Pres sgp

pres sgp

The Istana, the official residence of the President of Singapore, photographed in January 2006 Pres sgp elections in Singapore, in which the President of Singapore is directly elected by popular vote, were introduced through amendments to the Constitution of Singapore in 1991.

Potential candidates for office must meet stringent qualifications set out in the Constitution. Certificates of eligibility are issued by the Presidential Elections Committee (PEC). In particular, the PEC must assess that they are persons of pres sgp, good character and reputation; and if they have not previously held certain key government appointments or were the chief executives of profitable companies with shareholders' equity of an average of S$500 million for the most recent three years in that office, they must demonstrate to the PEC that they held a position of comparable seniority and responsibility in the public or private sector that has given them experience and ability in administering and managing financial affairs.

The general strictness of the qualifications has resulted in three out of the five presidential elections being walkovers, as presidents S. R. Nathan and Halimah Yacob were the sole candidates to receive a certificate of eligibility from the PEC in their respective years in the 1999, 2005 and 2017 elections. The stringent criteria, the transparency of the PEC's decision-making process and the practice of political parties endorsing candidates have drawn criticism. Since the constitutional amendments made in 2016, a presidential election will be reserved for a community in Singapore if no one from that community has been president for any of the five most recent terms of office of the president.

The communities are the Chinese community, the Malay community, and the Indian or other minority communities.

Candidates are required to satisfy the usual qualification criteria. The 2017 election was the first reserved election, and was reserved for the Malay community. The office of President falls vacant upon the expiry of the incumbent's six-year term or if the President is for some reason unable to complete his or her pres sgp for example, due to death, resignation or removal from office for misconduct or mental or physical infirmity.

If the office of President becomes vacant before the incumbent's term expires, a poll for an election must be held within six months. In other cases, an election can take place any time from three months before the expiry of the incumbent's term of office. The procedure for elections is laid out in the Presidential Elections Act ( Cap. 240A, 2011 Rev. Ed.). The process begins when the Prime Minister issues a writ of election to the returning officer specifying the date and place of nomination day.

Potential candidates must obtain certificates of eligibility from the PEC, in most cases community certificates from the Community Committee, and political donation certificates from the Registrar of Political Donations stating that they have complied with the Political Donations Act ( Cap. 236, 2001 Rev. Ed.). These documents must be submitted together with a nomination paper to the returning officer on nomination day. In addition, by that day, potential candidates must pay a deposit to the returning officer.

If there is only one candidate nominated, he or she is declared to have been elected president. Otherwise, the returning officer issues a notice of contested election specifying when polling day will be.

During the election pres sgp, a candidate may not spend more than $600,000 or 30 cents for each person on the electoral register, whichever is greater. Candidates may publish election advertising on the Internet, and participate in scheduled television and radio broadcasts. Permits must be obtained to hold election meetings and display posters and banners. A number of acts are unlawful, including bribery, dissuading electors from voting, making false statements about candidates, treating and undue influence.

It is also a criminal offence to publish election surveys, and exit polls on polling day before the polls have closed. Legal changes introduced in 2010 made the eve of polling day a "cooling-off day" – campaigning must not take place on that day or on polling day itself.

Contents • 1 The Elected President scheme • 2 Qualifications • 2.1 Strictness of qualifications • 2.2 Political endorsement • 2.3 Reserved elections • 3 Election procedure • 3.1 Issuance of writ of election • 3.2 Application for certificate of eligibility • 3.3 Application for community certificate • 3.4 Political donations • 3.5 Nomination • 3.6 Campaigning • 3.7 Eve of polling day and polling day • 3.8 Declaration that election is void • 4 Election results • 5 See also • 6 Notes • 7 References • 7.1 Legislation • 7.2 Other materials • 8 Further reading • 9 External links The Elected President scheme [ edit ] The President of Singapore is the nation's head of state.

[1] The President was originally indirectly elected by Parliament [2] and had a largely ceremonial role. The Elected President scheme was instituted in 1991 through a constitutional amendment, [3] which transformed the office of President into one directly elected by the people. The scheme conferred additional powers on the President that enabled him or her to act as a safeguard or "second key" over Singapore's rich financial reserves built up by the Government.

[4] Additionally, the President exercises a custodial role over the integrity of the public service [5] with the power to veto public appointments and check against abuses of power by the government. [6] In practice, however, the President's role remains mostly ceremonial. In most cases, the Constitution requires the President to exercise his or her powers on the advice of the Cabinet or a minister acting under the Cabinet's general authority.

Qualifications [ edit ] The qualifications required for a person to be elected as President are set out in the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore and are as follows: • Pres sgp or she must be a citizen of Singapore. [7] • He or she must not be less than 45 years of age. [8] • His or her name must appear in a current register of electors. [9] • He or she must be resident in Singapore at the date of his or her nomination for election and must have been so resident for periods amounting in the aggregate to not less than ten years prior to that pres sgp.

[10] • He or she must not be subject to any of the following disqualifications: [11] (a) being and having been found or declared to be of unsound mind; (b) being an undischarged bankrupt; (c) holding an office of profit; (d) having been nominated for election to Parliament or the office of President pres sgp having acted as election agent to a person so nominated, failing to lodge any return of election expenses required by law within the time and in the manner so required; (e) having been convicted of an offence by a court of law in Singapore or Malaysia and sentenced to imprisonment for a term of not less than one year or to a fine of not less than S$2,000 and having not received a free pardon, provided that where the conviction is by a court of law in Pres sgp, the person shall not be disqualified unless the offence is also one which, had it been committed in Singapore, would have been punishable by a court of law in Singapore; [12] (f) having voluntarily acquired the citizenship of, or exercised rights of citizenship in, a foreign country, or having made a declaration of allegiance to a foreign country; [13] (g) being disqualified under any law relating to offences in connection with elections to Parliament or the office of President by reason of having been convicted of such an offence or having in proceedings relating to such an election been proved guilty of an act constituting such an offence.

• He or she must be a person of integrity, good character and reputation. [14] • He or she must not be a member of any political party on the date of his or her nomination for election. [15] • He or she must satisfy either the public sector or private sector service requirement introduced on 1 April 2017: [16] • Public sector service requirement. The person must have held office: (a) as Minister, Chief Justice, Speaker, Attorney-General, Chairman of the Public Service Commission, Auditor-General, Accountant-General or Permanent Secretary; [17] (b) as the chief executive [18] of a key statutory board or government company: the Central Provident Fund Board, the Housing and Development Board, the Jurong Town Corporation, the Monetary Pres sgp of Singapore, GIC Private Limited (formerly known as the Government of Singapore Investment Corporation), or Temasek Holdings; [19] (c) in some other public sector office, and the Presidential Elections Committee ("PEC") "is satisfied, having regard to the nature of the office and the person's performance in the office, that the person has experience and ability that is comparable to the experience and ability of a person who satisfies paragraph (a) or (b)", and "that the person has the experience and ability to effectively carry out the functions and duties of the office of President".

[20] Paragraphs (a) and (b) above have been described as the "automatic track", and paragraph (c) as the "deliberative track". [21] The person must have served in the above capacity for a single period of three or more years [22] or for two periods adding up to three or more years, [23] and the period(s) of service must fall partly or wholly within the 20-year period before the date when a writ of election is issued to initiate the presidential election process.

[24] • Private sector service requirement. The person must have served in one of the following capacities: (a) As the chief executive of a company [25] with an average of $500 million in shareholders' equity [26] for the most recent three years in that office, and pres sgp is profitable after taxes. [27] If the person is no longer the company's chief executive when the writ of election is issued, the company must not have been subject to any insolvency event [28] for three years from the last day of the person's service, or the date of the writ of election, whichever is earlier, assessed on the basis of events happening on or before the writ pres sgp election.

[29] (b) In an office in a private sector organisation, and the PEC is "satisfied, having regard to the nature of the office, the size and complexity of the private sector organisation and the person's performance in the office, that the person has the experience and ability that is comparable to the experience and ability of a person who has served as the chief executive of a typical company with at least [a shareholders' equity of $500 million] and who satisfies paragraph (a) pres sgp relation to such service", and "that the person has the experience and ability to effectively carry out the functions and duties of the office of President".

[30] Again, paragraph (a) is the automatic track, and paragraph (b) the deliberative track. The person must have served in the above capacity for a single period of three or more years [31] or for two periods adding up to three or more years, [32] and the period(s) of service must fall partly or wholly within the 20-year period before the date when a writ of election is issued to initiate the presidential election process.

[24] The public and private sector service requirements were adopted by Parliament on the recommendation of a Constitutional Commission chaired by Chief Justice Sundaresh Menon, which had been convened by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong to recommend improvements to the Elected President scheme.

In its report issued on 17 August 2016, the Commission said it was desirable to make the requirements more stringent to ensure the President "has the technical competence and expertise to discharge the functions and exercise the powers of the Presidency appropriately and effectively". [33] Furthermore, stricter qualifications would "temper any politicisation of the Presidential office and of the election process": they would "likely reduce the prospect that candidates will target their campaigns at their opponent's character and qualifications, since each candidate who qualifies would have satisfied the PEC that they possess those traits".

[34] There is no restriction on the number of times a qualified person can be elected president. Strictness of qualifications [ edit ] Tony Tan Keng Yam, the President of Singapore from 2011 to 2017 The strict qualifications required of presidential candidates resulted in walkovers during the elections of 1999, 2005 and 2017.

The incumbent President Ong Teng Cheong did pres sgp run for a second term at the 1999 presidential election, saying that he had no compelling reason to do so. [35] In addition to the eventual winner, Sellapan Ramanathan (better known as S. R. Nathan), the other potential candidates were Tan Soo Phuan, a member of the opposition Workers' Party of Singapore; and Ooi Boon Ewe, a private tutor turned real estate executive.

[36] Both of them were found pres sgp to have met the criteria to stand for election. As a result, Nathan, a former civil servant and Ambassador to the Pres sgp States, was deemed to have been elected president.

At the presidential election of 2005, the persons who applied for a certificate of eligibility to contest the election were Nathan, Ooi and Ramachandran Govindasamy Naidu. However, as Nathan was again the only candidate issued with a certificate, he was elected by default on nomination day. [37] The strict requirements have been justified on the basis that the President should be a person of integrity and moral standing, with the ability to monitor the financial affairs of the state and the management of the public service sector.

[38] Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong has argued that this stringent screening process is necessary as the President does not stand as a political party nominee. He is thus not subjected to the internal screening mechanism of the ruling People's Action Party (PAP). [39] The qualifying criteria have been criticised as elitist and pro-establishment in nature. [40] The argument against allowing the electorate to elect as President a candidate of their choice without the need for candidates to meet detailed qualification criteria has been said to be "unconvincing" and predicated on "the government's paternalistic distrust of the electorate".

[41] It has been pointed out that the stringent criteria severely limit the pool of available candidates. In 2005, the Prime Minister's press secretary estimated that only 700 to 800 people potentially satisfied the criteria. [42] This may be contrary to the principle of equality under the law as it "impairs the equal right of candidature".

It also runs contrary to the principle of democracy which "demands that a broad selection of people should pres sgp able to stand for high public office". [43] However, the press secretary wrote that the dignity of the office of the President and Singapore's reputation would be diminished by elections in which "manifestly unfit candidates participate, just for the sake of having one".

[44] Political endorsement [ edit ] Singapore law does not prevent political parties, the Government, or non-governmental bodies with close government ties from endorsing candidates. The first presidential election in Singapore in 1993 pitted Ong Teng Cheong, a former PAP Member of Parliament who had been Deputy Prime Minister and Chairman of the National Trades Union Congress (NTUC), against the former Accountant-General, Chua Kim Yeow. [45] Chua showed initial reluctance, accepting the nomination only as his "national duty" [46] and even proclaiming Ong to be the far superior candidate.

[47] He declined to campaign, saying he could not afford it. [48] However, he did address the populace via two ten-minute broadcasts offered by state-owned television and radio stations. [49] His appeal was based on preventing an over-concentration of powers – he asked Singaporeans whether they wanted the PAP to dominate the Presidency as well. [50] In contrast, Ong invested $50,000 to $60,000 of his own money in the campaign. He was assisted by the NTUC which mobilized its 230,000 members to canvass at least five votes each for pres sgp former union boss.

[51] Ong was backed by Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong who appealed to Singaporeans to vote for him. On polling day, 28 August 1993, Ong received 952,513 votes (58.7%) and Chua 670,358 votes (41.3%) out of a total of 1,756,517 votes. [52] Ong was thus declared the first Elected President of Singapore. Ironically, Ong himself said that his links to the PAP might have cost him a few percentage points in votes. [53] Given the strong show of government support for Ong, commentators expressed the view that Ong's victory meant a victory for the PAP and the continuation of its values and style of governance.

Although the votes for Ong fell short of the PAP's expected 60–70% range, the result was not seen as a repudiation of the PAP [54] but as indicative of Singaporeans' appetite for stronger checks and balances.

[55] At both the 1999 and 2005 presidential elections, S. R. Nathan was elected by default as the only eligible candidate on nomination day. While being a member of a minority community worked to his advantage, he was unanimously endorsed by the 1999 Cabinet because of the merit of his overall qualities.

[56] Similarly, Nathan's decision to run for a second term in 2005 was accompanied by declarations of support from Government ministers and organizations like the NTUC. [57] Halimah Pres sgp, who was declared elected as president on 13 September 2017 as she was the only person the PEC found qualified to be a candidate in the 2017 election, is a former Speaker of Parliament and a former member of the PAP's Central Executive Committee.

[58] She was endorsed by the Prime Minister and the NTUC. [59] The practice of the PAP endorsing a candidate has led to criticisms that this is improper as the Government is essentially "revealing who they would rather have as their supervisor".

[60] Ong, who received the PAP's endorsement during the 1991 elections, revealed in a later interview: [61] [T]here was a swing of support over to my opponent's side, especially in the educated class . The issue was whether they wanted a PAP man as president to check on a PAP government, or whether it would be better to have a neutral independent like Chua. That's why they voted against me because I had the PAP government support. I would have been happier without the PAP's open support.

Furthermore, such endorsements can be said to undermine the principle that a candidate for President should not be beholden to any political formation, which is reflected in the requirement for a candidate not to be a member of any political party. [60] The Menon Constitutional Commission declined to recommend that political endorsements be prohibited, expressing the view that "[p]olitical parties are likely pres sgp have strong and potentially relevant views on the merits or demerits of Presidential candidates.

The presence of an endorsement by a political party might be a factor that voters might wish to consider in the exercise of their vote. The Commission also considers that it would not be feasible, in any case, to prevent endorsements by politicians speaking in their public, as opposed to personal, capacities, as it would be very difficult to distinguish between the two in practice." [62] Reserved elections [ edit ] Constitutional amendments that came into effect on pres sgp April 2017 provide for a presidential election to be reserved for a community in Pres sgp if no one from that community has been President for any of the five most recent terms of office of the president.

[63] Candidates are required to satisfy the usual qualification criteria, [64] and the communities are the Chinese community, the Malay community, and the Indian or other minority communities, and persons belonging to these communities are defined as follows: [65] • Chinese community – "any person who considers himself/herself to be a member of the Chinese community and who is generally accepted as a member of the Chinese community by that community".

• Malay community – "any person, whether of the Malay race or otherwise, who considers himself/herself to be a member of the Malay community and who is generally accepted as a member of the Malay community by that community". • Indian or other minority communities – "any person of Indian origin who considers himself/herself to be a member of the Indian community and who is generally accepted as a member of the Indian community by that community, or any person who belongs to any minority community other than the Malay or Indian community".

A writ of election may declare that a presidential election is reserved for one, two or three communities. If an election is reserved for either two or three communities, then in the first place the election is reserved for the community that has not had a representative as Pres sgp for the greater number of consecutive terms of office before the election. If the election "wholly fails" in the sense that no person from the community stands or will stand nominated as a candidate on nomination day, [66] a fresh writ of election must be issued for an election reserved for the community that has not had a representative as President for the next greatest number of consecutive terms of office, and so on.

[67] If all the reserved elections wholly fail, an open election (one in which the candidates need not be from any particular community) will be held. [68] The Menon Constitution Commission recommended that a reserved election procedure be introduced as "[i]t enables the representation of all racial groups in the Presidency in a meaningful way while pres sgp minimally prescriptive. […] Further, it is also race-neutral as it does not single out any one ethnic group for protection.

Most importantly, it has a 'natural sunset' – if free and unregulated elections produce Presidents from a varied distribution of ethnicities, the requirement of a reserved election will never pres sgp triggered." [69] For the purpose of determining if an election is reserved or not, Parliament amended the Presidential Elections Act [70] to declare the presidential terms that would be counted, as follows: [71] Term no.

President Community 1 Wee Kim Wee Chinese 2 Ong Teng Cheong Chinese 3 S. R. Nathan Indian 4 5 Tony Tan Keng Yam Chinese 6 As the result was to cause the 2017 election to be reserved for the Malay community, Tan Cheng Bock, a Chinese Singaporean who received the second highest number of votes in the 2011 presidential election, was not entitled to participate in it. This led to suggestions that the reserved election scheme was an elaborate plan to block his candidacy, [72] [73] with some social media users mockingly referring to the move as "Tan Cheng Block".

[72] [74] At a dialogue on the changes to the Elected President scheme on 15 September 2016, Law Minister K. Shanmugam addressed the allegation, saying: "[A]sk yourself logically, […] do we, as a Government, do what is right, based on the system, or do we worry [that] some people are going to say this is to knock out people we don't like?

You know, more than 1,000 people will qualify from the private sector. Do you think we know who they are and we can make sure that they are all going to be OK? It’s not possible." He also expressed the view that Tan would not satisfy the new qualification criteria as he had held a non-executive post in a company, and the company did not have shareholders' equity of at least $500 million.

[75] In a Facebook post two days later, Tan asked: "Is there some truth after all that the changes in the rules was [ sic] to make sure I would not be eligible? It would be a sad day for Singaporeans if a constitutional change was made because of an individual." [76] The Singapore Government denied the accusation, [72] Shanmugam stating at another forum held on 18 September that the amendments to the Elected President scheme were aimed at "improving the system for Singapore's long-term future, not at barring certain individuals from standing".

[76] Tan subsequently challenged the constitutionality of including President Wee Kim Wee in the list before the courts. He argued that the Constitution should be interpreted as requiring only Presidents who had been elected in a popular election to be counted, whereas Wee had only exercised the powers of an Elected President without having gone through such an election.

[77] Both the High Court [78] and Court of Appeal [79] disagreed, the latter holding that Parliament had, pres sgp enacting Article 164 of the Constitution, legitimately given itself the power to specify the first presidential term to be counted for determining whether an election is reserved.

[80] On 28 August 2017, Prime Minister Lee issued a writ of election for the 2017 presidential election, [81] which was the first reserved election since the scheme's introduction. Only candidates from the Malay community were eligible to take part in it.

[82] Election procedure [ edit ] The Elections Department, which oversees elections in Singapore The President holds office for a term of six years from the date on which he assumes office. [83] The office of President becomes vacant when the term of the incumbent expires, or before this event if, among other things, the President dies, resigns, or is removed from office for misconduct or mental or physical infirmity.

[84] If the office of President falls vacant before the incumbent's term expires, a poll for an election is to be held within six months. [85] In other cases, the election must take place not more than three months before the date of expiration of the incumbent's term of office.

[86] Article 17A(1) of the Constitution provides that "[t]he President is to be elected by the citizens of Singapore in accordance with any law made by the Legislature".

The Presidential Elections Act [70] lays out the election procedure in Singapore. Issuance of writ of election [ edit ] To initiate the election process, pres sgp Prime Minister issues a writ addressed to the returning officer, who is responsible for overseeing the election. The writ of election states when nomination day will be (which must not be less than ten days nor more than a month after the date of the writ), and the place of nomination.

[87] The returning officer is required to notify the public that the writ of election has been issued and the day, time and place of nomination of candidates by publishing a notice in the Government Gazette at least four clear days before nomination day.

[88] Application for certificate of eligibility [ edit ] A potential candidate for President must apply to the Presidential Elections Committee for a pres sgp of eligibility ("COE"). This can be done any time after the office of the President falls vacant before the end of the incumbent's term, or within three months before the expiry of the incumbent's term. The deadline for applications is five days after the date when the writ of election is issued.

[89] The PEC is tasked to ensure that a candidate fulfils the necessary qualifications set out in the Constitution. The Committee consists of the Chairman of the Public Service Commission (PSC), the Chairman of the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority, a member of the Presidential Council for Minority Rights, a member or former pres sgp of the Council of Presidential Advisers, a person who is qualified to be or has been a Supreme Court judge, and a person appointed by the Prime Minister "who in the opinion of the Prime Minister has expertise and experience acquired in the private sector that is relevant to the functions of pres sgp Committee".

[90] The Chairman of the PSC chairs the committee. [91] The PEC must be satisfied that the candidate "is a person of integrity, good character and reputation", and that he or she has met either the public or private sector service requirement. [92] In particular, a candidate wishing to qualify through the deliberative route must satisfy the PEA that he or she possesses the necessary experience and ability to effectively carry out the President's functions and duties. If the candidate satisfies the PEC, the Committee must issue a COE no later than the day before nomination day.

[93] The PEC's decision as to whether a candidate fulfils the two requirements mentioned above is final and not subject to appeal or judicial review in any court. [94] The PEC is not constitutionally required to provide any justification for its decision. [95] In the absence of malice, the Committee is immune from a defamation suit when it discharges its functions under the Presidential Elections Act.

[96] The non-justiciable nature of the PEC's decisions has been criticised as contrary to the rule of law as the PEC is not accountable to any external body and its operations are pres sgp than transparent". [95] If the PEC thinks fit, it may ask an applicant for a COE or his or her referees to provide further information, [97] interview the applicant or any referee, [98] or inform itself on any matter or pres sgp any person. [99] However, a candidate has no right to insist that the Committee take any of these steps.

The JTC Summit, the present headquarters of JTC Corporation (formerly the Jurong Town Corporation). Andrew Kuan, an unsuccessful potential candidate in the 2005 presidential election, was a former CFO of the JTC. One of the potential candidates during the 2005 presidential pres sgp was Andrew Kuan, then running his own executive search firm, Blue Arrow International.

He had been a grassroots leader in Pasir Ris and a PAP member, as well as Chief Financial Officer (CFO) of the Jurong Town Corporation (JTC) and the Hyflux joint venture. [100] Kuan was thrust into the media limelight after announcing his bid.

While Kuan was financially sound, reports reflecting a range of reactions towards his bid surfaced. Whereas some saw him as "conceited" and "arrogant", there were others who spoke of him warmly. [101] This was followed by reports of him having been ousted from his position as chairman of pres sgp condominium's management committee in May 2001. [102] Reports of Kuan's performance from his former employers also surfaced. JTC reported that Kuan had needed more "handholding" than was appropriate for a CFO and had been asked to resign thrice.

Kwan asserted that his performance had been rated "good" for eight months and had received performance bonuses. [103] Another former employer, Inderjit Singh, a PAP Member of Parliament and founder of United Test & Assembly Centre, said Kuan's performance as a consultant had been unsatisfactory.

[104] Kuan lodged a defamation suit against Singh, [105] but eventually withdrew it. [106] The PEC eventually denied Kuan a COE on the grounds that he lacked the requisite financial credentials and responsibility required by the Constitution. [107] Kuan was not given an opportunity to be interviewed by the PEC despite the negative media reports, which were speculated to have contributed to the PEC's decision not to issue him a COE.

[108] The Prime Minister's press secretary said that public hearings would "politicise the decision" and therefore affect the independence of the PEC. [44] It has been argued that since the PEC's decision not to issue a COE may cast aspersions on an applicant's character, the lack of a procedure for the pres sgp to respond to negative findings in a public setting is contrary to the principles of natural justice.

This is even more so given that the PEC is immune from defamatory actions. [95] In addition, it has been said that the independence of the PEC's decision-making process could be affected by political endorsements of a candidate expressed prior to the issuance of his COE.

[60] During the 2017 election, potential candidates Farid Khan and Mohamed Salleh Marican were not issued COEs by the PEC. [109] While Khan did not reveal the grounds on which his COE application was turned down, [109] Salleh Marican disclosed the letter sent to him by the PEC which stated that the Committee had been unable to satisfy itself that he had experience and ability comparable to the chief executive of a typical company with at least $500 million in shareholders' equity.

This was because Salleh Marican's company had only averaged shareholders' equity of about $258 million for its last three financial years, which was "considerably below" $500 million. Moreover, the principal activities of the company "were those of an investment holding company, retailing of garments, holding of property as investment for rental income, investing in equities, and trading in bonds and equities".

[110] As the only qualified candidate, Halimah Yacob was declared elected as president on nomination day, 13 September 2017, without the need for a poll. [111] Application for community certificate [ edit ] With effect from 1 April 2017, each potential candidate must submit a community declaration to the Community Committee. [112] The Committee comprises a chairman, five members of the Chinese community (forming the Chinese Community Sub-Committee), five members of the Malay community (the Malay Community Sub-Committee), and five members of the Indian or other minority communities (the Indian and Pres sgp Minority Communities Sub-Committee).

[113] In a community declaration, potential candidates are required to state that they consider themselves a member of the Chinese community, Malay community, or Indian or other minority communities, and wish to apply for a community certificate to this effect. Alternatively, they can state that they do not consider themselves to be a member of any of these communities. [114] The period for submission of community declarations begins three months before the term of the incumbent President expires, and ends five days after the date of the writ of election.

[115] The Community Committee may reject a community declaration on the ground that, among other things, the declarant did not apply for a COE. [116] During a reserved election, a declaration must also be rejected if the declarant does not state that he or she considers himself or herself to be a member of the community to which the election is reserved. [117] In the 2017 election which was reserved to the Malay community, the Community Committee rejected two declarations, one from a declarant who stated he belonged to the Chinese community, and one from a declarant who said he was not a member of either the Chinese community, Malay community, or Indian or other minority communities.

[118] During a non-reserved election, potential candidates who state that they do not consider themselves to be members of the Chinese community, Malay community, or Indian or other minority communities may be given an opportunity by the Community Committee or a Sub-Committee to submit another community declaration. [119] If the Community Committee accepts a community declaration, it must then refer the declaration to the appropriate Community Sub-Committee for consideration.

If the Community Sub-Committee concludes that the declarant belongs to that community, it must issue a community certificate to the applicant. Otherwise, it must inform the declarant in writing that the application has been rejected.

[120] The decision must be communicated to the declarant no later than the eve of nomination day. [121] All decisions of the Community Committee and its Sub-Committees are final, and a community certificate is conclusive of the matters it certifies – they are not subject to appeal or review in any court.

[122] Political donations [ edit ] Under the Political Donations Act, [123] candidates for presidential elections may only receive political donations from Singapore citizens who are at least 21 years old, or Singapore-controlled companies which carry on business wholly or mainly in Singapore. [124] The receipt of anonymous donations is prohibited, [125] except for anonymous donations totalling less than $5,000 received during a period starting with the date 12 months before the date when the candidate makes the declaration referred to below and ending with nomination day.

[126] After the date of the writ of election and at least two clear days before nomination day, a candidate or prospective candidate must provide the Registrar of Political Donations with a report stating all the donations received from permissible donors that amount to at least $10,000 received during the 12 months preceding the declaration mentioned in the next sentence. [127] He must also submit to the Registrar a declaration stating, to the best of his knowledge and belief, that he did not receive any other donations required to be mentioned in the donation report, and that only donations from permissible donors or allowable anonymous donations were accepted.

[128] If this paperwork is in order, the Registrar will issue a political donation certificate not later than the eve of nomination day stating that the candidate has complied with the provisions of the Act. [129] Nomination [ edit ] A person who satisfies the eligibility requirements set out in the Constitution is entitled to be nominated as a presidential candidate. [130] Between 11:00 a.m. and 12:00 noon on nomination day, he or she must submit a nomination paper to the returning officer.

Among other things, the nomination paper must contain a statutory declaration that the person is qualified to be elected, that he or she is not a member of a political party, and that the person understands the President's constitutional role in the following terms: [131] (i) the President is the Head of State and the symbol of national unity; (ii) it is also the function of the President to safeguard the reserves of Singapore and the integrity of the Public Services of Singapore, in accordance with the specific discretionary powers conferred on the President by the Constitution; and (iii) the President must exercise his functions according to the advice of the Cabinet, except where the Constitution otherwise provides.

[132] The following documents must be submitted together with the nomination paper: [133] • A political donation certificate. • A COE. • If the election is a reserved election, a community certificate stating that he or she belongs to the community to which the election is reserved.

• If the election is a non-reserved election, and the person applied for a community certificate, the certificate issued to him or the Community Committee's written rejection of the application.

If the person submitted a community declaration that did not include pres sgp application for a community certificate, he or she must submit the Community Committee's written acceptance of the declaration and a statutory declaration that he or she does not consider himself or herself a member of the Chinese community, Malay community, or Indian or other minority communities. [134] In addition, at some time between the date of the writ of election and 12:00 noon on nomination day, the potential candidate or someone on his or her behalf must hand to the returning officer a deposit amounting to three times of 8% of the total allowances payable to an MP in the preceding pres sgp year, rounded to the nearest $500.

[135] At the 2017 presidential election, the deposit was $43,500. [136] The deposit pres sgp returned if the person is not nominated as a candidate, withdraws his or her candidature, or is eventually elected. [137] If the candidate is unsuccessful at the election, the deposit is only repaid if he or she polled more than one-eighth of the total number of votes polled, not including rejected votes.

[138] If on nomination day only one candidate stands nominated, he or she shall be declared elected to the office of president. [139] This occurred at both the 1999 and pres sgp elections, at which S. R. Nathan was deemed elected because he was the only candidate considered eligible by the PEC. The desirability of this state of affairs has been questioned on the basis pres sgp "[i]f an elected President is to have a mandate to protect the reserves and to pres sgp proposed public appointments, it is desirable that he should receive a minimum percentage of votes cast by the electorate, as an endorsement of him".

Allowing election by default arguably places the PEC's decision as to the eligibility of the candidates above the electorate's choice. [140] One commentator has said that pres sgp true contest is needed to legitimise the institution of the Elected President.

[141] On the other hand, it has been argued that if there is no contest for the Presidency it does not affect the President's right or legitimacy to hold this office: [142] [A]s long as Singaporeans believe that the Constitution is the principal source of political legitimacy, a candidate who occupies the office by virtue of a walkover, as is consistent with the Constitution, has as much moral authority as one pres sgp wins in a contested election.

If, on nomination day, there are two or more candidates nominated for election, the returning officer must immediately adjourn the election so that a poll can be taken.

He or she must assign each candidate an approved symbol to be printed on the candidate's ballot paper [143] and announce by publishing a notice of contested election in the Government Gazette with information about the forthcoming poll, including the candidates' names and symbols, the date of polling day (which must be not earlier than the 10th day or later than the 56th day after the date of the notice) and the locations of polling stations.

[144] Campaigning [ edit ] During the pres sgp period, a candidate is not permitted to spend more than $600,000 or 30 cents for each person on the electoral register, whichever is the greater amount.

[145] For the 2017 election, based on the number of electors as at 28 August 2017, the election expenses limit was $754,982.40. [146] It amounts to an illegal practice to pay to transport voters to or from the poll; [147] or to pay a voter for the use of premises to display a notice, unless the voter is an advertising agent or the transaction is carried out in the ordinary course of business.

[148] It is also an illegal practice for a person to borrow or lend, hire or rent out, or use any motor vehicle to convey voters other than himself and his family members to or from the poll. [149] Committing an illegal practice is a criminal offence, the penalty for which is a fine of up to $2,000 and disqualification for three years from being a voter or a candidate for Parliament or the office of president.

[150] The following acts are also prohibited: • Bribery. Pres sgp any one of a number of acts to induce a person to vote or refrain from voting or to reward him for having done so, such as giving or lending money; and giving or procuring an office or employment, amounts to bribery. It is also bribery for a person to procure or promise to procure that a voter exercise his vote in a certain way or that a candidate be elected as president in return for some inducement; to give money to someone else, knowing that he will use the money for bribery at an election; to accept an inducement for voting or not voting or agreeing to do so; and to induce a person to consent to being nominated as a candidate, or refrain or withdraw from being a candidate in return for some inducement.

[151] The penalty is a fine of up to $5,000 or imprisonment not exceeding three years or both; and disqualification from being registered as a voter, voting at any election, or being elected to Parliament or the office of President for seven years.

[152] • Dissuasion from voting. Dissuading or attempting to dissuade a person from voting verbally or in writing between nomination day and polling day is a criminal offence punishable with a fine of up to $2,000 pres sgp up to 12 months' jail or both. [153] • False statements.

Offenders who make or publish false statements of fact regarding the personal character or conduct of a candidate, or false statements about a candidate's withdrawal from the election, [154] are liable on pres sgp to a fine or jail of up to 12 months or both, and to the disqualifications referred to above.

[155] • Treating. Treating is the act of corruptly giving or providing, or paying in whole or part for, any food, drink, refreshment, cigarette, entertainment or other thing, or any money or ticket or other means to enable such things to be obtained, in order to corruptly influence a person to vote or refrain from voting, or to induce the person to attend an election meeting, or to reward him for having done so.

[156] The penalty is a fine of up to $5,000 or imprisonment not exceeding three years or both, and the disqualifications referred to above.

[152] • Undue influence. When a person makes use of or threatens to make use of force, violence or restraint, or inflicts or threatens to inflict temporal or spiritual injury, damage, harm or loss on a person to induce him to vote or refrain from voting, or to punish him for having done so; or uses abduction, duress or some fraudulent scheme to impede or prevent a person's free exercise of his vote, or to compel or induce him to vote or refrain from voting, this amounts to the offence of undue influence.

[157] The penalty is a fine of up to $5,000 or imprisonment not exceeding three years or both, and the disqualifications referred to above. [152] Candidates may use the Internet to publish election advertising, [158] including posting content on electronic media applications (such as digital banners, instant messaging software, mobile applications, RSS feed readers and widgets), social networking services and other websites, and sending e-mails.

SMS and MMS messages can also be sent. [159] Pres sgp must notify the returning officer pres sgp each platform on the Internet that is used to publish election advertising [160] within 12 hours after the start of the campaign period (that is, the time when the place of nomination closes on nomination day) [161] and thereafter each time before a platform is used for such publication.

[162] Candidate and their election agents must use their pres sgp efforts to ensure that all Internet election advertising is published in accordance with the law; [163] in other words, the returning officer must be satisfied that all reasonable steps in the circumstances were taken.

[164] Contravening any regulations relating to election advertising on the Internet is a criminal offence punishable by a fine of up to $1,000, jail of up to 12 months, or both. [165] Pres sgp the 2017 election, candidates were to be allowed to make two ten-minute "presidential candidate broadcasts", one to be broadcast on television and radio the day after nomination day, and pres sgp other on the eve of cooling-off day.

In addition, two discussion forums for candidates were to be organized and broadcast on television, one by Singapore Press Holdings on the third day after nomination day, and one by MediaCorp on the sixth day. [166] Eventually, the broadcasts did not take place as Halimah Yacob won the election uncontested.

[111] Tan Cheng Bock, a candidate in the 2011 presidential election, standing next to one of his campaign posters A permit from the Commissioner of Police is required if a candidate wishes to hold an election meeting between nomination day and the day before the eve of polling day.

[167] The display of banners and posters by candidates during the campaigning period must also be authorized by the returning officer, [168] who may impose conditions as to the places where or objects or things on which, and the manner in which, banners or posters may or may not be displayed.

[169] The returning officer also determines the maximum number of banners and posters that may be put up, bearing in mind the number of electors and the need to treat candidates equally. [170] Further authorization is required if a candidate wishes to display election advertising in some other medium, such as a television broadcast; a display visible from any place to which the public or a section of the public has access; or a newspaper, magazine or periodical.

[171] Election banners and posters may not be displayed in such a way that they obscure the view of other banners and posters, [172] or within 50 metres (160 ft) (or a shorter distance if so determined by the returning officer) of a polling station. [173] Making inscriptions on buildings or roads is prohibited.

[174] It is an offence to display any banner or poster in breach of the law or the terms imposed by the returning officer; and to deface, destroy or remove any authorized banner or poster. [175] Between the day when the writ of election is issued and the close pres sgp the polls on polling day, it is an offence to publish or cause to be published the results of any election survey, [176] defined as "an opinion survey of how electors will vote at an election or of the preferences of electors respecting any candidate pres sgp any issue with which an identifiable candidate is associated at an election".

[177] The penalty is a fine of pres sgp to $1,500, imprisonment of up to 12 months, or both. [178] Eve of polling day and polling day [ edit ] In 2010, legal changes were introduced to turn the eve of polling day for both presidential and parliamentary elections into a "cooling-off day" on which no campaigning would be permitted.

Prime Minister Lee justified the changes as enabling voters to think dispassionately about the candidates' stands on issues raised and reducing the chance of public disorder. [179] On the eve and on polling day itself, election advertising is prohibited, though the following activities remain unaffected: [180] • distributing a book or promoting the sale of a book for not less than its commercial value if the book was planned to be published regardless of whether there was to be an election; • publishing news relating to an election in a licensed newspaper in any medium or in a licensed radio or television broadcast; • conveying one's own political views on a non-commercial basis to another individual by telephonic or electronic transmission; • election advertising lawfully published or displayed on the Internet before the start of the eve of polling day which is not changed after its publication or display; and • the continued lawful display of posters and banners already displayed before the start of the eve of polling day.

Until the polls have closed on polling day, it is prohibited to publish an exit poll, that is, "(a) any a statement relating to the way in which voters have voted at the election where that statement is (or might reasonably be taken to be) based on information given by voters after they have voted; or (b) any forecast as to the result of the election which is (or might reasonably be taken to be) based on information so given". [181] If convicted, a person may be punished with a fine of up to $1,500, jail of up to 12 months, or both.

[182] Badges, favours, flags, rosettes, symbols, sets of colours, advertisements, handbills, placards, posters and replica voting papers may not be carried, pres sgp, used or displayed by any person or on any vehicle as political propaganda, [183] although candidates may wear replicas of the symbols allotted to them for election purposes.

[184] In addition, holding election meetings [185] and canvassing are not permitted on the day before polling day or on polling day itself.

Canvassing involves trying to persuade a person to vote or not to vote in a particular way; or visiting a voter for an election-related purpose at home or at his or her workplace.

[186] It is an offence to exercise undue influence on any person at or near a polling station: for example, trying to find out the identity of any person entering a polling station; recording voters' particulars; and waiting outside or loitering within 200 metres (660 ft) of polling stations. [187] A form showing the layout of the front of pres sgp ballot pres sgp used during presidential elections [188] Polling day is a public holiday [189] and voting is compulsory.

[190] Unless the returning officer decides otherwise, polling stations are open from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. on polling day. [191] To vote, voters must go to the polling stations assigned to them. [192] Applying for a ballot paper or voting in the name of someone else amounts to the offence of personation. [193] If a person claiming to be a voter named in the electoral register turns up at a polling station after someone else claiming to be that voter has already voted, the second person is permitted to cast what is called a "tendered vote" using a ballot paper of a different colour after taking an oath to confirm his or her identity.

[194] After the poll closes, the presiding officer of each polling station seals the ballot boxes without opening them. Candidates or their polling agents may affix their own seals to the ballot boxes. [195] The ballot boxes are then taken to counting centres to be opened and the ballots counted. [196] A candidate or his or her counting agent may ask the returning officer for a recount of votes if the difference between the number of votes for the candidate with the most votes and any other candidate's number of votes is 2% or less, excluding rejected and tendered votes.

[197] After all counts, and recounts if any, have been completed, the returning officer ascertains whether the total number of electors registered to vote overseas is less than the difference between the number of votes for the pres sgp candidates with the highest number of votes.

If so, the returning officer declares the candidate with the highest number of votes to be elected as president. If not, the overseas votes may be decisive. The returning officer then states the number of votes cast for each candidate and the date and location where the overseas votes will be counted. [198] All officers, clerks, interpreters, candidates and candidates' agents at polling stations must maintain the pres sgp of voting in stations. Before the poll is closed, they must not communicate to anyone the name of any elector who has not yet voted or his or her or identification number on the electoral register.

[199] They are prohibited from communicating information obtained during the counting of votes as to which candidate has been voted for in any particular ballot paper. Furthermore, no person is allowed to try to find out from within a polling station who a voter intends to vote for or has voted for, or to communicate with a voter after he has been given a ballot paper but before he has placed it in a ballot box.

[200] Declaration that election is void [ edit ] The Supreme Court of Singapore. The validity of a presidential election is determined by an election judge, who is the Chief Justice or a Supreme Court judge nominated by him. A person claiming to have been a candidate at a presidential election or to have had a right to be elected, or a person who voted or had a right to vote at a presidential election, [201] may apply to an election judge for a candidate's election as President to be declared void on any of the following grounds: [202] • The majority of voters was or might pres sgp been prevented from electing their preferred candidate due to a general occurrence of bribery, treating, intimidation or some other form of misconduct or circumstances.

• There was a failure to comply with the Presidential Elections Act and this affected the result of the election. • A corrupt or illegal practice in connection with the election was committed by the candidate, or by an agent of the candidate with his knowledge or consent. • The candidate personally hired someone as an election agent, canvasser or agent while aware that the person had been found guilty of a corrupt practice within the seven years before he was engaged.

• At the time the candidate was elected, he or she was disqualified from standing for election. The Chief Justice or a Supreme Court judge nominated by him acts as the election judge.

[203] The applicant for an election to be avoided may ask for a declaration that the election is void, that a particular candidate was wrongfully declared to have been elected, and/or that another candidate was duly elected. The applicant may also request for a scrutiny – that is, a re-examination of the ballot papers – if he or she alleges that an unsuccessful candidate had a majority of lawful votes. [204] When a scrutiny is conducted, the election judge may order a vote to be struck off if the voter was not on the register of electors assigned to the polling station at which the vote was recorded or was not authorized to vote at the station; [205] if the vote was obtained by bribery, treating or undue influence; if the voter committed or induced someone to commit the offence of personation; and if the vote was for a disqualified candidate and the disqualification was either a matter that the voter was aware of or was sufficiently publicized or widely known.

[206] During a scrutiny, a tendered vote that is shown to be valid will be added to the poll if any party to the proceedings asks for the vote to be added. [207] On the other hand, a registered elector's vote will not be struck off at a scrutiny just because he or she was not qualified to be on the electoral register, [208] and the returning officer's decision as to whether or not a ballot paper should be rejected may not be questioned.

[209] The election judge is empowered to exempt from being an illegal practice any particular act or omission by a candidate, his or her election agents or any other agent or person in paying a sum, incurring an expense or entering into a contract if it was done in good faith and was due to inadvertence, accidental miscalculation or the like.

[210] Similarly, the judge may make an order allowing an authorized excuse for a failure to file a proper return or declaration relating to election expenses if the candidate or his or her principal election agent shows that he or she acted in good faith and that there is a reasonable explanation for the shortcoming such as inadvertence or illness, or the absence, death, illness or misconduct of some other agent, clerk or officer.

[211] In particular, the judge may relieve a candidate from the consequences of an act or omission by his or her principal election agent pres sgp he or she did not sanction or connive in it and took all reasonable means to prevent it. [212] The election judge certifies his or her decision, which is final, [213] to the Prime Minister.

[214] The judge must also report to the Prime Minister whether any corrupt or illegal practice was established to have been committed by or with the knowledge and consent of any candidate or his or her agent. [215] If a judge intends to report a person who was neither a party to the proceedings nor a candidate claiming he or she should have been declared elected, that person must be given an opportunity to be heard and to give and call evidence to show why a report should not be made against him.

[216] However, where pres sgp candidate's agents are found to have been guilty of treating, undue influence or an illegal practice, but the candidate proves that the offences were committed contrary to his or her orders and without his or her sanction or connivance, or that of his or her election agents, that all reasonable means were taken to prevent corrupt and illegal practices at the election, that the offences were of a trivial and limited nature, and in other respects the election was free from corrupt or illegal practice, the election is not void.

[217] Depending on whether the judge has determined that the election was valid or void, the election return is confirmed or altered. If the election is declared void, the Prime Minister is empowered to order that another election be held within six months of the determination. [218] Election results [ edit ] Year Potential candidates who applied for certificates of eligibility Eligible candidate(s) Nomination day Polling day Votes polled (% of valid votes) Candidate elected President 1993 Chua Kim Yeow J.B.

Jeyaretnam [219] Ong Teng Cheong Tan Soo Phuan [219] Chua Kim Yeow 18 August 1993 28 August 1993 670,358 (41.31%) Ong Teng Cheong Ong Teng Cheong 952,513 (58.69%) 1999 S. R. Nathan Ooi Boon Ewe [36] Tan Soo Phuan [36] S. R. Nathan 18 August 1999 uncontested S. R. Nathan 2005 Andrew Kuan S. R. Nathan Ooi Boon Ewe [37] Ramachandran Govindasamy Naidu [37] S. R. Nathan 17 August 2005 uncontested S. R. Nathan 2011 Andrew Kuan [220] Ooi Boon Ewe [221] Tan Cheng Bock [220] Tan Jee Say [220] Tan Kin Lian [220] Tony Tan Keng Yam [220] Tan Cheng Bock [222] 17 August 2011 [223] 27 August 2011 [224] 738,311 (34.85%) Tony Tan Keng Yam Tan Jee Say [222] 530,441 (25.04%) Tan Kin Lian [222] 104,095 (4.91%) Tony Tan Keng Yam [222] 745,693 (35.20%) [225] 2017 Shirwin Eu [226] Farid Khan [227] Halimah Yacob [228] Mohamed Salleh Marican [229] Ooi Boon Ewe [226] Halimah Yacob [230] 13 September 2017 [81] uncontested [111] Halimah Yacob Some information in the table above was pres sgp from Presidential elections results, Elections Department, 7 November 2008, archived from the original on 2 September 2010retrieved 2 September 2010.

See also [ edit ] • Elections in Singapore • President of Singapore • Presidential Elections Committee • Politics of Singapore Notes [ edit ] • ^ Constitution of the Republic of Singapore ( 1985 Rev. Ed., 1999 Reprint), Article 17(1). • ^ Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (1980 Reprint), Art. 17(1). • ^ Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Act 1991 (No.

5 of 1991), in force on 30 November 1991 except for sections 7 and 16 which came into force on 1 February 1991 and s. 3 which was not brought into force and was subsequently repealed by the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Act 1996 (No. 41 of 1996). • ^ Thio Li-ann (1997), "The Elected President and the Legal Control of Government: Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes?", in Kevin [Yew Lee] Tan; Lam Peng Er (eds.), Managing Political Change in Singapore: The Elected Presidency, Singapore: Routledge, pp.

100–143 at 109, ISBN 978-0-415-15632-5. • ^ Chan Shu Fang Elaine (1989), "The Elected Presidency", Singapore Law Review, 10: 1–21 at 1. • ^ Thio, "The Elected President", p. 109. • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(2)(a).

• ^ Constitution, Art. 19(2)(b). • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(2)(c) read with Art. 44(2)(c). • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(2)(c) read with Art. 44(2)(d). • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(2)(d) read with Art. 45. • ^ The disqualification of a person under clauses (d) and (e) may be removed by the President and shall, if not so removed, cease at the end of five years beginning from the date on which the return mentioned in clause (d) was required to be lodged or, as pres sgp case may be, the date on which the person convicted as mentioned in clause (e) was released from custody or the date on which the fine mentioned in clause (1) (e) was imposed on such person: Constitution, Art.

45(2). • ^ A person shall not be disqualified under this clause by reason only of anything done by him before he became a citizen of Singapore: Constitution, Art. 45(2). In clause (f), "foreign country" does not include any part of the Commonwealth or the Republic of Ireland: Art.

45(3). • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(2)(e). • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(2)(f). • ^ By the Constitution of the Republic pres sgp Singapore (Amendment) Act 2016 ( No. 26 of 2016), in force on 1 April 2017. • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(3)(a). • ^ Chief executive is defined by the Constitution, Art. 19(10) as "the most senior executive (however named) in [an] entity or organisation, who is principally responsible for the management and conduct of the entity's or organization's business and operations".

• ^ Constitution, Art. 19(3)(b) read with the Fifth Schedule. • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(3)(c). • ^ Report of the Constitutional Commission 2016 [Chairman: Chief Justice Sundaresh Menon] (PDF), Singapore: The Commission, 16 August 2016, p. 40, para. 4.3, OCLC 958453495, archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2017.

• ^ Constitution, Arts. 19(3)(a), (b) and (c)(i). • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(3)(d). • ^ a b Constitution, Art. 19(2)(g). • ^ Company is defined by the Constitution, Art. 19(10), as "a company limited by shares and incorporated or registered in Singapore under the general law relating to companies". • ^ Rules relating to how a company's shareholders' equity is to be determined are set out in the Presidential Elections (Certificate of Eligibility) Regulations 2017 ( S 263/2017), regs.

21–24. • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(4)(a) read with Art. 19(7). Rules relating pres sgp how a company's profit after tax is to be determined are set out in the Presidential Elections (Certificate of Eligibility) Regulations, regs.

25–29. • ^ The meaning of insolvency event is set out in the Presidential Elections (Certificate of Eligibility) Regulations, reg.

32. • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(4)(a)(iv). • ^ Constitution, Arts. 19(4)(b). • ^ Constitution, Arts. 19(4)(a)(i) and (b)(i). • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(4)(c). • ^ Report of the Constitutional Commission 2016, p. 44, para. 4.12, archived from the original on 29 July 2017. • ^ Report of the Constitutional Commission 2016, p. 45, paras. 4.14–4.15, archived from the original on 29 July 2017. • ^ Zuraidah Ibrahim (17 July 1999), "President Ong will not run for second term", The Straits Times, p.

1. • ^ a b c Chua Mui Hoong (21 August 1999), "See you in six years' time", The Straits Times, p. 6. • ^ pres sgp b c "Why only President Nathan qualifies", The Straits Times, p. 4, 14 August 2005. • ^ Chua Mui Hoong (2 September 2005), "Nathan sworn in for 2nd term: At ceremony, PM says elected presidency has worked well, but it can be refined", The Straits Times, p. 1. • ^ "Presidency in Singapore seems misunderstood", Business Times, Singapore, 20 August 2005.

• ^ Tey Tsun Hang (2008), "Singapore's Electoral System: Government by the People?", Legal Studies, 28 (4): 610–628 at 623–627, doi: 10.1111/j.1748-121X.2008.00106.x. • ^ Li-ann Thio (2007), "Selecting the President – Diluting Democracy?", International Journal of Constitutional Law, 5 (3): 526–543 at 541, doi: 10.1093/icon/mom017.

• ^ Lydia Lim (20 August 2005), "Candidates must be worthy, says PMO [ Prime Minister's Office]", The Straits Times, p. 1. • ^ Thio, "(S)electing the President", p. 542. • ^ a b "Why the high standards for presidential hopefuls", The Straits Times, p.

14, 20 August 2005. • ^ There was initially doubt as to whether there would be a contest. This prompted Nominated Member of Parliament Chia Shi Teck to consider running so that there would be one: Chia Shi Teck (1997), "Notes from the Margin: Reflections on the First Presidential Election, by a former Nominated Member of Parliament", in Kevin [Yew Lee] Tan; Lam Peng Er (eds.), Managing Political Change in Singapore: The Elected Presidency, Singapore: Routledge, pp.

188–199 at 191. Eventually, Goh Keng Swee ( Minister for Finance 1959–1970) and Richard Hu (Minister for Finance 1985–2001), who were Chua's former bosses, persuaded him to put his name up for nomination.

Following Chua's decision to do so, Chia withdrew his application for a certificate of eligibility to contest the election. There were also two potential candidates from the Workers' Party: Joshua Benjamin Jeyaretnam and Tan Soo Phuan. However, they were unsuccessful in obtaining certificates of eligibility on the ground that they did not have the prerequisite qualities and character to qualify: "2 of 5 presidential applications approved", The Business Times, Singapore, 17 August 1993.

• ^ Han Fook Kwang (26 August 1993), "Vote for me if you trust me: Chua: He himself has gained more pres sgp over the past week", The Straits Times, p. 1. • ^ Anna Teo (7 August 1993), "Chua Kim Yeow to take on DPM – Presidential election", The Business Times, Singapore. • ^ Bertha Henson (21 August 1993), "What it takes to mount an EP campaign", The Straits Times, p. 31. • ^ Hussin Mutalib (1997), "Singapore's First Elected Presidency: The Political Motivations", in Kevin pres sgp Lee] Tan; Lam Peng Er (eds.), Managing Political Change in Singapore: The Elected Presidency, Singapore: Routledge, pp.

167–187 at 167. • ^ "Chua: Do you want PAP to dominate presidency as well?", The Straits Times, p. 1, 27 August 1993. • ^ Henson, "What it takes to mount an EP campaign". • ^ Hussin, p. 181. • ^ Anna Teo (30 August 1993), "Teng Cheong's victory reflects Singaporeans' voting pattern", The Business Times, Singapore. • ^ Tan Sai Siong (5 September 1993), "Votes for Chua were anything but a snub for PAP", The Straits Times, p.

2. • ^ Hussin, p. 167. • ^ "Institutions must be built up: Govt must become less dependent on personalities", The Straits Times, p. 30, 23 August 1999. • ^ Chua Chim Kang (27 July 2005), "Offer all candidates equal chances in the presidential election", The Straits Times, p. 22. • ^ Tham Yuen-C (6 August 2017), "Speaker of Parliament Halimah Yacob to run for President in coming election", The Straits Times, archived from the original on 6 August 2017. • ^ Siau Ming En (7 August 2017), "Halimah will bring dignity, warmth to presidency if elected: PM", Today, archived from the original on 7 August 2017 ; Amanda Lee (9 August 2017), "NTUC backs former speaker's presidential bid", Today, archived from the original on 7 September 2017.

• ^ a b c Thio, "(S)electing the President", p. 538. • ^ Roger Mitton (10 March 2000), " 'I had a job to do' whether the Government liked it or not, says ex-President Ong – extended interview with Roger Mitton", Asiaweek, vol.

26, no. 9, pp. 28–29, archived from the original on 10 February 2001. • ^ Report of the Constitutional Commission 2016, pp. 131–132, para. 7.18, archived from the original on 29 July 2017. • ^ Constitution, Art. 19B(1). • ^ Constitution, Art. 19B(2). • ^ Constitution, Art. 19B(6). The definitions of person belonging to the Malay community and person belonging to the Indian or other minority communities are identical to how such persons are defined for the purpose of the Group Representation Constituency scheme: see the Constitution, Art.

39A(4). • ^ Presidential Elections Act ( Cap. 240A, 2011 Rev. Ed.) ("PEA"), s. 5B(5), as amended by the Presidential Elections (Amendment) Act 2017 ( No. 6 of 2017), in effect on 1 April 2017. • ^ Constitution, Arts. 19B(1) and (2); PEA, s. 5B. • ^ PEA, ss. 5B(1), pres sgp, (3)(d) and (4). • ^ Report of the Constitutional Commission 2016, p. 95, para. 5.36, archived from the original on 29 July 2017.

pres sgp ^ a b Presidential Elections Act ( Cap. 240A, 2011 Rev. Ed.). • ^ PEA, s. 5A(1) read with the Schedule to the Act. • ^ a b c Bhavan Jaipragas (25 September 2016), "What's behind Singapore's move to boost presidential chances of ethnic minorities?", South China Morning Post, archived from the original on 3 August 2017.

• ^ Marius Zaharia; Fathin Ungku (8 November 2016), Singapore reserves presidential poll next year for ethnic Malay contenders, Reuters, archived from the original on 5 August 2017. • ^ Benjamin Lim (24 August 2017), The Ghost of Tan Cheng Bock, Rice, Ricemedia.co, archived from the original on 7 September 2017retrieved 7 September 2017.

• ^ Linette Lim (15 September 2016), On Tan Cheng Bock, mixed-race candidates: Singaporeans ask tough questions on the Elected Presidency review, Channel NewsAsia, archived from the original on 7 September 2017 • ^ a b Lim Yan Liang (18 September 2016), "Changes to elected presidency seek to improve system, not bar certain individuals: Shanmugam", The Straits Times, archived from the original on 12 August 2017 • ^ Constitution, Art.

163(1). • ^ Tan Cheng Bock v. Attorney-General [2017] SGHC 160, High Court (Singapore), archived from pres sgp original on 7 September 2017. • ^ Tan Cheng Bock v. Attorney-General [2017] SGCA 60, Court of Appeal (Singapore) (" Tan Cheng Bock (C.A.)"), archived from the original on 7 September 2017. • ^ See, for example, Tan Cheng Bock (C.A.), paras. 101 and 134. The Constitution, Art.

164(1), states: "The Legislature must, by law — (a) specify the first term of office of the President to be counted for the purposes of deciding whether an election is reserved under Article 19B; and (b) if any pres sgp the terms of office that are counted for the purposes of deciding whether an election is reserved under Article 19B commenced before the appointed date, further specify the communities to which the persons who held those terms of office are considered to belong." • ^ a b Writ of Election ( Gazette Notification No.

2929/2017). • ^ Press Release: Presidential Election 2017 (PDF), Elections Department, Prime Minister's Office, 28 August 2017, p. 1, archived from the original (PDF) on 31 August 2017. • ^ Constitution, Art. 20(1). • ^ Constitution, Arts. 22L(1)(a) to (c). The office of President also becomes vacant if it is determined that the election of the President was void and no other person was duly elected as President, or if on the expiration of the incumbent's term the person declared elected as President fails to take office: Arts.

22L(1)(d) and (e). • ^ Assuming a writ for a presidential election has not yet been issued before the vacation of office or, if it has been issued, has been countermanded: Constitution, Art. 17A(2)(a). • ^ Constitution, Art. 17A(2)(b); PEA, s. 6(1). • ^ PEA, ss. 6(2) and (3). • ^ PEA, s. 7. Where an act is required to be done a specified number of pres sgp days before or after a specified date, at least that number of days pres sgp intervene between the day on which the act is done and that date: Rules of Court ( Cap.

322, R 5, 2014 Rev. Ed.), Order 3, rule 2(4). • ^ PEA, s. 8(2) read with s. 6(2). • ^ Constitution, Art. 18(2). • ^ Constitution, Art. 18(2)(a). • ^ PEA, s. 8A(1). • ^ PEA, s. 8B. • ^ Constitution, Art.

18(12). The same restrictions apply to any certificate issued by the PEC: PEA, s. 8C. • ^ a b c Thio, "(S)electing the President", p. 540. • ^ PEA, s. 8D. • ^ Presidential Elections (Certificate of Eligibility) Regulations, reg. 6(1)(a). • ^ Presidential Elections (Certificate of Eligibility) Regulations, reg. 6(1)(b). • ^ Presidential Elections (Certificate of Eligibility) Regulations, regs. 6(1)(c) and (d). • ^ K.C. Vijayan; Chua Mui Hoong (5 August 2005), "Ex-JTC man wants to run for President", The Straits Times, p.

1. • ^ Li Xueying; Peh Shing Huei (6 August 2005), "Financially sound, but mixed reactions", The Straits Pres sgp, p. 10. • ^ Li Xueying (8 August 2005), "Kuan joined JTC to boost chances", The Straits Times, p. 10. • ^ Lynn Lee (12 August 2005), "Andrew Kuan was asked to resign or face sack from JTC", The Straits Times, p. 1. • ^ Peh Shing Huei (13 August 2005), "Kuan let go pres sgp he's not team-player: Ex-employer", The Straits Times, p.

6. • ^ Zakir Hussain (23 September 2005), "Ex-presidential hopeful Kuan sues MP for defamation", The Straits Times, p. 2. • ^ Andrew Kuan withdraws suit against Inderjit Singh, Channel NewsAsia, 9 January 2006.

• ^ "Why there's only one candidate", The Straits Times, 14 August 2005. • ^ Thio, "(S)electing the President", pp. 535 and 537. • ^ a b Press Release: Issue of Certificate of Eligibility and Malay Community Certificate for Presidential Election 2017 (PDF), Elections Department, Prime Minister's Office, 11 September 2017, archived from the original (PDF) on 13 September 2017 ; Charissa Yong (12 September 2017), "Halimah Yacob set to be next president: Ex-Speaker only one to get eligibility cert, pres sgp file nomination papers tomorrow", The Straits Times, p.

A1, archived from the original on 13 September 2017. • ^ Bertha Henson (13 September 2017), PE2017: Salleh Marican's three bugbears about the PE, The Middle Groundretrieved 13 September 2017. • ^ a b c Presidential Elections Act (Chapter 204A) [Declaration of Elected President] ( G.N. No. 3205/2017). • ^ PEA, s. 8F(1). Detailed regulations relating to community declarations and community certificates are set out in the Presidential Elections (Community Declaration and Community Certificate) Regulations 2017 ( S 264/2017).

• ^ PEA, s. 8E. • ^ PEA, s. 8F(2). • ^ PEA, s. 8F(3). If the office of President falls vacant before the incumbent's term expires, the period begins on the date when the office falls vacant: PEA, s. 8F(3)(a)(i). • ^ PEA, ss. 8G(2)(b)(i) and 8H(2)(c). • ^ PEA, s. 8G(2)(b)(ii). • ^ Updates on Application for Certificate of Eligibility & Community Certificate for Presidential Election 2017 (PDF), Elections Department, Prime Minister's Office, 4 September 2017, archived from the original (PDF) on 7 September 2017 ; Kelly Ng (5 September 2017), "Two new Presidential Election applicants rejected for not being Malay", Today, archived from the original on 5 September 2017.

• ^ PEA, ss. 8H(2)(b) and (4)(d)(ii). • ^ PEA, ss. 8G(3) and (4), and ss. 8H(3) and (4). • ^ PEA, s. 8I. • ^ PEA, s. 8J. • ^ Political Donations Act ( Cap. 236, pres sgp Rev. Ed.) ("PDA"). • ^ PDA, s. 14(1)(a) read with s. 2(1) (definition of permissible donor).

• ^ PDA, pres sgp. 14(1)(b). • ^ PDA, ss. 14(2) and 14(4)(b). • ^ PDA, ss. 18(1)(a), 18(2) and 18(6). A nil return is required: s. 18(3). • ^ PDA, s. 18(1)(b). • ^ PDA, s. 18(4). A political donation certificate is conclusive as to the facts it certifies: s. 18(5).

• ^ PEA, s. 9(1). • ^ PEA, s. 9(3)(c) and 11(1). • ^ Form P4 in the Schedule to the Parliamentary Elections (Forms and Fees) Regulations ( Cap.

240A, Rg 1, 2000 Rev. Ed.), as amended by the Presidential Elections (Forms and Fees) (Amendment) Regulations 2017 ( S 266/2017). • ^ PEA, ss. 9(4). • ^ PEA, s. 9(4)(d). • ^ PEA, s. 10(1) read with the Parliamentary Elections Act ( Cap. 218, 2011 Rev. Ed.), s. 28(1). • ^ Press Release: Presidential Election 2017 (PDF), Elections Department, Prime Minister's Office, 28 August 2017, p.

1, para. 10, archived from the original (PDF) on 31 August 2017. • ^ PEA, ss. 10(4) and 10(5A)(a). • ^ PEA, ss. 10(5) and 10(6)(a). • ^ PEA, s. 15. • ^ V[alentine] S. Winslow (1991), "Electing the President: The Presidential Elections Act 1991", Singapore Journal of Legal Studies: 476–481 at 478, SSRN 964120.

• ^ Siew Kum Hong (17 August 2005), "A price too high to pay", Today, p. 3. • ^ Raymond Lim (20 August 1999), "Contest for EP desirable, but by no means critical", The Straits Times, p. 53. • ^ PEA, s. 16(1). • ^ PEA, s. 16(5). • ^ PEA, s. 50(1). • ^ Campaigning Guidelines for the Presidential Election (PDF), p.

3, para. 21, archived from the original (PDF) on 31 August 2017retrieved 7 September 2017. • ^ PEA, s. 51(1)(a). However, if voters are unable to reach their polling stations from their places of residence without crossing the sea, pres sgp candidate may pay for their conveyance to the polling stations by sea: s. 51(2)(b). • ^ PEA, ss. 51(1)(b) and 51(2)(a).

• ^ PEA, pres sgp. 53(1) and (2). The members of a person's family are his spouse, parents and children: s. 53(3). • ^ PEA, s. 61(1), amended by the Presidential Elections (Amendment) Act 2010 ( No. 11 of 2010) ("PEAA 2010"), in force on 1 July 2010. • ^ PEA, s. 41. • ^ a b pres sgp PEA, ss. 42(1)(ii) and 42(1A), amended by the PEAA 2010. • ^ PEA, s. 63, amended by the PEAA 2010. • ^ PEA, ss. 42(1)(d) and (e).

• ^ PEA, ss. 42(1)(iv) and 42(1A), amended by the PEAA 2010. • ^ PEA, s. 39(1). Treating is also committed if a person corruptly accepts some inducement given: s. 39(2). • ^ PEA, s. 40. • ^ The term election advertising is defined in the PEA, s. 2(1). • ^ See generally the PEA, s.

60AA(1)(b), and Part 3 of the Presidential Elections (Election Advertising) Regulations ( Cap. 240A, Rg 3, 2000 Rev. Ed.), as amended by the Presidential Elections (Posters and Banners) (Amendment) Regulations 2017 ( S 268/2017) ("PEEAR"). • ^ PEEAR, reg. 1E(1). • ^ PEEAR, reg. 1A (definition of campaign period).

pres sgp

• ^ PEEAR, reg. 1E(2). • pres sgp PEEAR, reg. 1C(5). • ^ PEEAR, reg. 1G. • ^ PEA, s. 60AA(2). The returning officer or an Elections Department officer authorized by the returning officer may choose to compound the offence by collecting from a person reasonably suspected of having committed the offence either half of the maximum fine or a sum not exceeding $500, whichever is lower: PEA, s.

84(1) read with s. 84(2) and reg. 2(ac) of the Presidential Elections (Composition of Offences) Regulations 2005 ( S 503/2005), as amended by the Presidential Elections (Composition of Offences) (Amendment) Regulations 2017 ( S 269/2017). • ^ Campaigning Guidelines for the Presidential Election (PDF), p.

1, paras. 8–9. • ^ PEA, s. 62A(2), inserted by the PEAA 2010. An election meeting is defined as a public assembly within the meaning of the Public Order Act ( Cap. 257A) organised by or on behalf of a candidate nominated for election to promote or procure the electoral success at the election for one or more identifiable candidates; or to otherwise enhance the standing of any such candidates with the electorate in connection with the election: s.

62A(4). • ^ Pres sgp, s. 60, and the PEEAR, regs. 2 and 3(1). • ^ PEEAR, regs. 3(2)(a) and (b). • ^ PEEAR, regs. 3(2)(c) and 4. • ^ PEEAR, reg. 5. • ^ PEEAR, reg. 11. • ^ PEEAR, reg. 12. • ^ PEEAR, reg. 13. • ^ PEEAR, regs. 16(a) and (b). The penalty is a fine of up to $1,000 or a maximum jail term of 12 months: PEA, s. 60(4). • ^ PEA, s.

pres sgp

60B(1). • ^ PEA, s. 60B(4). • ^ PEA, s. 60B(2). • ^ Kor Kian Beng (2 December 2009), "Opposition: PAP will have unfair edge", The Straits Times ; see also S.

Ramesh (1 December 2009), Mixed reactions to PM's proposal of one-day cool-off before Polling Day, Channel NewsAsia, archived from the original on 4 December 2009 ; "Balancing a strong govt and a diversity of voices", The Straits Times, 28 April 2010.

• ^ PEA, s. 60A, inserted by the PEAA 2010. • ^ PEA, s. 60C(1). The word forecast includes estimates, and the ban applies both to the result of the election as a whole or to the result relating to a particular candidate: s. 60C(4). • ^ PEA, s. 60C(2). • ^ PEA, s. 59(1), amended by the PEAA 2010. The penalty is a fine of up to $1,000 or jail of up to pres sgp months: s. 59(3). • ^ PEA, s. 59(4). • ^ PEA, s. 62A(1), inserted by the PEAA 2010.

• ^ PEA, s. 62(1), amended by the PEAA 2010. A person is presumed to have been canvassing if he or she enters or is seen at more than two houses or workplaces of voters in the same polling district other than his or her own home or workplace, unless the contrary is proved: s. 62(5). The penalty is a fine of up to $1,000 and jail of up to 12 months: s. 62(2). • ^ PEA, pres sgp.

64(1). The penalty is a fine of up to $2,000 or jail of up to 12 months or both: s. 64(3), amended by the PEAA 2010. • ^ Form P7 of the Parliamentary Elections (Forms and Fees) Regulations, as amended by the Presidential Elections (Forms and Fees) (Amendment) Regulations 2017. • ^ PEA, s. 17. • ^ PEA, s. 26(1). • ^ PEA, s. 22(4). • ^ PEA, s. 22(1). • ^ PEA, s. 38(1). The penalty is a fine of up to $5,000 or jail of up to three years or both: s. 42(1)(i), amended by the PEAA 2010. • ^ PEA, s.

29. • ^ PEA, s. 31(2). The same process is applied to other documents used in the poll, namely, unused and spoilt ballot papers, marked copies of the register of electors, counterfoils of ballot papers pres sgp the tendered votes list: s. 31(1). • ^ PEA, s. 31(3). A polling station may be designated a counting place as well: s. 31(4). • ^ PEA, ss. 32B(1) and (4). A candidate is only permitted to make one application for a recount: s.

31B(3). • ^ PEA, s. 32(8). • ^ PEA, s. 36(3). However, a presiding officer at a polling station may, at his or her discretion before the poll has closed, disclose pres sgp a candidate or his election agent the total number of voters who have voted at the station: s. 36(3A). • ^ PEA, ss. 36(3) to (6). The penalty for contravening these provisions is a fine of up to $1,500 or jail of up to nine months or both: s. 36(7), amended by the PEAA 2010.

• ^ PEA, s. 73. • ^ PEA, s. 71. • ^ Constitution, Art. 93A(1). • ^ PEA, s. 74. • ^ See the PEA, s. 22. • ^ PEA, s. 79(1). • ^ PEA, s. 79(3). • ^ PEA, s. 79(2).

pres sgp

• ^ PEA, s. 80. • ^ PEA, s. 69. • ^ PEA, ss. 70(1) and (4). • ^ PEA, s. 70(5). • ^ Constitution, Art. 93A(2); PEA, s. 75(2). • ^ PEA, s. 75(1). • ^ PEA, s. 76(1). The Prime Minister must publish the report in the Government Gazette: s. 76(3). • ^ PEA, s. 76(2). • ^ PEA, s. 68. • ^ PEA, s. 75(2). • ^ a b "Teng Cheong, Chua can run for President; Jeya rejected", The Straits Times, p. 3, 17 August 1993. • ^ a b c d e Li Xueying (4 August 2011), "Presidential election on Aug 27: Screening panel has up to Aug 16 to decide who is eligible to contest", The Straits Times, pp.

A1 & A8 ; Teo Xuanwei (4 August 2011), "Presidential Election on Aug 27: Writ of Elections issued yesterday; Nomination Day is Aug 17", Today, pp. 1–2, archived from the original on 4 August 2011. • ^ Cai Haoxiang (7 August 2011), "Six vying to be president", The Sunday Times, pres sgp. 1 & 3 ; S. Ramesh (7 August 2011), "Six presidential hopefuls", Today on Sunday, p. 14, archived from the original on 7 August 2011. • ^ a b c d Li Xueying (12 August 2011), "Four cleared to run: Two other hopefuls fail to get the certificates of eligibility", The Straits Times, pp.

A1 & A9 ; Teo Xuanwei (12 August 2011), "Four eligible to contest.: Tan Jee Say, Tan Kin Lian among quartet who receive Certificates of Eligibility", Today, pp. 1–2, archived from the original on 12 August 2011. • ^ Notice of Election of President of the Republic of Singapore ( G.N.

No. 2126/2001). • ^ Presidential Election, 2011 [press release] (PDF), Prime Minister's Office, 3 August 2011, archived from the original (PDF) on 28 August 2011 ; Notice of Contested Presidential Election ( G.N. No. 2234/2011). • ^ The total number of votes cast was 2,156,389, made up of 2,118,540 valid votes and 37,849 pres sgp votes (1.76% of the total): Statement of the Poll in a Presidential Election ( G.N.

No. 2465/2011) dated 31 August 2011, archived from the original on 2 September 2011. See also Li Xueying (28 August 2011), "Tony Tan is president: He wins by 7,269 votes after recount", The Sunday Times, pp. 1–2 ; Loh Chee Kong (28 Pres sgp 2011), "Dr Pres sgp Tan is Singapore's next President: Former Deputy Prime Minister edges out Dr Tan Cheng Bock in an intensely-fought contest", Today on Sunday, p.

1, archived from the original on 28 August 2011 ; Andrea Ong (1 September 2011), "Tony Tan gets almost 40% of overseas votes", The Straits Times, pp. A1 & A8 ; Tan Qiuyi (1 September 2011), "Final vote tally for PE", Today, p. 6, archived from the original on 22 September 2011. • ^ a b Eu and Ooi were denied community certificates as neither declared that he considered himself a member of the Malay community, for which the election is reserved.

Eu declared he was from the Chinese community, while Ooi declared he did not consider himself a member pres sgp the Chinese, Malay, or Indian or other minority communities: Danson Chong (5 September 2017), "Three contenders vying to run in presidential election", The Straits Times, p. A3, archived from the original on 6 September 2017. • ^ Faris Mokhtar (24 August 2017), "Second of three presidential hopefuls Farid Khan submits election forms", Today, archived from the original on 3 September 2017.

• ^ Valerie Koh (30 August 2017), "Last presidential hopeful Halimah submits forms for Presidential race", Today, archived from the original on 30 August 2017 ; Nur Asyiqin Mohamad Salleh (31 August 2017), "Halimah hands in election forms: She is last of three known presidential hopefuls to do so", The Straits Times, p.

A11, archived from the original on 7 September 2017. • ^ Faris Mokhtar (23 August 2017), "First of three presidential hopefuls Salleh Marican submits election forms", Today, archived from the original on 23 August 2017.

• ^ Charissa Yong (11 September 2017), "Halimah Yacob only one to get eligibility certificate, set to be Singapore's next President", The Straits Times, archived from the original on 11 September 2017. References [ edit pres sgp Legislation [ edit ] • Constitution of the Republic of Singapore ( 1985 Rev.

Ed., 1999 Reprint). • Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Act 2016 ( No. 26 of 2016). • Political Donations Act ( Cap. 236, 2001 Rev.

Ed.) ("PDA"). • Presidential Elections Act ( Cap. 240A, 2011 Rev. Ed.) ("PEA") • Presidential Elections (Amendment) Act 2010 ( No. 11 of 2010) ("PEAA 2010"). • Presidential Elections (Amendment) Act 2017 ( No. 6 of 2017). • Parliamentary Elections pres sgp and Fees) Regulations ( Cap.

240A, Rg 1, 2000 Rev. Ed.), as amended by the Presidential Elections (Forms and Fees) (Amendment) Regulations 2017 ( S 266/2017). • Presidential Elections (Certificate of Eligibility) Regulations 2017 ( S 263/2017).

• Presidential Elections (Election Advertising) Regulations ( Cap. 240A, Rg 3, 2000 Rev. Ed.), as amended by the Presidential Elections (Posters and Banners) (Amendment) Regulations 2017 ( S 268/2017) ("PEEAR"). Pres sgp materials [ edit ] • Campaigning Guidelines for the Presidential Election (PDF).

• Hussin Mutalib (1997), "Singapore's First Elected Presidency: The Political Motivations", in Tan, Kevin [Yew Lee]; Lam, Peng Er (eds.), Managing Political Change in Singapore: The Elected Presidency, Singapore: Routledge, pp. 167–187, ISBN 978-0-415-15632-5. pres sgp Press Release: Presidential Election 2017 (PDF), Elections Department, Prime Minister's Office, 28 August 2017, archived from the original (PDF) on 31 August 2017 .

pres sgp

• Report of the Constitutional Commission 2016 [Chairman: Chief Justice Sundaresh Menon] (PDF), Singapore: The Commission, 16 August 2016, OCLC 958453495, archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2017. • Thio, Li-ann (1997), "The Elected President and the Legal Control of Government: Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes?", in Tan, Kevin [Yew Lee]; Lam, Peng Er (eds.), Managing Political Change in Singapore: The Elected Presidency, Singapore: Routledge, pp.

100–143, ISBN 978-0-415-15632-5. • Thio, Li-ann (2007), "Selecting the President – Diluting Democracy?", International Journal of Constitutional Law, 5 (3): 526–543, doi: 10.1093/icon/mom017. Further reading [ edit ] • Tan, Eugene K[heng] B[oon] (21 January 2011), "The road to the Istana: Important that Singaporeans get more time to know candidates aspiring to be their head of state", Today, p. 22, archived from the original on 22 January 2011.

• Loh, Chee Kong (13 August 2011), "Presidential Election: A reality check", Today on Saturday, pp. 8 & 10, archived from the original on 14 August 2011.

• Loh, Chee Kong pres sgp August 2011), pres sgp much or too little power? The debate back then .", Today on Saturday, p. 8, archived from the original on 14 August 2011.

External links [ edit ] • Official website of the Istana, the Office of the President of the Republic of Singapore • Official website of the Singapore Elections Department Add links • This page was last edited on 3 February 2022, at 05:28 (UTC). • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms pres sgp Use and Privacy Policy.

Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • • • Madam President (informal) • Her Excellency (diplomatic) Type Head of state Residence The Istana Appointer Parliament (1965–1991) Direct election (1991–present) Term length Six years, renewable Inaugural holder Yusof Ishak Formation 9 August 1965 ; 56 years ago ( 1965-08-09) Salary S$1,540,000 annually Website istana .gov .sg • v • t • e The president of Singapore is the head of state of the Republic of Singapore.

The role of president is nominally vested with executive authority, but in practice that authority is exercised by the Cabinet led by the prime minister. The incumbent president is Halimah Yacob, who resigned from People's Action Party and became an independent to run for the presidency and was being elected unopposed at the 2017 presidential election. Contents • 1 History • 2 Constitutional position and role • 3 Powers • 4 Election • 4.1 Qualifications • 4.2 Election procedure • 4.3 Last contested election • 5 Assumption of office and disabilities • 6 Succession • 7 Salary and entitlements • 8 List of presidents • 9 See also • 10 Notes • 11 References • 11.1 Citations • 11.2 Sources • 12 Further reading • 12.1 Articles • 12.2 Books • 12.3 News reports • 13 External links History [ edit ] The office of president was created in 1965 after Singapore became a republic upon its secession from the Federation of Malaysia that year.

The national constitution sets strict eligibility conditions for the presidency. Before 1993, the president was chosen by the Parliament of Singapore. As a result of constitutional amendments passed in 1991, the presidency became a popularly elected office with certain custodial powers, particularly over government expenditure and key appointments to public offices.

It replaced the office of Yang di-Pertuan Negara, which had pres sgp created when Singapore attained self-government in 1959. The last Yang di-Pertuan Negara, Yusof Ishak, became the first president. After his death he was replaced by Benjamin Sheares, who served until his death in 1981. He was succeeded by Chengara Veetil Devan Nair. Owing to personal problems, Nair stepped down in 1985.

He was replaced by Wee Kim Wee, an ambassador for South Korea, who served as president until 1993 and was the first president to exercise custodial powers pursuant to the constitutional amendments pres sgp 1991.

In January 1991, the Constitution [note pres sgp was amended to provide for the popular election of the president, a major constitutional and political change in Singapore's history. Under the revision, the president is empowered to veto the use of the country's past reserves and key civil service appointments. The president can also examine the administration's enforcement of the Internal Security Act [1] and Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act, [2] and authorise corruption investigations ( see below).

The first popularly elected fifth president was Ong Teng Cheong, a former Deputy Prime Minister. He served as president from 1 September 1993 to 31 August 1999. However, the Singapore Government has, on the advice of the Attorney-General's Chambers, [3] deemed Ong's predecessor Wee Kim Wee the first elected president, on the basis that he had held and exercised the powers of the elected president.

This was a result of transitional provisions in the Constitution of Singapore in 2017, [4] which were affirmed by the High Court following a legal challenge by presidential hopeful Tan Cheng Bock. [5] [6] [7] He appealed against this decision, but the Court of Appeal also dismissed it. [8] The sixth president was S. R. Nathan, an ambassador for United States.

He was not elected by the people in a vote, but became president by virtue of pres sgp the sole candidate deemed qualified by the Presidential Elections Committee. His first term of office was from 1 September 1999 to 31 August 2005. He was re-elected on 17 August pres sgp both his election came on walkovers without any opposing contestants which made him the longest serving president of Singapore. After he stepped down, Tony Tan, another former Deputy Prime Minister won the 27 August 2011 presidential election by a narrow 0.34% margin.

He was sworn in as the seventh president of Singapore on 1 September 2011. In 2016, further amendments were passed providing for "reserved elections" for a particular ethnic community, if that community has not provided a president in pres sgp past five presidential terms. The eighth and current president, Halimah Yacob, a former Speaker of Parliament took office on 14 September 2017, becoming the first president elected as she was the sole eligible candidate under the new reform terms which took effect earlier that year.

She is the first Malay head of state in 47 years since the death of the first President of Singapore, Yusof Ishak. [9] She is also the first female President of Singapore. [10] Since the presidency became a popularly elected office in 1993, all Presidents were either former People's Action Party politicians who previously held either Ministerial office or Speakerships, or former civil servant ambassadors under the purview of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Constitutional position and role [ edit ] The president is the head of state of Singapore. [11] The executive authority of the nation is vested in the president and exercisable by them or by the Cabinet or any minister authorised by the Cabinet. [12] However, the Pres sgp vests "general direction and control of the Government" in the Cabinet. [13] In most cases, the president is bound to exercise their powers in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet or a minister acting under the Cabinet's general authority.

[14] The President only exercises limited powers in their personal discretion [15] to block attempts by the government of the day to draw down past reserves it did not accumulate, to approve changes to key appointments, and to exercise oversight over the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau and decisions of the Executive under the Internal Security Act [1] and the Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act. [2] President S. R. Nathan speaking to Russian president Dmitry Medvedev during the latter's visit in 2009 As a component of the legislature together with Parliament, the president is also jointly vested with legislative authority.

[16] The president's primary role in the exercise of legislative power to make laws is assenting to bills passed by Parliament. [17] As the president exercises this constitutional function in accordance with Cabinet's advice and not in their personal discretion except in certain pres sgp, [18] in general he or she may not refuse to assent to bills that Parliament has validly passed.

The words of enactment pres sgp Singapore statutes are: "Be it enacted by the president with the advice and consent of the Parliament of Singapore, as follows:". [19] The president usually opens each Parliamentary session with an address drafted by the Cabinet setting out the Government's agenda for the session, [20] and may address Parliament and send messages to it.

[21] The president has been called "Singapore's No. 1 diplomat". [22] Ambassadors and high commissioners accredited to Singapore present pres sgp credentials to the president, and the president is called upon by visiting foreign leaders.

In addition, the president contributes to the nation's external relations by undertaking overseas trips on Cabinet's advice. Presidents have also used the office to champion charitable causes. Wee Kim Wee promoted sports and volunteerism; and Ong Teng Cheong culture and the arts, particularly music.

In 2000, S.R. Nathan established the President's Challenge with the Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports and its statutory board, the National Council of Social Service. As of 2011, the endeavour had raised more than S$100 million for charities supporting disabled and needy people. [22] Powers [ edit ] The President has personal discretion as to whether to approve budgets or financial transactions of specified statutory boards and Government companies that are likely to draw on past reserves.

The Monetary Authority of Singapore, photographed here pres sgp September 2009, is one such statutory board. The powers of the president of Singapore are divided into those which the president may exercise in their own discretion, and those their must exercise in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet of Singapore or of a minister acting under the general authority of the Cabinet.

[23] In addition, the president is required to consult the Council of Presidential Advisers (CPA) when performing some of his functions. In other cases, he or she may consult the CPA if he or she wishes to but is not bound to do so. [24] The Constitution confers on the president certain executive functions to block attempts by the government of the day to draw down past reserves that it did not accumulate. Thus, a guarantee may only be given or a loan raised by the Government if the president concurs, [25] and his or her approval is also needed for budgets of specified statutory boards and Government companies that draw on their past reserves.

[26] The president also possesses personal discretion to withhold assent to any bill in Parliament providing directly or indirectly for the direct or indirect variation, changing or increase in powers of the Central Provident Fund Board to invest moneys belonging to it; [27] and the borrowing of money, the giving of any guarantee or the raising of any loan by the Government if in the president's opinion the bill is likely to draw on reserves not accumulated by the Government during its current term of office.

[28] In addition, the president may withhold assent to any Supply Bill, Supplementary Supply Bill or Final Supply Bill for any financial year if in his or her opinion the estimates of revenue and expenditure, supplementary estimates or statement of excess are likely to lead to a drawing on past reserves.

[29] The president is also empowered to approve changes to key civil service positions, such as the chief justice, the attorney-general, the chairman and members of the Public Service Commission, the chief of Defence Force and the commissioner of police. [30] He or she also appoints as Prime Minister a member of Parliament (MP) who, in his or her personal judgment, is likely to command the confidence of a majority of MPs.

[31] The president has certain powers of oversight over the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau [32] and decisions of the Executive under the Internal Security Act [33] and the Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act. [34] The term of office of the first elected president, Ong Teng Cheong (1993–1999), was marked by differences between him and the Government concerning the extent of his discretionary fiscal powers.

[35] Discussions culminated in the Government issuing a non-binding white paper entitled The Principles for Determining and Safeguarding the Accumulated Reserves of the Government and the Fifth Schedule Statutory Boards and Government Companies (1999). [36] In 2009, the Government requested approval from President S.R.

Nathan to draw $4.9 billion from past financial reserves to meet current budget expenditure, the first time it had done so. The sum was used to fund the Government's Resilience Package consisting of two schemes aimed at preserving jobs and businesses during the financial downturn.

[37] Election [ edit ] Main article: Presidential elections in Singapore Qualifications [ edit ] A person who wishes to run for the office of president has to fulfil stringent qualifications set out in the Constitution, which are as follows: • The president must be a citizen of Pres sgp. [38] • The president must not be less than 45 years of age. [39] • The president's name must appear in a current register of electors. [40] • The president must be resident in Singapore at the date of their nomination for election, and must have been so resident for periods amounting in the aggregate to not less than ten years prior to that date.

[41] • The president must not be subject to any of the following disqualifications: [42] (a) being and having been found or declared to be of unsound mind; (b) being an undischarged bankrupt; (c) holding an office of profit; (d) having been pres sgp for election to Parliament or the office of President or having acted as election agent to a person so nominated, failing to lodge any return of election expenses required by law within the time and in the manner so required; (e) having been convicted of an offence by a court of law in Singapore or Malaysia and sentenced to imprisonment pres sgp a term of not less than one year or to a fine of not less than S$2,000 and having not received a free pardon, provided that where the conviction is by a court of law in Malaysia, the person shall not be pres sgp unless the offence is also one which, had it been committed in Singapore, would have been punishable by a court of law in Singapore; [43] (f) having voluntarily acquired the citizenship of, or exercised rights of citizenship in, a foreign country, or having made a declaration of allegiance to a foreign country; [44] (g) being disqualified under any law relating to offences in connection with elections to Parliament or the office of President by reason of having been convicted of such an offence or having in proceedings relating to such an election been proved guilty of an act constituting such an offence.

• The president must be a person of integrity, good character and reputation. [45] • The president must not be a member of any political party on the date of their nomination for election. [46] • The president must have for a period of not less than three years pres sgp office — • as Minister, Chief Justice, Speaker, Attorney-General, Chairman of the Public Service Commission, Auditor-General, Accountant-General or Permanent Secretary; [47] • as chief executive officer (CEO) of a key statutory board or government company: the Central Provident Fund Board, the Housing and Development Board, the Jurong Town Corporation, the Monetary Authority of Singapore, Temasek Holdings, or GIC Private Limited (formerly known as the Government of Singapore Investment Corporation); [48] • as the most senior executive of a company with an average of $500 million in shareholders' equity for the most recent three years in that office, and which is profitable after taxes; [49] or • in any other similar or comparable position of seniority and responsibility in any other organisation or department of equivalent size or complexity pres sgp the public or private sector which has given him such experience and ability in administering and managing financial affairs as to enable him to carry out effectively the functions and duties of the office of president.

[50] The strictness of these qualifications led to the 1999, 2005, and 2017 elections being walkovers as only one candidate had qualified on nomination day. [51] [52] In November 2016, further amendments provide for "reserved elections" for a particular racial group (Chinese, Malay and Indian/other minority) — if that community has not been represented for five presidential terms.

[53] [54] Other amendments were made to expand the list of key government companies eligible for the candidacy, [48] and, for candidates using their private sector experience, the use of $500 million of shareholder equity instead of $100 million in paid-up capital. [49] The changes went into effect in April 2017. [55] Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong later explained that while he expected the "reserved election" policy to be unpopular among the population, he believed it was "the right thing to do".

pres sgp

{INSERTKEYS} [56] Election procedure [ edit ] The Elections Department, which oversees elections in Singapore The president holds office for a term of six years from the date on which they assume office. [57] The office falls vacant upon the expiry of the incumbent's term or if the president is for some reason unable to complete their term; for example, due to death, resignation, or removal from office for misconduct or mental or physical infirmity.

[58] If the office of president becomes vacant before the incumbent's term expires, a poll for an election must be held within six months. [59] In other cases, an election can take place any time from three months before the expiry of the incumbent's term of office. [60] The procedure for elections is laid out in the Presidential Elections Act. [61] The process begins when the prime minister issues a writ of election to the returning officer specifying the date and place of nomination day.

[62] Potential candidates must obtain certificates of eligibility from the Presidential Elections Committee (PEC), the function of which is to ensure that such persons have the necessary qualifications to be nominated as a candidate for the election. [63] In particular, the PEC must be satisfied that the potential candidates are persons of integrity, good character and reputation; [45] and if they have not previously held certain key government offices or acted as chairman of the board of directors or CEO of a company incorporated or registered under the Companies Act with shareholders' equity of at least $500 million, that they held a position of comparable seniority and responsibility in the public or private sector that has given them experience and ability in administering and managing financial affairs.

[50] The PEC consists of the chairman of the Public Service Commission, who is also the chairman of the PEC, [64] the chairman of the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority, and a member of the Presidential Council for Minority Rights. [65] For the 2017 presidential election, the members of the PEC are Eddie Teo (chairman), Lim Soo Hoon, Chan Heng Chee, Po'ad Shaik Abu Bakar Mattar, Tay Yong Kwang, and Peter Seah. [66] In addition, candidates must obtain political donation certificates from the registrar of political donations stating that they have complied with the Political Donations Act, [67] and file their nomination papers with the returning officer on nomination day.

[68] A deposit must also be paid. [69] If there is only one candidate nominated, he or she is declared to have been elected president. [70] Otherwise, the returning officer issues a notice of contested election specifying when polling day will be.

[71] During the election period, a candidate may not spend more than $600,000 or 30 cents for each person on the electoral register, whichever is greater. [72] Permits must be obtained to hold election meetings [73] and display posters and banners, [74] and a number of acts are unlawful, including bribery, [75] dissuading electors from voting, [76] making false statements about candidates, [77] treating [78] and undue influence.

[79] Legal changes introduced in 2010 made the eve of polling day a "cooling-off day" – campaigning must not take place on that day and on polling day itself. [80] Polling day is a public holiday, [81] and voting is compulsory. [82] Voters must go to the polling stations assigned to them. [83] After the poll closes, the presiding officer of each polling station seals the ballot boxes without opening them.

Candidates or their polling agents may also affix their own seals to the ballot boxes. [84] The ballot boxes are then taken to counting centres to be opened and the ballots counted. [85] A candidate or his or her counting agent may ask the returning officer for a recount of votes if the difference between the number of votes for the candidate with the most votes and any other candidate's number of votes is 2% or less.

[86] After all counts, and recounts if any, have been completed, the returning officer ascertains whether the total number of electors registered to vote overseas is less than the difference between the number of votes for the two candidates with the highest number of votes.

If so, the returning officer declares the candidate with the highest number of votes to be elected as president. If not, the overseas votes may be decisive. The returning officer then states the number of votes cast for each candidate and the date and location where the overseas votes will be counted. [87] Last contested election [ edit ] The 2011 presidential election was the first election with a ballot since the 1993 election, and was also Singapore's first presidential election contested by more than two candidates.

The election was won by Tony Tan Keng Yam with 745,693 (35.19%) of valid votes. Candidate Votes % Tony Tan 745,693 35.20 Tan Cheng Bock 738,311 34.85 Tan Jee Say 530,441 25.04 Tan Kin Lian 104,095 4.91 Total 2,118,540 100.00 Valid votes 2,118,540 98.24 Invalid/blank votes 37,849 1.76 Total votes 2,156,389 100.00 Registered voters/turnout 2,274,773 94.80 Source: Singapore Elections Assumption of office and disabilities [ edit ] The person elected to the office of president assumes office on the day his predecessor ceases to hold office or, if the office is vacant, on the day following his election.

Upon his assumption of office, the president is required to take and subscribe in the presence of the chief justice or of another justice of the Supreme Court the Oath of Office, which states: [88] I, [ name], having been elected President of the Republic of Singapore, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully discharge my duties as such to the best of my ability without fear or favour, affection or ill-will, and without regard to any previous affiliation with any political party, and that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Republic, and that I will preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore.

Once elected, the president shall: [89] • not hold any other office created or recognised by the Constitution; • not actively engage in any commercial enterprise; • not be a member of any political party; and • if he or she is a member of Parliament, vacate his or her seat in Parliament.

Succession [ edit ] In the case when the president is unable to perform their duties, their powers are temporarily transferred to the chairman of the Council of Presidential Advisers (CPA). If the chairman of the Council of Presidential Advisers is not available, the speaker of the Parliament performs the duties of the president.

If both are unavailable the presidential functions are performed by an individual appointed by the Parliament. Salary and entitlements [ edit ] President S. R. Nathan receiving United States Secretary of Defense William Cohen at the Istana The Parliament of Singapore is required to provide a civil list for the maintenance of the president, [90] and it does so by way of the Civil List and Gratuity Act. [91] With effect from 17 February 2012, the sum under Class I of the list, which includes the president's personal pay ($1,568,900, known by the British term the " privy purse"), an entertainment allowance ($73,000) and an allowance for an acting president ($4,500), is $1,646,400.

The privy purse was reduced from $4,267,500 after the president accepted the Ministerial Salaries Review Committee's recommendations on the matter. [92] The salaries for the president's personal staff (Class II) amount to $4,532,400. Speaking in Parliament on 10 March 2011, Minister for Finance Tharman Shanmugaratnam explained that this sum was to cater for the salaries of an additional staff officer to support the work of the Council of Presidential Advisers, and a butler manager; and to meet higher variable staff salary payments due to the nation's strong economic growth.

[93] [94] The allowance for the Istana's household expenses (Class III) is $2,762,308, an increase from $694,000. This allowance is used to cover the maintenance of the Istana, vehicles, utilities and other supplies, as well as for ceremonies and celebrations.

The increase was to cater for higher expenses for maintaining computer systems, buildings and land, and to account for inflation. [92] Class IV expenses for "special services" are $550,000. In previous years, this sum was used to cover various expenses such as the cost of replacing state cars and installing a new document repository. [95] Overall, the current civil list of $9,491,100 represents a decrease of about 18% from the sum for the past fiscal year of $11,605,000.

[96] List of presidents [ edit ] No. Portrait President Prior Office Term of office Elected Took office Left office Time in office 1 Yusof Ishak [97] 尤索夫·宾·伊萨 யூசோஃப் பின் இஷாக் يوسف بن إسحاق (1910-1970) Yang di-Pertuan Negara 9 August 1965 23 November 1970 [a] 5 years, 106 days Elected by Parliament During this interval, the Speaker of Parliament, Yeoh Ghim Seng, was installed by Parliament as Acting President.

40 days — 2 Devan Nair [97] சி.வி தேவன் நாயர் 琴加拉·维蒂尔·德万·奈尔 (1923–2005) Member of Singapore Parliament for Anson SMC 23 October 1981 28 March 1985 [b] 3 years, 157 days Elected by Parliament During this interval, Chief Justice Wee Chong Jin was installed by Parliament as Acting President. 2 days — During this interval, Speaker of Parliament, Yeoh Ghim Seng was installed by Parliament as Acting President. 158 days — 4 Ong Teng Cheong [97] 王鼎昌 ஓங் டெங் சியோங் (1936-2002) Deputy Prime Minister 1 September 1993 31 August 1999 6 years 1993- 58.69% 6 Sellapan Ramanathan [98] 塞拉潘·纳丹 செல்லப்பன் ராமனாதன் (1924-2016) Singapore Ambassador to the United States 1 September 1999 [d] 31 August 2005 12 years 1999- Walkover 1 September 2005 [d] 31 August 2011 2005- Walkover 7 Tony Tan Keng Yam 陈庆炎 டோனி டான் கெங் யாம் (b.

1940) Deputy Prime Minister 1 September 2011 31 August 2017 6 years 2011- 35.20% During this interval, the Chairman of the Council of Presidential Advisers, J. Y. Pillay, served as Acting President.

[99] 15 days — 8 Halimah Yacob 哈莉玛·雅各布 ஹலிமா பின்தி யாகொப் حليمه بنت يعقوب (b. 1954) Speaker of Parliament 14 September 2017 Incumbent ( Term expires 13 September 2023) 4 years, 236 days 2017- Walkover • ^ a b Died in office of natural causes. • ^ Resigned. • ^ After the Constitution was amended in 1991, the term of President Wee was fixed to end on 1 September 1993.

• ^ a b S.R. Nathan was returned unopposed on Nomination Day in 1999 and 2005. See also [ edit ] • First Gentleman of Singapore Notes [ edit ] • ^ a b Internal Security Act ( Cap. 143, 1985 Rev. Ed.). • ^ a b Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act ( Cap.

167A, 2001 Rev. Ed.) ("MRHA"). • ^ Kotwani, Monica (6 July 2017). "Tan Cheng Bock's legal challenge on the reserved presidential election explained". Channel NewsAsia.

ChannelNewsAsia. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017 . Retrieved 31 July 2017. • ^ Constitution, Art. 163(1). • ^ Loh, Quentin (29 June 2017). "TAN CHENG BOCK v ATTORNEY GENERAL [2017] SGHC 160 DECISION DATE: 07 Jul 2017 HC/OS 495/2017" (PDF).

High Court of the Republic of Singapore. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2019 . Retrieved 8 July 2017. • ^ "Law allows Parliament to count Wee Kim Wee's term in triggering reserved presidential election: High Court". 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 8 July 2017 . Retrieved 8 July 2017.

• ^ "Tan Cheng Bock's constitutional challenge dismissed by High Court". Channel NewsAsia. 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017 . Retrieved 8 July 2017. • ^ "Perpetual presidential hopeful Tan Cheng Bock bows out gracefully". Mothership.sg. 23 August 2017. Archived from the original on 27 August 2017 . Retrieved 27 August 2017. • ^ Lee, Justina (12 September 2017). "Singaporeans miffed by 'reserved' presidential election - Nikkei Asian Review".

Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 5 December 2017 . Retrieved 14 December 2017. • ^ "Halimah Yacob set to be Singapore's first female president: A timeline of her career". The Straits Times. 11 September 2017. Archived from the original on 27 January 2018 . Retrieved 28 January 2018. • ^ Constitution, Art. 17(1). • ^ Constitution, Art. 23(1). • ^ Constitution, Art.

24(2). • ^ Constitution, Art. 21(1). • ^ Constitution, Art. 21(2). • ^ Constitution, Art. 38. • ^ Constitution, Art. 58(1). • ^ Constitution, Art. 21(2)(c). • ^ Constitution, Art. 60. • ^ Standing Orders of Parliament (as amended on 19 October 2004) (PDF), Parliament of Singapore, 19 October 2004, archived from the original (PDF) on 9 May 2010 , retrieved 2 November 2009 , Standing Order 15(1). • ^ Constitution, Art. 62. • ^ a b Tommy Koh (15 June 2011), "Demystifying the presidential office" (PDF), The Straits Times, p.

A21, archived from the original (PDF) on 8 June 2012 . • ^ Constitution, Arts. 21(1) and (2). • ^ Constitution, Arts. 22(3) and (4). The Legislature can pass a law requiring the President to act after consultation with, or on the recommendation of, any person or body of persons other than the Cabinet in the exercise of his or her functions other than those exercisable in his personal discretion or in respect of the Constitution has made other provision: Art.

21(5). • ^ Constitution, Art. 144(1). • ^ Constitution, Arts. 21(2)(e), 21(2)(f), 22B and 22D. • ^ Constitution, Art. 22E. • ^ Constitution, Art. 144(2). • ^ Constitution, Arts. 148A and 148D. • ^ Constitution, Art. 22(1). • ^ Constitution, Art. 25(1). • ^ Constitution, Art. 22G. The Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau's powers of investigation derive from the Prevention of Corruption Act ( Cap. 241, 1993 Rev. Ed.). • ^ Constitution, Arts. 21(2)(g) and 151(4); Internal Security Act ( Cap. 143, 1985 Rev.

Ed.), s. 13A. • ^ Constitution, Arts. 21(2)(h), 22I; MRHA, s. 12. • ^ Hu, Richard Tsu Tau ( Minister for Finance), Ministerial Statement, "Issues Raised by President Ong Teng Cheong at his Press Conference on 16th July 1999", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (17 August 1999), vol. 70, cols. 2018–2029; Roger Mitton (10 March 2000), " 'I had a job to do' whether the Government liked it or not, says ex-President Ong – extended interview with Roger Mitton", Asiaweek, vol.

26, no. 9, pp. 28–29, archived from the original on 10 February 2001 . • ^ The Principles for Determining and Safeguarding the Accumulated Reserves of the Government and the Fifth Schedule Statutory Boards and Government Companies [Cmd. 5 of 1999], Singapore: Printed for the Government of Singapore by the Government Printers, 1999, OCLC 226180358 .

• ^ Zakir Hussain (23 January 2009), "A Budget first: Govt to draw $4.9b from past reserves", The Straits Times, p. 4 – via NewspaperSG ; "Concerns about economy go back to mid-2008: President makes public for first time his decision to allow use of reserves", The Straits Times, 18 February 2009 ; Chua Mui Hoong (20 February 2009), "Turning of the second key went smoothly", The Straits Times .

• ^ Constitution, Art. 19(2)(a). • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(2)(b). • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(2)(c) read with Art. 44(2)(c). {/INSERTKEYS}

pres sgp

• ^ Constitution, Art. 19(2)(c) read with Art. 44(2)(d). • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(2)(d) read with Art. 45. • ^ The disqualification of a person under pres sgp (d) and (e) may be removed by the President and shall, if not so removed, cease at the end of five years beginning from the date on which the return mentioned in clause (d) was required to be lodged or, as the case may be, the date on which the person convicted as mentioned in clause (e) was released from custody or the date on which the fine mentioned in clause (1) (e) was imposed on pres sgp person: Constitution, Art.

45(2). • ^ A person shall not be disqualified under this clause by reason only of anything done by him before he became a citizen of Singapore: Constitution, Art. 45(2). In clause (f), "foreign country" does not include any part pres sgp the Commonwealth or the Republic of Ireland: Art. 45(3). • ^ a b Constitution, Art. 19(2)(e). • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(2)(f).

• ^ Constitution, Art. 19(3)(a). • ^ a b Constitution, Art. 19(3)(b) read with the Fifth Schedule. • ^ a b Constitution, Art. 19(4), read with Art.

19(7). • ^ a b Constitution, Art. 19(3)(c) and Art 19(4)(b). • ^ Chua Mui Hoong (21 August 1999), "See you in six years' time", The Straits Times, p. 6 ; "Why only President Nathan qualifies", The Straits Times, p. 4, 14 August 2005 .

pres sgp

• ^ Han, Kirsten (12 September 2017). "How Singapore elected a president without a vote". CNN. Archived from the original on 15 December 2017.

Retrieved 14 December 2017. • ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Act 2016". Act No. 28/2016 of 21 December 2016. Archived from the original on 5 August 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2017. • ^ Constitution, Art. 19B. • ^ "Elected Presidency: Amendments to Constitution passed in Parliament".

Channel NewsAsia. 9 November 2016. Archived from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016. • ^ Yuen-C, Tham (30 September 2017). "PM Lee spells out why he pushed for reserved election". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017. • ^ Constitution, Art. 20(1). • ^ Constitution, Arts. 22L(1)(a) to (c). The office of President also becomes vacant if it is determined that the election of the President was void and no other person was duly elected as President, or if on the expiration of the incumbent's term the person declared elected as President fails to take office: Arts.

22L(1)(d) and (e). • ^ Assuming a writ for a presidential election has not yet been issued before the vacation of office or, if it has been issued, has been countermanded: Constitution, Art. 17(3)(a). • ^ Constitution, Art. 17(3); Presidential Elections Act ( Cap. 240A, 2007 Rev. Ed.) ("PEA"), s. 6(1). • ^ Presidential Elections Act ( Cap.

240A, 2007 Rev. Ed.). • ^ PEA, ss. 6(2) and (3). • ^ Constitution, Art. 18(1). • ^ Constitution, Art. 18(3). • ^ Constitution, Arts. 18(2)(a) to (c). • ^ "Presidential Elections Committee" (PDF). Elections Department Singapore. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 June 2017.

Retrieved 31 July 2017. • ^ Political Donations Act ( Cap. 236, 2001 Rev. Ed.). • ^ PEA, ss. 9(4)(ba) and 11(1). • ^ PEA, s. 10(1) read with the Cap. Parliamentary Elections Act, 2007 Rev. Ed., s. 28(1). • ^ PEA, s. 15. • ^ PEA, s. 16(5). • ^ PEA, s. 50(1). • ^ PEA, s. 62A(2), inserted by the Presidential Elections (Amendment) Act 2010 (No. 11 of 2010) ("PEAA").

• ^ Presidential Elections (Posters and Banners) Regulations ( Cap. 240A, Rg 3, 2000 Rev. Ed.), archived from the original on 2 September 2010, regs. 2 and 3(1). • ^ PEA, s. 41. • ^ PEA, s. 63. • ^ PEA, ss.

42(1)(d) and (e). • ^ PEA, s. 39. • ^ PEA, s. 40. • ^ PEA, ss. 59, 60A, 62 and 62A. • ^ PEA, s. 17. • ^ PEA, s. 26(1). • ^ PEA, s. 22(1). • ^ PEA, s. 31(2). • ^ PEA, s. 31(3). • ^ PEA, ss. 32B(1) and (4). Rejected and tendered votes are excluded. A tendered vote is a vote that is permitted to be cast by a person claiming to be a voter named in the electoral register who turns up at a polling station after someone also claiming to be that voter has already voted: s.

29. • ^ Pres sgp, s. 32(8). • ^ Constitution, Arts. 20(1) to (3) and the 1st Sch. • ^ Constitution, Arts. 19(3)(a) to (d). • ^ Constitution, Art. 22J(1). • ^ Civil List and Gratuity Act ( Cap. 44, 2002 Rev. Ed.). • ^ a b Josephine Teo ( Minister of State for Finance), " Civil List (Motion)", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (17 February 2012), vol.

88, cols. 1202–1203. • ^ Tharman Shanmugaratnam ( Minister for Finance), " Civil List (Motion)", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (10 March 2011), vol. 87, col. 4699. • ^ Zakir Hussain (11 March 2011), "President's pay approved", The Straits Times, p. A12 ; "Parliament approves increase in President's salary, expenditure", Today, p.

4, 11 March 2011, archived from the original on 18 May 2011. • ^ "Funds approved for Office of the President", The Straits Times, p. C6, 23 January 2009. • ^ Civil List and Pension Act: Resolution Passed at Parliament Meeting 2012 ( S 137/2012), archived from the original on 31 August 2017.

• ^ a b c d e Former Presidents, Istana Singapore: Office of the President of the Republic of Singapore, 28 April 2006, archived from the original on 1 August 2008retrieved 24 January 2009. • ^ President S R Nathan, Istana Singapore: Office of the President of the Republic of Singapore, 4 May 2006, archived from the original on 22 August 2008retrieved 24 January 2009.

pres sgp ^ Elgin Toh (1 September 2017), "Pillay takes on role of acting president: CPA chairman will fill post until after Polling Day on Sept 23, or Nomination Day on Sept 13", The Straits Times, p. A9. Sources [ edit ] • Koh, Tommy (15 June 2011), "Demystifying the presidential office" (PDF), The Straits Times, p. A21, archived from the original (PDF) on 8 June 2012. Legislation • Constitution of the Republic of Singapore ( 1985 Rev. Ed., 1999 Reprint). • Presidential Elections Act ( Cap.

240A, 2007 Rev. Ed.) ("PEA"). Further reading [ edit ] Articles [ edit ] • Lee, Yvonne C.L. (2007), "Under Lock and Key: The Evolving Role of the Elected President as a Fiscal Guardian", Singapore Journal of Legal Studies: 290–322, SSRN 1139305. • Wan, Wai Yee (1994), "Recent Changes to the Westminster System of Government and Pres sgp Accountability", Singapore Law Review, 15: 297–332. Books [ edit ] • Chan, Helena H[ui-]M[eng] (1995), "The Executive", The Legal System of Singapore, Singapore: Butterworths Asia, pp.

22–29, ISBN 978-0-409-99789-7. • Ho, Khai Leong (2003), Shared Responsibilities, Unshared Power: The Politics of Policy-making in Singapore, Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, ISBN 978-981-210-218-8. • Low, Linda; Toh, Mun Heng (1989), The Elected Presidency as a Safeguard for Official Reserves: What is at Stake? [IPS occasional paper; no. 1], Singapore: Times Academic Press in association with the Institute of Policy Studies, ISBN 978-981-00-1014-0.

• Report of the Select Committee on the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 3) Bill (Bill No. 23/90) [Parl.

9 of 1990], Singapore: Printed for the Government of Singapore by Singapore National Printers, 1990, OCLC 212400288. • Safeguarding Financial Assets and the Integrity of the Public Services: The Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No.

3) Bill [ Cmd. 11 of 1990], Singapore: Printed for the Government of Singapore by Singapore National Printers, 1990, OCLC 39716236. • Tan, Kevin [Yew Lee]; Lam, Peng Er (1997), Managing Political Change in Singapore: The Elected Presidency, Pres sgp Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-15632-5. • Tan, Kevin Y[ew] L[ee] (2009), "State and Institution Building through the Singapore Constitution 1965–2005", in Thio, Li-ann; Tan, Kevin Y L (eds.), Evolution of a Revolution: Forty Years of the Singapore Constitution, London; New York, N.Y.: Routledge-Cavendish, pp.

50–78 at 68–71, ISBN 978-0-415-43862-9. News reports [ edit ] • Ho, Kwon Ping (7 July 2011), "Soft powers of a president", The Straits Times, p. A27. • Wan, Wai Yee (21 July 2011), "Don't politicise role of President", The Straits Times, p.

A25. • Ho, Kwon Ping (23 July 2011), "Elected presidency: Navigating uncharted waters [letter]", The Straits Times. • Tan, Kin Lian (25 July 2011), "Elected president can pres sgp voice of the people [letter]", The Straits Times, p. A21. • Goh, Richard (28 July 2011), "Be clear about president's role [online letter]", The Straits Times. • Gwee, Kim Leng (28 July 2011), "People's voice: 'If Mr Tan wanted it his way, he should have stood in the GE' [letter]", The Straits Times, p.

A28. • Liew, Shiau Min (28 July 2011), "Hard to confine an elected pres sgp to his custodial role [letter]", The Straits Times, p. A28. • Ng, Ya Ken (28 July 2011), "Stick to Constitution: 'State what contributions they would render in the purview, if elected' [letter]", The Straits Times, p. A28. • Tin, Eric (28 July 2011), "Presidential hopeful's contradictions [letter]", The Straits Times, p.

Pres sgp. • Chia, Daniel (30 July 2011), "Accept EP's role or don't stand [letter]", The Straits Times, p. A45. • Pres sgp, Stephanie (30 July 2011), "Why a campaign promise may ring hollow [letter]", The Straits Times, p.

A45. • Tan, Cheng Bock (1 August 2011), "Why elected president must be the people's voice [letter]", The Straits Times, p. A27. External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Presidents of Singapore. • Official website • Foreign Interference (Countermeasures) Act 2021 • Income Tax Act 1947 • Liquor Control (Supply and Consumption) Act 2015 • Medical (Therapy, Education and Research) Act • Mental Health (Care and Treatment) Act • Newspaper and Printing Presses Act • Pawnbrokers Act 2015 • Payment Services Act 2019 • Personal Data Protection Act 2012 • Protection from Online Falsehoods and Manipulation Act 2019 • Silver Support Scheme Act 2015 • Third-Party Taxi Booking Service Providers Act 2015 (Repealed) • Transboundary Haze Pollution Act 2014 • Workplace Safety and Health Act Procedure • Archaeology • Early history (pre–1819) • Founding of modern Singapore (1819–1826) • Straits Settlements (1826–1942) • Japanese occupation (1942–1945) • British Military Administration (1945–1946) • Post-war Pres sgp (1946–1955) • Self-governance of Singapore (1955–1962) • Merger with Malaysia (1962–1965) • Republic of Singapore (1965– present) • العربية • Asturianu • Català • Español • فارسی • Français • Galego • 한국어 • हिन्दी • Ido • Bahasa Indonesia • Italiano • עברית • ქართული • მარგალური • مصرى • Bahasa Melayu • Nederlands • 日本語 • Norsk bokmål pres sgp Occitan • Polski • Português • Русский • Simple English • Suomi • தமிழ் • ไทย • Тоҷикӣ • Українська • Tiếng Việt • 粵語 • 中文 Edit links • This page was last edited on 26 April 2022, at 18:26 (UTC).

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• v • t • e The politics of Singapore takes the form of a parliamentary representative democratic republic whereby the president of Singapore is the head of state, the prime minister of Singapore is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.

Executive power is exercised by the Cabinet from the parliament, and to a lesser extent, the president. Cabinet has the general direction and control of the government and is accountable [1] to Parliament. There are three separate branches of government: the legislature, executive and judiciary abiding by the Westminster system.

[2] Singapore has been described as being a de facto one-party state. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Parliament of Singapore. The legislature is the parliament, which consists of the president as its head and a single chamber whose members are elected by popular vote. The role of the president as the head of state has been, historically, largely ceremonial although the constitution was amended in 1991 to give the president some veto powers in a few key decisions such as the use of the national reserves and the appointment of key judiciary, Civil Service and Singapore Armed Forces posts.

They also exercise powers over civil service appointments and national security matters. Contents • 1 Political background • 2 Political climate • 2.1 Domination of the ruling party • 2.2 Human rights condition • 3 Executive • 3.1 Cabinet • 4 Legislative • 4.1 Parliament • 4.2 Legislative process • 4.3 Constitution • 5 Judiciary • 6 Elections and political parties • 6.1 People's Action Party • 6.2 Opposition parties • 6.3 Women's participation in politics • 6.4 Shirt colours • 7 See also • 8 References Political background [ edit ] Singaporean politics have been dominated by the People's Action Party (PAP) since the 1959 general election when Lee Kuan Yew became Singapore's first prime minister (Singapore was then a self-governing state within the British Empire).

The PAP has been the only ruling party to form the government since then. Singapore joined the Federation of Malaysia in 1963 and gained independence in 1965 after being expelled.

[3] Singapore has consistently been rated as the least-corrupt country in Asia and amongst the top ten cleanest in the world by Transparency International. [4] [5] The World Bank's governance indicators have also rated Singapore highly on rule of law, control of corruption and government effectiveness. However, it is widely perceived that some aspects of the political process, civil liberties, and political and human rights are lacking. [6] The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Singapore a " flawed democracy" in 2019.

[7] Freedom House deemed the press "not free" in 2015. [8] Political climate [ edit ] Domination of the ruling party [ edit ] The Workers' Party (WP) is the leading opposition party. WP took 10 of the 93 parliamentary seats in the 2020 election, while the PAP won the other 83. [9] Another new opposition party, the Progress Singapore Party (PSP), obtained two NCMP seats in the 2020 election. [10] One commonly cited reason for a lack of opposition in Singapore is the use of defamation lawsuits by the PAP to bankrupt political opponents and disqualify them pres sgp running for office when pres sgp were made against the ruling party.

[11] [12] Cases include former leader of the WP J. B. Jeyaretnam and leader of the SDP Chee Soon Juan, who were bankrupted in 2001 and 2011 respectively. [13] [14] [15] Another reason given is the pursuit of legal action against journalists and bloggers critical of the PAP and its policies. [8] [16] Reporters Without Borders cites such lawsuits, along with attempts at making critical journalists unemployable, among its concerns when ranking the country 151st in the world for press freedom in 2017.

[17] The PAP has in the past threatened voters by saying that constituencies voting for opposition MPs would be put at the bottom of the list for pres sgp housing programs. [18] [19] [20] In 1998, then PAP secretary-general, Goh Chok Tong said, "By linking the priority of upgrading to electoral support, we focus the minds of voters on the link between upgrading and the people whose policies make it possible.

This has the desired result." [21]. As recently as pres sgp Lee Hsien Loong expressed that there has to be a distinction between opposition wards and the ones that voted for the PAP in terms of housing upgrades. [22] The boundaries of electoral constituencies in Singapore are decided by the Elections Department, which is under the control of the Prime Minister's Office.

[23] Electoral boundaries are redrawn just a few days before the general election. [23] [24] There have been accusations of gerrymandering via dissolving of constituencies with relatively stronger opposition support, such as the Cheng San Group Representation Constituency (GRC). [25] Human rights condition [ edit ] Main article: Human rights in Singapore Although Singapore's laws are inherited from British and British Indian laws, including many elements of English common law, the PAP has also consistently rejected liberal democratic values, which it typifies as Western and states that there should not be a 'one-size-fits-all' pres sgp to a democracy.

Laws restricting the freedom of speech exist to prohibit speech that may breed ill will or pres sgp disharmony within Singapore's multiracial, multi-religious society. For example, in September 2005, three bloggers were convicted of sedition for posting racist remarks targeting minorities. [26] Some offences can lead to heavy fines or caning and there are laws which allow capital punishment in Singapore for murder and drug trafficking.

Executive [ edit ] • He or she must not be a member of any political party on the date of his or her nomination for election. [27] • He or she must have for a period of not less than three years held office — • as Minister, Chief Justice, Speaker, Attorney-General, Chairman of the Public Service Commission, Auditor-General, Accountant-General or Pres sgp Secretary; [28] • as chief executive officer (CEO) of a key statutory board or government company: the Central Provident Fund Board, the Housing and Development Board, the Jurong Town Corporation, the Monetary Authority of Singapore, Temasek Holdings, or GIC Private Limited (formerly known as the Government of Singapore Investment Corporation); [29] • as CEO of a company with an average of $500 million in shareholders' equity for the most recent three years in that office, and which is profitable after taxes; [30] or • in any other similar or comparable position of seniority and responsibility in any other organisation or department of equivalent size or complexity in the public or private sector which has given her such experience and ability in administering and managing financial affairs as to enable her to carry out effectively the functions and duties of the office of President.

[31] The president now exercises powers over the following: [32] • appointment of public officers • government budgets • examine government's exercise of its powers under the Internal Security Act • examine government's exercise of its powers under religious harmony laws • investigate cases of corruption However, pres sgp president must consult the Council of Presidential Advisers before she takes a decision on some of these matters.

The council comprises: • two members appointed at the personal discretion of the president • two members appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister • one member appointed by the president on the advice of the chief justice • one member appointed by the president on the advice of pres sgp chairman of the Public Service Commission A member of the council serves a six-year term and is eligible for re-appointment for further terms of four years each.

[33] Similar to the Speech from the Throne given by the heads of state in other parliamentary systems, the president delivers an address written by the government at the opening of parliament about what kind of policies to expect in the coming year. The current president is Halimah Yacob. Cabinet [ edit ] Lee Hsien Loong, Prime Minister of Singapore The cabinet forms the executive of the government and it is answerable to parliament. It consist of sitting members of parliament and is headed by a prime minister, the head of government.

The current prime minister is Pres sgp Hsien Loong. Neither the prime minister nor members of the cabinet are elected by parliament. The prime minister is appointed by the president, then Cabinet members, also known as ministers, are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister.

[34] The cabinet in Singapore collectively decides the government's policies and has influence over lawmaking by introducing bills. Ministers in Singapore are the highest paid politicians in the world, receiving a 60% salary raise in 2007 and as a result Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong's pay jumped to S$3.1 million, five times the US$400,000 earned by US President Barack Obama.

Although there was a public outcry regarding the high salary in comparison to the size of the country governed, the government's firm stance was that this raise was required to ensure the continued efficiency and corruption-free status of Singapore's "world-class" government.

[35] On 21 May 2011, pres sgp the 2011 general election, the Prime Minister announced that a committee would be appointed to review politicians' remuneration, and that revised salaries would take effect from that date. Legislative [ edit ] Parliament [ edit ] Parliament House The unicameral Singaporean parliament is the legislature in Singapore with the president as its head. [36] Before independence in 1965, it was known as the Legislative Assembly. It currently consists of 93 members of parliament.

The maximum term of any one parliament is five years, after which a general election must be held within three months of the dissolution of parliament. The 93 elected members of parliament (MPs) are elected on a plurality voting basis and represent either single-member constituencies (SMCs) or group representation constituencies (GRCs). In GRCs, political parties field a team of between three and six candidates. At least one candidate in the team must belong to a minority race.

[37] Formerly, there were no GRCs, and all constituencies of Singapore were represented by one member, but amendments to the Parliamentary Elections Act in 1991 led to the creation of GRCs, thus creating a plurality voting system pres sgp the process.

[38] [39] This development has led to complaints from opposition parties that they are often unable to field one, let alone three or more candidates. Out of the 93 members of parliament, 26 are female. [40] In the 2001 and pres sgp general election, the incumbent People's Action Party (PAP) won the same configuration of 82 out of the 84 seats.

[41] The final results of the 2020 general election saw a 8.62% swing against the PAP from the 2015 elections of 69.86%. [42] The constitution also provides for the appointment of other members of parliament not voted in at an election. Up to six non-constituency members of parliament from the opposition political parties can be appointed. [37] Currently, there are two non-constituency members of parliament.

A constitutional provision for the appointment of up to nine nominated members of parliament (NMPs) was made in 1990. [37] NMPs are appointed by the president for a term of two and a half years on the recommendation of a select committee chaired by the speaker of Parliament and are not connected to any political parties.

The youngest NMP to be sworn into parliament was 26 years old, Yip Pin Xiu. In 2018, nine NMPs were sworn in, out of which five were female. Both non-constituency and nominated members of parliament cannot vote on the following issues: • amendment of the constitution • public funds • vote of no confidence in the government • removing the president from office Legislative process [ edit ] Before any law is passed, it is first introduced in parliament as a draft known as a bill.

Bills are usually introduced by a minister on behalf of the cabinet, known as government bills. However, any member of parliament can introduce a bill, known as a private member's bill. All bills must go through three readings in parliament and receive the president's assent to become an act of Parliament.

Each bill goes through several stages before it becomes a law. The first stage is a mere formality known as the first reading, where it is introduced without a debate. This is followed by the second reading, where members of parliament debate on the general principles of the bill. If parliament opposes the bill, it may vote to reject the bill. If the bill goes through the second reading, the bill is sent to a select committee where every clause in the bill is examined.

Members of parliament who support the bill in principle but do not agree with certain clauses can propose amendments to those clauses at this stage. Following its report back to parliament, the bill will go through its third reading where only minor amendments will be allowed before it is passed. Most bills passed by parliament are scrutinised pres sgp the Presidential Council for Minority Rights which makes a report to the speaker of Parliament stating whether there are clauses in a bill which affects any racial or religious community.

[43] If approved by the council, the bill will be presented for the president's assent. The last stage involves the granting of assent by the president, before the bill officially becomes a law. Constitution [ edit ] Main article: Constitution of Singapore The Constitution of Singapore is the supreme law of Singapore [44] and it is a codified constitution.

The constitution cannot be amended without the support of more than two-thirds of the members of parliament on the second and third readings. [44] The president may seek opinion on constitutional issues from a tribunal consisting of not less than three judges of the Supreme Court. Singaporean courts, like the courts in Australia, cannot offer advisory opinion on the constitutionality of laws.

[45] Part IV of the constitution guarantees the following: [46] • liberty of a person • prohibition of slavery and forced labour • protection against retrospective criminal laws and repeated trials • equal protection • prohibition of banishment and freedom of movement • freedom of speech, assembly and association • freedom of religion • right to education The sections on liberty of the person and freedoms of speech, assembly, movement, association and religion are all qualified by allowing Parliament to restrict those freedoms for reasons including national security, public health, and "public order or morality".

In practice, the courts have given complete discretion to the government in imposing such restrictions. Part XII of the constitution allows the Parliament of Singapore to enact legislation designed to stop or prevent subversion. Such legislation is valid even if it is inconsistent with Part IV of the constitution.

The Internal Security Act (ISA) is a legislation under such provision. In 1966, Chia Thye Poh was detained under the ISA and was imprisoned for 23 years without trial.

pres sgp

Afterwards, he was placed under conditions of house arrest for another nine years. Judiciary [ edit ] For other political parties, see List of political parties in Singapore. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Singapore.

Voting has been compulsory in Singapore since 1959 [47] and there is universal suffrage. The legal voting pres sgp is 21. The Elections Department of Pres sgp is responsible for the planning, preparation and conduct of presidential and parliamentary elections and of any national referendum in Singapore.

It is a department under the Prime Minister's Office. Paper ballots are still used in Singapore. However, there is a concern that voting secrecy might be compromised [48] as ballot papers have serial numbers on them.

As stated in the Elections Department website: [49] ballot papers can be examined only under strict conditions, and there are safeguards that make it extremely difficult to find out how any particular voter voted. After the count, all ballot papers and their counterfoils have to be sealed in the Supreme Court vault for six months, after which all the ballot papers and other election documents are destroyed.

During those six months, these documents can only be retrieved by court order. The court will issue such an order only if it is satisfied that a vote has been fraudulently cast and the result of the election may be affected as a result.

Our courts have issued no such order since elections have been held here since 1948. People's Action Party [ edit ] The PAP has been the dominant political party in Singapore, re-elected continuously since 1959. It is headed by Lee Hsien Loong, who succeeded Goh Chok Tong. Goh's predecessor Lee Kuan Yew served as Singapore's prime minister from independence through 1990.

Since stepping down as prime minister, Lee remained influential as Senior Minister and Minister Mentor. PAP has held the overwhelming majority of seats in parliament since 1966 when the opposition Barisan Sosialis Party resigned from parliament and left the PAP as the sole representative party.

PAP won all of the seats in an expanding parliament in the general elections of 1968, 1972, 1976 and 1980. PAP's share of the popular vote in contested seats declined from 78% in 1980 to 65% in 1997.

However, the elections of 2001 saw the party's share of the popular vote climb to 75%, winning 82 of the 84 seats. The 2006 Singapore general election marked the first time since 1988 the PAP did not return to power on nomination day, with the opposition parties fielding candidates in over half of the constituencies. Overall PAP saw its share of the vote fall to 66.6%. Opposition parties [ edit ] There are two opposition parties in the 14th Parliament of Singapore as of 2020 pres sgp The Workers' Party and the Progress Singapore Party.

[50] There are other major opposition parties such as the Singapore People's Party, Reform Party, and the Singapore Democratic Party (SDP), that do not hold a seat in parliament. J.B. Jeyaretnam of the Workers' Party became pres sgp first opposition party member of parliament in 15 years when he won a 1981 by-election.

Despite acquiring an increasing percentage of pres sgp popular vote—34% overall in 2006—opposition parties gained small numbers of seats in the general elections of 1984 (2 seats of 79), 1988 (1 seat of 81), 1991 (4 seats of 81), 1997 (2 seats of 83) and 2001 (2 seats of 84).

The opposition parties attribute the disproportionate results to the nature of the GRC system. As of July 2020, the Worker's Party holds 10 of 93 elected seats while Progress Singapore Party holds the remaining 2 Non-constituency MP (NCMP) seats.

Women's participation in politics [ edit ] Main article: Women in Singapore politics Women traditionally played a significantly smaller role than their male counterparts in Singapore.

Nonetheless, in recent years, there is an increasing pres sgp of female participation in the Singapore political arena. On 11 July 2020, He Ting Ru and Raeesah Begum Farid Khan became the third and fourth woman from an opposition party to win a seat in parliament by 4,922 votes over the ruling party's candidates in the 2020 general election for Sengkang Group Representation Constituency( GRC).

The team was led by He Ting Ru and was first timer Raeesah Khan who proceeded to become the youngest MP in Singapore's Parliamentary history. Lee Li Lian was the second woman from an opposition party to win a seat in Parliament with 54.50% of the votes but lost in the following 2015 general election by a slim margin. Sylvia Lim Swee Lian, currently the Chairperson of the opposition Workers' Party (WP) and Member of Parliament (MP) representing Aljunied GRC pres sgp team won 54.71% of the votes (54.72% including overseas votes), was the first time that an opposition party won a GRC since the system's introduction on 1 June 1988.

In September 2017, Halimah Yacob was inaugurated as Singapore's first woman President, the only candidate certified as eligible in the election. Shirt colours [ edit ] The candidates and supporters of the various political parties tend to wear the following shirt colours while making their rounds in various wards or campaigning.

Party Shirt Colour People's Action Party White Workers' Party Light Blue Progress Singapore Party Red and White Singapore People's Party Singapore Democratic Party Red National Solidarity Party Orange Reform Party Yellow Singapore Democratic Alliance Bright Green Democratic Progressive Party White and Orange People's Power Party Light Purple Peoples Voice Purple and Black Red Dot United Navy Blue See also [ edit ] pres sgp ^ "Our Legal System - Ministry of Law".

www.mlaw.gov.sg. Archived from the original on 3 April 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019. • ^ "SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT". 11 November 2020. • ^ Worthington, Ross (2002).

Governance in Singapore. Routledge/Curzon. ISBN 0-7007-1474-X. • ^ "Transparency International — Corruption Perceptions Index 2005". Archived from the original on 19 June 2006. Retrieved 13 April 2006. • ^ "Corruption Surveys and Indices". Transparency International website. Archived from the original on 8 December 2005. Retrieved 22 April 2006. • ^ "Governance Indicators: 1996-2004". World Bank website. Retrieved pres sgp April 2006.

• ^ pres sgp Index 2021: the China challenge". Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 16 February 2022. • ^ a b "Singapore". Freedom House. Retrieved 5 November 2017.

• ^ hermes (11 July 2020). "GE2020: PAP wins 83 of pres sgp seats; WP takes two GRCs". The Straits Times. Retrieved 15 July 2020. • ^ "GE2020: PSP's Hazel Poa and Leong Mun Wai will take up NCMP seats". CNA. Retrieved 15 July 2020. • ^ Andrews, Sally. " 'Soft' Repression: The Struggle for Democracy in Singapore". The Diplomat. Pres sgp Diplomat.

Retrieved 5 November 2017. • ^ Foong Lian, Hah (12 May 2010). "Defeating rivals through defamation lawsuits - SEAPA – Southeast Asian Press Alliance". seapa.org. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2017. • ^ "Election Strategy and Ethnic Politics in Singapore" (PDF). Retrieved 9 November 2011. • ^ Chee, Soon Juan (10 May 2011). "Singapore is taking the first steps to true democracy". The Guardian.

Retrieved 18 January 2015. • ^ Times, David A. Andelman Special to the New York (9 April 1977). "Singapore Pres sgp a Stern Drive To Silence Critics and Dissidents". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 7 September 2017. • ^ Guilford, Gwynn. "A blogger questioned the Singapore miracle, and the prime minister is trying to bankrupt him". Quartz. Retrieved 5 November 2017. • ^ "Singapore : Intolerant government, self-censorship - Reporters without borders".

RSF (in French). Retrieved 5 November 2017. • ^ Aglionby, John (26 October 2001). "A tick in the only box". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 November 2017. • ^ " 'Time to discard policies that divide S'poreans' ".

pres sgp

sg.news.yahoo.com. • ^ Lily Kong; Brenda S. A. Yeoh (1 February 2003). The Politics of Landscapes in Singapore: Constructions of "Nation". Syracuse University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-8156-2980-1. • ^ "Upgrading link swung vote in GE". The Straits Times. 12 January 1998. • ^ " 'PM Lee, I don't get upgrading, so can I pay less tax?' ". yahoo! News. 6 April 2011. • ^ a b Terence Chong (2010). Pres sgp of Success: Singapore Revisited. Institute of Southeast Asian.

p. 106. ISBN 978-981-4279-85-7. • ^ Diane K. Mauzy; Robert Stephen Milne (2002). Singapore Politics Under the People's Action Party. Psychology Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-415-24653-8.

pres sgp

• ^ Bilveer Singh (2012). Politics and Governance in Singapore: An Introduction. McGraw-Hill. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-07-108110-8. • ^ "Third racist blogger sentenced to 24 months pres sgp probation". Channel NewsAsia. 23 November 2005. • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(2)(f). • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(3)(a). • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(3)(b) read with the Fifth Schedule. • ^ Constitution, Art.

19(4), read with Art. 19(7). • ^ Constitution, Art. 19(3)(c) and Art 19(4)(b). • ^ "The Presidency in Singapore". Istana website. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008.

Retrieved 31 July 2006. • ^ "Council of Presidential Advisers". Istana website. Archived from the original on 7 Pres sgp 2006. Retrieved 22 April 2006. • ^ "The Executive". Attorney-General's Chambers of Singapore website. Retrieved 22 April 2006. • ^ Singapore announces 60 percent pay raise for ministers - International Herald Tribune • ^ "About Us". Parliament pres sgp Singapore website. Archived from the original on 24 April 2006. Retrieved 22 April 2006.

• ^ a b c "The Legislature". Attorney-General's Chambers of Singapore website. Retrieved 22 April 2006. • ^ "Parliamentary Elections Act".

Singapore Statutes Online. Retrieved 8 May 2006. • ^ "Legislation history". Singapore Statutes Online. Retrieved 8 May 2006. • ^ "ELD - 2020 Parliamentary General Election Results". 12 July 2020. Archived from the original on 12 July 2020. Retrieved 15 July 2020. • ^ "Singapore's PAP returned to power". Channel NewsAsia. 7 May 2006. • ^ hermesauto (12 July 2020). "Singapore GE2020: PAP will have to review broader issues behind overall swing in votes, says Tan Chuan-Jin". The Straits Times.

Retrieved 15 July 2020. • ^ "Law Making". Singapore Parliament website. Archived from the original on 19 May 2006. Retrieved 22 April 2006. • ^ a b "The Republic and the Constitution".

Attorney-General's Chambers of Singapore website. Retrieved 22 April 2006. • ^ "The Judiciary". Attorney-General's Chambers of Singapore website. Retrieved 22 April 2006. • ^ "Fundamental Liberties". Attorney-General's Chambers of Singapore website.

Retrieved 22 April 2006. • ^ "Singapore voter turnout". International Institute for Democracy and Pres sgp Assistance website.

Archived from the original on 15 October 2005. Retrieved 22 April 2006. • ^ Independent, The. "Man caught man lying about S R Nathan claims he did vote for the ex-President, but not at ballot box". The Independent. Retrieved 30 December 2017.

• ^ "Ballot Secrecy". Elections Department of Singapore website. Archived from the original on 26 March 2006. Retrieved 22 April 2006. • ^ Ng, Kelly (15 July 2020). "PSP NCMPs to work with WP as 'alternative front' ". The Business Times. Retrieved 15 July 2020. • Archaeology • Early history (pre–1819) • Founding of modern Singapore (1819–1826) • Straits Settlements (1826–1942) • Japanese occupation (1942–1945) • British Military Administration (1945–1946) • Post-war Singapore (1946–1955) • Self-governance of Singapore (1955–1962) • Merger with Malaysia (1962–1965) • Republic of Singapore (1965– present) • Afghanistan • Armenia • Azerbaijan • Bahrain • Bangladesh • Bhutan • Brunei • Cambodia • China • Cyprus • East Timor (Timor-Leste) • Egypt • Georgia • India • Indonesia • Iran pres sgp Iraq • Israel • Japan • Jordan • Kazakhstan • North Korea • South Korea • Kuwait • Kyrgyzstan • Laos • Lebanon • Malaysia • Maldives • Mongolia • Myanmar • Nepal • Oman • Pakistan • Philippines • Qatar • Russia • Saudi Arabia • Singapore • Sri Lanka • Syria • Tajikistan • Thailand • Turkey • Turkmenistan • United Arab Emirates • Uzbekistan • Vietnam • Yemen States with limited recognition Hidden categories: • CS1 French-language sources (fr) • Articles with short description • Short description matches Wikidata • Use Singapore English from July 2020 • All Wikipedia articles written in Singapore English • Use dmy dates from February 2021 • Wikipedia articles scheduled for update tagging • Democracy Index rating template users • Articles with LCCN identifiers Edit links • This page was last edited on 7 May 2022, at 12:14 (UTC).

pres sgp

• Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • •
Parliamentary constituencies (2001–2017) Member of the Singapore Parliament for Marsiling–Yew Tee GRC ( Marsiling) In office 11 September 2015 – 7 August 2017 Preceded by Hawazi bin Daipi Member of the Singapore Parliament for Jurong GRC ( Bukit Batok East) In office 3 November 2001 – 24 August 2015 Preceded by Constituency established Succeeded by Rahayu Mahzam Halimah Yacob (born 23 August 1954) is pres sgp Singaporean politician who is the 8th and current president of Singapore.

She is the first female president in the country's history. A former member of the People's Action Party (PAP), she resigned and became an independent to run for the presidency at the 2017 Singapore presidential election. [1] [2] [3] Halimah won the election after a walkover. Prior to her presidency, Halimah was a Member of Parliament (MP) for Jurong GRC (situated from Bukit Batok East) from 2001 to 2015 and for Pres sgp Tee GRC (constituency of Marsiling) from 2015 to 2017.

[4] [5] She was sworn in the following day becoming the second Muslim president since Yusof Ishak in 1965. She had also served as the 9th Speaker of the Parliament of Singapore from 2013 to 2017. Contents • 1 Early life and education • 2 Career • 2.1 Before entering politics • 2.2 Political career • 2.2.1 Speaker of Parliament • 2.3 Trade union involvement • 3 2017 presidential election • 3.1 Speculation and announcement • 3.2 Campaign • 3.3 Election • 3.4 Reactions • 4 Presidency (2017–present) • 5 Personal life • 6 Honours • 6.1 Foreign honours • 6.2 Awards • 7 References • 8 External links Early life and education [ edit ] According to The Straits Times, Halimah is officially classified as an Indian Muslim as her father is ethnically Indian.

[6] She is also of maternal Malay descent. [7] [8] Her father was a watchman who died due to a heart attack when she was eight years old, leaving her and four siblings to be brought up by her mother. [7] [9] [8] Her family was in poverty at the time of her father's death, and she helped her mother to sell nasi padang outside the former Singapore Polytechnic (now Bestway Building) along Prince Edward Road.

[10] [11] Halimah was born at her family home on Queen's Street in Singapore, [12] She was educated at Singapore Chinese Girls' School and Tanjong Katong Girls' School [11] before she went on to the University of Singapore, where she obtained a Bachelor of Laws in 1978. In 1981, she was called to the Singapore Pres sgp. In 2001, she completed a Master of Laws at the National University of Singapore (NUS), and was conferred an honorary Doctor of Laws by NUS on 7 July 2016.

[13] Career [ edit ] Before entering politics [ edit ] Halimah worked as a legal officer at the National Trades Union Congress, and became the director of its legal services department in 1992. She was appointed as a director of the Singapore Institute of Labour Studies pres sgp known as the Ong Teng Cheong Institute of Labour Studies) in 1999. [14] Political career [ edit ] Halimah entered politics in 2001 when she was elected as a Member of Parliament (MP) for the Jurong Group Representation Constituency (GRC).

Following the 2011 general election, Halimah was appointed Minister of State at the Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports. [15] Following a Cabinet reshuffle in November 2012, [16] she became a Minister of State at the Ministry of Social and Family Development.

[15] She has also served as the Chair of Jurong Town Council. [17] In January 2015, Halimah was co-opted into the PAP's Central Executive Committee, the party's highest decision-making body. [18] At the 2015 general election, Halimah was the sole minority candidate for the People's Action Party group contesting the then-newly formed Marsiling–Yew Tee GRC. [19] Halimah has spoken out actively against Islamic extremism, in particular condemning and disassociating from the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant.

[20] [21] [22] Speaker of Parliament [ edit ] On 8 January 2013, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong nominated Halimah to succeed Michael Palmer as Speaker of Parliament following Palmer's resignation after he was revealed to have had an extramarital affair. [23] She was elected Speaker on 14 January 2013, the first woman to hold the post in Singaporean history.

[24] Trade union involvement [ edit ] Halimah served at the National Trades Union Congress (NTUC) as the Deputy Secretary General, Director of the Legal Services Department and Director of the Women's Development Secretariat. [25] She pres sgp served as the Executive Secretary of the United Workers of Electronics and Electrical Industries. [26] Halimah was elected as the Workers' Vice-chairperson of the Standards Committee of the International Labour Conference (ILC) in Geneva from 2000 to 2002 and in 2005.

In 2003 and 2004, she was the Workers' Spokesperson for the ILC Committee on Human Resources Development and Training. [27] 2017 presidential election [ edit ] Speculation and announcement [ edit ] While speaking during the debate on the Presidential Elections Amendment Bill on 6 February 2017, Minister in the Prime Minister's Office Chan Chun Sing addressed Halimah as "Madam President" twice instead of "Madam Pres sgp, drawing laughter from the PAP MPs [28] [29] and leading to widespread speculation that Halimah would be the party's preferred candidate for the reserved presidential elections.

[30] [31] On 6 August 2017, Halimah announced that she would be stepping down as Speaker of Parliament and MP of Marsiling–Yew Pres sgp the next day to run for the presidency in the 2017 presidential election, [32] [33] which was reserved for members of the Malay community.

[34] She was widely viewed as the PAP's candidate for the election, and was endorsed by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong.

pres sgp

{INSERTKEYS} [35] In an interview published on 11 August 2017, Halimah gave her views on the reserved presidential election. She said that it "shows we don't only talk about multiracialism, but we talk about it in the context of meritocracy or opportunities for everyone, and we actually practise it".

Although some commentators have felt that the reserved election did not promote meritocracy, Halimah rejected that view, as she described, "All candidates have to qualify ... If we weaken eligibility criteria for those taking part in a reserved election, yes, then we are compromising meritocracy for representation.

We are not - the same criteria apply to everybody". Regarding commentators who have questioned the lower qualifying bar for public sector candidates like herself, Halimah said, "It is an open, transparent system ...

has been in place since 1991". [36] Campaign [ edit ] On 25 August 2017, Halimah launched her official campaign website, including her campaign slogan "Do Good Do Together", which was criticised by many for being ungrammatical.

She defended her slogan, explaining that it is meant to be catchy. [37] In response to public queries whether Halimah broke election rules by campaigning ahead of the nomination day, the Elections Department clarified that its rule which forbids candidates from campaigning before close of nomination only applies to candidates who are nominated.

[38] Halimah's campaign expenses reached only $220,875 out of the $754,982.40 legal limit. Her expenses were used for promotional material, room rental, office supplies, food, transport and phone bills. [39] Queries were also raised regarding Halimah's long affiliation with the PAP and perceived lack of political independence as she quit the party just one month ago to campaign in the election. Halimah responded by comparing herself to former President Ong Teng Cheong, who was also a PAP member before being elected.

[40] She also cited that she had abstained from voting in an amendment for the Human Organ Transplant Act in 2007. [41] Former NMP Calvin Cheng suggested that Halimah does not appear to have the professional experience needed to manage the financial reserves.

[42] According to Publichouse.sg's estimate, her financial management involvement is only about $40 million, much less than the stringent $500 million shareholders’ equity requirement for private sector candidates. [43] Election [ edit ] Being the only candidate to be issued a Certificate of Eligibility, Halimah became the eighth President of Singapore. [44] Tan Cheng Bock, a former presidential candidate, wrote that Halimah "will occupy the most controversial presidency in the history of Singapore." [45] The Economist described her as "popular and able".

[46] She is also the nation's first female President and Southeast Asia's fourth female Head of State after Corazon Aquino and Gloria Macapagal Arroyo of the Philippines and Megawati Sukarnoputri of Indonesia. Reactions [ edit ] Halimah's sudden resignation as sole minority MP in Marsiling–Yew Tee GRC has sparked calls among the opposition for a by-election as the purpose of GRC is to ensure minority representation.

The PAP government refused to hold a by-election, culminating in the filing of a lawsuit by Wong Souk Yee, a resident in the GRC. A hearing was set for 15 January 2018. [47] On 13 September 2017, the Singapore Democratic Party (SDP) filed a lawsuit in the High Court against the PAP government for refusing to call a by-election in Marsiling–Yew Tee GRC following Halimah's resignation from her post as the sole minority MP in her constituency.

[48] In a High Court hearing conducted on 23 January 2018, Wong's lawyer, Peter Low, argued that the Parliamentary Elections Act should be interpreted such that all MPs of the group representation constituency have to leave their spots when one or more seats are left empty, or when only one remaining MP is a minority candidate. He cited Article 49 (1) of the Constitution, which states that when "the seat of a Member… has become vacant for any reason other than a dissolution of Parliament, the vacancy shall be filled by election" to support his argument.

[49] After the Elections Department announced that Halimah was the only possible candidate for the presidency, global media monitoring house Meltwater observed a significant increase in negative sentiment on social media surrounding the Presidential Elections from 11 to 12 September 2017. The data shows 83% of negative sentiment and 17% of positive sentiment.

[50] Following the announcement, a number of Singaporeans began using the hashtag #NotMyPresident on Facebook and Twitter to voice their disappointment. [51] [52] [53] In response, The Straits Times reported that there was the use of #halimahismypresident by an "equally vocal group", urging "Singaporeans to rally round their next president".

[53] Halimah's decision to remain staying in her public housing HDB flat at Yishun raised security concerns. [54] On 2 October 2017, Halimah accepted the government's decision to move her out of her Yishun flat to a more secure location.

The government keeps track on the residence and security arrangements for her as well. [55] Presidency (2017–present) [ edit ] Halimah was sworn in on 14 September 2017 as the 8th President at The Istana. [56] Halimah made her first state visit as president to Brunei on 11 May 2018, where she witnessed the signing of a financial technology agreement and a memorandum of understanding (MOU) to exchange information related to money laundering and terrorist financing between Singapore and Brunei.

[57] At the invitation of Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, Halimah was the first Singaporean head of state to visit the Netherlands since the establishment of relations between both countries on 7 December 1965. [58] The visit took place from 20 to 24 November 2018.

[59] In September 2019, Halimah oversaw the signing of 8 memorandums with the Philippines, allowing Singaporean companies and small and medium-sized enterprises to expand in the areas of data protection, science and technology and skills training and development of human resources. [60] [61] Advocate for gender equality In 2019, Halimah advocated for companies to embrace gender equality, noting that it will increase innovation and business profitability during her speech at the Women's Forum Asia.

[62] She had also publicly voiced her views about a local podcast, Okletsgo, for their offensive remarks against women and asked the hosts of the show for an apology for their remarks.

[63] [64] COVID-19 response In April 2020, in light of the COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore, Halimah approved her in-principle for the government's request to draw S$21 billion from the past national reserves, aimed at subsidising wages of 1.9 million workers and preserving jobs and businesses.

[65] On 7 April 2020, the Supplementary Supply Bill was revised for the Resilience and Solidarity Budgets and the revised bill was asserted by Halimah on 9 April 2020. [66] On 5 June 2020, the Parliament of Singapore passed the Second Supplementary Supply Bill for the Fortitude Budget, to allow for the government to draw an additional of S$31 billion from the reserves, aimed at securing employment for those who lost their jobs due to the pandemic as the country loosens restrictions after the circuit breaker.

[67] On 16 June 2020, Halimah assented to the Second Supplementary Supply Bill, which enacted the Second Supplementary Supply Act, to allow the government the additional requested funds to ease the effects of the pandemic. This marks the second time that the past reserves of Singapore were drawn in the financial year of 2020 and it was also the largest amount drawn from the reserves since Singapore's independence, with the funds totalling S$52 billion.

She was the 2nd president to exercise the President's discretionary powers for this purpose, after President S. R. Nathan in 2009 for the financial crisis of 2007–2008. [68] Personal life [ edit ] Halimah is married to Mohammed Abdullah Alhabshee, [69] [70] a Malay of Arab descent, [71] and has five children.

[72] Halimah is a Malay Muslim. [73] After being sworn in as president, she was known to be the first President residing in a HDB flat. Her flat is a duplex in Yishun, consisting of one 5-room flat and one 4-room flat joined by demolishing the median wall.

[72] Halimah previously stated that she would not be moving out of her HDB flat during her term in office. [74] On 2 October 2017, however, the Ministry of Home Affairs announced that she would be moving out of the public housing apartment, due to security threats identified by security agencies from being the head of state. [75] [76] Honours [ edit ] Foreign honours [ edit ] • Saudi Arabia: • Collar of the Order of King Abdulaziz (2019) [77] Awards [ edit ] In recognition of her contributions, she was conferred the Berita Harian Achiever of the Year Award in 2001, [78] the " Her World Woman of the Year Award" in 2003, [79] the AWARE Heroine Award 2011, [80] and was inducted into the Singapore Council of Women's Organisations's Singapore Women's Hall of Fame in 2014.

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• ^ "Her World Woman of the Year celebrates 20 years". Her World. 25 March 2011. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016 . Retrieved 21 May 2011. • ^ "Recipients of AWARE Awards 2011". Association of Women for Action and Research. Archived from the original on 28 July 2017 . Retrieved 28 July 2017. • ^ "Halimah Yacob, trade unionist and first woman Speaker of Parliament".

Singapore Women's Hall of Fame. Singapore Council of Women's Organisations. Archived from the original on 28 July 2017 . Retrieved 28 July 2017. External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Halimah Yacob. • Mdm Halimah Yacob at parliament.gov.sg • Halimah Yacob on Facebook • http://www.jrtc.org.sg/ Political offices Preceded by • Abdelmadjid Tebboune • João Lourenço • Patrice Talon • Mokgweetsi Masisi • Paul-Henri Sandaogo Damiba* • Évariste Ndayishimiye • Paul Biya • José Maria Neves • Faustin-Archange Touadéra • Mahamat Déby* • Azali Assoumani • Félix Tshisekedi • Denis Sassou Nguesso • Ismaïl Omar Guelleh • Abdel Fattah el-Sisi • Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo • Isaias Afwerki • Sahle-Work Zewde • Ali Bongo Ondimba • Adama Barrow • Nana Akufo-Addo • Mamady Doumbouya* • Umaro Sissoco Embaló • Alassane Ouattara • Uhuru Kenyatta • George Weah • Mohamed al-Menfi • Andry Rajoelina • Lazarus Chakwera • Assimi Goïta* • Mohamed Ould Ghazouani • Prithvirajsing Roopun • Filipe Nyusi • Hage Geingob • Mohamed Bazoum • Muhammadu Buhari • Paul Kagame • Brahim Ghali • Carlos Vila Nova • Macky Sall • Wavel Ramkalawan • Julius Maada Bio • Muse Bihi Abdi • Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed • Cyril Ramaphosa • Salva Kiir Mayardit • Abdel Fattah al-Burhan • Samia Suluhu Hassan • Faure Gnassingbé • Kais Saied • Yoweri Museveni • Hakainde Hichilema • Emmerson Mnangagwa Americas • Alberto Fernández • Sandra Mason • Luis Arce • Jair Bolsonaro • Gabriel Boric • Iván Duque • Carlos Alvarado Quesada • Miguel Díaz-Canel • Charles Savarin • Luis Abinader • Guillermo Lasso • Nayib Bukele • Alejandro Giammattei • Irfaan Ali • Ariel Henry* • Xiomara Castro • Andrés Manuel López Obrador • Daniel Ortega • Laurentino Cortizo • Mario Abdo Benítez • Pedro Castillo • Chan Santokhi • Paula-Mae Weekes • Joe Biden • Luis Lacalle Pou • Nicolás Maduro Asia • Arayik Harutyunyan • Abdul Hamid • Xi Jinping • Francisco Guterres • Ram Nath Kovind • Joko Widodo • Ali Khamenei • Barham Salih • Isaac Herzog • Kassym-Jomart Tokayev • Sadyr Japarov • Thongloun Sisoulith • Michel Aoun • Ibrahim Mohamed Solih • Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh • Myint Swe* • Bidya Devi Bhandari • Kim Jong-un • Arif Alvi • Mahmoud Abbas • Rodrigo Duterte • Halimah Yacob • Moon Jae-in • Gotabaya Rajapaksa • Bashar al-Assad • Tsai Ing-wen • Emomali Rahmon • Serdar Berdimuhamedow • Shavkat Mirziyoyev • Nguyễn Xuân Phúc • Rashad al-Alimi* Europe • Aslan Bzhania • Ilir Meta • Vahagn Khachaturyan • Alexander Van der Bellen • Ilham Aliyev • Alexander Lukashenko • Schmidt, Dodik, Džaferović and Komšić • Rumen Radev • Zoran Milanović • Nicos Anastasiades • Miloš Zeman • Denis Pushilin • Alar Karis • Sauli Niinistö • Emmanuel Macron • Salome Zourabichvili • Frank-Walter Steinmeier • Katerina Sakellaropoulou • János Áder • Guðni Th.

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PAP: People's Action Party; WP: The Workers' Party NMPs do not belong to any party. There were two terms of NMPs in this parliament, with nine NMPs in each term. Other Current/Former MPs Nav Boxes 14 13 12 11 10 The party affiliation of each member is indicated right after the constituency he or she represents.

PAP: People's Action Party; SPP: Singapore People's Party; WP: The Workers' Party For NCMPs, Gerald Giam and Yee Jenn Jong are from the WP, while Lina Loh is from the SPP. NMPs do not belong to any party. There were two terms of NMPs in this parliament, with nine NMPs in each term. Other Current/Former MPs Nav Boxes 14 13 12 11 10 The party affiliation of each member is indicated right after the constituency he or she represents.

PAP: People's Action Party; SDA: Singapore Democratic Alliance; WP: The Workers' Party NMPs do not belong to any party. There were two terms of NMPs in this parliament, with nine NMPs in each term.

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