Oxyuris vermicularis

oxyuris vermicularis

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Cacing ini penyebarannya sangat luas hampir diseluruh dunia bisa dijumpai, tetapi frekuensinya jarang pada orang kulit oxyuris vermicularis. Nama lain Oxyuris vermicularis antara lain Enterobius vermicularis, pin worm, dan cacing kremi. Cacing ini dapat menyebabkan penyakit yang disebut oxyuriasis. Siklus Hidup Oxyuris vermicularis siklus hidup Oxyuris vermicularis (sumber : www.cdc.gov) Cacing dewasa hidup oxyuris vermicularis dalam rongga cecum, colon ascenden, dan appendix.

Pada oxyuris vermicularis hari cacing betina mengembara ke daerah anus (perianal) untuk meletakkan telur-telurnya, setelah 4 – 6 jam telur menjadi infektif. Telur yang terdapat di perianal dengan perantaraan tangan / debu tertelan dan menetas menjadi larva di usus halus, larva masuk ke cecum dan ileum bagian bawah dan menjadi dewasa ( auto infection).

Selain secara peroral, Oxyuris vermicularis juga bisa masuk kembali ke tubuh manusia melalui anus, dimana telur yang terdapat di perianal menetas dan larvanya masuk kembali ke usus melalui anus ( retro infection).

Morfologi Oxyuris vermicularis telur Oxyuris vermicularis (sumber : www.cdc.gov) Ciri-ciri telur : • berbentuk oval asimetris, dengan salah satu sisinya datar • ukuran : panjang 50 – 60 μm dan lebar 20 – 32 μm • dinding 2 lapis tipis dan transparan : dinding luar merupakan lapisan albumin yang bersifat mechanical protection, sedangkan dinding dalam merupakan lapisan lemak yang bersifat chemical protection • telur selalu berisi larva atas : Oxyuris vermicularis betina ; bawah : Oxyuris vermicularis jantan (sumber : www.medical-labs.net) Ciri-ciri cacing dewasa : • ukuran cacing jantan : panjang 2 – 5 mm dan lebar 0,1 – 0,2 mm • ukuran cacing betina : panjang 8 – 13 mm dan lebar 0,3 – 0,5 mm • ujung anterior lebih tumpul dibandingkan ujung posterior yang meruncing • terdapat penebalan cuticula (cephalic alae) pada ujung anterior • mulut simple dengan 3 buah bibir • ujung posterior cacing jantan melengkung dengan sebuah spicula • ujung posterior cacing betina lurus Gejala Klinis Oxyuriasis • perlekatan kepala cacing pada mukosa usus dapat menimbulkan peradangan ringan • bila cacing dalam jumlah yang cukupterdapat dalam lumen usus dapat menimbulkan obstruksi usus • iritasi daerah perianal akibat cacing dewasa ataupun larvanya dapat menimbulkan peradangan dengan gejala (pruritus ani) • gejala gatal oxyuris vermicularis rasa nyeri paling terasa pada malam hari (nocturnal itching) • kadang-kadang pada penderita wanita, larva dari daerah perianal dapat melakukan migrasi ke vagina, sehingga dapat terjadi infeksi pada vagina yang disebut dengan vaginitis Cara Diagnosis Infeksi Oxyuris vermicularis Menemukan telur pada pemeriksaan perianal swab (cara Scootch tape).

Telur jarang ditemukan pada pemeriksaan tinja. Pencegahan dan Pengobatan Oxyuriasis Pencegahan cacingan akibat infeksi cacing kremi : • Mencuci tangan dengan sabun dan air mengalir setelah menggunakan toilet, mengganti popok, dan sebelum makan. • Untuk mencegah adanya infeksi ulang, penderita harus rajin mandi di pagi hari untuk menghilangkan telur di kulit • Rajin memotong kuku secara teratur • Hindari menggigit kuku dan mengaruk di sekitar anus Pengobatan cacingan akibat infeksi cacing kremi : Obat yang digunakan untuk membasmi cacing kremi adalah obat anthelmintics (mebendazole, pirantel pamoat, dan albendazole).

Obat ini harus diberikan dalam 1 dosis pada awalnya kemudian 1 dosis lagi 2 minggu kemudian, obat ini kurang dapat diandalkan untuk membunuh telur cacing kremi, oleh karena itu dosis kedua digunakan untuk mencegah infeksi ulang cacing kremi dewasa yang menetas dari telur yang tidak dibunuh pada dosis awal.

Epidemiologi Oxyuris vermicularis Dalam penyebaran infeksi Oxyuris vermicularis tinja tidak penting dalam penyebaran infeksi, tetapi yang penting dalam penyebaran infeksi adalah tangan, pakaian dan debu (udara). Infeksi cacing kremi sering terjadi pada keluarga atau diantara anak-anak dalam satu sekolah atau asrama. Orang yang paling sering terinfeksi cacing kremi adalah anak-anak dibawah usia 18 tahun dan orang dewasa yang merawat anak-anak yang terinfeksi.

Dalam kelompok ini prevalensi bisa mencapai 50%. Manusia merupakan satu-satunya hosper Oxyuris vermicularis, hewan peliharaan seperti anjing dan kucing tidak dapat terinfeksi cacing ini.

Andi Tri Atmojo Founder Indonesian Medical Laboratory dan seorang Analis Kesehatan yang bekerja di Rumah Sakit Pemerintah di Jakarta. Saya bukan seorang yang ahli, tapi saya mau berbagi. Jika ada pertanyaan, saran, kritik atau ada artikel yang menurut anda salah silahkan tulis dikomentar biar saya perbaiki.
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"Oxyuris" redirects here.

For the genus of nematodes, see Oxyuris (nematode). Pinworm Pinworms (U.S.)/Threadworms (U.K.) ( Enterobius vermicularis) Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Nematoda Class: Chromadorea Order: Rhabditida Family: Oxyuridae Genus: Oxyuris vermicularis Baird, 1853 Species • Enterobius anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916) [1] (chimpanzee pinworm) [2] • Enterobius atelis Cameron, 1929 [3] • Enterobius brevicauda Sandosham, 1950 [3] • Enterobius buckleyi Sandosham, 1950 [3] [2] • Enterobius callithricis Solomon, 1932 [3] • Enterobius duplicidens Buckley, 1931 [3] • Enterobius emodensis [2] • Enterobius foecunda (Linstow, 1879) [3] • Enterobius gregorii (Hugot, 1983) (disputed) [4] [5] [6] [3] • Enterobius inglisi [3] • Enterobius interlabiata Sandosham, 1950 [3] • Enterobius lagothricis Buckley, 1931 [3] • Enterobius lemuris Baehr, 1935 [3] • Enterobius lerouxi Sandosham, 1950 [3] • Enterobius macaci [2] • Enterobius magnispicula [3] • Enterobius paraguerezae [3] • Enterobius parallela (Linstow, 1908) oxyuris vermicularis • Enterobius pesteri [3] • Enterobius pitheci Cameron, 1929 [3] • Enterobius polyoon (Linstow, 1909) [3] • Enterobius pygatrichus [3] • Enterobius schaefferae [3] • Enterobius shriveri [3] [2] • Enterobius vermicularis ( Linnaeus, 1758) oxyuris vermicularis (human pinworm) [2] [3] • Enterobius yagoi Sutton, 1979 [3] The pinworm ( species Enterobius vermicularis), also known as threadworm (in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand) or seatworm, is a parasitic worm.

It is a nematode (roundworm) and a common intestinal parasite or helminth, especially in humans. [7] The medical condition associated with pinworm infestation is known as pinworm infection ( enterobiasis) [8] (a type of helminthiasis) or less precisely as oxyuriasis in reference to the family Oxyuridae.

[9] Other than human, Enterobius vermicularis were reported from bonnet macaque.

oxyuris vermicularis

{INSERTKEYS} [10] Other species seen in primates include Enterobius buckleyi in Orangutan [11] and Enterobius anthropopitheci in chimpanzee. Enterobius vermicularis is common in human children and transmitted via the faecal-oral route. Humans are the only natural host of Enterobius vermicularis.

[12] Enterobius gregorii, another human species is morphologically indistinguishable from Enterobius vermicularis except the spicule size. [13] Throughout this article, the word "pinworm" refers to Enterobius. In British usage, however, pinworm refers to Strongyloides, while Enterobius is called threadworm.

[14] Contents • 1 Classification • 2 Morphology • 3 Life cycle • 4 Infection • 5 Distribution • 6 See also • 7 Notes • 8 References • 9 External links Classification [ edit ] The pinworm (genus Enterobius) is a type of roundworm (nematode), and three species of pinworm have been identified with certainty. [15] Humans are hosts only to Enterobius vermicularis (formerly Oxyurias vermicularis). [16] Chimpanzees are host to Enterobius anthropopitheci, which is morphologically distinguishable from the human pinworm.

[5] Hugot (1983) claims another species affects humans, Enterobius gregorii, which is supposedly a sister species of E. vermicularis, and has a slightly smaller spicule (i.e., sexual organ). [17] Its existence is controversial, however; Totkova et al. (2003) consider the evidence to be insufficient, [6] and Hasegawa et al. (2006) contend that E. gregorii is a younger stage of E. vermicularis. [4] [5] Regardless of its status as a distinct species, E.

gregorii is considered clinically identical to E. vermicularis. [16] Morphology [ edit ] Two female pinworms next to a ruler: The markings are 1 mm apart. The adult female has a sharply pointed posterior end, is 8 to 13 mm long, and 0.5 mm thick. [18] The adult male is considerably smaller, measuring 2 to 5 mm long and 0.2 mm thick, and has a curved posterior end. [18] The eggs are translucent [18] and have a surface that adheres to objects. [19] The eggs measure 50 to 60 μm by 20 to 30 μm, and have a thick shell flattened on one side.

[18] The small size and colourlessness of the eggs make them invisible to the naked eye, except in barely visible clumps of thousands of eggs. Eggs may contain a developing embryo or a fully developed pinworm larva.

{/INSERTKEYS}

oxyuris vermicularis

{INSERTKEYS} [18] The larvae grow to 140–150 μm in length. [19] • Life cycle of E. vermicularis showing the stages inside and outside of the human body The entire life cycle, from egg to adult, takes place in the human gastrointestinal tract of a single host, [18] [19] from about 2–4 weeks [20] or about 4–8 weeks. [21] E. vermicularis molts four times; the first two within the egg before hatching and two before becoming adult worm.

[22] Although infection often occurs via ingestion of embryonated eggs by inadequate hand washing or nail biting, inhalation followed by swallowing of airborne eggs may occur rarely. [19] [21] The eggs hatch in the duodenum (i.e., first part of the small intestine).

[23] The emerging pinworm larvae grow rapidly to a size of 140 to 150 μm, [20] and migrate through the small intestine towards the colon. [19] During this migration, they moult twice and become adults. [19] [21] Females survive for 5 to 13 weeks, and males about 7 weeks. [19] The male and female pinworms mate in the ileum (i.e., last part of the small intestine), [19] whereafter the male pinworms usually die, [23] and are passed out with stool. [24] The gravid female pinworms settle in the ileum, caecum (i.e., beginning of the large intestine), appendix and ascending colon, [19] where they attach themselves to the mucosa [21] and ingest colonic contents.

[25] Almost the entire body of a gravid female becomes filled with eggs. [23] The estimations of the number of eggs in a gravid female pinworm range from about 11,000 [19] to 16,000. [21] The egg-laying process begins about five weeks after initial ingestion of pinworm eggs by the human host.

[19] The gravid female pinworms migrate through the colon towards the rectum at a rate of 12 to 14 cm per hour. [19] They emerge from the anus, and while moving on the skin near the anus, the female pinworms deposit eggs either through (1) contracting and expelling the eggs, (2) dying and then disintegrating, or (3) bodily rupture due to the host scratching the worm. [23] After depositing the eggs, the female becomes opaque and dies. [24] The female emerges from the anus to obtain the oxygen necessary for the maturation of the eggs.

[24] Infection [ edit ] Main article: Enterobiasis E. vermicularis causes the medical condition enterobiasis, whose primary symptom is itching in the anal area. [26] Distribution [ edit ] The pinworm has a worldwide distribution, [25] and is the most common helminth (i.e., parasitic worm) infection in the United States, western Europe, and Oceania.

[21] In the United States, a study by the Center of Disease Control reported an overall incidence rate of 11.4% among children. [21] Pinworms are particularly common in children, with prevalence rates in this age group having been reported as high as 61% in India, 50% in England, 39% in Thailand, 37% in Sweden, and 29% in Denmark. [21] Finger sucking has been shown to increase both incidence and relapse rates, [21] and nail biting has been similarly associated.

[27] Because it spreads from host to host through contamination, pinworms are common among people living in close contact, and tends to occur in all people within a household. [25] The prevalence of pinworms is not associated with gender, [25] nor with any particular social class, race, or culture. [21] Pinworms are an exception to the tenet that intestinal parasites are uncommon in affluent communities.

[21] A fossilized nematode egg was detected in 240 million-year-old fossil dung, [28] showing that parasitic pinworms already infested pre-mammalian cynodonts.

The earliest known instance of the pinworms associated with humans is evidenced by pinworm eggs found in human coprolites carbon dated to 7837 BC found in western Utah. [19] See also [ edit ] • Roundworm, hookworm, ringworm (similarly named parasites and fungi) Notes [ edit ] • ^ a b Hasegawa et al.

2005. • ^ a b c d e f " Enterobius". NCBI taxonomy. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Biotechnology Information . Retrieved 28 February 2019. • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Enterobius Baird, 1853 in GBIF Secretariat (2017). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei accessed via https://www.gbif.org/species/2284339 on 2019-02-28. • ^ a b Hasegawa et al. {/INSERTKEYS}

oxyuris vermicularis

1998 • ^ a b c Hasegawa et al. 2006 • ^ a b Totkova et al. 2003 • ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. • ^ Merriam-Webster: Enterobiasis • ^ Merriam-Webster: Oxyuriasis • ^ C.P., Arjun (October 2015). "A Study of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata) of Pookode, Wayanad, Kerala". Zoos' Print Oxyuris vermicularis.

Zoo Outreach Organization. Retrieved 20 October 2015. • ^ Foitová, Ivona; Civáňová, Kristína; Baruš, Vlastimil; Nurcahyo, Wisnu (1 July 2014). "Phylogenetic relationships between pinworms (Nematoda: Enterobiinae) parasitising the critically endangered orang-utan, according to the characterisation of molecular genomic and mitochondrial markers".

Parasitology Research. 113 (7): 2455–2466. doi: 10.1007/s00436-014-3892-y.

oxyuris vermicularis

ISSN 1432-1955. PMID 24880237. S2CID 15076891. • ^ Panidis, Stavros; Paramythiotis, Daniel; Panagiotou, Dimitris; Batsis, Georgios; Salonikidis, Spyridon; Kaloutsi, Vassiliki; Michalopoulos, Antonios (1 January 2011). "Acute appendicitis secondary to Enterobius vermicularis infection in a middle-aged man: a case report". Journal of Medical Case Reports. 5: 559. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-5-559. ISSN 1752-1947. PMC 3245485.

PMID 22128765. • ^ CP, Arjun (October 2015). "A Study of Oxyuris vermicularis Parasites in Bonnet Macaque ( Macaca radiata) of Pookode, Wayanad, Kerala" (PDF). Zoos' Print Journal. 10. • ^ Vanderkooi 2000, p. B-152 & B-225 • ^ NCBI taxonomy database 2009 • ^ a b dpdx 2009 • ^ Hugot 1983 • ^ a b c d e oxyuris vermicularis Gutiérrez 2005, p.

354. • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Cook 1994, p. 1159 • ^ a b Cook et al. 2009, p.

oxyuris vermicularis

1516 • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Burkhart & burkhart 2005, p. 837 • ^ Rett, Doug. "Enterobius vermicularis". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 4 January 2021. • ^ a b c d Garcia 1999, p. 246 • ^ a b c Caldwell 1982, p. 307. • ^ a b c d Gutiérrez 2005, p.

355. • ^ "Enterobiasis leads to itching". Retrieved 20 August 2011. • ^ Cook 1994, p. 1160 • ^ "Scientists find 240 million-year-old parasite that infected mammals’ ancestor : accessed 8 December 2014.

References [ edit ] • Hasegawa H, Ikeda Y, Fujisaki A, et al. (December 2005). "Morphology of chimpanzee pinworms, Enterobius (Enterobius) anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), collected from chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, on Rubondo Island, Tanzania".

The Journal of Parasitology. 91 (6): 1314–7. doi: 10.1645/GE-569R.1. PMID 16539010. S2CID 32110983. • "Pinworm".

Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 April 2009. • "Enterobiasis". Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 8 April 2009. • "Oxyuriasis". Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 8 April 2009. • Totkova A, Klobusicky Oxyuris vermicularis, Holkova R, Valent M (2003). "Enterobius gregorii—reality or fiction?" (PDF). Bratislavské Lekárske Listy.

104 (3): 130–3. PMID 12940699. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 September 2011. • "Enterobius". NCBI taxonomy database. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2009. • "Enterobiasis". DPDx. Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 27 November 2013. Retrieved 8 Oxyuris vermicularis 2009. • Nakano T, Okamoto M, Ikeda Y, Hasegawa H (December 2006).

"Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene and nuclear rDNA regions of Enterobius vermicularis parasitic in captive chimpanzees with special reference to its relationship with pinworms in humans". Parasitology Research. 100 (1): 51–7. doi: 10.1007/s00436-006-0238-4. PMID 16788831. S2CID 32762371.

• Hugot JP (1983). "[Enterobius gregorii (Oxyuridae, Nematoda), a new human parasite]". Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée (in French).

58 (4): 403–4.

oxyuris vermicularis

doi: 10.1051/parasite/1983584403. PMID 6416131. • Hasegawa H, Takao Y, Nakao M, Fukuma T, Tsuruta Oxyuris vermicularis, Ide K (February 1998). "Is Enterobius gregorii Hugot, 1983 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) a distinct species?". The Journal of Parasitology. 84 (1): 131–4. doi: 10.2307/3284542. JSTOR 3284542. PMID 9488350. • Gutiérrez, Yezid (2000). Diagnostic pathology of parasitic infections with clinical correlations (Second ed.).

Oxford University Press. pp. 354–366. ISBN 978-0-19-512143-8. • Cook, Oxyuris vermicularis C; Zumla, Alimuddin I (2009). Manson's tropical diseases (22nd ed.). Saunders Elsevier. pp. 1515–1519. ISBN 978-1-4160-4470-3. • "B80: Enterobiasis". International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) 10th Revision.

World Health Organization. 2007. Retrieved 5 December 2009. • Cook GC (September 1994). "Enterobius vermicularis infection". Gut. 35 (9): 1159–62. doi: 10.1136/gut.35.9.1159.

oxyuris vermicularis

PMC 1375686. PMID 7959218. • Garcia, Lynne Shore (2009). Practical guide to diagnostic parasitology. American Society for Microbiology. pp. 246–247. ISBN 978-1-55581-154-9. • Burkhart CN, Burkhart CG (October 2005). "Assessment of frequency, transmission, and genitourinary complications of enterobiasis (pinworms)". International Journal of Dermatology. 44 (10): 837–40.

oxyuris vermicularis

doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2004.02332.x. PMID 16207185. S2CID 3193432. • Caldwell JP (February 1982). "Pinworms (Enterobius Vermicularis)". Canadian Family Physician. 28: 306–9. PMC 2306321. Oxyuris vermicularis 21286054. • Vanderkooi M (2000). Village Medical Manual (5th ed.). External links [ edit ] • Enterobius vermicularis image library at DPD • Wikidata: Q213912 • Wikispecies: Enterobius • AFD: Enterobius • BOLD: 169323 • EoL: 58788 • EPPO: 1ENTRG • Fauna Europaea: 392069 • Fauna Europaea (new): e64c6d51-cc9e-4709-a45d-0eecc196bfda • GBIF: 2284339 • iNaturalist: 622719 • IRMNG: 1275939 • ITIS: 63892 • NCBI: 51027 • NZOR: b928493c-4ba6-486d-a630-6853a2b6b372 • العربية • Bân-lâm-gú • Беларуская • Български • Brezhoneg • Cebuano • Čeština • Deutsch • Eesti • Español • Euskara • Français • Frysk • Íslenska • Italiano • ქართული • Kiswahili • Lietuvių • مصرى • Nederlands • Norsk bokmål • Polski • Português • Română • کوردی • Suomi • Svenska • Türkçe • Winaray • 粵語 • 中文 Edit links • This page was last edited on 20 January 2022, at 03:47 (UTC).

• Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • •ADVERTISEMENTS: Genus – Oxyuris Species – vermicularis Oxyuris vermicularis is a nematode endoparasite, inhabiting the caecum, appendix and other parts of large intestine of man.

The parasite is commonly called as thread worm or pin worm or seat worm. The disease caused by this parasite is known as enterobiasis or oxyuriasis. The pin worm has been known since ancient time but was first described by Linnaeus in 1758. Leuckart (1865) worked out the life cycle of O. vermacularis for the first time.

ADVERTISEMENTS: Geographical distribution: It is cosmopolitan in distribution but is less common in warm countries and more common in Europe, Canada oxyuris vermicularis America. Life cycle: It is a monogenetic parasite. The only natural host (defintive host) is man however, the parasite have also been reported from gibbons and chimpanzees. O. vermicularis is small, white or brownish round worm, inhabiting the caecum, appendix and adjascent portions of large and small intestine.

They remain attached to the mucosa layer of the gut but occassionally invade into sub-mucosa to live there in encysted condition. Oxyuris vermicularis adult worms are spindle shaped and resemble a piece of thread.

Head is present at the anterior extremity through which the parasite is attached to the mucosa of the gut wall. The mouth is provided with three retractile lips. Beneath head is a pair of wing like expansion, called the cervical alae. ADVERTISEMENTS: Buccal cavity is absent. Mouth leads directly into oesophagus which is dilated a prominent bulbus and a prebulbar swelling.

The males are smaller than female, measuring 2 to oxyuris vermicularis mm in length and 0.1 to 0.2 mm in diameter. The posterior third of the body of male is curved; the tail is blunt bearing six pairs of papillae and a single curved spicule. The female measures 8 to 13 mm in length and 0.3 to 0.5 mm in thickness. The posterior extremity of the female is straight with a tapering tail. Males are rarely seen and usually die immediatley after fertilization.

The adult worm moves freely in the lumen of the gut and at time rest with their head attached to the mucosa. They probably feed on the intestinal content. Fertilization occurs either inside the small intestine or in caecum.

After fertilizing female, male dies. The gravid female then migrates from the small intestine down to the large intestine (caecum, colon and appendix). In large intestine the female remain till the eggs develop inside its body. The mature female containing fertilized eggs before oviposition moves and descends down into the gut reaching upto rectum.

ADVERTISEMENTS: During night when the host has retired to bed the female crawl through anus and lay eggs into perianal and perineal regions. A female laid 4700 to 17000 eggs (average 11,100). The eggs are laid in batches. Female after laying egg may again enter into anus. The external migration of the female exhibit periodicity of five to seven weeks.

The eggs are colourless, asymmetrical, measuring 50 to 60 um in length and 30 µm in breadth. Each egg remains surrounded by a transparent shell. Outside the egg shell is an alubuminous coating, which help them to adhere with the host’s skin causing the characteristic itching. Under favourable temperature and moisture and in presence of oxygen, within 6 hours an infective stage larva develops inside each egg.

The tadpole like larva in 24 to 36 hours time completes its development. Oxygen is required for development of larva. The infective larva, while remaining inside egg shell and outside body, at 17 to 20° с survives for 2 to 3 weeks. Further development occurs only when the egg containing infective stage larva is ingested by the same host or another host through different modes of transmission.

When the eggs containing the infective larvae are swallowed by man, the tadpole larvae hatches out in the duodenum as the egg shells are dissolved by digestive juices. The larvae now moves towards large intestine and enroute moults twice.

ADVERTISEMENTS: In the caecum, the larva becomes sexually mature. Time taken to become adult after ingestion of egg by host may vary from 15 to 40 days. After becoming sexually mature the male fertilizes the female and consequently die. The female begins the process of egg laying and the life cycle is repeated. Mode of transmission: Transmission occurs from one person to another by the ingestion of oxyuris vermicularis eggs. Different mode of infections is as below: 1.

By eating contaminated food and drink. 2. By keeping close association will oxyuris vermicularis infected person. ADVERTISEMENTS: 3. By sharing the garments, especially under garments, with infected persons. 4. Direct infection occurs due to anus to mouth habits of children 5. Autoianfection occurs due to scratching of the perianal region by infected person.

oxyuris vermicularis

The eggs contaminate the nails and fingers which are subsequently transferred to food and swallowed by the patient himself. 6. Retrofection: During this process eggs laid on the perianal skin .develops into infective stage larvae which reenters into oxyuris vermicularis through anus to develop into adult form.

Pathology: ADVERTISEMENTS: The disease caused by O. vermicularis is known as “enterobiasis or oxyuriasis”. The symptoms arising during the disease are as follows- 1. The attachement of adult worms with the mucosa of the gut causes mild inflammatory lesions, haemorrhage, small ulcers and abscess.

oxyuris vermicularis

2. The presence of adult females around the anus causes irritation and eczematous condition around the anus. 3.

oxyuris vermicularis

The migrating worm inside gut may cause symptoms of dysentery. 4. The adult female often enter into the vagina, urethra and other parts of genital tract causing vulvovaginitis and pseudotuberculous inflammation. 5. In rare cases inflammation of the vermiform appendix occurs. Treatment: ADVERTISEMENTS: The specific antihelmintics drugs for enterobiasis are piperazine salts, containing salts like citrate, hydrate, phosphate and adipate.

Other drugs used are tetrachlorethylene, thiabendazole, mebendazole, pyrantel pamoate and stilbazium iodide. A single oxyuris vermicularis of combination of piperazine phosphate and calcium senoside has been observed to be effective in 97% cases (white and scopes, 1960).

Prophylaxis: 1. Prevention of insanitary habits, especially in children. 2. Hand washing before taking meal. 3. Prevention of reinfection of the person already infected.

Enterobius vermicularis




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