncak pada frekuensi karakteristik yang bergeser ke frekuensi tinggi jika suhu naik, dan pada suhu kamar sebagian besar emisinya berada pada daerah inframerah pada spektrum elektromagnetik. [9] [10] [11] Pada temperatur melewati 500 derajat Celsius, benda hitam mulai melepas cahaya dalam jumlah besar sehingga dapat terlihat.

Jika dilihat dalam gelap, sinar yang pertama terlihat seperti abu-abu. Jika suhu terus dinaikkan, cahaya menjadi merah gelap, kemudian kuning, dan akhirnya menjadi biru-putih. [12] [13] Ketika benda terlihat putih, ia melepas sebagian energinya sebagai radiasi ultraviolet. Matahari, dengan suhu efektif sekitar 5800 K, [14] adalah benda hitam dengan puncak spektrum emisi di tengah (warna kuning-hijau) pada spektrum terlihat, tetapi kekuatannya di ultraviolet juga besar. Radiasi benda-hitam memberikan pencerahan kepada keadaan kesetimbangan termodinamika dari radiasi rongga.

Jika setiap mode Fourier dari radiasi kesetimbangan pada rongga kosong dengan dinding yang memantul sempurna dianggap sebagai derajat kebebasan dimana energi dapat berpindah, maka menurut teorema ekuipartisi di fisika klasik, akan ada jumlah energi yang sama di tiap mode. Karena jumlah mode-nya tak terbatas maka berakibat pada kapasitas panas tak terbatas (energi tak terbatas pada suhu tidak nol berapapun), begitu juga dengan spektrum radiasi terlepas yang naik tanpa hubungan dengan naiknya frekuensi, masalah yang dikenal dengan bencana ultraungu.

Namun, pada teori kuantum bilangan okupasi mode dikuantisasi, memotong spektrum apa itu omega dan alpha frekuensi tinggi sesuai dengan pengamatan eksperimen dan menyelesaikan masalah. Studi mengenai hukum benda hitam dan kegagalan fisika klasik untuk menjelaskannya menjadi dasar bagi mekanika kuantum. Penjelasan [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Warna benda hitam mulai 800K sampai 12200K. Semua zat normal ( barionik) melepas apa itu omega dan alpha elektromagnetik ketika suhunya diatas absolut nol.

Radiasi ini melambangkan perubahan energi panas benda menjadi energi elektromagnetik, dan karena itu disebut radiasi termal. Proses ini merupakan proses spontan distribusi radiatif dari entropi. Sebaliknya semua benda normal menyerap radiasi elektromagnetik sampai derajat tertentu.

Benda yang menyerap semua radiasi yang jatuh padanya, pada semua panjang gelombang, disebut benda hitam. Jika benda hitam berada pada suhu yang seragam, emisinya memiliki distribusi frekuensi karakteristik yang tergantung dari suhu. Emisinya disebut radiasi benda-hitam. Konsep benda hitam adalah idealisasi, karena benda hitam sempurna tidak ada di alam. [15] Grafit dan karbon hitam, dengan emisivitas lebih dari 0.95, adalah perkiraan material apa itu omega dan alpha. Secara eksperimen, radiasi benda-hitam dapat muncul sempurna sebagai radiasi kesetimbangan steady-state stabil pada rongga dalam benda tegar, pada suhu seragam, yang sepenuhnya buram dan hanya sedikit memantul (reflektif).

[15] Sebuah boks tertutup dengan dinding grafit pada suhu kontan dengan lubang kecil pada satu sisi menghasilkan perkiraan yang baik bagi radiasi benda-hitam memancar dari bukaannya. [16] [17] Radiasi benda hitam memiliki distribusi intensitas radiatif yang stabil, absolut, dan unik yang dapat bertahan dalam kesetimbangan termodinamika dalam rongga.

[15] Dalam kesetimbangan, untuk tiap frekuensi, total intensitas radiasi yang dilepas dan dipantulkan dari sebuah benda (jumlah radiasi bersih yang meninggalkan permukaan, disebut radiansi spektral) ditentukan hanya dengan temperatur kesetimbangan, tidak tergatung dari bentuk, material, atau struktur benda.

[18] Untuk benda hitam (penyerap sempurna) tidak ada radiasi yang dipantulkan, maka radiansi spektral sepenuhnya akibat emisi. Selain itu, benda hitam adalah diffuse emitter (emisinya tidak tergantung arah). Akibatnya, radiasi benda-hitam dapat dilihat sebagai radiasi dari benda hitam pada kesetimbangan termal.

Radiasi benda hitam akan memancarkan cahaya yang dapat dilihat jika suhu objek cukup tinggi. Titik Draper adalah temperatur dimana semua padatan memancarkan warna merah redup, berkisar 798 K. [19] [20] Pada 1000 K, bukaan kecil pada rongga dinding benda buram yang dipanaskan, dilihat dari luar, berwarna merah; pada 6000 K, akan terlihat putih.

Tidak peduli bagaimana oven itu dibuat atau materialnya dari apa, selama semua cahaya diserap oleh dindingnya, maka dapat dianggap perkiraan yang baik untuk radiasi benda-hitam. Spektrum dan warna cahaya yang keluar menjadi gungsi temperatur rongga saja. Grafik yang berisi jumlah energi didalam oven per satuan volume dan per satuan interval frekuensi yang diplot vs frekuensi, disebut kurva benda-hitam.

Kurvanya berbeda-beda untuk tiap suhu. Temperatur aliran lava Pāhoehoe dapat diperkirakan berdasarkan warnanya. Hasilnya ternyata sesuai dengan pengukuran suhu lava yang berkisar 1.000 hingga 1.200 °C (1.830 hingga 2.190 °F). Dua benda yang suhunya sama berada dalam kesetimbangan termal, maka benda pada temperatur T dikelilingi oleh awan cahaya pada temperatur T, rata-rata akan melepas cahaya ke awan sebanyak yang ia serap, mengikuti azas pertukaran Prevost yang merujuk ke kesetimbangan radiatif.

Azas neraca terperinci mengatakan bahwa pada kesetimbangan termodinamik semua proses elementer dapat dipahami dengan akal sehat dilihat dari sisi depan maupun sisi belakang. [21] [22] Prevost juga membuktikan bahwa emisi dari sebuah benda secara logika ditentukan hanya dari keadaan internalnya.

Efek sebab akibat absorpsi dalam emisi termodinamik (spontan) tidak secara langsung karena hanya berakibat pada keadaan internal benda. Hal ini berarti pada kesetimbangan termodinamik jumlah setiap panjang gelombang pada tiap arah radiasi termal dilepas oleh benda pada temperatur T, hitam atau bukan, sama dengan jumlah yang diserap benda karena ia dikelilingi cahaya pada temperatur T.

[23] Ketika benda adalah hitam, absorpsinya jelas: jumlah cahaya yang diserap adalah semua yang mengenai permukaan. Untuk benda hitam yang lebih besar daripada panjang gelombang, energi cahaya yang diserap pada panjang gelombang λ berapapun per satuan waktu adalah berbanding lurus dengan kurva benda-hitam. Hal ini berarti kurva benda-hitam adalah jumlah energi cahaya yang dilepas oleh benda hitam. Ini menjadi kondisi untuk pengaplikasian Hukum radiasi termal Kirchhoff: kurva benda-hitam adalah karakteristik cahaya termal, yang hanya tergantung pada temperatur dinding rongga, menyatakan bahwa dinding rongga adalah sepenuhnya buram dan sama sekali tak memantul, dan rongga berada dalam kesetimbangan termodinamik.

[24] Ketika benda hitam berukuran kecil, ukurannya sebanding dengan panjang gelombang cahaya, maka absorpsinya menjadi berbeda, karena objek kecil bukanlah penyerap yang efisien bagi cahaya dengan panjang gelombang besar, tetapi asas persamaan emisi dan absorpsi selalu digunakan pada kondisi kesetimbangan termodinamik.

Di laboratorium, radiasi benda-hitam didekati dengan radiasi dari sebuah lubang kecil dalam rongga besar ( hohlraum), dalam sebuah benda buram yang hanya memantul sebagian, yang dijaga pada suhu konstan. (Teknik ini mengarah pada istilah alternatif radiasi rongga.) Tiap cahaya yang memasuki lubang harus memantulkan dinding rongga beberapa kali sebelum ia lolos, dimana pada proses tersebut ia hampir pasti diserap. Absorpsi muncul tidak peduli berapa panjang gelombang radiasi yang masuk (selama itu kecil apa itu omega dan alpha dibandingkan dengan lubangnya).

Lubang ini, adalah pendekatan dari sebuah benda hitam teoretis dan, jika rongga dipanaskan, densitas spektral daya dari radiasi lubang (jumlah cahaya yang dilepas dari lubang tiap panjang gelombang) akan kontinu, dan hanya akan tergantung dari suhu dan fakta bahwa dindingnya buram dan paling tidak menyerap sebagian, tapi tidak pada material tertentu dimana mereka dibuat atau pada material dalam rongga (bandingkan dengan spektrum emisi).

Perhitungan kurva benda-hitam merupakan tantangan utama dalam fisika teoretis selama abad ke-19. Masalah ini diselesaikan tahun 1991 oleh Max Planck yang saat ini dikenal dengan Hukum Planck untuk radiasi benda-hitam.

[25] Dengan mengubah hukum radiasi Wien (tidak sama dengan hukum perpindahan Wien) konsisten dengan termodinamika dan elektromagnetisme, ia menemukan persamaan matematika dengan mem- fitting apa itu omega dan alpha percobaan dengan hasil yang lumayan baik. Planck harus mengasumsi bahwa energi osilator dalam rongga dikuantisasi, dengan kata lain ia ada pada kelipatan bilangan bulat. Einstein mengembangkan ide ini dan mengajukan kuantisasi radiasi elektromagnetik pada tahun 1905 untuk menjelaskan efek fotolistrik.

Teori ini akhirnya menggantikan elektromagnetisme klasik dengan munculnya elektrodinamika kuantum. Kuanta ini disebut foton dan rongga benda-hitam disebut berisi gas foton. Kemudian, ia mengarahkan pada pengembangan distribusi probabilitas kuantum, disebut statistik Fermi–Dirac dan statistik Bose–Einstein, tiap hukum diaplikasikan ke kelas partikel yang berbeda, fermion dan boson.

Panjang gelombang dimana radiasi pada posisi terkuat dinyatakan pada hukum perpindahan Wien, dan daya keseluruhan yang dilepas per satuan luas dinyatakan pada Hukum Stefan–Boltzmann.

Maka, jika temperatur meningkat, warna terang berubah dari merah menjadi kuning, kemudian putih, dan menjadi biru. Meski jika puncak panjang gelombang menjadi ultra-violet, radiasi tetap dilepaskan pada panjang gelombang biru dan benda tetap terlihat biru. Benda tidak mungkin menjadi tak terlihat - radiasi cahaya terlihat meningkat secara monotonik terhadap suhu. [26] Radiansi atau intensitas teramati bukan merupakan fungsi arah. Apa itu omega dan alpha, benda hitam adalah radiator Lambertian sempurna.

Benda real tidak pernah berperilaku seperti benda hitam ideal, dan radiasi yang dilepaskan pada frekuensi tersebut itu hanya sebagian dari emisi ideal seharusnya. Emisivitas material menspesifikasi seberapa baik sebuah benda meradiasikan energi jika dibandingkan dengan benda hitam. Emisivitas ini tergantung dari beberapa faktor seperti suhu, sudut emisi, dan panjang gelombang.

Namun, pada ilmu rekayasa pada umumnya diasumsikan bahwa emisivitas dan absorpsivitas permukaan tidak tergantung pada panjang gelombang, sehingga besar emisivitas adalah konstan. Hal ini dikenal dengan asumsi "benda abu-abu". Citra WMAP 9-tahun (2012) dari radiasi latar gelombang mikro kosmik melintasi alam semesta. [27] [28] Dengan permukaan non-hitam, penyimpangan dari perilaku benda-hitam ideal ditentukan dari struktur permukaan, seperti kekasaran atau granularitas, dan komposisi kimia.

Pada basis "per panjang gelombang", benda real dalam keadaan kesetimbangan termodinamika lokal masih mengikuti Hukum Kirchhoff: emisivitas sama dengan absorptivitas, maka objek yang tidak menyerap semua cahaya juga akan melepas radiasi lebih sedikit daripada benda hitam ideal; radiasi tak sempurna dapat disebabkan karena cahaya ditransmisikan melalui benda atau beberapa diantaranya dipantulkan pada permukaan benda.

Dalam astronomi, objek seperti bintang sering dianggap sebagai benda hitam meskipun pendekatannya masih tidak baik. Sebuah spektrum benda hitam yang nyaris sempurna ditunjukkan oleh radiasi latar gelombang mikro kosmik.

Radiasi Hawking adalah radiasi benda-hitam hipotesis yang apa itu omega dan alpha oleh lubang hitam, pada temperatur yang tergantung dari massa, muatan, dan spin dari lubang. Jika prediksinya benar, lubang hitam secara bertahap akan menyusut dan menguap seiring waktu karena mereka kehilangan massa karena emisi foton dan partikel lainnya. Sebuah benda hitam meradiasikan energi pada semua frekuensi, tetapi intensitasnya dengan cepat cenderung ke nol pada frekuensi tinggi (panjang gelombang pendek).

Contohnya, benda hitam pada suhu ruang (300 K) dengan luas permukaan 1 meter persegi akan melepas foton pada range terlihat (390–750 nm) dengan kecepatan rata-rata tiap 1 foton tiap 41 detik, berarti benda hitam tidak melepas pada range terlihat. [29] Persamaan [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Hukum Planck tentang radiasi benda-hitam [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Artikel utama: Hukum Planck Hukum Planck menyatakan bahwa [30] I ( νT ) = 2 h ν 3 c 2 1 e h ν k T − 1{\displaystyle I(\nu ,T)={\frac {2h\nu ^{3}}{c^{2}}}{\frac {1}{e^{\frac {h\nu }{kT}}-1}},} dengan I( ν, T) adalah daya ( energi per satuan waktu) yang diradiasikan per satuan area permukaan yang melepas pada arah normal per satuan solid angle per satuan frekuensi oleh benda hitam pada temperatur T, juga dikenal dengan radiansi spektral; h adalah konstanta Planck; c adalah kecepatan cahaya dalam ruang hampa; k adalah konstanta Boltzmann; ν adalah frekuensi radiasi elektromagnetik; T adalah temperatur absolut benda.

Hukum perpindahan Wien [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Hukum perpindahan Wien menjelaskan bagaimana spektrum radiasi benda-hitam pada suhu berapapun berkorelasi dengan spektrum pada suhu lainnya. Jika diketahui bentuk spektrum pada suatu suhu, maka bentuk spektrum pada suhu lainnya dapat dihitung. Intensitas spektrum dapat dinyatakan sebagai fungsi panjang gelombang atau fungsi frekuensi. Akibat dari hukum perpindahan Wien adalah panjang gelombang saat intensitas per satuan panjang gelombang dari radiasi yang dihasilkan apa itu omega dan alpha hitam ketika maksimum, λ max {\displaystyle \lambda _{\max }}hanya sebagai fungsi temperatur: λ max = b T{\displaystyle \lambda _{\max }={\frac {b}{T}},} dengan konstanta b, dikenal dengan konstanta perpindahan Wien, sama dengan 2,8977729(17) ×10 −3 K m.

[31] Hukum Planck diatas juga dinyatakan sebagai fungsi frekuensi. Intensitas maksimum adalah ν max = T × 58.8 G H z / K {\displaystyle \nu _{\max }=T\times 58.8\ \mathrm {GHz} /\mathrm {K} }. [32] Apa itu omega dan alpha Stefan–Boltzmann [ sunting - sunting apa itu omega dan alpha ] Hukum Stefan–Boltzmann menyatakan bahwa daya yang dilepas per satuan luas dari permukaan benda hitam adalah berbanding lurus dengan pangkat empat suhu absolutnya: j ⋆ = σ T 4{\displaystyle j^{\star }=\sigma T^{4},} dengan j* adalah total daya yang diradiasikan per satuan luas, T adalah temperatur absolut dan σ = 5,67 ×10 −8 W m −2 K −4 adalah konstanta Stefan–Boltzmann.

Hal ini didapat dengan mengintegralkan I ( νT ) {\displaystyle I(\nu ,T)} terhadap frekuensi dan solid angle: j ⋆ = ∫ 0 ∞ d ν ∫ d Ω cos ⁡ θ ⋅ I ( νT ). {\displaystyle j^{\star }=\int _{0}^{\infty }d\nu \int d\Omega \,\cos \theta \cdot I(\nu ,T).} Faktor cos ⁡ θ {\displaystyle \cos \theta } muncul karena kita menganggap radiasi pada arah normal ke permukaan.: ∫ d Ω cos ⁡ θ = ∫ 0 2 π d ϕ ∫ 0 π / 2 d θ sin ⁡ θ cos ⁡ θ = π.

{\displaystyle \int d\Omega \,\cos \theta =\int _{0}^{2\pi }d\phi \int _{0}^{\pi /2}d\theta \,\sin \theta \cos \theta =\pi .} I ( νT ) {\displaystyle I(\nu ,T)} independen terhadap sudut dan melewati integral solid angle.

Masukkan rumus I ( νT ) {\displaystyle I(\nu ,T)} apa itu omega dan alpha j ⋆ = 2 π ( k T ) 4 c 2 h 3 ∫ 0 ∞ d x x 3 e x − 1{\displaystyle j^{\star }={\frac {2\pi (kT)^{4}}{c^{2}h^{3}}}\int _{0}^{\infty }dx\,{\frac {x^{3}}{e^{x}-1}},} dengan x ≡ h ν / k T {\displaystyle x\equiv h\nu /kT} tanpa satuan.

Integral terhadap x {\displaystyle x} memiliki nilai π 4 / 15 {\displaystyle \pi ^{4}/15}sehingga menghasilkan j ⋆ = σ T 4σ ≡ 2 π 5 15 k 4 c 2 h 3. {\displaystyle j^{\star }=\sigma T^{4},\quad \sigma \equiv {\frac {2\pi ^{5}}{15}}{\frac {k^{4}}{c^{2}h^{3}}}.} Emisi tubuh manusia [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Banyak energi manusia diradiasi keluar dalam bentuk cahaya inframerah. Beberapa material menjadi transparan pada inframerah namun buram pada cahaya tampak, seperti kantong plastik pada pencitraan inframerah berikut (bawah).

Material lainnya terlihat transparan pada cahaya terlihat, tetapi buram apa itu omega dan alpha memantul pada inframerah, seperti pada kacamata yang dipakai. Seperti zat lainnya, tubuh manusia meradiasikan beberapa energi keluar sebagai cahaya inframerah. Daya radiasi bersih adalah perbedaan antara daya yang dilepas dan daya yang diserap: P net = P emit − P absorb. {\displaystyle P_{\text{net}}=P_{\text{emit}}-P_{\text{absorb}}.} Menggunakan hukum Stefan–Boltzmann, P net = A σ ε ( T 4 − T 0 4 ){\displaystyle P_{\text{net}}=A\sigma \varepsilon \left(T^{4}-T_{0}^{4}\right),} dengan A dan T adalah luas dan suhu tubuh manusia, dan T 0 adalah temperatur ambient.

Total luas permukaan tubuh manusia dewasa sekitar 2 m 2, dan emisivitas inframerah sedang dan jauh dan sebagian besar pakaian mendekati seragam, begitu apa itu omega dan alpha untuk sebagian besar permukaan non-logam. [33] [34] Suhu kulit sekitar 33 °C, [35] namun pakaian menurunkan suhu permukaan menjadi sekitar 28 °C ketika temperatur ambient sekitar 20 °C. [36] Maka, hilangnya panas radiatif bersih sekitar P net = 100 W.

{\displaystyle P_{\text{net}}=100~{\text{W}}.} Total energi yang diradiasi per hari sekitar 9 MJ, atau 2000 kcal ( kalori makanan). Kecepatan metabolik basal untuk pria 40-tahun sekitar 35 kcal/(m 2·h), [37] yang ekivalen dengan 1700 kcal per hari, diasumsi luas permukaan 2 m 2. Namun, rata-rata kecepatan metabolik pada orang yang kurang aktif sekitar 50% - 70% lebih tinggi daripada kecepatan basalnya.

[38] Ada mekanisme hilangnya panas yang lain, yaitu konveksi dan evaporasi. Konduksi dapat diabaikan - bilangan Nusseltnya jauh lebih besar. Evaporasi dengan perspirasi hanya dibutuhkan jika radiasi dan konveksi tidak cukup untuk menjaga temperatur steady-state (tapi tanpa memperhatikan evaporasi dari paru-paru). Kecepatan konveksi bebas juga sebanding, meskipun lebih rendah daripada kecepatan radiatif. [39] Maka, radiasi mencakup sekitar dua pertiga hilangnya energi energi termal pada udara dingin.

Karena masih banyak perkiraan asumsi, maka ini masih hitungan kasar. Gerakan udara ambient, menyebabkan konveksi paksa, atau evaporasi mengurangi radiasi sebagai mekanisme hilangnya panas. Aplikasi hukum perpindahan Wien untuk emisi tubuh manusia menghasilkan puncak gelombang pada λ peak = 2.898 × 10 − 3 K ⋅ m 305 K = 9.50 μ m.

{\displaystyle \lambda _{\text{peak}}={\frac {2.898\times 10^{-3}~{\text{K}}\cdot {\text{m}}}{305~{\text{K}}}}=9.50~\mu {\text{m}}.} Untuk alasan ini, peralatan pencitraan termal untuk manusia paling sensitif pada range sekitar 7–14 mikrometer.

Hubungan temperatur antara sebuah planet dan bintangnya [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Hukum benda-hitam dapat digunakan untuk memperkirakan temperatur sebuah planet yang mengorbit matahari. Intensitas radiasi termal gelombang panjang bumi, dari awan, atmosfer, dan tanah Temperatur sebuah planet tergantung dari beberapa faktor: • Radiasi dari bintangnya • Radiasi yang dilepas planet, seperti cahaya inframerah bumi • Efek albedo yang menyebabkan sebagian cahaya dipantulkan oleh planet • Efek rumah kaca untuk planet dengan atmosfer • Energi yang dihasilkan oleh planet itu sendiri akibat peluruhan radioaktif, panas pasang surut, dan kontraksi adiabatik akibat pendinginan.

Analisis ini hanya menganggap panas matahari untuk planet-planet yang ada di tata surya. Hukum Stefan–Boltzmann merumuskan total daya (energi/detik) yang dilepas apa itu omega dan alpha matahari: Bumi hanya menyerap luasan lebih seperti disk 2 dimensi daripada permukaan bola. P S e m t = 4 π R S 2 σ T S 4 ( 1 ) {\displaystyle P_{\rm {S\ emt}}=4\pi R_{\rm {S}}^{2}\sigma T_{\rm {S}}^{4}\qquad \qquad (1)} dengan σ {\displaystyle \sigma \,} adalah konstanta Stefan–Boltzmann, T S {\displaystyle T_{\rm {S}}\,} adalah temperatur efektif matahari dan R S {\displaystyle R_{\rm {S}}\,} adalah jari-jari matahari.

Matahari melepas daya secara merata ke semua arah. Akibatnya, planet hanya menerima sebagian kecil saja. Daya dari matahari yang mengenai planet (diatas atmosfer) adalah: P S E = P S e m t ( π R E 2 4 π D 2 ) ( 2 ) apa itu omega dan alpha P_{\rm {SE}}=P_{\rm {S\ emt}}\left({\frac {\pi R_{\rm {E}}^{2}}{4\pi D^{2}}}\right)\qquad \qquad (2)} where R E {\displaystyle R_{\rm {E}}\,} adalah jari-jari planet dan D {\displaystyle D\,} adalah jarak antara matahari dan planet tersebut.

Karena suhunya tinggi, matahari melepas sebagai besar radiasinya pada rentang frekuensi ultraviolet terlihat (UV-Vis). Pada rentang frekuensi ini, planet memantulkan sebagian energi α {\displaystyle \alpha } dimana α {\displaystyle \alpha } adalah albedo atau reflektansi planet pada rentang UV-Vis.

Dengan kata lain, planet menyerap 1 − α {\displaystyle 1-\alpha } bagian dari cahaya matahari dan memantulkan sisanya. Daya yang diserap planet dan atmosfernya menjadi: P a b s = ( 1 − α ) P S E ( 3 ) {\displaystyle P_{\rm {abs}}=(1-\alpha )\,P_{\rm {SE}}\qquad \qquad (3)} Meski planet hanya menyerap sebagai luasan lingkaran π R 2 {\displaystyle \pi R^{2}}ia melepas sama rata ke semua arah sebagai bola.

Jika planet adalah benda hitam ideal, maka ia akan melepaskan sesuai dengan Hukum Stefan–Boltzmann P e m t b b = 4 π R E 2 σ T E 4 ( 4 ) {\displaystyle P_{\rm {emt\,bb}}=4\pi R_{\rm {E}}^{2}\sigma T_{\rm {E}}^{4}\qquad \qquad (4)} dengan T E {\displaystyle T_{\rm {E}}} adalah temperatur planet. Temperatur ini, dihitung untuk kasus planet yang berperilaku sebagai benda hitam dengan mengatur P a b s = P e m t b b {\displaystyle P_{\rm {abs}}=P_{\rm {emt\,bb}}}dikenal dengan temperatur efektif.

Temperatur sesungguhnya dapat berbeda, tergantung dari karakteristik permukaan dan atmosfernya. Tanpa memperdulikan atmosfer dan efek rumah kaca, maka karena suhu planet jauh dibawah suhu matahari, melepaskan sebagian besar radiasinya pada ukuran spektrum inframerah (IR).

Pada rentang frekuensi ini, planet melepas radiasi ϵ ¯ {\displaystyle {\overline {\epsilon }}} yang benda hitam akan melepas dengan ϵ ¯ {\displaystyle {\overline {\epsilon }}} adalah emisivitas rata-rata pada rentang IR. Daya yang dilepas planet adalah: P e m t = ϵ ¯ P e m t b b ( 5 ) {\displaystyle P_{\rm {emt}}={\overline {\epsilon }}\,P_{\rm {emt\,bb}}\qquad \qquad (5)} Untuk sebuah benda berada dalam kesetimbangan pertukaran radiatif dengan lingkungannya, kecepatan dimana ia melepas energi radiasi sama dengan kecepatan ia menyerapnya: [40] [41] P s e r a p = P l e p a s ( 6 ) {\displaystyle P_{\rm {serap}}=P_{\rm {lepas}}\qquad \qquad (6)} Substitusi persamaan untuk daya planet pada persamaan 1–6 dan sederhanakan menghasilkan perkiraan temperatur planet, abaikan gas rumah kaca, T P: T P = T S R S 1 − α ε ¯ 2 D ( 7 ) {\displaystyle T_{P}=T_{S}{\sqrt {\frac {R_{S}{\sqrt {\frac {1-\alpha }{\overline {\varepsilon }}}}}{2D}}}\qquad \qquad (7)} Dengan kata lain, dengan asumsi yang ada, temperatur sebuah planet hanya tergantung dari suhu permukaan matahari, radius matahari, jarak antara planet dan matahari, albedo, dan emisivitas IR dari planet.

Suhu virtual bumi [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Substitusi nilai yang diketahui untuk matahari dan bumi menghasilkan: T S = 5778 K{\displaystyle T_{\rm {S}}=5778\ \mathrm {K} ,} [42] R S = 6.96 × 10 8 m{\displaystyle R_{\rm {S}}=6.96\times 10^{8}\ \mathrm {m} ,} [42] D = 1.496 × 10 11 m{\displaystyle D=1.496\times 10^{11}\ \mathrm {m} ,} [42] α = 0.306 {\displaystyle \alpha =0.306\ } [43] Dengan emisivitas rata-rata ε ¯ {\displaystyle {\overline {\varepsilon }}} diset seragam, maka temperatur efektif bumi adalah: T E = 254.356 K {\displaystyle T_{\rm {E}}=254.356\ \mathrm {K} } atau −18.8 °C.

Ini adalah temperatur bumi jika bumi meradiasi sebagai benda hitam ideal pada inframerah, mengabaikan efek rumah kaca (yang dapat meningkatkan suhu bumi lebih daripada semestinya pada semua spektrum [44]), dan diasumsikan albedo tetap. Bumi pada nyatanya tidak meradiasikan seperti benda apa itu omega dan alpha ideal dalam inframerah sehingga meningkatkan nilai temperatur beberapa derajat diatas suhu efektif yang diperkirakan.

Jika kita ingin memperkirakan berapa suhu bumi jika tanpa atmosfer, maka kita dapat mengambil albedo dan emisivitas bulan sebagai perkiraan yang baik. Albedo dan emisivitas bulan secara berurutan sekitar 0.1054 [45] dan 0.95, [46] menghasilkan perkiraan suhu sekitar 1.36 °C. Perkiraan rata-rata albedo bumi berkisar antara 0.3–0.4, sehingga perkiraan temperatur efektif juga berbeda-beda.

Perkiraan sering didasarkan pada konstanta surya (total rapat daya insolasi) dan bukan suhu, ukuran, dan jarak matahari. Sebagai contoh, menggunakan 0.4 untuk albedo, dan insolasi 1400 W m −2, maka ditemukan suhu efektif adalah 245 K. [47] Jika menggunakan albedo 0.3 dan konstanta surya 1372 W m −2, maka temperatur efektif menjadi 255 K.

[48] [49] [50] Efek Doppler untuk benda hitam bergerak [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Efek Doppler relativistik menyebabkan perubahan pada frekuensi f cahaya dari sumber yang bergerak berhubungan terhadap pengamat, maka gelombang yang teramati memiliki frekuensi f': f ′ = f 1 − v c cos ⁡ θ 1 − v 2 / c 2{\displaystyle f'=f{\frac {1-{\frac {v}{c}}\cos \theta }{\sqrt {1-v^{2}/c^{2}}}},} dengan v adalah kecepatan sumber dalam kerangka diam pengamat, θ anatara sudut antara vektor kecepatan dan arah sumber pengamat diukur pada kerangka acuan sumber, dan c adalah laju cahaya.

[51] Hal ini dapat disederhanakan untuk beberapa kasus khusus untuk benda yang bergerak menuju ( θ = π) atau menjauh ( θ = 0) dari pengamat, dan untuk kecepatan yang jauh lebih kecil daripada c. Melalui Hukum Planck spektrum temperatur benda hitam berbanding lurus dengan frekuensi cahaya dan dapat saling disubstitusikan ke temperatur ( T) dari frekuensi di persamaan ini.

Untuk kasus dimana sumber cahaya bergerak mendekati atau menjauhi pengamat, persamaannya menjadi T ′ = T c − v c + v. {\displaystyle T'=T{\sqrt {\frac {c-v}{c+v}}}.} Disini v > 0 menunjukkan sumber menjauh, dan v < 0 menunjukkan sumber mendekati.

Hal ini merupakan efek penting dalam astronomi, dimana kecepatan bintang dan galaksi dapat mencapai kecepatan yang mendekati c.

Contohnya adalah radiasi latar gelombang mikro kosmik, yang menunjukkan dipol anisotropi dari gerak bumi relatiif terhadap medan radiasi benda hitam. Lihat juga [ sunting - sunting sumber ] • ^ Loudon 2000, Chapter 1.

apa itu omega dan alpha

• ^ Mandel & Wolf 1995, Chapter 13. • ^ Kondepudi & Prigogine 1998, Chapter 11. • ^ Landsberg 1990, Chapter 13. • ^ Partington, J.R. (1949), p. 466. • ^ Ian Morison (2008). Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology.

J Wiley & Sons. hlm. 48. ISBN 0-470-03333-9. • ^ Alessandro Fabbri; José Navarro-Salas (2005). "Chapter 1: Introduction". Modeling black hole evaporation. Imperial College Press. ISBN 1-86094-527-9. • ^ Tomokazu Kogure; Kam-Ching Leung (2007). "§2.3: Thermodynamic equilibrium and black-body radiation". The astrophysics of emission-line stars. Springer. hlm. 41. ISBN 0-387-34500-0. • ^ Wien, W. (1893). Eine neue Beziehung der Strahlung schwarzer Körper zum zweiten Hauptsatz der Wärmetheorie, Sitzungberichte der Königlich-Preußischen Akademie der Apa itu omega dan alpha (Berlin), 1893, 1: 55–62.

• ^ Lummer, O., Pringsheim, E. (1899). Die Vertheilung der Energie im Spectrum des schwarzen Körpers, Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gessellschaft (Leipzig), 1899, 1: 23–41. • ^ Planck 1914 • ^ Draper, J.W. (1847). On the production of light by heat, London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, series 3, 30: 345–360. [1] • ^ Partington 1949, hlm. 466–467, 478. • ^ Goody & Yung 1989, hlm. 482, 484 • ^ a b c Planck 1914, hlm.

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• ^ Stewart 1858 • ^ Huang, Kerson (1967). Statistical Mechanics. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-81518-7. • ^ Planck, Max (1901). "On the Law apa itu omega dan alpha Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum". Annalen der Physik. 4 (3): 553. Bibcode: 1901AnP.309.553P. doi: 10.1002/andp.19013090310. • ^ Landau, L.

D.; E. M. Lifshitz (1996). Statistical Physics (edisi ke-3rd Edition Part 1). Oxford: Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 0-521-65314-2. • ^ Gannon, Megan (December 21, 2012). "New 'Baby Picture' of Universe Unveiled". Space.com. Diakses tanggal December 21, 2012.

• ^ Bennett, C.L.; Larson, L.; Weiland, J.L.; Jarosk, N.; Hinshaw, N.; Odegard, N.; Smith, K.M.; Hill, R.S.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M.R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D.N.; Wollack, E.; Dunkley, J.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S.S.; Tucker, G.S.; Wright, E.L.

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• ^ Matematika:Intensitas planck (energi/det/area/solid angle/panjang gelombang) adalah: i wt = 2 h c 2 w 5 ( exp ⁡ ( h c / w k t ) − 1 ) {\displaystyle apa itu omega dan alpha {2hc^{2}}{w^{5}(\exp(hc/wkt)-1)}}} i[w_, t_] = 2*h*c^2/(w^5*(Exp[h*c/(w*k*t)] - 1)) Jumlah foton/detik/area adalah: NIntegrate[2*Pi*i[w, 300]/(h*c/w), {w, 390*10^(-9), 750*10^(-9)}] = 0.0244173.

• ^ Rybicki & Lightman 1979, hlm. 22 • ^ http://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/cuu/Value?bwien • ^ Nave, Dr. Rod. "Wien's Displacement Law and Other Ways to Characterize the Peak of Blackbody Radiation". HyperPhysics. Provides 5 variations of Wien's displacement law • ^ Infrared Services. "Emissivity Values for Common Materials".

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Reidel Publishing, Dordrecht, ISBN 90-277-1296-4, page 227. • ^ a b c NASA Sun Fact Sheet • ^ Cole, George H. A.; Woolfson, Michael M. (2002). Planetary Science: The Science of Planets Around Stars (1st ed.). Institute of Physics Publishing. hlm. 36–37, 380–382. ISBN 0-7503-0815-X. • ^ Principles of Planetary Climate by Raymond T. Peirrehumbert, Cambridge University Press (2011), p. 146. From Chapter 3 which is available online here Diarsipkan March 28, 2012, di Wayback Machine., p.

12 mentions that Venus' black-body temperature would be 330 K "in the zero albedo case", but that due to atmospheric warming, its actual surface temperature is 740 K. • ^ Saari, J. M.; Shorthill, R. W. (1972). "The Sunlit Lunar Surface. I. Albedo Studies and Full Moon". The Moon. 5 (1–2): 161–178. Bibcode: 1972Moon.5.161S. doi: 10.1007/BF00562111. • ^ Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVII (2006) 2406 • ^ Michael D. Papagiannis (1972). Space physics and space astronomy. Taylor & Francis.

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(1995). Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-41711-2. • Mehra, J.; Rechenberg, H. (1982). The Historical Development of Quantum Theory. volume 1, part 1. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-90642-8. • Mihalas, D.; Weibel-Mihalas, B. (1984). Foundations apa itu omega dan alpha Radiation Hydrodynamics.

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288 (5): 132–165. Bibcode: 1894AnP.288.132W. doi: 10.1002/andp.18942880511. Pranala luar [ sunting - sunting sumber ] • Calculating Black-body Radiation Interactive calculator with Doppler Effect. Includes most systems of units. • Color-to-Temperature demonstration at Academo.org • Cooling Mechanisms for Human Body – From Hyperphysics • Descriptions of radiation emitted by many different objects • Black-Body Emission Applet Diarsipkan 2010-06-09 di Wayback Machine.

• "Blackbody Spectrum" by Jeff Bryant, Wolfram Demonstrations Project, 2007. • Halaman ini terakhir diubah pada 10 Maret 2022, pukul 02.50. • Teks tersedia di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa; ketentuan tambahan mungkin berlaku. Lihat Ketentuan Penggunaan untuk lebih jelasnya. • Kebijakan privasi • Tentang Wikipedia • Penyangkalan • Tampilan seluler • Pengembang • Statistik • Pernyataan kuki • •

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