Quantum realm

quantum realm

A growing intellectual hub for the science and engineering of quantum information Quantum realm Chicago Quantum Exchange convenes leading academic researchers, top scientific facilities, and the most innovative industry partners in the world to advance the science and engineering of quantum information, train the next generation of quantum scientists and engineers, and drive the quantum economy. The CQE facilitates interactions between member institutions and partners and provides an avenue for collaborations, joint projects, and information exchange.

Meet our members Meet our partners Meet our researchers Wave functions of the electron in a hydrogen atom at different energy levels. Quantum mechanics cannot predict the exact location of a particle in space, only the probability of finding it at different locations.

[1] The brighter areas represent a higher probability of finding the electron. Part of a quantum realm of articles about Quantum mechanics i ℏ ∂ ∂ t - ψ ( t ) ⟩ = H ^ - ψ ( t ) ⟩ {\displaystyle i\hbar {\frac {\partial }{\partial t}}-\psi (t)\rangle ={\hat {H}}-\psi (t)\rangle } • v • t • e Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles.

[2] : 1.1 It is the foundation of all quantum physics including quantum chemistry, quantum field theory, quantum technology, and quantum information science. Classical physics, the collection of theories that existed before the advent of quantum mechanics, describes many aspects of nature at an ordinary ( macroscopic) scale, but is not sufficient for describing them at small (atomic and subatomic) scales.

Most theories in classical physics can be derived from quantum mechanics as an approximation valid at large (macroscopic) scale. [3] Quantum mechanics differs from classical physics in that energy, momentum, angular momentum, and other quantities of a bound system are restricted to discrete values ( quantization), objects have characteristics of both particles and waves ( wave–particle duality), and there are limits to how accurately the value of quantum realm physical quantity can be predicted prior to its measurement, given a complete set of initial conditions (the uncertainty principle).

Quantum mechanics arose quantum realm from theories to explain observations which could not be reconciled with classical physics, such as Max Planck's solution in 1900 to the black-body radiation problem, and the correspondence between energy and frequency in Albert Einstein's 1905 paper which explained the photoelectric effect.

These early attempts to understand microscopic phenomena, now known as the " old quantum theory", led to the full development of quantum mechanics in the mid-1920s by Niels Bohr, Erwin Schrödinger, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, Paul Dirac and others.

The modern theory is formulated in various specially developed mathematical formalisms. In one of them, a mathematical entity called the wave function provides information, in the form of probability amplitudes, about what measurements of a particle's energy, momentum, and other physical properties may yield.

Contents • 1 Overview and fundamental concepts • 2 Mathematical formulation • 2.1 Uncertainty principle • 2.2 Composite systems and entanglement • 2.3 Equivalence between formulations • 2.4 Symmetries and conservation laws • 3 Examples • 3.1 Free particle • 3.2 Particle in a box • 3.3 Harmonic oscillator • 3.4 Mach–Zehnder interferometer • 4 Applications • 5 Relation to other scientific theories • 5.1 Classical mechanics • 5.2 Special relativity and electrodynamics • 5.3 Relation to general relativity • 6 Philosophical implications • 7 History • 8 See also • 9 Explanatory notes • 10 References • 11 Further reading • 12 External links Overview and fundamental concepts Quantum mechanics allows the calculation of properties and behaviour of physical systems.

It is typically applied to microscopic systems: molecules, atoms and sub-atomic particles. It has been demonstrated to hold for complex molecules with thousands of atoms, [4] but its application to human beings raises philosophical problems, such as Wigner's friend, and its application to the universe as a whole remains speculative. [5] Predictions of quantum mechanics have been verified experimentally to an extremely high degree of accuracy.

[note 1] A fundamental feature of the theory is that it usually cannot predict with certainty what will happen, but only give probabilities. Mathematically, a probability is found by taking the square of the absolute value of a complex number, known as a probability amplitude. This is known as the Born rule, named after physicist Max Born. For example, a quantum particle like an electron can be described by a wave function, which associates to each point in space a probability amplitude.

Applying the Born rule to these amplitudes gives a probability density function for the position that the electron will be found to have when an experiment is performed to measure it. This is the best the theory can do; it cannot say for certain where the electron will be found. The Schrödinger equation relates the collection of probability amplitudes that pertain to one moment of time to the collection of probability amplitudes that pertain to another.

One consequence of the mathematical rules of quantum mechanics is a tradeoff in predictability between different measurable quantities. The most famous form of this uncertainty principle says that no matter how a quantum particle is prepared or how carefully experiments upon it are arranged, it is impossible to have a precise prediction quantum realm a measurement of its position and also at the same time for a measurement of its momentum.

Another consequence of the mathematical rules of quantum mechanics is the phenomenon of quantum interference, which is often illustrated with the double-slit experiment. In the basic version of this experiment, a coherent light source, such as a laser beam, illuminates a plate pierced by two parallel slits, and the light passing through the slits is observed quantum realm a screen quantum realm the plate.

[6] : 102–111 [2] : 1.1–1.8 The wave nature of light causes the light waves passing through the two slits to interfere, producing bright and dark bands on the screen – a result that would not be expected if light consisted of classical particles. [6] However, the light is always found to be absorbed at the screen at discrete points, as individual particles rather than waves; the interference pattern appears via the varying density of these particle hits on the screen. Furthermore, versions of the experiment that include detectors at the slits find that each detected photon passes through one slit (as would a classical particle), and not through both slits (as would a wave).

[6] : 109 [7] [8] However, such experiments demonstrate that particles do not form the interference pattern if one detects which slit they pass through. Other atomic-scale entities, such as electrons, are found to exhibit the same behavior when fired towards a double slit. [2] This behavior is known as wave–particle duality.

Another counter-intuitive phenomenon predicted by quantum mechanics is quantum tunnelling: a particle that goes up against a potential barrier can cross it, even if its kinetic energy is smaller than the maximum of the potential. [9] In classical mechanics this particle would be trapped. Quantum tunnelling has several important consequences, enabling radioactive decay, nuclear fusion in stars, and applications such as scanning tunnelling microscopy and the tunnel diode.

[10] When quantum quantum realm interact, the result can be the creation of quantum entanglement: their properties become so intertwined that a description of the whole solely in terms of the individual parts is no longer possible.

Erwin Schrödinger called entanglement ". the characteristic trait of quantum mechanics, the one that enforces its entire departure from classical lines of thought". [11] Quantum entanglement enables the counter-intuitive properties of quantum pseudo-telepathy, and can be a valuable resource in communication protocols, such as quantum key distribution and superdense coding.

[12] Contrary to popular misconception, entanglement does not allow sending signals faster than light, as demonstrated by the no-communication quantum realm. [12] Another possibility opened by entanglement is testing for " hidden variables", hypothetical properties more fundamental than the quantities addressed in quantum theory itself, knowledge of which would allow more exact predictions than quantum theory can provide.

Quantum realm collection of results, most significantly Bell's theorem, have demonstrated that broad classes of such hidden-variable quantum realm are in fact incompatible with quantum physics. According to Bell's theorem, if nature actually operates in accord with any theory of local hidden variables, then quantum realm results of a Bell test will be constrained in a particular, quantifiable way.

Many Bell tests have been performed, using entangled particles, and they have shown results incompatible with the constraints imposed by local hidden variables. [13] [14] It is not possible to present these concepts in more than a superficial way without introducing the actual mathematics involved; understanding quantum mechanics requires not only manipulating complex numbers, but also linear algebra, differential equations, group theory, and other more advanced subjects.

[note 2] Accordingly, this article will present a mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics and survey its application to some useful and oft-studied examples. Mathematical formulation Main article: Mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics In the mathematically rigorous formulation of quantum mechanics, the state of a quantum mechanical system is a vector ψ {\displaystyle \psi } belonging to a ( separable) complex Hilbert space H {\displaystyle {\mathcal {H}}}.

This vector is postulated to be normalized under the Hilbert space inner product, that is, it obeys ⟨ ψψ ⟩ = 1 {\displaystyle \langle \psi ,\psi \rangle =1}and it is well-defined up to a complex number of modulus 1 (the global phase), that is, ψ {\displaystyle \psi } and e i α ψ {\displaystyle e^{i\alpha }\psi } represent the same physical system.

In other words, the possible states are points in the projective space of a Hilbert space, usually called the complex projective space. The exact nature of this Hilbert space is dependent on the system – for example, for describing position and momentum the Hilbert space is the space of complex square-integrable functions L 2 ( C ) {\displaystyle L^{2}(\mathbb {C} )}while the Hilbert space for the spin of a single proton is simply the space of two-dimensional complex vectors C 2 {\displaystyle \mathbb {C} ^{2}} with the usual inner product.

Physical quantities of interest – position, momentum, energy, spin – are represented by observables, which are Hermitian (more precisely, self-adjoint) linear operators acting on the Hilbert space.

A quantum state can be an eigenvector of an observable, in which case it is called an eigenstate, and the associated eigenvalue corresponds to the value of the observable in that eigenstate. More generally, a quantum state will be a linear combination of the eigenstates, known as a quantum superposition. When an observable is measured, the result will be one of its eigenvalues with probability given by the Born rule: in the simplest case the eigenvalue λ {\displaystyle \lambda } is non-degenerate and the probability is given by - ⟨ λ →ψ ⟩ - 2 {\displaystyle -\langle {\vec {\lambda }},\psi \rangle -^{2}}where λ → {\displaystyle {\vec {\lambda }}} is its associated eigenvector.

More generally, the eigenvalue is degenerate and the probability is given by ⟨ ψP λ ψ ⟩ {\displaystyle \langle \psi ,P_{\lambda }\psi \rangle }where P λ {\displaystyle P_{\lambda }} is the projector onto its associated eigenspace. In the continuous case, these formulas give instead the probability density. After the measurement, if result λ {\displaystyle \lambda } was obtained, the quantum state is postulated to collapse to λ → {\displaystyle {\vec {\lambda }}}in the non-degenerate case, or to P λ ψ / ⟨ ψP λ ψ ⟩ {\displaystyle P_{\lambda }\psi /{\sqrt {\langle \psi ,P_{\lambda }\psi \rangle }}}in the general case.

The probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics thus stems from the act of measurement. This is one of the most difficult aspects of quantum systems to understand. It was the central topic in the famous Bohr–Einstein debates, in which the two scientists attempted to clarify these fundamental principles by way of thought experiments. In the decades after the formulation of quantum mechanics, the question of what constitutes a "measurement" has been extensively studied.

Newer interpretations of quantum mechanics have been formulated that do away with the concept of " wave function collapse" (see, for example, the many-worlds interpretation).

The basic idea is that when a quantum system interacts with a measuring apparatus, their respective wave functions become entangled so that the original quantum system ceases to exist as an independent entity.

For details, see the article on measurement in quantum mechanics. [17] The time evolution of a quantum state is described by the Schrödinger equation: i ℏ d d t ψ ( t ) = H ψ ( t ). {\displaystyle i\hbar {\frac {d}{dt}}\psi (t)=H\psi (t).} Here H {\displaystyle H} denotes the Hamiltonian, the observable corresponding to the total energy of the system, and ℏ {\displaystyle \hbar } is the reduced Planck constant.

The constant i ℏ {\displaystyle i\hbar } is introduced so that the Hamiltonian is reduced to the classical Hamiltonian in cases where the quantum system quantum realm be approximated by a classical system; the ability quantum realm make such an approximation in certain limits is called the correspondence principle. The solution of this differential equation is given by ψ ( t ) = e − i H t / ℏ ψ ( 0 ).

{\displaystyle \psi (t)=e^{-iHt/\hbar }\psi (0).} The operator U ( t ) = e − i H quantum realm / ℏ {\displaystyle U(t)=e^{-iHt/\hbar }} is known as the time-evolution operator, and has the crucial property that it is unitary. Quantum realm time evolution is deterministic in the sense that – given an initial quantum state ψ ( 0 ) {\displaystyle \psi (0)} – it makes a definite prediction of what the quantum state ψ ( t ) {\displaystyle \psi (t)} will be at any later time. [18] Fig. 1: Probability densities corresponding to the wave functions of an electron in a hydrogen atom possessing definite energy levels (increasing from the top of the image to the bottom: n = 1, 2, 3.

.) and angular momenta (increasing across from left to right: s, p, d. .). Denser areas correspond to higher probability density in a position measurement. Such wave functions are directly comparable to Chladni's figures of acoustic modes of vibration in classical physics and are modes of oscillation as well, possessing a sharp energy and thus, a definite frequency.

The angular momentum and energy are quantized and take only quantum realm values like those shown (as is the case for resonant frequencies in acoustics) Some wave functions produce probability distributions that are independent of time, such as eigenstates of the Hamiltonian. Many systems that are treated dynamically in classical mechanics are described by such "static" wave functions.

For example, a single electron in an unexcited atom is pictured classically as a particle moving in a circular trajectory around the atomic nucleus, whereas in quantum mechanics, it is described by a static wave function surrounding the nucleus.

For example, the electron wave function for an unexcited hydrogen atom is a spherically symmetric function known as an s orbital ( Fig. 1). Analytic solutions of the Schrödinger equation are known for very few relatively simple model Hamiltonians including the quantum harmonic oscillator, the particle in a box, the dihydrogen cation, and the hydrogen atom. Even the helium atom – which contains just two electrons – has defied all attempts at a fully analytic treatment.

However, there are techniques for finding approximate solutions. One method, called perturbation theory, uses the analytic result for a simple quantum mechanical model to create a result for a related but more complicated model by (for example) the addition of a weak potential energy.

Another method is called "semi-classical equation of motion", which applies to systems for which quantum mechanics produces only small deviations from classical behavior.

These deviations quantum realm then be computed based on the classical motion. This approach is particularly important in the field of quantum chaos. Uncertainty principle One consequence of the basic quantum formalism is the uncertainty principle.

In its most familiar form, this states that no preparation of a quantum particle can imply simultaneously precise predictions both for a measurement of its position and for a measurement of its momentum. [19] [20] Both position and momentum are observables, meaning that they are represented by Hermitian operators.

Quantum realm position operator X ^ {\displaystyle {\hat quantum realm and momentum operator P ^ {\displaystyle {\hat {P}}} do not commute, but rather satisfy the canonical commutation relation: [ X ^P ^ ] = i ℏ.

{\displaystyle [{\hat {X}},{\hat {P}}]=i\hbar .} Given a quantum state, the Born rule lets us compute expectation values for both X {\displaystyle X} and P {\displaystyle P}and moreover for powers of them. Defining the uncertainty for an observable by a standard deviation, we have σ X = ⟨ X 2 ⟩ − ⟨ X ⟩ 2{\displaystyle \sigma _{X}={\sqrt {\langle {X}^{2}\rangle -\langle {X}\rangle ^{2}}},} and likewise for the momentum: σ P = ⟨ P 2 ⟩ − ⟨ P ⟩ 2.

{\displaystyle \sigma _{P}={\sqrt {\langle {P}^{2}\rangle -\langle {P}\rangle ^{2}}}.} The uncertainty principle states that σ X σ P ≥ quantum realm 2. {\displaystyle \sigma _{X}\sigma _{P}\geq {\frac {\hbar }{2}}.} Either standard quantum realm can in principle be made arbitrarily small, but not both simultaneously. [21] This inequality generalizes to arbitrary pairs of self-adjoint operators A {\displaystyle A} and B {\displaystyle B}. The commutator of these two operators is [ AB ] = A B − B A{\displaystyle [A,B]=AB-BA,} and this provides the lower bound on the product of standard deviations: σ A σ B ≥ 1 2 - ⟨ [ AB ] ⟩ -.

{\displaystyle \sigma _{A}\sigma _{B}\geq {\frac {1}{2}}\left-\langle [A,B]\rangle \right.} Another consequence of quantum realm canonical commutation relation is that the position and momentum operators are Fourier transforms of each other, so that a description of an object according to its momentum is the Fourier transform of its description according to its position.

The fact that dependence in momentum is the Fourier transform of the dependence in position means that the momentum operator is equivalent (up to an i / ℏ {\displaystyle i/\hbar } factor) to taking the derivative according to the position, since in Fourier analysis differentiation corresponds to multiplication in the dual space. This is why in quantum equations in position space, the momentum p i {\displaystyle p_{i}} is replaced by − i quantum realm ∂ ∂ x {\displaystyle -i\hbar {\frac {\partial }{\partial x}}}and in particular in the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation in position space the momentum-squared term is replaced with a Laplacian times − ℏ 2 {\displaystyle -\hbar ^{2}} quantum realm.

[19] Composite systems and entanglement When two different quantum systems are considered together, the Hilbert space of the combined system is the tensor product of the Hilbert spaces of the two components. Quantum realm example, let Quantum realm and B be two quantum systems, with Hilbert spaces H A {\displaystyle {\mathcal {H}}_{A}} and H B {\displaystyle {\mathcal {H}}_{B}}respectively. The Hilbert space of the composite system is then H A B = H A ⊗ H B.

{\displaystyle {\mathcal {H}}_{AB}={\mathcal {H}}_{A}\otimes {\mathcal {H}}_{B}.} If the state for quantum realm first system is the vector ψ A {\displaystyle \psi _{A}} and the state for the second system is ψ B {\displaystyle \psi _{B}}then the state of the composite system is ψ A ⊗ ψ B. {\displaystyle \psi _{A}\otimes \psi _{B}.} Not all states in the joint Hilbert space H A B {\displaystyle {\mathcal {H}}_{AB}} can be written in this form, however, because the superposition principle implies that linear combinations of these "separable" or "product states" are also valid.

For example, if ψ A {\displaystyle \psi _{A}} and ϕ A {\displaystyle \phi _{A}} are both possible states for system A {\displaystyle A}and likewise ψ B {\displaystyle \psi _{B}} and ϕ B {\displaystyle \phi _{B}} are both possible states for system B {\displaystyle B}then 1 2 ( ψ A ⊗ ψ B + ϕ A ⊗ ϕ B ) {\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}\left(\psi _{A}\otimes \psi _{B}+\phi _{A}\otimes \phi _{B}\right)} is a valid joint state that quantum realm not separable. States that are not separable are called entangled.

[22] [23] If the state for a composite system is entangled, it is impossible to describe either component system A or system B by a state vector. One can instead define reduced density matrices quantum realm describe the statistics that can be obtained by making measurements on either component system alone.

This necessarily causes a loss of information, though: knowing the reduced density matrices of the individual systems is not enough to reconstruct the state of the composite system. [22] [23] Just as density matrices specify the state of a subsystem of a larger system, analogously, positive operator-valued measures (POVMs) describe the effect on a subsystem of a measurement performed on a larger system.

POVMs are extensively used in quantum information theory. [22] [24] As described above, entanglement quantum realm a key feature of models of measurement processes in which an apparatus becomes entangled with the system being measured. Systems interacting with the environment in which they reside generally become entangled with that environment, a phenomenon known as quantum quantum realm. This can explain why, in practice, quantum effects are difficult to observe in systems larger than microscopic.

[25] Equivalence between formulations There are many mathematically equivalent formulations of quantum mechanics. One of the oldest and most common is the " transformation theory" proposed by Paul Dirac, which unifies and generalizes the two earliest formulations of quantum mechanics – matrix mechanics (invented by Werner Heisenberg) and wave mechanics (invented by Erwin Schrödinger).

[26] An alternative formulation of quantum mechanics is Feynman's path integral formulation, in which a quantum-mechanical amplitude is considered as a sum over all possible classical and non-classical paths between the initial and final states. This is the quantum-mechanical counterpart of the action principle in classical mechanics.

Symmetries and conservation laws Main article: Noether's theorem The Hamiltonian H {\displaystyle H} is known as the generator of time evolution, since it defines a unitary time-evolution operator U ( t ) = e − i H t / ℏ {\displaystyle U(t)=e^{-iHt/\hbar }} for each value of t {\displaystyle t}.

From this relation between U ( t ) {\displaystyle U(t)} and H {\displaystyle H}it follows that any observable A {\displaystyle A} that commutes with H {\displaystyle H} will be conserved: its expectation value will not change over time. This statement generalizes, as mathematically, any Hermitian operator A {\displaystyle A} can generate a family of unitary operators parameterized by a variable t {\displaystyle t}.

Under the evolution generated by A {\displaystyle A}any observable B {\displaystyle B} that commutes with A {\displaystyle A} will be conserved. Moreover, if B {\displaystyle B} is conserved by evolution under A {\displaystyle A}then A {\displaystyle A} is conserved under the evolution generated by B {\displaystyle B}.

This implies a quantum version of the result proven by Emmy Noether in classical ( Lagrangian) mechanics: for every differentiable symmetry of a Hamiltonian, there exists a corresponding conservation law.

Examples Free particle Position space probability density of a Gaussian wave packet moving in one dimension in free space.

The simplest example of quantum system with a position degree of freedom is a free particle in a single spatial dimension. A free particle is one which is not subject to external influences, so that its Hamiltonian consists only of its kinetic energy: H = 1 2 m P 2 = − ℏ 2 2 m d 2 d x 2. {\displaystyle H={\frac {1}{2m}}P^{2}=-{\frac quantum realm ^{2}}{2m}}{\frac {d^{2}}{dx^{2}}}.} The general solution of the Schrödinger equation is given by ψ ( xt ) = 1 2 π ∫ − ∞ quantum realm ψ ^ ( k0 ) e i ( k x − ℏ k 2 2 m t ) d k{\displaystyle \psi (x,t)={\frac {1}{\sqrt {2\pi }}}\int _{-\infty }^{\infty }{\hat {\psi }}(k,0)e^{i(kx-{\frac {\hbar k^{2}}{2m}}t)}\mathrm {d} k,} which is a superposition of all possible plane waves e i ( k x − ℏ k 2 2 m t ) {\displaystyle e^{i(kx-{\frac {\hbar k^{2}}{2m}}t)}}which are eigenstates of the momentum operator with momentum p = ℏ k {\displaystyle p=\hbar k}.

The coefficients of the superposition are ψ ^ ( kquantum realm ) {\displaystyle {\hat {\psi }}(k,0)}which is the Fourier transform of the initial quantum state ψ ( x quantum realm, 0 ) {\displaystyle \psi (x,0)}. It is not possible for the solution to be a single momentum eigenstate, quantum realm a single position eigenstate, as these are not normalizable quantum states.

[note 3] Instead, we can consider a Gaussian wave packet: ψ ( x0 ) = 1 π a 4 e − x 2 2 a {\displaystyle \psi (x,0)={\frac {1}{\sqrt[{4}]{\pi a}}}e^{-{\frac {x^{2}}{2a}}}} which has Fourier transform, and therefore momentum distribution ψ ^ ( k0 ) = a π 4 e − a k 2 2. {\displaystyle {\hat {\psi }}(k,0)={\sqrt[{4}]{\frac {a}{\pi }}}e^{-{\frac {ak^{2}}{2}}}.} We see that as we make a {\displaystyle a} smaller the spread in quantum realm gets smaller, but the spread in momentum gets larger.

Conversely, by making a {\displaystyle a} larger we make the spread in momentum smaller, but the spread in position gets larger. This illustrates the uncertainty principle. As we let the Gaussian wave packet evolve in time, we see that its center moves through space at a constant velocity (like a classical particle with no forces acting on it). However, the wave packet will also spread out as time progresses, which means that the position becomes more and more uncertain.

The uncertainty in momentum, however, stays constant. [27] Particle in a box Main article: Particle in a box The particle in a one-dimensional potential energy box is the quantum realm mathematically simple example where restraints lead to the quantization of energy levels. The box is defined as having zero potential energy everywhere inside a certain region, and therefore infinite potential energy everywhere outside that region.

[19] : 77–78 For the one-dimensional case in the x {\displaystyle x} direction, the time-independent Schrödinger equation may be written − ℏ 2 2 m d 2 ψ d x 2 = E quantum realm.

{\displaystyle -{\frac {\hbar ^{2}}{2m}}{\frac {d^{2}\psi }{dx^{2}}}=E\psi .} With the differential operator defined by p ^ x = − i ℏ d d x {\displaystyle {\hat {p}}_{x}=-i\hbar {\frac {d}{dx}}} the previous equation is evocative of the classic kinetic energy analogue, 1 2 m p ^ x 2 = E{\displaystyle {\frac {1}{2m}}{\hat {p}}_{x}^{2}=E,} with state ψ {\displaystyle \psi } in this case having energy E {\displaystyle E} coincident with the kinetic quantum realm of the particle.

The general solutions of the Schrödinger equation for the particle in a box are ψ ( x ) = A e i k x + B e − i k x E = ℏ 2 k 2 2 m {\displaystyle \psi (x)=Ae^{ikx}+Be^{-ikx}\qquad \qquad E={\frac {\hbar ^{2}k^{2}}{2m}}} or, from Euler's formula, ψ ( x ) = C sin ⁡ ( k x ) + D cos ⁡ ( k x ).

{\displaystyle \psi (x)=C\sin(kx)+D\cos(kx).\!} The infinite potential walls of the box determine the values of CD{\displaystyle C,D,} and k {\displaystyle k} at x = 0 {\displaystyle x=0} and x = L {\displaystyle x=L} where ψ {\displaystyle \psi } must be zero.

Thus, at x = 0 {\displaystyle x=0}ψ ( 0 ) = 0 = C sin ⁡ ( 0 ) + D cos ⁡ ( 0 ) = D {\displaystyle \psi (0)=0=C\sin(0)+D\cos(0)=D} and D = 0 {\displaystyle D=0}. At x = L {\displaystyle x=L}ψ ( L ) = 0 = C sin ⁡ ( k L ){\displaystyle \psi (L)=0=C\sin(kL),} in which C {\displaystyle C} cannot be zero as this would conflict with the postulate that ψ {\displaystyle \psi } has norm 1.

Therefore, since sin ⁡ ( k L ) = 0 {\displaystyle \sin(kL)=0}k L {\displaystyle kL} must be an integer multiple of π {\displaystyle \pi }k = n π L n = 123…. {\displaystyle k={\frac {n\pi }{L}}\qquad \qquad n=1,2,3,\ldots .} This constraint on k {\displaystyle k} implies a constraint on the energy levels, yielding E n = ℏ 2 π 2 n 2 2 m L 2 = n 2 h 2 8 m L 2.

{\displaystyle E_{n}={\frac {\hbar ^{2}\pi ^{2}n^{2}}{2mL^{2}}}={\frac {n^{2}h^{2}}{8mL^{2}}}.} A finite potential well is the generalization of the infinite potential well problem to potential wells having finite depth. The finite potential well problem is mathematically more complicated than the infinite particle-in-a-box problem as the wave function quantum realm not pinned to zero at the walls of the well. Instead, the wave function must satisfy more complicated mathematical boundary conditions as it is nonzero in regions outside the well.

Another related problem is that of the rectangular potential barrier, which quantum realm a model for the quantum tunneling effect that plays an important role in the performance of modern technologies such as flash memory and scanning tunneling microscopy. Harmonic oscillator Some trajectories of a harmonic oscillator (i.e. a ball attached to a spring) in classical mechanics (A-B) and quantum mechanics (C-H). In quantum mechanics, the position of the ball is represented by a wave (called the wave function), with the real part quantum realm in blue and the imaginary part shown in red.

Some of the trajectories (such as C, D, E, quantum realm F) are standing waves (or " stationary states"). Each standing-wave frequency is proportional to a possible energy level of the oscillator. This "energy quantization" does not occur in classical physics, where the oscillator can have any energy.

As in the classical case, the potential for the quantum harmonic oscillator is given by V ( x ) = 1 2 m ω 2 x 2. {\displaystyle V(x)={\frac {1}{2}}m\omega ^{2}x^{2}.} This problem can either be treated by directly solving the Schrödinger equation, which is not trivial, or by using the more elegant "ladder method" first proposed by Paul Dirac.

The eigenstates are given by ψ n ( x ) = 1 2 n n ! ⋅ ( m ω π ℏ ) 1 / 4 ⋅ e − m ω x 2 2 ℏ ⋅ H n ( m ω ℏ x ){\displaystyle \psi _{n}(x)={\sqrt {\frac {1}{2^{n}\,n!}}}\cdot \left({\frac {m\omega }{\pi \hbar }}\right)^{1/4}\cdot e^{-{\frac {m\omega x^{2}}{2\hbar }}}\cdot H_{n}\left({\sqrt {\frac {m\omega }{\hbar }}}x\right),\qquad } n = 0 quantum realm, 12….

{\displaystyle n=0,1,2,\ldots .} where H n are the Hermite polynomials H n ( x ) = ( − 1 ) n e x 2 d n d x n ( e − x 2 ){\displaystyle H_{n}(x)=(-1)^{n}e^{x^{2}}{\frac {d^{n}}{dx^{n}}}\left(e^{-x^{2}}\right),} and the corresponding energy levels are E n = ℏ ω ( n + 1 2 ).

{\displaystyle E_{n}=\hbar \omega \left(n+{1 \over 2}\right).} This is another example illustrating the discretization of energy for bound states.

Mach–Zehnder interferometer Schematic of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. The Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) illustrates the concepts of superposition and interference with linear algebra in dimension 2, rather than differential equations. It can be seen as a simplified version of the double-slit experiment, but it is of interest in its own right, for example in the delayed choice quantum eraser, the Elitzur–Vaidman bomb tester, and in studies of quantum entanglement.

[28] [29] We can model a photon going through the interferometer by considering that at each point it can be in quantum realm superposition of only two paths: the "lower" path which starts from the left, goes straight through both beam splitters, and ends at the top, and the "upper" path which starts from the bottom, goes straight through both beam splitters, and ends at the right. The quantum state of the photon is therefore a vector quantum realm ∈ C 2 {\displaystyle \psi \in \mathbb {C} ^{2}} that is a superposition of the "lower" path ψ l = ( 1 0 ) {\displaystyle \psi _{l}={\begin{pmatrix}1\\0\end{pmatrix}}} and the "upper" path ψ u = ( 0 1 ) {\displaystyle \psi _{u}={\begin{pmatrix}0\\1\end{pmatrix}}}that is, ψ = α ψ l + β ψ u {\displaystyle \psi =\alpha \psi _{l}+\beta \psi _{u}} for complex αβ {\displaystyle \alpha ,\beta }.

In order to respect the postulate that ⟨ ψψ ⟩ = 1 {\displaystyle \langle \psi ,\psi \rangle =1} we require that - α - 2 + - β - 2 = 1 {\displaystyle -\alpha -^{2}+-\beta -^{2}=1}. Both beam splitters are modelled as the unitary matrix B = 1 2 ( 1 i i 1 ) {\displaystyle B={\frac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}{\begin{pmatrix}1&i\\i&1\end{pmatrix}}}which quantum realm that when a photon meets the beam splitter it will either stay on the same path with a probability amplitude of 1 / 2 {\displaystyle 1/{\sqrt {2}}}or be reflected to the quantum realm path with a probability amplitude of quantum realm / 2 {\displaystyle i/{\sqrt {2}}}.

The phase shifter on the upper arm is modelled as the unitary matrix P = ( 1 0 0 e i Δ Φ ) {\displaystyle P={\begin{pmatrix}1&0\\0&e^{i\Delta \Phi }\end{pmatrix}}}which means that if the photon is on the "upper" path it will gain a relative phase of Δ Φ {\displaystyle quantum realm \Phi }and it will stay unchanged if it is in the lower path. A photon that enters the interferometer from the left will then be acted upon with a beam splitter B {\displaystyle B}a phase shifter P {\displaystyle P}and another beam splitter B {\displaystyle B}and so end up in the state B P B ψ l = i e i Δ Φ / 2 ( − sin ⁡ ( Δ Φ / 2 ) cos ⁡ ( Δ Φ / 2 ) ){\displaystyle BPB\psi _{l}=ie^{i\Delta \Phi /2}{\begin{pmatrix}-\sin(\Delta \Phi /2)\\\cos(\Delta \Phi /2)\end{pmatrix}},} and the probabilities that it will be detected at the right or at the top are given respectively by p ( u ) = - ⟨ ψ uB P B ψ l ⟩ - 2 = cos 2 ⁡ Δ Φ 2{\displaystyle p(u)=-\langle \psi _{u},BPB\psi _{l}\rangle -^{2}=\cos ^{2}{\frac {\Delta \Phi }{2}},} p ( l ) = - ⟨ ψ lB P B ψ l ⟩ - 2 = sin 2 ⁡ Δ Φ 2.

{\displaystyle p(l)=-\langle \psi _{l},BPB\psi _{l}\rangle -^{2}=\sin ^{2}{\frac {\Delta \Phi }{2}}.} One can therefore use the Mach–Zehnder interferometer to estimate the phase shift by estimating these probabilities. It is interesting to consider quantum realm would happen if the photon were definitely in either the "lower" or "upper" paths between the beam splitters. This can be accomplished by blocking one of the paths, or equivalently by removing the first beam splitter (and feeding the photon from the left or the bottom, as desired).

In both cases there will be no interference between the paths anymore, and the probabilities are given by p ( u ) = p ( l ) = 1 / 2 {\displaystyle p(u)=p(l)=1/2}independently of the phase Δ Φ {\displaystyle \Delta \Phi }. From this we can conclude that the photon does not take one path or another after the first beam splitter, but rather that it is in a genuine quantum superposition of the two paths. [30] Applications Main article: Applications of quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics has had enormous success in explaining many of the features of our universe, with regards to small-scale and discrete quantities and interactions which cannot be explained by classical methods.

[note 4] Quantum mechanics is often the only theory that can reveal the individual behaviors of the subatomic particles that make up all forms of matter ( electrons, protons, neutrons, photons, and others). Solid-state physics and materials science are dependent upon quantum mechanics. [31] In many aspects modern technology operates at a scale where quantum effects are significant. Important applications of quantum theory include quantum chemistry, quantum optics, quantum computing, superconducting magnets, light-emitting diodes, the optical amplifier and the laser, the transistor and semiconductors such as the microprocessor, medical and research imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging and electron microscopy.

[32] Explanations for many biological and physical phenomena are rooted in the nature of the chemical bond, most notably the macro-molecule DNA. Relation to other scientific theories Quantum realm physics H ^ - ψ n ( t ) ⟩ = i ℏ ∂ ∂ t - ψ n ( t ) ⟩ {\displaystyle {\hat {H}}-\psi _{n}(t)\rangle =i\hbar {\frac {\partial }{\partial t}}-\psi _{n}(t)\rangle } 1 c 2 ∂ 2 ϕ n ∂ t 2 − ∇ 2 ϕ n + ( m c ℏ ) 2 ϕ n = 0 {\displaystyle {\frac {1}{{c}^{2}}}{\frac {{\partial }^{2}{\phi }_{n}}{{\partial t}^{2}}}-{{\nabla }^{2}{\phi }_{n}}+{\left({\frac {mc}{\hbar }}\right)}^{2}{\phi }_{n}=0} Applied · Experimental · Theoretical Mathematical · Philosophy of physics Quantum mechanics ( Quantum field theory · Quantum information · Quantum computation) Electromagnetism · Weak interaction · Electroweak interaction Strong interaction Atomic · Particle · Nuclear Atomic, molecular, and optical Condensed matter · Statistical Complex systems · Non-linear dynamics · Biophysics Neurophysics Plasma physics Special relativity · General relativity Astrophysics · Cosmology Theories of gravitation Quantum gravity · Theory of everything Witten · Röntgen · Becquerel · Lorentz · Planck · Curie · Wien · Skłodowska-Curie · Sommerfeld · Rutherford · Soddy · Onnes · Einstein · Wilczek · Born · Weyl · Bohr · Kramers · Schrödinger · de Broglie · Laue · Bose · Compton · Pauli · Walton · Fermi · van der Waals · Heisenberg · Dyson quantum realm Zeeman · Moseley · Hilbert · Gödel · Jordan · Dirac · Wigner · Hawking · P.

W. Anderson · Lemaître · Thomson · Poincaré · Wheeler · Penrose · Millikan · Nambu · von Neumann · Higgs · Hahn · Feynman · Yang · Lee · Lenard · Salam · 't Hooft · Veltman · Bell · Gell-Mann · J. J. Thomson · Raman · Bragg · Bardeen · Shockley · Chadwick · Lawrence · Zeilinger · Goudsmit · Uhlenbeck • v • t • e Classical mechanics The rules of quantum mechanics assert that the state space of a system is a Hilbert space quantum realm that observables of the system are Hermitian operators acting on vectors in that space – although they do not tell us which Hilbert space or which operators.

These can be chosen appropriately in order to obtain a quantitative description of a quantum system, a necessary step in making physical predictions. An important guide for making these choices is the correspondence principle, a heuristic which states that the predictions of quantum mechanics reduce to those of classical mechanics in the regime of large quantum numbers.

[33] One can also start from an established classical model of a particular system, and then try to guess the underlying quantum model that would give rise to the classical model in the correspondence limit. This approach is known as quantization. When quantum mechanics was originally formulated, it was applied to models whose correspondence limit was non-relativistic classical mechanics.

For instance, the well-known model of the quantum harmonic oscillator uses an explicitly non-relativistic expression for the kinetic energy of the oscillator, and is thus a quantum version of the classical harmonic oscillator. Complications arise with chaotic systems, which do not have good quantum numbers, and quantum chaos studies the relationship between classical and quantum descriptions in these systems. Quantum decoherence is a mechanism through which quantum systems lose coherence, and thus become incapable of displaying many typically quantum effects: quantum superpositions become simply probabilistic mixtures, and quantum entanglement becomes simply classical correlations.

Quantum coherence is not typically evident at macroscopic scales, except maybe at temperatures approaching absolute zero at which quantum behavior may manifest macroscopically. [note 5] Many macroscopic properties of a classical system are a direct consequence of the quantum behavior of its parts. For example, the stability of bulk matter (consisting of atoms and molecules which would quickly collapse under electric forces alone), the rigidity of solids, and the mechanical, thermal, chemical, optical and magnetic properties of matter are all results of the interaction of electric charges under the rules of quantum mechanics.

[34] Special relativity and electrodynamics Early attempts to merge quantum mechanics quantum realm special relativity involved the replacement of the Schrödinger equation with a covariant equation such as quantum realm Klein–Gordon equation or the Dirac equation. While these theories were successful in explaining many experimental results, they had certain unsatisfactory qualities stemming from their neglect of the relativistic creation and annihilation of particles.

A fully relativistic quantum theory required the development of quantum field theory, which applies quantization to a field (rather than a fixed set of particles). The first complete quantum field theory, quantum electrodynamics, provides a fully quantum description of the electromagnetic interaction. Quantum electrodynamics is, along with general relativity, one of the most accurate physical theories ever devised.

[35] [36] The full apparatus of quantum field theory is often unnecessary for quantum realm electrodynamic systems. A simpler approach, one that has been used since the inception of quantum mechanics, is to treat charged particles as quantum mechanical objects being acted on by a classical electromagnetic field.

For example, the elementary quantum model of the hydrogen atom describes the electric field of the hydrogen atom using a classical − e 2 / ( 4 π ϵ 0 r ) {\displaystyle \textstyle -e^{2}/(4\pi \epsilon _{_{0}}r)} Coulomb potential. This "semi-classical" approach fails if quantum fluctuations in the electromagnetic field play an important role, such as in the emission of photons by charged particles.

Quantum quantum realm theories for the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force have also been developed. The quantum field theory of the strong nuclear force is called quantum chromodynamics, and describes the interactions of subnuclear particles such as quarks and gluons. The weak nuclear force and the electromagnetic force were unified, in their quantized forms, into a single quantum field theory (known as electroweak theory), by the physicists Abdus Salam, Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg.

[37] Relation to general relativity Even though the predictions of both quantum theory and general relativity have been supported by rigorous and repeated empirical evidence, their abstract formalisms contradict each other and they have proven extremely quantum realm to incorporate into one consistent, cohesive model. Gravity is negligible in many areas of particle physics, so that unification between general relativity and quantum mechanics is not an urgent issue in those particular applications.

However, the lack of a correct theory of quantum gravity is an important issue in physical cosmology and the search by physicists for an elegant " Theory of Everything" (TOE). Consequently, resolving the inconsistencies between both theories has been a major goal of 20th- and 21st-century physics.

This TOE would combine not only the models of subatomic physics but also derive the four fundamental forces of nature from a single force or phenomenon.

One proposal for doing so is string theory, which posits that the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings. String theory describes how these strings propagate through space and interact with each other. On distance scales larger than the string scale, a string looks just like an ordinary particle, with its mass, charge, and other properties determined by the vibrational state of the string.

In string theory, one of the many vibrational states of the string corresponds to the graviton, a quantum mechanical particle that carries gravitational force.

[38] [39] Another popular theory is loop quantum gravity (LQG), which describes quantum properties of gravity and is thus a theory of quantum spacetime. LQG is an attempt to merge and adapt standard quantum mechanics and standard general relativity. This theory describes space as an extremely fine fabric "woven" of finite loops called spin networks.

The evolution of a spin network over time is called a spin foam. The characteristic length scale of a spin foam is the Planck length, approximately 1.616×10 −35 m, and so lengths shorter than the Planck length are not physically meaningful in LQG. [40] Philosophical implications (more unsolved problems in physics) Since its inception, the many counter-intuitive quantum realm and results of quantum mechanics have provoked strong philosophical debates and many interpretations.

The arguments centre on the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics, the difficulties with wavefunction collapse and the related measurement problem, and quantum nonlocality. Perhaps the only consensus that exists about these issues is that there is no consensus.

Richard Feynman once said, "I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics." [41] According to Steven Weinberg, "There is now in my opinion no entirely satisfactory interpretation of quantum mechanics." [42] The views of Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg and other physicists are often grouped together as the " Copenhagen interpretation".

[43] [44] According to these views, the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is not a temporary feature quantum realm will eventually be replaced by a deterministic theory, but is instead a final renunciation of the classical idea of "causality". Bohr in particular emphasized that any well-defined application of the quantum mechanical formalism must always make reference to the experimental arrangement, due to the complementary nature of evidence obtained under different experimental situations.

Copenhagen-type interpretations remain popular in the 21st century. [45] Albert Einstein, himself one of the founders of quantum theory, was troubled by its quantum realm failure to respect some cherished metaphysical principles, such as determinism and quantum realm.

Einstein's long-running exchanges with Bohr about the meaning and status of quantum mechanics are now known as the Bohr–Einstein debates. Einstein believed that underlying quantum mechanics must be a theory that explicitly forbids action at a distance. He argued that quantum mechanics was incomplete, a theory that was valid but not fundamental, analogous to how thermodynamics is valid, but the fundamental theory behind it is statistical mechanics.

In 1935, Einstein and his collaborators Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen published an argument that the principle of locality implies the incompleteness of quantum mechanics, a thought experiment later termed the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox. [note 6] In 1964, Quantum realm Bell showed that EPR's principle of locality, together with determinism, was actually incompatible with quantum mechanics: they implied constraints on the correlations produced by distance systems, now known as Bell inequalities, that can be violated by entangled particles.

[50] Since then several experiments have been performed to obtain these correlations, with the result that they do in fact violate Bell inequalities, and thus falsify the conjunction of locality with determinism. [13] [14] Bohmian mechanics shows that it is possible to reformulate quantum mechanics to make it deterministic, at the price of making it explicitly nonlocal.

It attributes not only a wave function to a physical system, but in addition a real position, that evolves quantum realm under a nonlocal guiding equation. The evolution of a physical system is given at all times by the Schrödinger equation together with the guiding equation; there is never a collapse of the wave function. This solves the measurement problem. [51] Everett's many-worlds interpretation, formulated in 1956, holds that all the possibilities described by quantum theory simultaneously occur in a multiverse composed of mostly independent parallel universes.

[52] This is a consequence of removing the axiom of the collapse of the wave packet. All possible states of the measured system and the measuring apparatus, together with the observer, are present in a real physical quantum superposition. While the multiverse is deterministic, we perceive non-deterministic behavior governed by probabilities, because we don't observe the multiverse as a whole, but only one parallel universe at a time.

Exactly how this is supposed to work has been the subject of much debate. Several attempts have been made to make sense of this and derive the Born rule, [53] [54] with no consensus on whether they have been successful. [55] [56] [57] Relational quantum mechanics appeared in the late 1990s as a modern derivative of Copenhagen-type ideas, [58] and QBism was developed some years later. [59] History Max Planck is considered the father of the quantum theory.

Quantum mechanics was developed in the early decades of the 20th century, driven by the need to explain phenomena that, in some cases, had been observed in earlier times.

Scientific inquiry into the wave nature of light began in the 17th and 18th centuries, when scientists such as Robert Hooke, Christiaan Huygens and Leonhard Euler proposed a wave theory of light based on experimental observations. [60] In 1803 English polymath Thomas Young described the famous double-slit experiment.

[61] This experiment played a major role in the general acceptance of the wave theory of light. During the early 19th century, chemical research by John Dalton and Amedeo Avogadro lent weight to the atomic theory of matter, an idea that James Clerk Maxwell, Ludwig Boltzmann and others built upon to establish the kinetic theory of gases. The successes of kinetic theory gave further credence to the idea that matter is composed of atoms, yet the theory also had shortcomings that would only be resolved by the development of quantum mechanics.

[62] While the early conception of atoms from Greek philosophy had been that they were indivisible units – the word "atom" deriving from the Greek for "uncuttable" – the 19th century saw the formulation of hypotheses about subatomic structure. One important discovery in that regard was Michael Faraday's 1838 observation of a glow caused by an electrical discharge inside a glass tube containing gas at low pressure.

Julius Plücker, Johann Wilhelm Hittorf and Eugen Goldstein carried on and improved upon Faraday's work, leading to the identification of cathode rays, which J. J. Thomson found to consist of subatomic particles that would be called electrons. [63] [64] The black-body radiation problem was discovered by Gustav Kirchhoff in 1859. In 1900, Max Planck proposed the hypothesis that energy is radiated and absorbed in discrete "quanta" (or energy packets), yielding a calculation that precisely matched the observed patterns of black-body quantum realm.

[65] The word quantum derives quantum realm the Latin, meaning "how great" or "how much". [66] According to Planck, quantities of energy could be thought of as divided into "elements" whose size ( E) would be proportional to their frequency ( ν): E = h ν {\displaystyle E=h\nu \ }where h is Planck's constant.

Planck cautiously insisted that this was only an aspect of the processes of absorption and emission of radiation and was not the physical reality of the radiation. [67] In fact, he considered his quantum hypothesis a mathematical trick to get the right answer rather than a sizable discovery. [68] However, in 1905 Albert Einstein interpreted Planck's quantum hypothesis realistically and used it to explain the photoelectric effect, in which shining light on certain materials can eject electrons from the material.

Niels Bohr then developed Planck's ideas about radiation into a model of the hydrogen atom that successfully predicted the spectral lines of hydrogen. [69] Einstein further developed this idea to show that an electromagnetic wave such as light could also be described as a particle (later called the photon), with a discrete amount of energy that depends on its frequency.

[70] In his paper "On the Quantum Theory of Radiation," Einstein expanded on the interaction between energy and matter to explain the absorption and emission of energy by atoms.

Although overshadowed at the time by his general theory of relativity, this paper articulated the mechanism underlying the stimulated emission of radiation, [71] which became the basis of the laser. The 1927 Solvay Conference in Brussels was the fifth world physics conference. This phase is known as the old quantum theory. Never complete or self-consistent, quantum realm old quantum theory was rather a set of heuristic corrections to classical mechanics.

[72] The theory is now understood as a semi-classical approximation [73] to modern quantum mechanics. [74] Notable results from this period include, in addition to the work of Planck, Einstein and Bohr mentioned above, Einstein and Peter Debye's work on the specific heat of solids, Bohr and Hendrika Johanna van Leeuwen's proof that classical physics cannot account for diamagnetism, and Arnold Sommerfeld's extension of the Bohr model to include special-relativistic effects.

In the mid-1920s quantum mechanics was developed to become the standard formulation for atomic physics. In 1923, the French physicist Louis de Broglie put forward his theory of matter waves by stating that particles can exhibit wave characteristics and vice versa. Building on de Broglie's approach, modern quantum mechanics was born in 1925, when the German physicists Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan [75] [76] developed matrix mechanics and the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger invented wave mechanics.

Born introduced the probabilistic interpretation of Schrödinger's wave function in July 1926. [77] Thus, the entire field of quantum physics emerged, leading to its wider acceptance at the Fifth Solvay Conference in 1927. [78] By 1930 quantum mechanics had been further unified and formalized by David Hilbert, Paul Dirac and John von Neumann [79] with greater emphasis on measurement, the statistical nature of our knowledge of reality, and philosophical speculation about the 'observer'.

It has since permeated many disciplines, including quantum chemistry, quantum electronics, quantum optics, and quantum information science. It also provides a useful framework for many features of the modern periodic table of elements, and describes the behaviors of atoms during chemical bonding and the flow of electrons in computer semiconductors, and therefore plays a crucial role in many modern technologies.

While quantum mechanics was constructed to describe the world of the very small, it is also needed to explain some macroscopic phenomena such as superconductors [80] and superfluids. [81] See also • ^ See, for example, Precision tests of Quantum realm. The relativistic refinement of quantum mechanics known quantum realm quantum electrodynamics (QED) has been shown to agree with experiment to within 1 part in 10 8 for some atomic properties.

• ^ Physicist John C. Baez cautions, "there's no way to understand the interpretation of quantum mechanics without also being able quantum realm solve quantum mechanics problems – to understand the theory, you need to be able to use it (and vice versa)". [15] Carl Sagan outlined the "mathematical underpinning" of quantum mechanics and wrote, "For most physics students, this might occupy them from, say, third grade to early graduate school – roughly 15 years. [.] The job of the popularizer of science, trying to get across some idea of quantum mechanics to a general audience that has not gone through these initiation rites, is daunting.

Indeed, there are no successful popularizations of quantum mechanics in my opinion – partly for this reason." [16] • ^ A momentum eigenstate would be a perfectly monochromatic wave of infinite extent, which is not square-integrable. Likewise, a position eigenstate quantum realm be a Dirac delta distribution, not square-integrable and technically not a function at all.

Consequently, neither can belong to the particle's Hilbert space. Physicists sometimes introduce fictitious "bases" for a Hilbert space comprising elements outside that space. Quantum realm are invented for calculational convenience and do not quantum realm physical states.

[19] : 100–105 • ^ See, for example, the Feynman Lectures on Physics for some of the technological applications which use quantum mechanics, e.g., transistors (vol III, pp.

14–11 ff), integrated circuits, which are follow-on technology in solid-state physics (vol II, pp. 8–6), and lasers (vol III, pp. 9–13). • ^ see macroscopic quantum realm phenomena, Bose–Einstein condensate, and Quantum machine • ^ The published form of the EPR argument was due to Podolsky, and Einstein himself was not satisfied with it. In his own publications and correspondence, Einstein used a different argument to insist that quantum mechanics is an incomplete theory. [46] [47] [48] [49] References • ^ Born, M.

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Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A. 16 (3): 171–201. Bibcode: 1985SHPSA.16.171H. doi: 10.1016/0039-3681(85)90001-9. • ^ Sauer, Tilman (1 December 2007). "An Einstein manuscript on the EPR paradox for spin observables". Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics. 38 (4): 879–887. Bibcode: 2007SHPMP.38.879S. CiteSeerX

doi: 10.1016/j.shpsb.2007.03.002. ISSN 1355-2198. • ^ Einstein, Albert (1949). "Autobiographical Notes". In Schilpp, Paul Arthur (ed.). Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist. Open Court Publishing Company. • ^ Bell, J. S. (1 November quantum realm. "On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen paradox". Physics Physique Fizika. 1 (3): 195–200. doi: 10.1103/PhysicsPhysiqueFizika.1.195.

• ^ Goldstein, Sheldon (2017). "Bohmian Mechanics". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. • ^ Barrett, Jeffrey (2018). "Everett's Relative-State Formulation of Quantum Mechanics". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. • ^ Everett, Hugh; Wheeler, J. A.; DeWitt, B. S.; Cooper, L. N.; Van Vechten, D.; Graham, N. (1973). DeWitt, Bryce; Graham, R.

Neill (eds.). The Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Princeton Series in Physics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. v. ISBN 0-691-08131-X. • ^ Wallace, David (2003). "Everettian Rationality: defending Deutsch's approach to probability in the Everett interpretation". Stud. Hist. Phil. Mod. Phys. 34 (3): 415–438. arXiv: quant-ph/0303050. Bibcode: 2003SHPMP.34.415W. doi: 10.1016/S1355-2198(03)00036-4.

S2CID 1921913. • ^ Ballentine, L. E. (1973). "Can the statistical postulate of quantum theory be derived? – A critique of the many-universes interpretation". Foundations of Physics. 3 (2): 229–240. Bibcode: 1973FoPh.3.229B. doi: 10.1007/BF00708440. S2CID 121747282. • ^ Landsman, N. P. (2008). "The Born rule and its interpretation" (PDF).

In Weinert, F.; Hentschel, K.; Greenberger, D.; Falkenburg, B. (eds.). Compendium of Quantum Physics. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-70622-9. The conclusion seems to be that no generally accepted derivation of the Born rule has been given to date, but this does not imply that such a derivation is impossible in principle.

• ^ Kent, Adrian (2010). "One world versus many: The inadequacy of Everettian accounts of evolution, probability, and scientific confirmation". In S. Saunders; J. Barrett; A. Kent; D. Wallace (eds.).

Many Worlds? Everett, Quantum Theory and Reality. Oxford Quantum realm Press. arXiv: 0905.0624. Bibcode: 2009arXiv0905.0624K. • ^ Van Fraassen, Bas C. (April 2010). "Rovelli's World". Foundations of Physics. 40 (4): 390–417. Bibcode: 2010FoPh.40.390V. doi: 10.1007/s10701-009-9326-5.

ISSN 0015-9018. S2CID 17217776. • ^ Healey, Richard (2016). "Quantum-Bayesian and Pragmatist Views of Quantum Theory". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. • ^ Born, Max; Wolf, Emil (1999). Principles of Optics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64222-1. OCLC 1151058062. • ^ Scheider, Walter (April 1986). "Bringing one of the great moments of science to the classroom".

The Physics Teacher. 24 (4): 217–219. Bibcode: 1986PhTea.24.217S. doi: 10.1119/1.2341987. ISSN 0031-921X. • ^ Feynman, Richard; Leighton, Robert; Sands, Matthew (1964). The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Vol. 1. California Institute of Technology. ISBN 978-0201500646. Retrieved 30 September 2021. • ^ Martin, Andre (1986), "Cathode Ray Tubes for Industrial and Military Applications", in Hawkes, Peter (ed.), Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Volume 67, Academic Press, p.

quantum realm, ISBN 978-0080577333, Evidence for the existence of "cathode-rays" was first found by Plücker and Hittorf . • ^ Dahl, Per F. (1997). Flash of the Cathode Rays: A History of J J Thomson's Electron. CRC Press. pp. 47–57. ISBN 978-0-7503-0453-5. • ^ Mehra, Quantum realm Rechenberg, H. (1982). The Historical Development of Quantum Theory, Vol. 1: The Quantum Theory of Planck, Einstein, Bohr and Sommerfeld.

Its Foundation and the Rise of Its Difficulties (1900–1925). New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-0387906423. • ^ "Quantum – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 18 August 2012. • ^ Kuhn, T. S. (1978). Black-body theory and the quantum discontinuity 1894–1912. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0195023831. • ^ Kragh, Helge (1 December 2000). "Max Planck: the reluctant revolutionary".

Physics World. Retrieved 12 December 2020. • ^ Stachel, John (2009). "Bohr and the Photon". Quantum Reality, Relativistic Causality and the Closing of the Epistemic Circle. The Western Ontario Series in Philosophy of Science.

Vol. 73. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 69–83. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-9107-0_5. ISBN 978-1-4020-9106-3. • ^ Einstein, A. (1905). "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt" [On a heuristic point of view concerning the production and transformation of light].

Annalen der Physik. 17 (6): 132–148. Bibcode: 1905AnP.322.132E. doi: 10.1002/andp.19053220607. Reprinted in Stachel, John, ed. (1989). The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein (in German). Vol. 2. Princeton University Press. pp. 149–166. See also "Einstein's early work on the quantum hypothesis", ibid. pp. 134–148. • ^ Einstein, Albert (1917). "Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung" [On the Quantum Theory of Radiation]. Physikalische Zeitschrift (in German).

18: 121–128. Bibcode: 1917PhyZ.18.121E. Translated in Einstein, A. (1967). "On the Quantum Theory of Radiation". The Old Quantum Theory. Quantum realm. pp. 167–183. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-08-012102-4.50018-8. ISBN 978-0080121024. • ^ ter Haar, D. (1967). The Old Quantum Theory. Pergamon Press. pp. 206. ISBN 978-0-08-012101-7. • ^ "Semi-classical approximation". Encyclopedia of Mathematics. Retrieved 1 February 2020. • ^ Sakurai, J.

J.; Napolitano, J. (2014). "Quantum Dynamics". Modern Quantum Mechanics. Pearson. ISBN 978-1-292-02410-3. OCLC 929609283. • ^ Quantum realm Edwards,"The Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics", Synthese, Volume 42, Number 1/September, 1979, pp. 1–70. • ^ D. Edwards, "The Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory: Fermions, Gauge Fields, and Super-symmetry, Part I: Lattice Field Theories", International J.

of Theor. Phys., Vol. 20, No. 7 (1981). • ^ Bernstein, Jeremy (November 2005). "Max Born and the quantum theory". American Journal of Physics. 73 (11): 999–1008. Bibcode: 2005AmJPh.73.999B. doi: 10.1119/1.2060717.

ISSN 0002-9505. • ^ Pais, Abraham (1997). A Tale of Two Continents: A Physicist's Life in a Turbulent World. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01243-1. • ^ Van Hove, Leon (1958). "Von Neumann's contributions to quantum mechanics" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. 64 (3): Part 2:95–99. doi: 10.1090/s0002-9904-1958-10206-2. • ^ Feynman, Richard. "The Feynman Lectures on Physics III 21-4". California Institute of Technology.

Retrieved 24 November 2015. .it was long believed that the wave function of the Schrödinger equation would never have a macroscopic representation analogous to the macroscopic representation of the amplitude for photons. On the other hand, it is now realized that the phenomena of superconductivity presents us with just this situation. • ^ Packard, Richard (2006). "Berkeley Experiments on Superfluid Macroscopic Quantum Effects" (PDF).

Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015. Further reading The following titles, all by working physicists, attempt to communicate quantum theory to lay people, using a minimum of technical apparatus.

quantum realm

• Chester, Marvin (1987). Primer of Quantum Mechanics. John Wiley. ISBN 0-486-42878-8 • Cox, Brian; Forshaw, Jeff (2011). The Quantum Universe: Everything That Can Happen Does Happen. Allen Lane. ISBN 978-1-84614-432-5. • Richard Feynman, quantum realm. QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter, Princeton University Press.

ISBN quantum realm. Four elementary lectures on quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory, yet containing many insights for the expert. • Ghirardi, GianCarlo, 2004. Sneaking a Look at God's Cards, Gerald Malsbary, trans. Princeton Univ. Press. The most technical of the works cited here. Passages using algebra, trigonometry, and bra–ket notation can be passed over on a first reading. • N. David Mermin, 1990, "Spooky actions at a distance: mysteries of the QT" in his Boojums All the Way Through.

Cambridge University Press: 110–76. • Victor Stenger, 2000.

quantum realm

Timeless Reality: Symmetry, Simplicity, and Multiple Universes. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books. Chpts. 5–8. Includes cosmological and philosophical considerations.

More technical: • Bernstein, Jeremy (2009). Quantum Leaps. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03541-6. • Quantum realm, David (1989). Quantum Theory. Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-65969-5. • Eisberg, Robert; Resnick, Robert (1985). Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei, and Particles (2nd ed.). Wiley.

ISBN 978-0-471-87373-0. • Bryce DeWitt, R. Neill Graham, eds., 1973. The Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, Princeton Series in Physics, Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08131-X • Everett, Hugh (1957). "Relative State Formulation of Quantum Mechanics". Reviews of Modern Physics. 29 (3): 454–462.

Bibcode: 1957RvMP.29.454E. doi: 10.1103/RevModPhys.29.454. S2CID 17178479. • Feynman, Richard P.; Leighton, Robert B.; Sands, Matthew (1965). The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Vol. 1–3. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-7382-0008-8. • D. Greenberger, K. Hentschel, F. Weinert, eds., 2009. Compendium of quantum physics, Concepts, experiments, history and philosophy, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. • Griffiths, David J. (2004). Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (2nd ed.).

Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-111892-8. OCLC 40251748. A standard undergraduate text. • Max Jammer, 1966. The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics. McGraw Hill. • Hagen Kleinert, 2004. Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics, Statistics, Polymer Physics, and Financial Markets, 3rd ed.

Singapore: World Scientific. Draft of 4th edition. • L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifshitz (1977). Quantum Mechanics: Quantum realm Theory. Vol. 3 (3rd ed.). Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-08-020940-1.

Online copy • Liboff, Richard L. (2002). Introductory Quantum Mechanics. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-8053-8714-8.

quantum realm

• Gunther Ludwig, 1968. Wave Mechanics. London: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-203204-1 • George Mackey (2004). The mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-43517-2. • Merzbacher, Eugen (1998). Quantum Mechanics. Wiley, John & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-0-471-88702-7. • Albert Messiah, 1966. Quantum Mechanics (Vol.

I), English translation from French by G.M. Temmer. North Holland, John Wiley & Sons. Cf. chpt. IV, section III. online • Omnès, Roland (1999). Understanding Quantum Mechanics. Princeton University Press.

ISBN 978-0-691-00435-8. OCLC 39849482. • Scerri, Eric R., 2006. The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance. Oxford University Press. Considers the extent to which chemistry and the periodic system have been reduced to quantum mechanics. ISBN 0-19-530573-6 • Shankar, R. (1994). Principles of Quantum Mechanics. Springer. ISBN 978-0-306-44790-7. • Stone, A. Douglas (2013). Einstein and the Quantum. Princeton University Press.

ISBN 978-0-691-13968-5. • Transnational College of Lex (1996). What is Quantum Mechanics? A Physics Adventure. Language Research Foundation, Boston. ISBN 978-0-9643504-1-0. OCLC 34661512. • Veltman, Martinus J.G. (2003), Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics. On Wikibooks • This Quantum World External links Quantum mechanicsat Wikipedia's sister projects • Definitions from Wiktionary • Media from Commons • News from Wikinews • Quotations from Wikiquote • Texts from Wikisource • Textbooks from Wikibooks • Resources from Wikiversity • J.

O'Connor and E. F. Robertson: A history of quantum mechanics. • Quantum realm to Quantum Theory at Quantiki. • Quantum Physics Made Relatively Simple: three video lectures by Hans Bethe Course material • Quantum Cook Book and PHYS 201: Fundamentals of Physics II by Ramamurti Shankar, Yale OpenCourseware • The Modern Revolution in Physics – an online textbook. • MIT OpenCourseWare: Chemistry and Physics. See 8.04, 8.05 and 8.06 • 5½ Examples in Quantum Mechanics • Imperial College Quantum Mechanics Course.

Philosophy • Ismael, Jenann. "Quantum Mechanics". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. • Krips, Henry. "Measurement in Quantum Theory". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. • Born rule • Bra–ket notation • Complementarity • Density matrix • Energy level • Ground state • Excited state • Degenerate levels • Zero-point energy • Entanglement • Hamiltonian • Interference • Decoherence • Measurement • Nonlocality • Quantum state • Superposition • Tunnelling • Quantum realm theory • Symmetry in quantum mechanics • Uncertainty • Wave function • Collapse • Wave–particle duality Formulations • Quantum algorithms • Quantum amplifier • Quantum bus • Quantum cellular automata • Quantum finite automata • Quantum channel • Quantum circuit • Quantum complexity theory • Quantum computing • Timeline • Quantum cryptography • Quantum electronics • Quantum error correction • Quantum imaging • Quantum image processing • Quantum information • Quantum key distribution • Quantum logic • Quantum logic gates • Quantum machine • Quantum machine learning • Quantum metamaterial • Quantum metrology • Quantum network • Quantum neural network • Quantum optics • Quantum programming • Quantum sensing • Quantum simulator • Quantum realm teleportation Extensions Hidden categories: • CS1 German-language sources (de) • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Articles with separate introductions • Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages • Good articles • Pages using Sister project links with default search • Articles with BNE identifiers • Articles with BNF identifiers • Articles with GND identifiers • Articles with J9U identifiers • Articles with LCCN identifiers • Articles with NDL identifiers • Articles with NKC identifiers • Articles with FAST identifiers • Articles with SUDOC identifiers • Afrikaans • Alemannisch • العربية • Aragonés • Արեւմտահայերէն • অসমীয়া • Asturianu • Azərbaycanca • বাংলা • Bân-lâm-gú • Башҡортса • Беларуская • Беларуская (тарашкевіца) • भोजपुरी • Bikol Central • Български • Boarisch • Bosanski • Brezhoneg • Буряад • Català • Чӑвашла • Čeština • Cymraeg • Dansk • Deutsch • Eesti • Ελληνικά • Español • Esperanto • Estremeñu • Euskara • فارسی • Fiji Hindi • Français • Gaeilge • Galego • 한국어 • Հայերեն • हिन्दी • Hrvatski • Ido • Bahasa Indonesia • Interlingua • Íslenska • Italiano • עברית • Kabɩyɛ • ಕನ್ನಡ • ქართული quantum realm Қазақша • Kiswahili • Kriyòl gwiyannen • Kurdî • Кыргызча • Latina • Latviešu • Lietuvių • Limburgs • Lombard • Magyar • Македонски • മലയാളം • Malti • मराठी • مصرى • مازِرونی • Bahasa Melayu • Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄ • Монгол • မြန်မာဘာသာ • Nederlands • नेपाली • नेपाल भाषा • 日本語 • Нохчийн • Nordfriisk • Norsk bokmål • Norsk nynorsk • Occitan • Oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча • ਪੰਜਾਬੀ • پنجابی • پښتو • Patois • Piemontèis • Polski • Português • Română • Quantum realm • Русский • Scots • Shqip • Sicilianu • සිංහල • Simple English • سنڌي • Slovenčina • Slovenščina • Ślůnski • کوردی • Српски / srpski • Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски • Sunda • Suomi • Svenska • Tagalog • தமிழ் • Татарча/tatarça • తెలుగు • ไทย • Тоҷикӣ • Türkçe • Українська • اردو • Vèneto • Tiếng Việt • Võro • 文言 • Winaray • 吴语 • ייִדיש • 粵語 • Žemaitėška • 中文 Edit links • This page was last edited on 5 May 2022, at 23:17 (UTC).

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Contents • 1 History • 1.1 Final Mission • 1.2 Escaping the Quantum Realm • 1.3 Rescue of Jemma Simmons • 1.4 Stephen Strange's Journey • 1.5 Rescue of Janet van Dyne • 1.6 Trapped in the Quantum Realm • 1.7 Used by S.H.I.E.L.D.

• 1.8 Released from the Quantum Realm • 1.9 Time Heist • 1.10 Attack on the Avengers Compound • 1.11 Battle of Earth • 1.12 Returning the Stones • 1.13 Alternate Universe • 1.13.1 Quantum Virus • 2 Nature and Structure • 3 Trivia • 4 Appearances • 5 References • 6 External Links History Final Mission "Your mother saved thousands of lives that day, knowing she'd be lost in the Quantum Realm. Alone. Afraid.

Gone forever." ― Hank Pym to Hope van Dyne [src] Access to the Quantum Realm was finally realized by scientist Doctor Hank Pym through the use of Pym Particles, particles of an extra-dimensional nature quantum realm are capable of altering the size of beings or objects.

Janet van Dyne, Pym's wife and the first person to bear the mantle of Wasp, disappeared into the Quantum Realm after sacrificing her life to disable a Soviet nuclear missile. Janet van Dyne became a resident of the Quantum Realm through this sacrifice. Following this event, Pym dedicated himself to researching the Quantum Realm, though he was unable to generate concrete results or information.

[1] Escaping the Quantum Realm "Do not screw with the regulator. If that regulator is compromised, you would go subatomic." "What does that mean?" "It means that you would enter a Quantum Realm." ― Hank Pym and Scott Lang [src] Scott Lang in the Quantum Realm In 2015, after defeating Darren Cross, Scott Lang was transported into the Quantum Realm, but managed to escape by altering the Ant-Man Suit's mechanisms; replacing the shrinking regulator with an enlarging one by installing a blue Pym Particles Disk in his regulator.

Later, Lang claimed to have no recollection of what he experienced there. [1] Rescue of Jemma Quantum realm "After hearing about the Pym Technologies disaster, you even thought she'd been reduced to a microscopic level." ― Phil Coulson to Leo Fitz quantum realm Upon the disappearance of Jemma Simmons through the Monolith, Leo Fitz briefly researched into the Quantum Realm, exploring the quantum realm that she was there.

[2] Stephen Strange's Journey Stephen Strange passing through the Quantum Realm In 2016, when Stephen Strange came to Kamar-Taj, the Ancient One sent his consciousness through several dimensions and realities, including the Quantum Realm. [3] Quantum realm of Janet van Dyne "When he went to the Quantum Realm. he came back, everything changed. I started to wonder. could your mother still be alive? So I dusted off some old plans." "Dad, what are you saying?" "I think it's possible to bring her back." ― Hank Pym and Hope van Dyne [src] In 2018, Scott Lang received an apparent message from Janet van Dyne in the form of a shared memory of her daughter, which allowed Hank Pym and Hope van Dyne to confirm their suspicions about Janet being alive.

They briefly opened a Quantum Tunnel to the Quantum Realm, however, it was only able to be open for a few seconds. Later, when able to open a more stable tunnel, Janet, sending a message through Lang, gave her exact location, before revealing that there were only two hours before the Quantum Realm's instability would move her, causing her to disappear for another century.

Hank Pym and Janet van Dyne reunite in the Quantum Realm Just before going through with the rescue, Pym told Lang and Hope that he would be the one to enter the Quantum Realm, allowing Lang and Hope to distract Ghost away from the lab, in an effort to have an unproblematic rescue.

With the battle for the laboratory ongoing, Pym entered the Quantum Realm with just about 15 minutes left before Janet's location would change. Upon arriving at Janet's location, however, Pym became disoriented due to the Quantum Realm's nature, but Janet was able to find him and they reunited. They then came back with the lab, with it having returned to its original size. [4] Trapped in the Quantum Realm Scott Lang trapped in the Quantum Realm " Five years ago, right before Thanos, I was in a place called the Quantum Quantum realm.

The Quantum Realm is like its own microscopic universe. To get in there, you have to be incredibly small." ― Scott Lang to Steve Rogers and Natasha Quantum realm [src] Due to Ghost still needing additional quantum energy, Scott Lang was sent back into the Quantum Realm with a device to absorb Quantum Healing Particles.

However, while he was doing this task, the Snap occurred. [5] Coincidentally, Hank Pym, Janet van Dyne, and Hope van Dyne were among the victims, leaving no-one at the controls to bring Lang out of the Quantum Realm.

[6] Used by S.H.I.E.L.D. S.H.I.E.L.D. and the Chronicoms travel through the Quantum Realm "You went back in time, and then you branched off. But we can travel through something called the Quantum Realm.

So we can go in between timelines." ― Leo Fitz [src] During S.H.I.E.L.D.'s War Against the Chronicoms as Zephyr One traveled back in time to create an alternate timeline to ensure the survival of Kora, Leo Fitz shrunk down into the Quantum Realm to act as a bridge between timelines.

[7] Eventually, Fitz emerged from the Quantum Realm into The Krazy Kanoe thanks to the Quantum Tunnel that Jemma Simmons assembled. [8] S.H.I.E.L.D. subsequently linked the Quantum Tunnel to Zephyr One to travel through the Quantum Realm back to the original timeline, quantum realm the orbit Chronicom Vessels with them in the process. [7] Released from the Quantum Realm "That must've been a very long five years." "Yeah, but that's just it.

It wasn't. For me, it was five hours. See, the rules of the Quantum Realm aren't like they are up here. Everything is unpredictable." ― Natasha Romanoff and Scott Lang [src] Pronounced dead by society as his body was never recovered, Scott Lang remained trapped in the Quantum Realm as the van was placed in a warehouse.

For Lang's luck, however, a rat happened to sniff around the truck, accidentally setting the controls to bring him back, causing Lang to be shot from the truck to a bunch of garbage, bringing him back to reality. Five years had passed, but for Lang, it had only been five hours. [9] Time Heist "Time works differently in the Quantum Realm. The only problem is, right now, we don't have a way to navigate it. But what if we did? I can't stop thinking about it. What if, we could somehow control the chaos, and we could navigate it?

What if there was a way to enter the Quantum Realm at a certain point in time but then exit at another point in time? Like. Like before Thanos." ― Scott Lang to Steve Rogers and Natasha Romanoff [src] In 2023, the Quantum Realm was quantum realm in the Avengers' plan to undo the Snap.

Scott Lang introduced the idea of going into the Quantum Realm to acquire versions of the Infinity Stones, since in the present, the Stones were destroyed. Bruce Banner initiated tests, sending Lang into the Realm and having him walk for an hour there, while in present time, Banner would get him out almost immediately. While the initial tests were unsuccessful, with Lang turning back into a kid, an old man, and a baby in the tests, the final test quantum realm, as Lang was able to return in his correct age and appearance.

Hawkeye traveling through time in the Quantum Realm Meanwhile, Tony Stark managed to perfectly simulate a travel path by turning it into an inverted Möbius strip. He eventually brought the model he created to the Avengers Compound in order to do a final test run.

Clint Barton volunteered to the test run and was able to travel the Quantum Realm to land in a timeline where his family was still alive. The test was proved to be successful when Barton brought back a glove taken from that timeline. Quantum realm Avengers travel through time in the Quantum Realm With the quantum time travel mechanics now perfected, the Avengers split up and traversed the Quantum Realm to different points in time: Steve Rogers, Stark, Banner, and Lang set out to the Battle of New York in 2012 in order to get the Time Stone, the Tesseract, and the Mind Stone; Nebula, James Rhodes, Romanoff, and Barton traveled to 2014 to get the Orb in Morag as well as the Soul Stone in Vormir; and Thor and Rocket Raccoon traveled to Asgard in 2013 to extract the Aether from Jane Foster during the Second Dark Elf Conflict.

After being unable to retrieve the Tesseract, Stark and Rogers used a few Pym Particles left to travel through the Quantum Realm again, this time, to an alternate 1970 in Camp Lehigh in order to steal the Tesseract there and acquire more Pym Particles. [9] Attack on the Avengers Compound The alternate Sanctuary II travelling through the Quantum Realm An alternate 2014 version of Nebula traveled the Quantum Realm to the main timeline, specifically to the Avengers Compound.

There she opened an entry route for an alternate version of the Sanctuary II to travel the Realm to the main timeline. The sheer size of the warship led to the destruction of the Avengers' Quantum Tunnel, disabling access to the Quantum Realm. [9] Battle of Earth During the battle, Scott Lang announced that Luis' van still contained a Quantum Tunnel.

However, alternate Thanos used his sword to destroy the Quantum Tunnel. This action led to an incredible burst of Quantum energy coming out of the Quantum Realm onto the Avengers Compound's grounds which blasted Carol Danvers and others backwards. Returning the Stones In the aftermath of the Blip, Bruce Banner used another Quantum Tunnel in order to return the Infinity Stones and Mjølnir to their respective timelines.

Steve Rogers volunteered to do the task, and traveled back into the Quantum Realm. After returning the items, Rogers traveled the Realm far back to an alternate 1940s, where he married an alternate Peggy Carter and lived a long, fulfilling life.

Once he was an old man, he traveled the Realm a final time back to the main universe. [9] Alternate Universe Quantum Virus Zombie Janet van Dyne in the Quantum Realm "Dr. Hank Pym journeyed into the Quantum Realm, searching for his long-lost wife. But in this universe, Janet van Dyne contracted a quantum virus that corrupted her brain." ― The Watcher [src] In an alternate universe, Janet van Quantum realm contracted a quantum virus during her thirty year stay in the Quantum realm Realm, which transformed her into a zombie.

In 2018, her husband Hank Pym entered the Quantum Realm to rescue her, where he was subsequently attacked and infected. The pair were then extracted out of the Quantum Realm by Hope van Dyne, where they infected the citizens of Earth and began the Zombie Apocalypse. [10] Nature and Structure Ant-Man in the Quantum Realm "You never said how beautiful it was, Scott." ― Hank Pym [src] The Quantum Realm is said by Hank Pym to be a largely unexplored dimension, about which scientists currently know very little.

Pym also says the concepts of time and space become irrelevant when entering the realm, and whoever tries to explore it may become trapped "for eternity".

Scott Lang's incursion into the Quantum Realm began on a microscopic level, then entered atomic size, later dissolving into pure energy and waves, then in a fractal-like reality where the shrinking person meets an infinite number of mirror images of themselves, and ending in a weightless dark void with pockets of dim light.

The Quantum Tunnel opening in an alternate timeline The nature of the Quantum Realm is such that you can enter at one point in time and exit at another. This can also be extended to jumping from one alternate timeline to another as done by Leo Fitz in the War Against the Chronicoms, and by Steve Rogers when he traveled to the realities the Avengers created during the Time Heist to return the Infinity Stones.

The Quantum Realm is one of many dimensions in the Multiverse. [3] Trivia • The Quantum Realm is an amalgamation of two different dimensions from the comics: the Quantum Zone, the realm where all the energy of the universe come from, and the Microverse, [11] which consists of many different sub-atomic dimensions all accessible through the same means as they are in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Notably, the Microverse was also home to the superhero team Micronauts.

Wasp was also trapped in the Microverse, during the time of her supposed death in Secret Invasion, before being discovered by Hank Pym. • Marvel Studios cannot use the name "Microverse" as it is packaged with the Micronauts film rights that are with Paramount Pictures. [12] Dr. Spyridon Michalakis, the scientific consultant on Ant-Man, coined the new name. [13] • The depiction of the Quantum Realm in Ant-Man is based on the former Disneyland attraction Adventure Thru Inner Space. Appearances • Ant-Man • Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

• Season Three • Laws of Nature (mentioned) • Doctor Strange • Ant-Man and the Wasp • What If.? • Season One • What If.

Zombies!? (alternate universe) • Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. • Season Seven • What We're Fighting For • Avengers: Endgame • Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania (unreleased) References • ↑ 1.0 1.1 Ant-Man • ↑ Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: 3.01: Laws of Nature • ↑ 3.0 3.1 Doctor Strange • ↑ Ant-Man and the Wasp • ↑ Avengers: Infinity War • ↑ Ant-Man and the Wasp Mid-credits Scene • ↑ 7.0 7.1 Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: 7.13: What We're Fighting For • ↑ Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: 7.12: The End is at Hand • ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Avengers: Endgame • ↑ What If.?: 1.05: What If.

Zombies!? • ↑ ANT-MAN's PEYTON REED Reveals MICROVERSE Connection & Storyline Adaptation Source • ↑ Peyton Reed Takes Jeremy Into The Quantum Realm Of Making ANT-MAN! • ↑ Ant-Man Could Destroy Superman, Says Quantum Physics External Links • Microverse on Marvel Database • Quantum Zone on Marvel Database • Microverse on Wikipedia To make the world smarter, happier, and richer.

Founded in 1993 by brothers Tom and Quantum realm Gardner, The Motley Fool helps millions of people attain financial freedom through our website, podcasts, books, newspaper column, radio show, and premium investing services.

• Log In • Help • Join The Motley Fool Nicholas has been a writer for the Motley Fool since 2015, covering companies primarily in the consumer goods and technology sectors. He is also the founder and president of Concinnus Financial, a Registered Investment Advisor based in Spokane, WA. He enjoys the outdoors up and down the West Quantum realm with his wife and their Humane Society-rescued dog.

Follow @nrossolillo Follow @nrossolillo Quantum computer technology has made great strides in recent years and is becoming increasingly affordable to develop and build. That's good news because the demand for progressively powerful computing units is ballooning with the expansion of cloud computing and the proliferation of digital devices.

Quantum computing could emerge as a key technology and investment trend in the decades quantum realm. Nevertheless, because it's still in its infancy, the best way to invest in the industry could be via a quantum computing ETF. Image source: Getty Images. What is quantum computing? • Quantum computers make use of superposition, which is the phenomenon that occurs at the subatomic scale where particles have no clearly defined state.

• Harnessing quantum realm power of superposition dramatically accelerates computing speed and can help solve complex problems in the real world such as coordinating logistics or simulating the structure of pharmaceuticals.

• The advent of cloud computing has helped expand access to quantum computers, delivering computations to researchers via a network connection. Leading companies in quantum computing Since quantum computing is still being developed, there are few companies out there solely dedicated to the technology. However, there are some well-known businesses funneling lots of research dollars into quantum computing, a newly public pure-play, and a couple more soon-to-be-public pure-plays in the quantum realm.

The best quantum computing stocks include:Â • Microsoft ( NASDAQ:MSFT): The software giant has various research labs devoted to quantum computing and offers quantum computing quantum realm via the cloud on Azure. Â • Honeywell ( NASDAQ:HON): Honeywell developed its own quantum computer, but it's merging its Honeywell Quantum Solutions unit with start-up Cambridge Quantum Computing to create a new business focused on the nascent industry.

• IBM ( NYSE:IBM): The legacy tech firm offers quantum computing and accompanying software and has a community of more than 140 partner companies and research institutions. • IonQ ( NYSE:IONQ) : Start-up IonQ merged with special purpose acquisition company (SPAC) dMY Technology Group III in 2021 and is building a network of quantum computers accessible via cloud computing.

 • Supernova Partners Acquisition Company II ( NYSE:SNII)(Rigetti Computing): Another quantum start-up, it was recently announced that quantum processor designer Rigetti Computing will be brought public via merger with the SPAC Supernova Partners Acquisition Company II.  Defiance Quantum ETF Besides investing in individual companies, there is quantum realm ETF, or exchange-traded fund, dedicated to the quantum computing industry: Defiance Quantum ETF ( NYSEMKT:QTUM).

Defiance ETFs -- the company that sponsors this and other themed ETFs -- launched in 2018, with its Quantum ETF debuting in September 2018. Â The Defiance Quantum ETF is made up of 70 individual stocks, primarily quantum realm and software companies that are working on, or have exposure to, quantum computing in some form or another. The fund is small, with total net assets under management of just $172 million.

It has an expense ratio of 0.40%, which works out to $40 in annual fees for every $1,000 invested. The top 10 holdings in the fund are:  Company Defiance Quantum ETF % Weighting Analog Devices ( NASDAQ:ADI) 2.8% Synaptics ( NASDAQ:SYNA) 2.5% Ambarella ( NASDAQ:AMBA) 2.4% Advanced Micro Devices ( NASDAQ:AMD) 2.4% Nvidia ( NASDAQ:NVDA) 2.3% Xilinx ( NASDAQ:XLNX) 2.2% ON Semiconductor ( NASDAQ:ON) 2.1% Lattice Semiconductor ( NASDAQ:LSCC) 2.1% Cadence Design Systems ( NASDAQ:CDNS) 1.8% Marvell Technology Group ( NASDAQ:MRVL) 1.8% Data source: Defiance ETFs.

Data as of Nov. 22, 2021. Â Benefits of Defiance Quantum ETF • Well-diversified exposure to the quantum computing industry before it gains widespread commercialization. • The ETF invests in established semiconductor and software technology companies not solely dependent on the development of quantum computing, which could provide some stability to the fund's performance over time. • In its short history, the Defiance Quantum ETF has doubled in value, although this is attributable to growth in the technology sector overall rather than quantum computing specifically.

Opportunities for quantum computing investing Although there is only one quantum computing ETF available at the moment, there are other opportunities available for investors wanting to bet on the technology. IonQ is the first publicly traded pure-play stock in quantum technology.

Likewise, the merger between Honeywell Quantum Solutions and Cambridge Quantum Computing will offer another opportunity for investors to get in on the movement early, although it's currently unclear when that deal will be complete. Rigetti Computing's pending merger via SPAC is another early-stage investment in the development of quantum processors. IonQ, Rigetti Computing, and Honeywell are not a part of the Defiance Quantum ETF portfolio of quantum realm at this time.

Why should you invest in Defiance Quantum ETF? For investors looking for quantum realm affordable way to passively benefit from the development of quantum computing, the Defiance Quantum ETF is worth considering. It's well-diversified across dozens of technology stocks, but it won't implode if quantum computing never takes off since most of these companies also rely on other tech trends such as AI and machine learning. If you want in on quantum computing at an early stage, this ETF is a good place to start.

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Throughout human history, most of our quantum realm to store information, from knots and oracle bones to bamboo markings and the written word, boil down to two techniques: using characters or shapes to represent information.

Today, huge amounts of information are stored on silicon wafers with zeros and ones, but a new material at the border of quantum chemistry and quantum physics could enable vast improvements in storage. Suyang Xu, assistant professor of chemical biology, is tying quantum mechanical “knots” in topological materials, which may be the key to unlocking the potential of quantum technologies to store and process vast arrays of information and bring game-changing advances in a variety of fields.

“Imagine a rope identified by a number quantum realm knots,” Xu said. “No matter how much the shape of the rope is changed, the number of knots — known as the topological number — cannot be changed without altering its fundamental identity by adding or undoing knots.” It is this robustness that potentially makes topological materials particularly useful.

Xu, who took his undergraduate degree in China, first encountered topological materials when he started graduate school in physics at Princeton in 2008 when the materials were first being created. Xu’s research interests involve electronic and optical properties in quantum matters, such as topological and broken symmetry states.

Topological materials move electrons along their surfaces and edges without any friction or loss, making them promising materials for super-high-speed electronics, like quantum computers. Such devices have the potential to be more powerful than existing computers because their quantum bits, referred to as “qubits,” take advantage of two properties of quantum states —superposition and entanglement — to encode information.

However, quantum states are delicate and when they are perturbed can lead to decoherence, falling out of sync and losing stored information. Because topological materials are robust and resist perturbation, they could be used to build more resilient and longer-lasting qubits. Xu’s physics background and experimental chemistry experience enable him to test quantum theories in the real world. “Even though physicists and chemists both study materials, physicists tend to look at them more as abstract equations, while chemists engage with their emergent properties,” Xu said.

“Since I have a pure physics background and speak the language of chemistry, I can translate difficult theories into real space.” With a few well-reasoned assumptions and some innovative techniques, Xu and his team bridge the gap the between quantum physics and chemistry, testing theories with materials.

First, they predict which materials may realize topological properties. The chemical formulas for the elements in such quantum realm do not provide adequate insight; Xu is also interested in their macroscopic properties. “If I were to study water, steam, and ice only by looking at their H 20 equation, I would learn nothing about their different properties.” Xu said. “As a chemist, I am trying to find certain elements and organize them microscopically, so that they can produce a topological property.” Xu’s lab then tests current theories about chemical reactions against experimental data to expand the map of topological materials.

Using specialized refrigerators in which atoms and molecules are cooled to temperatures just above absolute zero, at which they become highly controllable and more visible, Xu and quantum realm team test the flow of electrons through materials with currents.

They are also interested in the optical properties of materials, testing to see their interaction with light. The team fires photons at the materials and gathers quantum mechanical topological data based on quantum realm light scatters, reflects, and transmits. Xu has already yielded strong evidence for theoretical particles that answers one of the most vexing problems in quantum science. — Suyang Xu In a study reported last year in Nature, Xu and his team set out to study the properties of axions, a theoretical elementary particle proposed by physicist Frank Wilczek.

The Nobel Prize winner quantum realm it after a brand of laundry detergent because it “cleaned up” the complex, highly technical Strong Charge Parity problem in quantum chromodynamics by filling in a gap between theory and observation. In addition one of the most enticing predictions about axion states is that we may be able to use them to control magnetization, which could revolutionize all kinds of technology as magnetism and magnetic materials are at the heart of many, many applications.

In a class of topological materials called axion insulators, Xu’s team sought to simulate the behavior of the axion. They fabricated a dual-gated MnBi2Te4 device in an argon environment, and measured its electrical and optical properties, uncovering new pathways to detect and manipulate the rich internal structure of topological materials. “We discovered a real material that can support the axion insulator state,” Xu said. “We confirmed that it had the predicted properties, a strong coupling between electricity and magnetism.” Having provided evidence for a theorized particle, Xu plans to explore the spin properties of Weyl semimetals, a new state of matter that has quantum realm unusual electronic structure that has quantum realm analogies with particle physics and leads to unique topological properties.
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Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Features of the Marvel Universe" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( August 2016) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) The comic book stories published by Marvel Comics since the 1940s have featured several noteworthy concepts besides its fictional characters, such as unique places and artifacts.

There follows a list of those features. Contents • 1 Places • 1.1 Earth • 1.1.1 New York City • Superhero sites • Companies • Universities • 1.1.2 Regions and countries • 1.1.3 Prisons • Alcatraz • Alamogordo • Big House • Cage • Crossmore Prison quantum realm Cube • Cube in other media • Ice Box • Ice Box in other media • Lang Memorial Penitentiary • The Big House in other media • Project Pegasus • Project Pegasus in other media • The Raft • The Raft in other media • Ravencroft • Ravencroft in other media • Ryker's Island • Ryker's Island in other media • Seagate Prison • Seagate Quantum realm in other media • The Vault • 1.1.4 Other locations • 1.2 Outer space • 1.2.1 Planets • 1.2.2 Satellites and planetoids • 1.2.3 Space stations • 1.2.4 Outer space prisons • Anvil • Kyln • Kyln in other media • Negative Zone Prison Alpha • Negative Zone Prison Alpha in other media • Stockade • 1.3 Extradimensional places • 2 Organizations • 2.1 Government agencies • 2.2 Criminal organizations • 2.3 Alien races • 3 Objects • 3.1 Vehicles • 3.2 Weapons • 3.3 Artifacts • 3.3.1 Mystical artifacts • 3.3.2 Cosmic artifacts • 3.3.3 Other artifacts • 3.4 Substances • 3.4.1 Drugs • 3.4.2 Elemental substances and minerals • 4 Cosmic forces • 5 See also • 6 References Places [ edit ] Certain places feature prominently in the Marvel Universe, some real-life, others fictional and unique to the setting; fictional places may appear in conjunction with, or even within, real-world locales.

Earth [ edit ] New York City [ edit ] Many Marvel Comics stories are set in New York City, where the publishing company is based. Superhero sites [ edit ] New York is the site of many places important to superheroes: • Avengers Mansion: Currently in ruin, but long the home of the Avengers.

quantum realm Avengers Tower: Formerly Stark Tower, the current headquarters of the Avengers. • Alias Investigations: The private investigations firm founded and owned by Jessica Jones. • Baxter Building and Four Freedoms Plaza: The fictional buildings that have, at one time or another, been the home of the Fantastic Four.

• Daily Bugle: The fictional newspaper building where Peter Parker (Spider-Man) works as a photographer for J.

Jonah Jameson. • Fisk Towers: a fictional skyscraper owned by Kingpin Wilson Fisk, and base of operations for his criminal activities. • Hell's Kitchen: Home and protectorate of the Defenders ( Daredevil, Jessica Jones, Luke Cage and Iron Fist) and The Punisher. • Nelson and Murdock Law Offices: The law firm founded by Matt Murdock (Daredevil) and Foggy Nelson.

• Sanctum Sanctorum: The fictional abode of Doctor Strange located in Greenwich Village. • Oscorp Tower: The fictional skyscraper owned by Norman Osborn. Now the headquarters for Alchemax. • Mutant Town/District X: A ghetto-like neighborhood of New York primarily populated by mutants. Since the Decimation, its mutant population has largely disappeared. • The Bowery: In Fantastic Four #4 (1962), the Fantastic Four's Human Torch discovers the 1940s-era character Namor in this Manhattan neighborhood of "human derelicts", where Namor had taken up residence after the onset of retrograde amnesia about his identity.

• Wakandan embassy: The consulate/embassy of Black Panther's nation of Wakanda. Companies [ edit ] New York is a center of industry, serving as the headquarters for a few Marvel companies: • Alchemax: A company owned by Tyler Stone. • Cross Technological Enterprises: A multinational industrial company run by Darren Cross. It is a rival of Stark Industries.

• Fisk Industries: A legitimate business on the surface founded and owned by Wilson Fisk. • Frost International: A multi billion-dollar electronics conglomerate run by Emma Frost. • Hammer Industries: A company that was founded and owned by Justin Hammer. • Horizon Labs: A leading company quantum realm creating the most advanced technology on Earth headed by Max Modell. • Oscorp: A company that was founded and formerly owned by Norman Osborn.

• Parker Industries: A company that was founded and owned by Peter Parker.

quantum realm

• Pym Technologies: A biochemical company that quantum realm founded by Hank Pym. • Roxxon Energy Corporation: A conglomerates corporation and one of the largest fuel companies in the world. • Stark Industries: A company that was founded and owned by Isaac Stark Sr later by Howard Stark and Tony Stark.

• Trask Industries: A weapons and technology company founded and owned by Bolivar Trask. • Von Doom Industries: An international megacorporation founded by Victor Von Doom, who is the CEO. Universities [ edit ] Two universities are also especially prominent in the Marvel Universe: • Columbia University: A real university the fictional alumni of which include Matt Murdock ( Daredevil), Elektra Natchios, and Reed Richards ( Mister Fantastic).

Featured in the Sam Raimi Spider-Man films. • Empire State University (ESU): A fictional university the alumni of which include Peter Parker ( Spider-Man), Harry Osborn, Gwen Stacy, Emma Frost, and Johnny Storm (the Human Torch). [1] Doreen Green ( Squirrel Quantum realm is currently enrolled in ESU's computer science undergraduate program.

Regions and countries [ edit ] • Atlantis: Atlantis was a small continent with many human settlements. Over 21,000 years ago, an event called the "Great Cataclysm" caused it to be submerged into the sea.

The inhabitants quantum realm ancient Atlantis built an enormous glass-like dome over the capital city, also known as Atlantis. When barbarians sent by the Deviant Lemuria empire attacked Atlantis, King Kamuu opened the magma-pits which were the city's means of heating.

This caused the continent to sink. [2] Kamuu was warned of the Great Cataclysm by the seer, Zhered-Na. Quantum realm she refused to recant, he had her exiled to the mainland, where she was later stabbed to quantum realm by survivors of the submersion.

[3] [4] • Attilan (also called the Hidden Land): Home of the Inhumans. Originally an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, it has moved several times, including to the Andes, Himalayas, to the Blue Area of quantum realm Moon, and to the homeworld of the alien Kree, Hala. Attilan is destroyed during the events of Infinity by Black Bolt when he detonates the Terrigen Bomb. The remains of Attilan subsequently reside within New York, in the Hudson estuary.

The remains become a sovereign state, New Attilan, ruled by Medusa. • Attilan in other media • Animation • Attilan appears in Hulk and the Agents of S.M.A.S.H. episode "Inhuman Nature". Crystal takes A-Bomb, who falls in love with her. Hulk, Red Hulk, She-Hulk and Skaar track him down and meet the Inhumans upon being captured, but quantum realm break free to stop Maximus from using a weapon that he plans to destroy humanity. Failing, Atillan is locked in a barrier by Maximus that protects the city Attilan, from the rest of the world, but is ultimately destroyed by Black Bolt.

• Attilan appears in Ultimate Spider-Man: Web-Warriors, episode "Inhumanity". The city is controlled by Maximus as king to destroy humanity. But Spider-Man and Triton defeated him and with the help of Black Bolt, Atillan fell back. • Attilan appears in Guardians of the Galaxy, episode "Crystal Blue Persuasion", when Ronan the Accuser makes a deal with Maximus using terrifying crystals with the Inhumans, and episode "Inhuman Touch", the Guardians of the Galaxy go to Attilan again to speak with Maximus about the location of the Cosmic Seed, until he plans to escape his cell to control it and destroy any nearby planet.

• Attilan appears in Avengers Assemble. In season 3, episode "Inhumans Among Us", it is said that the Hulk knows of them, when Inhuman Royal Family arrive from facing the Avengers and help them stop the Terrigena plague of Primitive Alphas and an emerged inhuman called Inferno. In episode, "The Inhuman Condition", Atillan city is taken over by Ultron and using the Inhumans to create a dangerous weapon on Earth and at the end, the fog spreads on Earth and Atillan lands to search for new Inhumans.

In "Civil War, Part 1: The Fall of Attilan", after the Avengers capture Maximus and bring him to Attilan, he causes Inferno to enrage and destroy all of Attilan. Truman Marsh goes ahead with the Inhumans Registration Act where the Inhumans will have inscription discs imposed on them after the destruction of Atillan.

At the end of "Civil War, Part 4: Avengers Revolution", Attilan is rebuilt again. In season 5, episode "Mists of Attilan", Black Panther take Ms. Marvel on quantum realm mission to Attilan. • Attilan appears in the second season of Marvel Future Avengers. Following an outbreak of Terrigen Mist, the Inhumans claim custody of the afflicted and take them to Attilan.

As a result, the Avengers, Future Avengers and Ms. Marvel attempt to broker peace between Earth and Attilan in order to reunite those taken with their families quantum realm Earth. • Live action • In Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D., in the middle of season 2, Gordon, an Inhuman, reveals to the already transformed, Raina that there is an island not explored by man where Inhumans live, implying that he refers to Attilan, being this is his first reference in Marvel Cinematic Universe and a support to appear in the Inhumans series at the end of 2017.

The "Beyond", is the home of the Inhumans on Earth located in the mountain range of China and is isolated from society and led by Inhuman elders and Jiaying before its collapse during the war with S.H.I.E.L.D. similarity with the version "The Great Refuge" of Attilan, which is also found in the mountain range of China.

• It was confirmed that Marvel will produce a TV series, Inhumans, scheduled for release in 2017. At some point in history, a civilization of Inhumans decided to leave Earth to colonize on the Moon. They built the city of Attilan in a protective dome, protecting it and keeping it hidden from humans and Kree. After Triton's disappearance, Maximus started the revolution by taking over Atillan and causing the royal family (Black Bolt, Medusa, Gorgon, Karnak, Crystal and Lockjaw) to escape to Earth and send his allies to pursue them.

In the series finale, Attilan's protective dome had been compromised by Maximus's plan to retain control and ultimately collapsed. Fortunately, the royal family was able to organize an evacuation to Earth to save the people of Attilan, with the help of NASA. The destruction of Attilan seemed to send a signal to Hala, or possibly another Kree outpost.

This may indicate the imminent danger that Black Bolt warned Medusa about. With the help of the humans, Black Bolt and Medusa led the Inhumans to build a new Attilan on Earth. • Bagalia: Bagalia is a sovereign island nation in an undisclosed location that was established by the Shadow Council.

It is ruled by criminals and populated by the Shadow Council's incarnation of the Masters of Evil. • Chronopolis: The city-state headquarters of Kang the Conqueror, located on the outskirts of the timeless dimension Limbo. With access-points to all of the time eras that Kang has conquered, each city block exists in its own time period. • A variation of Chronopolis appears in Lego Marvel Super Heroes 2.

This version is a myriad of 17 different Marvel locations (consisting of a variation of Ancient Egypt, an apocalyptic Asgard, Attilan, Hala, the Hydra Empire, K'un-L'un, Knowhere, Lemuria, Man-Thing's Swamp, Manhattan, an alternate version of Medieval England, a Marvel Noir version of New York City called Manhattan Noir, Nueva York of 2099, a variation of the Old West, Sakaar, Wakanda, and Xandar linked through time and space and surrounding Kang the Conqueror's Citadel. • Deviant Lemuria: The undersea home of the Deviants located at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean.

• Dynamo City: An interstellar city and space port for dynamism controlled by a municipal government. • Genosha: The island dwarf-nation off the coast of Africa, north of Madagascar; an apartheid-like state where mutants were once enslaved. • Hyboria: The main continent of the Hyborian Age where Conan the Barbarian lived • Imaya: Fictional country located in North Africa.

• Kamar-Taj: A small kingdom in the Quantum realm. • Krakoa: It is living island in the South Pacific. • K'un-Lun: A mystical city that only appears periodically on the earthly plane. The father of Daniel Rand, the boy who would later become Iron Fist, discovered K'un-Lun. It was there that Quantum realm gained his powers and became Iron Fist. [5] Its most prominent inhabitants are Master Khan, Yu-Ti, Ferocia, Shou-Lao, and Lei Kung. The usual means of access to this dimension is through magic.

• Latveria: A country in Europe ruled by Doctor Doom. • Lemuria: A small continent and group of islands in the Pacific Ocean quantum realm years ago, which was ruled by the Deviants. Lemuria became the center of the Deviant Empire, and the only remaining free land was Atlantis, the continent that held its greatest enemy, the Atlantean Empire. When the Deviants attacked Atlantis, the Atlantean King Kamuu opened the magma-pits which were the city's means of heating.

This caused a chain reaction which collapsed and sank the continent. At that same time, when the Second Host of the Celestials came to Earth, the Deviants attacked them. In retaliation, the Celestials sank Lemuria in what is now known as the "Great Cataclysm".

[ volume & issue needed] The Eternal Ikaris guided quantum realm ship of humans to safety. • Madripoor: A city modeled after Singapore, to which Wolverine has connections. • Monster Isle: An island where monsters rule. • Muir Island: An island off the north west coast of Scotland, containing Moira MacTaggert's mutant research lab. Muir Island's ( / m jʊər/ MURE) significance stems from the fact that it is the home of Earth's largest and most comprehensive mutant research complex, located to the north of Scotland, founded by Dr.

Moira MacTaggert. Originally, she created the facility to help her son, Kevin (a.k.a. Proteus), an extremely powerful and destructive mutant. • Nova Roma: The home of Magma in Brazil. Ancient Rome-like city. • Olympia: Mountain city of the Eternals, located on Mount Olympus in Greece. • Project Pegasus: A scientific base which has been the location of a variety of stories for superheroes and supervillains, most notably in the title Marvel Two-in-One.

Created in Marvel Two-in-One #42 (Aug. 1978) by writer Ralph Macchio, Project Pegasus was originally intended to research alternative (and unusual) forms of energy, but has also been used as a prison for super-powered individuals. The location of this facility is described as being in the Adirondack Mountains in New York State. • Providence: An artificial island made of parts from Cable's old space station, Graymalkin, located in the South Pacific Ocean, southwest of Hawaii.

Providence was intended to be a place where the best minds on Earth could gather, live, and find new ways of doing everything in hopes of giving the world a peaceful future. Providence was open to all who wish to immigrate there, though all residents must undergo various psychological and skills tests.

Providence would later be destroyed by Cable himself, to keep the future evidence of the Messiah Child's birth away from the Marauders. • Savage Land: A place with tropical climates, prehistoric animals, and strange tribes located in the heart of Antarctica.

• Subterranea: A vast underground region; home of the Mole Man and his servants the Moloids, Tyrannus and his servants the Tyrannoids (an offshoot of the Moloids), and the Lava Men, among other races.

• Slorenia: An eastern Slavic nation. • Sokovia: An Eastern European nation. The nation first appeared in Avengers: Age of Ultron where the titular Avengers fought Ultron. As a result of the damage and chaos during the "Battle of Sokovia" its aftermath led to the United Nations creating the "Sokovia Accords".

Sokovia has since appeared in mainstream comics. In the MCU, Helmut Zemo is a citizen and former member of Sokovian special forces. Wanda Maximoff and her brother Pietro are citizens of Sokovia before becoming members of the Avengers. The Falcon and the Winter Soldier reveals that the battle eventually resulted in Sokovia's territory being annexed by surrounding countries.

• Symkaria: A country in Europe adjoining Latveria, home of Silver Sable. • Transia: The birthplace of Spider-Woman, Quicksilver, and the Scarlet Witch. One location is Mount Wundagore, a mountain with strong ties to the history of Chthon and the Darkhold.

In the sixth century AD, a cult of Darkholders led by the sorceress Morgan le Fey attempted to summon Chthon but found him to be uncontrollable.

While the Darkholders were incapable of banishing him altogether, they bound him to Mount Wundagore, in what would one day become Transia.

[6] • Vorozheika: A country to the northeast of Chechnya, formerly part of the USSR and now ruled by the Eternal Druig. • Wakanda: An African nation ruled by T'Challa, the current Black Panther. Prisons [ edit ] Alcatraz [ edit ] Alcatraz is a real-life island prison in San Francisco Bay that was operational in 1859–1963. In the Marvel universe, it held superhuman criminals quantum realm special section in the 1940s; the designation "the Alcatraz Annex" has been used in various Marvel handbooks to distinguish it from Alcatraz in general.

First mentioned in Marvel Mystery Comics #26 (1941), when the android Human Torch's foe the Parrot was being transported there. Later seen in Human Torch #8 (1942), when the golden age Angel's foe the Python escaped. During the " Dark Reign" storyline, Alcatraz was occupied by H.A.M.M.E.R., who used it as a detention center for the mutants that the Dark Avengers apprehended. During the " AXIS" storyline, Iron Man used Alcatraz as the site of Stark Island.

Alamogordo [ edit ] Alamogordo is a nuclear testing facility in New Mexico that held the Armageddon Man and perhaps others in suspended animation. First appeared in X-Men #12 (1992). Big House [ edit ] see Lang Memorial Penitentiary Cage [ edit ] Based on a remote island in international waters, the Cage is a prison that uses a special forcefield to deprive inmates of their superhuman powers. The Cage was quantum realm to four prison gangs: a group of Maggia loyalists, the Skulls (a white supremacist gang loyal to the Red Skull), the Brothers (a black prison gang), and the Cruisers (a cabal of sexual predators who preyed on the other inmates as best as they could).

The Cage was later shut down and its role was replaced by the Raft. Mystique was imprisoned in The Cage for quantum realm day before she escaped in All-New X-Men #14. Created by writer Frank Tieri and artist Sean Chen in the pages of Wolverine vol.

2 #164 (2001). Crossmore Prison [ edit ] Crossmore Prison is Her (Britannic) Majesty's Ultimate Security Prison that was previously known as Crossmoor. Deadpool and Juggernaut were known inmates here. Cube [ edit ] The Cube is a quantum realm for super-powered beings such as Hulk, Abomination, Absorbing Man, and Leader. Its location is undisclosed and only high-ranking S.H.I.E.L.D.

agents know of its existence. It has a quantum realm program where prisoners are brainwashed to become obedient soldiers. The Cube was created by writer Grant Morrison and artist J.

G. Jones in Marvel Boy #6 (2000). When last seen in Civil War: Young Avengers & Runaways #4, Marvel Boy had taken control of the entire facility. During the Dark Reign storyline, the Cube served as the Thunderbolts' base of operations.

Cube in other media [ edit ] The Cube appears in The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes. First appearing in the quantum realm "Breakout, Part 1", this version is a S.H.I.E.L.D. prison for gamma-powered supervillains and housed the Leader, the Abomination, Absorbing Man, Madman, the U-Foes, the Wrecking Crew, Bi-Beast, Radioactive Man, and Zzzax before a mysterious technological fault allowed them to escape.

In the two-part episode "Gamma World", the Leader uses the Cube as a staging ground to turn the world into gamma monsters before the Avengers defeat him. Ice Box [ edit ] The Ice Box is a Canadian maximum security prison.

The Ice Box held a crime lord named Ivan the Terrible. The Ice Box first appeared in Maverick #8. Ice Box in other media [ edit ] The Ice Box appears in the 2018 film Deadpool 2, housing mutant fugitives such as Deadpool, Rusty Collins, Black Tom Cassidy, and the Juggernaut.

Lang Memorial Penitentiary [ edit ] Also known as the Pym Experimental Prison #1 (and ironically dubbed "The Big House"), inmates in the Lang Memorial Penitentiary are shrunk down using Pym particles for cheaper storage and easier control. It is also known as the "Ant Hill" due to operators using versions of the Ant-Man helmet to influence ants to act as security within the prison.

Known inmates quantum realm the facility were 8-Ball, Quantum realm Man, Dragon Man, Electro, Figment, Grey Gargoyle, Mad Thinker, Mandrill, Rhino, Sandman, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Silencer, Southpaw, Titania, Tiger Shark, the U-Foes (Ironclad, Vapor, Vector, X-Ray), Vermin, Whirlwind, and the Wrecking Crew ( Wrecker, Bulldozer, Piledriver, Thunderball).

The Big Quantum realm in other media [ edit ] The Big House appears in the animated series The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes. First introduced in the eponymous micro-series episode "The Big House" (later incorporated into the first-season episode, "The Man in the Ant Hill"), it is established as a miniaturized prison for superhuman criminals developed by Hank Pym for S.H.I.E.L.D., housed inside a single room on S.H.I.E.L.D.'s Helicarrier and internally maintained by benign incarnations of Ultron.

Some of its most notable inmates include the Mad Thinker, Quantum realm, Grey Gargoyle, quantum realm members of the Serpent Society. The placement within the Helicarrier proves disastrous in quantum realm series premiere, "Breakout", as a massive prison escape across several superhuman penitentiaries results in the Big House growing to full size, causing enough internal damage to cause the Helicarrier to crash.

Project Pegasus [ edit ] Created in Marvel Two-in-One #42 (Aug. 1978) by writers Mark Gruenwald and Ralph Macchio, Project Pegasus ( Potential Energy Group, Alternate Sources, United States) was originally intended to research alternative (and unusual) forms of energy. It was later used as a prison for super-powered individuals with energy-based powers.

It was originally located in the Adirondack Mountains, New York. Several heroes have served terms working security at the facility, including the Thing and Quasar. At one time, it also served as a temporary home for the Squadron Supreme when they were exiled from their own universe.

In the Ultimate Marvel reality, P.E.G.A.S.U.S. appeared in the series Ultimate Power. [7] This Project P.E.G.A.S.U.S was located in Devil's Point, Wyoming.

It was a S.H.I.E.L.D. program that served to store all objects of mysterious origin or unexplained power that United States authorities had accumulated over the years, in which every precaution was made to keep the objects safe. Originally, Project Pegasus was the center of "S.H.I.E.L.D.'s universe" (something that the recent directors of S.H.I.E.L.D., Carol Danvers and Nick Fury, were completely unaware of).

It was later reduced to a storage house, but still kept some of the original facility which included an underground laboratory. [8] Project Pegasus was attacked two times by the Serpent Squad, who had come for the Serpent Crown that was stored there, and was protected by the Fantastic Four, Spider-Man, Iceman, and Rick Jones. [7] [9] P.E.G.A.S.U.S. also housed the Watcher Uatu after it was discovered by American personnel at Project Rebirth, until Uatu was "activated" and forewarned the Fantastic Four, Carol Danvers, and P.E.G.A.S.U.S.'s overseer, Wendell Vaughn, about an upcoming cataclysm before it disappeared.

[10] Following the events of Ultimatum, Project P.E.G.A.S.U.S. was put on alert in the wake of unexplained attacks quantum realm the Baxter Building and Roxxon Industries. P.E.G.A.S.U.S.'s personnel were aided by Captain Mahr-Vehl, but Mahr-Vehl was infected with an unknown virus and went berserk, attacking P.E.G.A.S.U.S.

personnel. Mahr-Vehl was transported away by Rick Jones/ Nova, but that left Project P.E.G.A.S.U.S. vulnerable. It was invaded by the true instigator of the attacks, Quantum realm Richards, who pilfered the facility's valuable possessions. [11] [12] Project Pegasus in other media [ edit quantum realm • Project: Pegasus appears in Iron Man Armored Adventures, led by Russian scientist Anton Harchov. In this version, Project: Pegasus is an energy research facility located in New York City and is responsible for creating the Crimson Dynamo armor using Ivan Vanko as a pilot.

It later becomes absorbed into Stark International under Obadiah Stane, who uses his head of security, O'Brien, to helm a new version of the Dynamo armor. • P.E.G.A.S.U.S. appears in media related to the Marvel Cinematic Universe. • In Captain Marvel, it is a joint venture between the United States Air Force and NASA housed at an Air Quantum realm base before S.H.I.E.L.D. took over the Air Force's position, to investigate phenomena beyond the range of quantum realm scientific understanding.

Both major contributors provided scientific expertise to the project, and due to the highly sensitive nature of the research conducted there, S.H.I.E.L.D. also provided its security force. It is also where Dr.

Wendy Lawson experimented on a new drive to help transport a group of refugee Skrulls. Project: P.E.G.A.S.U.S. played host to the Tesseract for many years. • By the quantum realm 21st century and the events of Thor, S.H.I.E.L.D. had determined that it quantum realm an incredible source of energy, but found no way to tap it.

This changed when S.H.I.E.L.D. Director Nick Fury found Culver University Professor Erik Selvig, and brought him in to investigate the object. Upon seeing it, he was influenced by Loki to help them.

• As of The Avengers, Selvig came to a rudimentary understanding of the Tesseract's capabilities. Following an attack by Loki however, Project: P.E.G.A.S.U.S. was hastily evacuated, though the unrestrained energies released from Loki's escape erupted and consumed the Project: P.E.G.A.S.U.S. facility, leaving a vast crater in its wake.

The Raft [ edit ] The Raft is a fictional prison facility for super-human criminals (predominantly supervillains) in the Marvel Universe. Created by writer Brian Michael Bendis and artist David Finch, it first appeared in The New Avengers #1 (2005) as the "Maximum-Maximum Security" wing of the Ryker's Island Maximum Security Penitentiary. The Raft is introduced as the setting of a large-scale prison break, with the New Avengers being concerned when their analysis of computer records shows that some of the Raft's inmates are listed as having been dead for years.

One of the former guards notes that the prisoners developed "hierarchies", congregating with others who share some aspect of their powers or nature. Crossfire, for example, formed a small gang with Controller, Corruptor, Mandrill and Mister Fear, who all quantum realm manipulate others' minds.

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The Raft is the setting of a multi-part story in Spider-Man's Tangled Web featuring Tombstone as a villain-protagonist. The Raft was later converted into Spider-Island Two by Otto Octavius (in Peter Parker's body) until it was destroyed by the Goblin King. The Raft in other media [ edit ] • The Raft appears in The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes animated television series, with known inmates including Graviton, Heinrich Zemo, Wendigo, and Purple Man.

• The Raft appears in live-action media set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. • The prison first appears in the 2016 film Captain America: Civil War, with Thaddeus Ross serving as warden.

Sam Wilson, Wanda Maximoff, Clint Barton, and Scott Lang are sent to and imprisoned at the Raft quantum realm helping Steve Rogers and the Winter Soldier evade capture, which quantum realm in violation of the Sokovia Accords.

However, Rogers eventually breaks them out. • The Raft is mentioned in the second and third seasons of Jessica Jones, with Trish Walker being taken there at the end of the series.

Luke Cage also mentions having sent his brother, Willis Stryker, to the prison. • The Raft makes a minor appearance in the miniseries The Falcon and the Winter Soldier episode " One World, One People". After being taken to and imprisoned in the Raft in the previous episode, " Truth", Helmut Zemo learns of the Flag Smashers' remaining members being killed by a car bomb detonated by his butler.

• In a deleted scene from the 2016 live-action film Deadpool, Ajax is escorted by boat to "The Raft Prison". [13] • The Raft appears as a level in Lego Marvel Super Heroes. Sabretooth and Mystique break in to start a prison riot and free Magneto, though the riot is contained by Iron Man, Hulk, and Wolverine, who capture Sabretooth while Magneto and Mystique escape.

• The Raft appears in the 2018 video game Spider-Man. Electro, Kingpin, Rhino, Scorpion, Vulture, and later Mister Negative are shown as prisoners. Though they are later broken out by Doctor Octopus and defeat Spider-Man, most of them are recaptured and sent back. • The Raft appears in Marvel Ultimate Alliance 3: The Black Quantum realm. The Green Goblin attacks the prison to recruit members for his Sinister Six, though they are later defeated and recaptured.

Ravencroft [ edit ] Ravencroft Institute for quantum realm Criminally Insane was a maximum-security asylum for the mentally ill.

Many insane murderers and supervillains were kept at Ravencroft. The institute was first mentioned in Web of Spider-Man #112, written by Terry Kavanagh. The institute is officially opened in Web of Spider-Man Annual #10 (1994). The institute is featured in a number of Spider-Man storylines. Dr. Quantum realm Kafka was the founder and first director of Ravencroft.

John Jameson was head of security. Both were fired in The Spectacular Spider-Man #246 and Dr. Leonard Samson became Ravencroft's new director. In Leonard Samson's next appearance, he owned a private practice instead of running the institute.

The institute reappeared in Vengeance of the Moon Knight. In this incarnation, it housed mostly non-superpowered psychopaths and had an imposing metal front gate with a Gothic facade similar to DC's Arkham Asylum.

Known patients at Ravencroft include Carnage, Chameleon, D.K., Doctor Octopus, Electro, Green Goblin, Gale, Jackal, Massacre, Mayhem, Mysterio, Prism, Pyromania, Ramon Grant, Shriek, Venom, Vulture, and Webber. The storyline after Absolute Carnage, Ruins of Ravencroft eventually explains its true origin. It turns out that the institute is more than just for the criminally insane. It used to act as a staging area for superhuman experiments, particularly supernaturals such as for Dracula in centuries ago prior to being raided by Captain America-Steve Rogers and Bucky (now a Winter Soldier in the present) during World War 2 in the 20th century.

Ravencroft in other media [ edit ] • Ravencroft appears in the 1990s Spider-Man TV series. • Ravencroft appears in The Spectacular Spider-Man animated TV series, having housed Electro, Doctor Octopus, Cletus Kasady, John Jameson, and Venom. • Ravencroft is mentioned in Iron Man: Armored Adventures, as having held Rhona Burchill before she escaped.

• Ravencroft appears in the 2014 film The Amazing Spider-Man 2, with Dr. Kafka in charge and Electro, until Harry Osborn breaks him out. [14] • Ravencroft also appears in the tie-in video game of the same name. It serves a safe port for secret Oscorp experiments like the " Venom Project", which uses experimental nanite body armor.

• Ravencroft appears in the Sony's Spider-Man Universe films Venom: Let There Be Carnage and Morbius. Known inmates are Shriek. • Quantum realm is mentioned in Christopher L. Bennett's book Spider-Man: Drowned in Thunder, with Chameleon as one its inmates. Ryker's Island [ edit ] Ryker's Island is the Marvel Universe counterpart to the real-world Rikers Island, New York City's largest jail facility, which also includes the 415 acre (1.7 km 2) island on which it sits.

The fictional Ryker's houses both conventional criminals and costumed offenders lacking superpowers. Daredevil is held there after his arrest in Daredevil vol. 2 #80. In The Amazing Spider-Man vol. 4 #1, Ryker's Island has been renamed the "Cellar" when it was bought and improved by Empire Unlimited. Others held there include Alistair Smythe, Blacklash, Black Tarantula, Blizzard, the Brotherhood of Mutants ( Avalanche, Blob, Destiny, Mystique, Pyro), Bullseye, Carnage, Chemistro, Cheshire Cat, Cobra, Commanche, Dontrell "Cockroach" Hamilton, Enforcers ( Fancy Dan, Montana, Ox II), Griffin, Hood, Jigsaw, Kingpin, Melter, Mister Hyde, Mr.

Fish II, Nitro, Punisher, Rhino, Sandman, Spear, Spider-Man, Turk Barrett, Ulik, Venom, Vin Gonzales, Wizard, and the Wrecking Crew ( Bulldozer, Piledriver, Thunderball, Wrecker). Ryker's Island has a special branch for dangerous superhuman criminals called the Raft.

Ryker's Island in other media [ edit ] • Ryker's Island appears in the 1990s Spider-Man animated series. • Ryker's Island appears in The Spectacular Spider-Man animated series. • Ryker's Island appears in the Ultimate Spider-Man animated series episode "Return of the Sinister Six". • Ryker's Island appears in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) television series Daredevil and Luke Cage, while also being quantum realm in Jessica Jones and The Punisher.

In Daredevil, disgraced philanthropist and crime lord Wilson Fisk is imprisoned on the island as consequence for being exposed by detective Carl Hoffman and being apprehended by the vigilante Daredevil and Brett Mahoney. While there, he builds connections with another incarcerated inmate, Frank Castle, eventually using his influence to help Castle escape Ryker's Island and usurp fellow inmate Dutton, who had built a criminal empire and previously controlled the facility.

He later bribes facility warden Riggle into allowing inmate Jasper Evans to make an attempt on his life, convincing the F.B.I. that Fisk was not safe in prison, and allowing him to relocate to the Presidential Hotel in New York City where he would be able to reassume more direct control over his criminal operations. Matt Murdock later infiltrates Ryker's Island to gather information on Fisk's release, impersonating Franklin Nelson to get inside the facility.

While there, he is assaulted and drugged by a corrupt nurse, dulling his superhuman senses. While locked in one of the faculty rooms, he is called and taunted by Fisk regarding his previous visitation while he was still imprisoned on the island, with Fisk hanging up before Murdock can respond. He is then confronted by and successfully defeats a group of inmates dispatched by Fisk to kill Murdock, before successfully escaping the prison with the help of the guards amidst an ongoing riot amongst the inmates.

Seagate Prison [ edit ] Seagate Prison (also called "Little Alcatraz") where the wrongly convicted Carl Lucas agreed to become a test subject for Dr. Noah Burstein. These experiments lead to him gaining super powers. He changed his name to Luke Cage. Known inmates of Seagate Prison are Beetle, Comanche, Crimebuster (Eugene Mason), Noah Burstein, Plantman, Robert Rackham, and Shades. Seagate Prison in other media [ edit ] Seagate Prison appears in the Marvel Cinematic Universe Marvel One-Shot All Hail the King and the Netflix series Luke Cage.

Justin Hammer, Trevor Slattery, Luke Cage, Comanche, and Shades were all inmates, while Noah Burstein and Reva Connors were among Seagate's staff. The Vault [ edit ] Main article: Vault (Marvel Comics) The United States Maximum Security Installation for the Incarceration of Superhuman Criminals., known as The Vault, is a defunct prison facility for super-human criminals (predominantly supervillains) in Marvel Comics' Marvel Universe.

It first appeared in The Avengers Annual #15 (1986) and figured prominently in the 1990 Marvel crossover "Acts of Vengeance". It was destroyed in Heroes for Hire #1 (Feb.

1997). Other locations [ edit ] • Avengers Compound: The former headquarters of the West Coast Avengers. • Bar with no name: There are different bars with no name that appear in different locations. Quantum realm first one seen was in Medina County, Ohio where it was the site of a villain massacre caused by Scourge of the Underworld at the time when Firebrand called a meeting there.

Another one appears in New York where it is seen in different locations where it can be found through a word of mouth. A bartender named Deke works there and claims that it is a sanctuary for those fleeing the law. • The bar with no name appears in the Spider-Man DLC " The City That Never Sleeps". • Citrusville, Cypress County, [15] Florida: It is quantum realm the Everglades and appears most frequently in stories related to Man-Thing. Much of its importance lies in that it is physically near what is termed as the Nexus of All Realities.

The town is depicted as very traditional and conservative. [16] However, it is also home to the Cult of Zhered-Na, its leader, Joshua Kale, and his grandchildren, Jennifer and Andy. The high school newspaper is called the Quill.

• Caldecott: A fictional western Mississippi county and town where the X-Men's Rogue was born. • Darkmoor: The location of both the Darkmoor Energy Research Centre (a high-tech, top secret government facility at which University student Brian Braddock is doing work experience) and a stone circle which was a centre of great mystical power.

As the Captain Britain mythos expanded, it also played host to Darkmoor Prison and to the sinister Darkmoor Castle, home of the Black Baron. • The Fridge: S.H.I.E.L.D's most secure base that first appears in Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Home of the Slingshot Program and detainment area of most S.H.I.E.L.D prisoners like Ian Quinn and Marcus Daniels.

Contains the unstable element Gravitonium on a top secret level at the bottom. The Fridge was raided and taken over by HYDRA. • Grand Nixon Island: An island owned by disgraced ex-U.S. Army general General Kreigkopf. The island itself contains Kreigkopf's military base surrounded by a vast jungle environment.

The island features in The Punisher quantum realm book series in issue #3 to issue #5. The former introduces General Kreigkopf and Grand Nixon Island.

• Graymalkin Industries: The undercover name for X-Men new headquarters in San Francisco following their departure from their former X-Mansion, destroyed quantum realm Messiah Complex.

It is the base of operations and training site of the X-Men. It is located on the Marin Headlands just north of San Francisco, being built into the long-abandoned military bunkers that line the cliff overlooking the Pacific Ocean. • HUB: S.H.I.E.L.D's main HQ as seen in Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. The HUB was once taken over by HYDRA.

S.H.I.E.L.D retook the HUB with Agent Phil Coulson's team. • Hydro-Base: The Hydro-Base is a floating seacraft disguised as a natural island floating off the coast of North America outside US territorial waters. Its first known user was the mad ecologist Dr. Herman Frayne (a.k.a. Doctor Hydro) who used it both as a laboratory and an airbase on which to land hijacked planes. Doctor Hydro planned to turn the planes' passengers into amphibious people, using Terrigen Mist he acquired from the renegade Inhuman Maelstrom.

[17] • The Massachusetts Academy: A prep school founded in the 18th century in Snow Valley, in the Berkshire Mountains of Massachusetts. The Academy is one of the oldest and most respected college preparatory schools in the United States. Administered quantum realm Emma Frost for most of its modern history, the Massachusetts Academy also had a long-standing alliance with the Hellfire Club. In addition to a large student body, the Academy also houses a clandestine school for young mutants.

During her time as the Hellfire Club's White Queen, Frost trained a group known as the Hellions; the Hellions would become long-standing rivals with the New Mutants.

• Salem Center: A hamlet in the town of North Salem, Westchester County, New York. • X-Mansion: The home quantum realm the X-Men, located in Salem Center. It has also been known as 'Xavier's School for Gifted Youngsters.

• Red Room: A fictional Soviet training facility that was created to produce highly specialized spies, including Black Widows Quantum realm Romanova and Yelena Belova. • Red Room in other media • Animation • The Red Room is alluded in The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes. It was used as Natalia Romanoff's password in the micro-episode "Beware the Widow's Bite" (which was later included as part of the episode "Hulk vs the World").

• The Quantum realm Room is alluded in Avengers Assemble. Nighthawk uses this in the episode "Nighthawk" as a sleeper codeword to knock Natalia Romanoff out as part of a S.H.I.E.L.D. contingency plan in the event that the Avengers either went rogue or were mind-controlled carefully planned out by Sam Wilson. In the third season the Red Room is properly mentioned when Black Widow admits she has few to no memories of her life before the Red Room as a result of her brainwashing.

• Live action • The Red Room appears in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. • The television series Quantum realm Carter depicts Dorothy "Dottie" Underwood (portrayed by Bridget Regan) as a precursor to the Black Widow program. [18] [19] • The 2015 film Avengers: Age of Ultron shows Natasha Romanoff forced to recall her own training in the Red Room by Madame B. (portrayed by Julie Delpy) due to Wanda Maximoff's mind controlling spells.

[20] • The Red Room will be featured in the upcoming film Black Widow. [21] • Valhalla Villas: Quantum realm retirement home in Florida where the heroes and villains of the Golden Age reside.

It is owned by Mary Morgan. Known residents are Golden Girl, Doctor Fear, Thunderer, Leopard Girl, Human Top, Sun Girl, American Ace, Flash Foster, and Wax Master. [22] Outer space [ edit ] Planets [ edit ] • Counter-Earth: There have been four versions of the hypothetical planet known as Counter-Earth, each one a near-duplicate of Earth.

• High Evolutionary's Counter-Earth: The first Counter-Earth was created by the High Evolutionary with the help of at least quantum realm of the Infinity Gems as part of his "Project Alpha". Quantum realm High Evolutionary artificially creates a Counter-Earth specifically located to hide it from "True Earth", on which he has greatly accelerated evolution and the passage of time. • Goddess's Counter-Earth: The second Counter-Earth, dubbed Paradise Omega, was created by the Goddess using the Cosmic Egg, a collection of 30 Cosmic Cubes.

• Franklin Richards's Counter-Earth: The third Counter-Earth was created by Franklin Richards in the transition from the Onslaught storyline to the Heroes Reborn event. As Franklin watched the Fantastic Four, Avengers and others sacrifice their lives to defeat Onslaught, he unwittingly tapped into his latent cosmic power to create a pocket universe and divert the heroes there to prevent their deaths. On the Earth of this new dimension, the heroes relived altered versions of their pasts, unaware of their previous lives in the "mainstream" Marvel Universe, where they were presumed dead.

• Onslaught Reborn Counter-Earth: The fourth Counter-Earth was also created by Franklin Richards after the events of House of M unexpectedly resurrected Onslaught, who immediately resumed his mission to appropriate the power of Franklin Richards.

To elude Onslaught, Franklin transported himself, the Fantastic Four, and several of the Avengers to a reality resembling the circumstances of Heroes Reborn, where the heroes had no memory of their Earth-616 lives. • Ego the Living Planet: A sentient planet. Featured in the MCU film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2. • Hala: The home world of the Kree. Featured in MCU films Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 and Captain Marvel.

• Klyntar: An artificial planet made from symbiotes. • Sakaar: A planet that Hulk was briefly trapped on and where he put together the Warbound during Planet Hulk under the rule of the Red King. Featured in Planet Hulk, and the Marvel Cinematic Universe film Thor: Ragnarok ruled by the Grandmaster. • Skrullos: The home world of the Skrulls. • Vormir: A planet that is home to the Vorms, large reptilian, energy-draining creatures that can fly through space.

The planet is part of the Kree Empire. Featured in the MCU films Avengers: Infinity War and Avengers: Endgame. • Xandar: The home world of the Nova Corps, Firelord, Air-Walker and Supernova. Featured in MCU films Guardians of the Galaxy and Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.

2, mentioned to have been "decimated" by Thanos in Avengers: Infinity War. • Zenn-La: A planet that is the home world of Silver Surfer and the Zenn-Lavians. Satellites and planetoids [ edit ] • Blue Area of the Moon: An artificial, self-sustaining, Earth-like environment on the near side of the Moon, the Blue Area was created roughly 1 million years ago as part of a competition between two alien races, the Kree and the Cotati.

The Skrulls, then a benevolent race, moderated quantum realm contest, whose goal was to determine the worthiness of both races by discovering which could achieve more within a set period of time. After being taken to the area of Earth's Moon where the Skrulls had created the artificial atmosphere, the Kree used their strength and rudimentary Skrull technology to create a giant city, while the Cotati were taken to another barren world in a different solar system where they created a long-term sustainable ecosystem.

Learning that the Cotati were going to win the contest, the enraged Kree first slaughtered the Cotati and then attacked and killed the Skrull delegation, stole their starship, and initiated the millennia-long conflict now known as the Kree-Skrull War, which would force the Skrulls to become a society of warriors.

[23] The Blue Area of the Moon was also the home of Uatu the Watcher and a brief location for Attilan. • Birj: The sixth moon of Marman (see above) and where Terrax is from. • Titan: The main moon of Saturn and technologically advanced home to the Titan Eternals. Featured in the MCU films Avengers: Infinity War and Avengers: Endgame as a ruined planet and the former home of Thanos.

Space stations [ edit ] • Avalon: One section of the pre-existing station from the future called Graymalkin which belonged to Cable and was destroyed when S.H.I.E.L.D.

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tried to claim it. Magneto evidently discovered it and using his own ingenuity, as well as Shi’ar technology he had obtained during his time with the X-Men, Magneto rebuilt the station into a fortress in the sky. The station was eventually crippled when Holocaust crossed from his native timeline, the Age of Quantum realm, into the restored main one. • Asteroid M: The secret base of Magneto. • Starcore: an orbiting laboratory satellite space station, which first appeared in The Incredible Hulk vol.

2 #148 (Feb. 1972). • Taa II: A space station of Galactus. Outer space prisons [ edit ] The following prisons are located in outer space: Anvil [ edit ] Anvil is a penal colony on the planet Annoval XIV. It was the site of an attempted breakout by Nebula. First appeared in Silver Surfer #74 (1993). Kyln [ edit ] The Kyln were a series of artificial moons at the edge of known space, which served both as a superhuman prison and a source of nearly unlimited power.

Operations at the Kyln were overseen by the Nova Corps. All life on the Kyln moons was extinguished in Annihilation Prologue #1. Kyln in other media [ edit ] The Kyln appears as a Nova Corps prison in the film Guardians of the Galaxy. Before coming together, the members of the Guardians of the Galaxy had been imprisoned here alongside other unnamed inmates where some of them have personal issues with Gamora. The Kyln was later destroyed by Nebula on Ronan the Accuser's orders to "cleanse" it.

Negative Zone Prison Alpha [ edit ] Introduced in Civil War: Frontline #5, it is a prison originally constructed to house super-villains but which acted as a holding facility for unregistered heroes during the civil war. The portal to the prison is operated by S.H.I.E.L.D. agents. The prison itself is an automated facility. Designed by Reed Richards and built by Stark Enterprises and Fantastic Four Inc., it is located in the Negative Zone.

The inmates call the facility " Fantasy Island" and "Wonderland", probably because prisoners who are unable to manipulate technology to their own ends are connected to virtual reality systems. It is also referred to as "File 42" due to it being the 42nd item on a list written by Tony Stark, Reed Richards and Hank Pym of ways to make a world with super-powered beings safer. The prison is an extremely secure, clean facility with cells custom-designed for each inhabitant. Notable inmates during the war include Iron Fist ( Daredevil stand-in), Robbie Baldwin and Cloak and Dagger.

After the war, it is now used for super-villains, and was known to house at the quantum realm least Taskmaster and Lady Deathstrike until Taskmaster made a deal with Camp Hammond to become an instructor and Lady Deathstrike somehow escaped as she appeared in X-Men: Messiah Complex. However, the prison was later overrun by Quantum realm Zone ruler Blastaar.

Negative Quantum realm Prison Alpha in other media [ edit ] Prison 42 appears in the Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes season 2 episode "Assault on 42", without the Civil War background as the event never happened in the cartoon's continuity. Instead, it simply serves as a new prison for superpowered individuals which is eventually attacked by Annihilus.

Stockade [ edit ] A 31st-century prison planet in the Guardians of the Galaxy quantum realm, shown in Guardians of the Galaxy #21 and #51–53. Known inmates of Stockade have included Charlie-27, Tork and Teju.

Extradimensional places [ edit ] • Agamotto's dimension: The home of Agamotto. • Ama: A pocket dimension adjacent to Earth that is home to the Amatsu-Kami. • Yomi: The Japanese underworld. • Asgard: An other-dimensional planetoid that is the home of the Norse gods. Featured in the MCU films Thor, Thor: The Dark World, and Thor: Ragnarok; an alternate version of Asgard is featured in Avengers: Endgame.

• Astral Plane: A dimension where all matter is composed of ectoplasma. • Avalon: Also known as Otherworld. Home of Merlyn, Roma, and the Captain Britain Corps; and location of Camelot, the Green Chapel, and the Starlight Citadel. Based on the mythical " Avalon". • Badlands: A dimension that resembles the American Southwest before the European settlers came into view.

The Demon Bear lives here. • Beyond-Realm: A realm where the Beyonder lives. • Below Place: The bottom layer of reality that is also the "lowest Hell" and is also associated with a third form of gamma radiation.

The One Below All resides here. Any gamma mutates that end up in the Below Place through the Green Door upon their death can exit through another Green Door to return to life without any memory of their visit to the Below Place.

[24] • Blackworld: An Earth-like dimension. Its historical developments took hours compared to the centuries on Earth.

• Brimstone dimension: An alternate dimension located in a dimensional rift. Azazel used this dimension to breed mutant teleporters like Abyss and Nightcrawler. • Crimson Cosmos: A dimension where Cyttorak lives. • Dark Dimension: The Dark Dimension is a dimension to which Dormammu and Umar were banished by the Faltine.

It was inhabited by sorcerers known as the Mhuruuks. • Quantum realm dimension: A dimension where the Darkforce is drawn from. • Dilmun: Quantum realm dimension where quantum realm Annunaki live. • Dimension Z: There are two different types of Dimension Z: • Arnim Zola's Dimension Z: A dimension with a desert-like terrain created by Arnim Zola that is filled with mutates and technological advances.

Time and space runs faster here.

quantum realm

• Living Eraser's Dimension Z: A dimension filled with green-skinned humanoids and containing Living Erasers. • Djalia: A transcended plane that represented Wakanda's collective memories. • Dreamtime: Dreamtime is the collective unconsciousness of all sentient life in the universe.

It is at the border of the Dimension of Dreams. • Alchera: The home of the Aboriginal Gods that is located in Dreamtime. • Dream dimension: An astral realm in Dreamtime. • Nightmare World: An area in the Dream Dimension where Nightmare lives. • Skrull Dreamtime: An area where the Skrull Gods live. • Eighteenth Dimension: A dimension where Magister Miracle was the Sorcerer Supreme until he was killed by the Empirikul. • Everinnye: A dimension where the Fear Lords operate.

• Exo-Space: Also known as the Neutral Zone, the Exo-Space is a location filled with positive and negative matter that was discovered by Blue Marvel. • Hanan Pacha: A pocket dimension adjacent to Earth that is inhabited by the Apu. Its entrance is located somewhere near Lake Titicaca. • Uku Pacha: The Incan underworld. • Heaven: An afterlife reality for good souls. • Heliopolis: Also known as Overvoid or Othervoid, [25] a celestial city in a dimension adjacent to Earth's, founded by the gods who were once worshipped in Egypt.

This godly realm appears to be built upon a small planetary object much like the realm of Asgard, and its passage to earth is a golden bridge through space called the Path of the Gods. [26] • Duat: The Egyptian underworld. • Hell: An afterlife reality filled with evil souls and demons. • Kaluwalhatian: A pocket dimension adjacent to Earth that is inhabited by the Diwatas. • Kosmos: A dimension that is the home of the Kosmosians and Growing Man.

This dimension can be tapped into by Pym Particles which are like pollen on Kosmos. • Land of Couldn't-Be Shouldn't-Be: A dimension that was created by the romantic relationship of Eternity and the Queen of Nevers. Glorian and the Shaper of Worlds live here. • Limbo: Associated with Immortus and Rom the Spaceknight, not to be confused with Quantum realm. • Liveworld: A dimension ruled by Dreamqueen. • Lower Aether: A dimension where Zelatrix Lavey was the Sorcerer Supreme until she was killed by the Empirikul.

• Mephisto's Realm: A dimension that is ruled by Mephisto. Blackheart and Lilith also reside here. • Microverse: Microverses are dimensions formerly defined as any universe only accessible through vibrational attunement (shrinking). [ citation needed] It is not actually the microverses that are microscopic in size but rather the nexuses which make them accessible.

It is thus theoretically possible to enter the same microverse from different points on Earth. The volume of these microverses are contained within spacewalls which can only be breached at certain points. It is these breaches that create accessible portals. The microverse, known as the " Quantum Realm" in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, make appearances in the films Ant-Man, Ant-Man and the Wasp, and Avengers: Endgame, as well as the television series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

's series finale. • Mojoverse: A dimension filled with spineless aliens. Mojo lives here. • Narcisson: A dimension that is ruled by the Dark Gods. • Negative Zone: A universe made of anti-matter that is contracting instead of expanding. • Nexus of All Realities: It is located in the Florida Everglades (name also refers to a Cosmic Artifact, M'Kraan Crystal). • Nirvana: A pocket dimension adjacent to Earth that is inhabited by the Daevas. • Null-Time Zone: A dimension that exists outside of time and is utilized by the Time Variance Authority (TVA).

• Olympus: The other-dimensional home planetoid of superhuman beings analogous quantum realm the Greek gods. • Hades: The Greek underworld that is ruled by Pluto. • Elysium: An area in Hades where the heroic souls reside. • Erebus: The entrance to Hades. Those quantum realm feel that they have unfinished business in life gamble at the casino there for their resurrection.

• Land Within: A region of Hades where a group of sorcerers banished the Cat People. • Tartarus: An area in Hades where the Titans and evil souls were imprisoned. • Orun: A pocket dimension adjacent to Earth that is home to the Vodu. • Otherplace: Also called the Demonic Limbo, it is home to demons of various sizes, strengths, and intellects. • Purple dimension: A pocket dimension ruled by the tyrannical Agamonn. • Quidlivun: A pocket dimension adjacent to Earth that quantum realm inhabited by the Inua.

• Realm of Death: This is where Death resides. • Realm of Madness: A dimension that is adjacent to the Nightmare World, but is beyond it and the Dream Dimension. The greatest fears of anyone take on a tangible form here. • R'Vaal: An other-dimensional planet and the home of Rintrah. • Sixth Dimension: A dimension that is the home of its Sorcerer Supreme Tiboro. • Sominus: A mystic extra-dimensional realm that is a "dark reflection" of Therea and is ruled by Thog.

• Soul World: A dimension that exists within the Soul Infinity Gem. • Svarga: A pocket dimension adjacent to Earth that is home to the Dievas.

• Ta-Lo: Created in Thor #310 (1980) by writers Mark Gruenwald and Ralph Macchio. [27] A pocket dimension adjacent to Earth that is home to the Xian race. Ta-Lo inhabited by Chinese mythological creatures, such as dragons, fenghuang, shishi, hundun, huli jing, and qilin. [28] Jiang Li, mother of Shang-Chi was into one of Ta-Lo's few communities of mortals known Qilin Riders. [29] • Taivas: A pocket dimension adjacent to Earth that is home to the Jumala. • Therea: A mystic extra-dimensional realm where two benevolent gods dwell who appear in the form of quantum realm to human eyes.

It is an Earth-like land of peace and tranquility and has a "dark reflection" in Sominus. Therea is ruled by twin gods, Zokk and Maftra. Zokk and Maftra are worshipped by the barbarian Korrek and his people, and even revered by Dakimh the Enchanter. • Thirteenth ximension: A dimension where Szandor Sozo was the Sorcerer Supreme until Empirikul's Witchfinder Wolves caught up to him when he fled and was "purified" by holy acid.

• Topán: A pocket dimension adjacent to Earth that is home to the Teteoh. • Twelfth ximension: A shadow realm whose creatures like Shadow Goblins and Magma Serpents are invisible to the eyes of those not of the Twelfth Dimension.

• Underspace: A plane of reality that is below the Microverse. This is where Hank Pym placed the Infinite Avengers Mansion. • Upperworld: A pocket dimension adjacent to Earth that is home to the Ahau. • White-Hot Room: A quasi-mystical place that holds the essences of Phoenix hosts.

In-between her frequent resurrections, this is apparently where the soul of Jean Grey finds herself. It also appears to be where the Phoenix Force itself goes when it is killed, and how it always flares back to life (hence its name). The essences trapped in the White Hot Room do not seem to notice the passage of time, yet are able to see events occurring in the normal universe.

Jean Grey has shown the ability to "project" herself to the X-Men on at least two occasions, although it is unknown if this ability is a function of the Phoenix Force or the White Hot Room itself.

• Zephyrland: An underwater dimension that is peaceful. Virago took over the city until she was defeated by Namor and Doctor Strange. Organizations [ edit ] Main article: List of Marvel Comics teams and organizations Government agencies [ edit ] • Aladdin: In the Ultraverse setting, Aladdin was a U.S. government agency apparently founded sometime in the 1960s to deal with the growing number of Ultras (super-powered beings) in their world.

In quantum realm, their scientific division, using a synthesis of organic brain tissue and computer systems called G.E.N.I.E. (Genetically Engineered Neural Intelligence Experiment), was examining alien technology and corpses discovered by U.S.

soldiers during the Vietnam War, when some unknown event caused the corpses to release a cloud of material which caused G.E.N.I.E. to develop sentience and grow quantum realm a true fusion of organic and mechanical technology. • Aladdin Assault Squad: In the Malibu Ultraverse, the Aladdin Assault Squad was a special department within the government agency known as Aladdin. The Aladdin Assault Squad was created in response to the growing number of Ultras (superhumans). The A.A.S.

operated out of Aladdin's Groom Lake facility, and functioned as an independent internal security force. They also assisted ongoing Ultra research. Known members of the Aladdin Assault Squad are: Dirt Devil, Foxfire, the Grip, Hardwire, Headknocker, and War Eagle.

[30] • A.R.M.O.R. • Black Air • The Commission on Superhuman Activities (also known as the Commission on Superhuman Affairs or CSA for short) is a government agency created by the President of the United States of America.

It is a very special appointed task force, which has been requested to supervise the American citizens possessing superhuman powers and coordinate government projects aimed at creating government controlled superhumans. They have an office in Washington, D.C. A number of members of the Commission when created were involved with various government projects regarding superhumans: Project Wideawake, former and current Avengers liaisons, Freedom Force liaison quantum realm super soldier projects.

• Department H: A fictitious branch of Canada's Department of National Defence that deals with super-powered persons. Department H was responsible for bringing together and managing the Marvel Comics team known as Alpha Flight and its related teams Beta Flight, Gamma Flight, and Omega Flight.

[31] It was mentioned in the Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. episode "End of the Beginning" and the films X2: X-Men United and Captain America: The Winter Soldier. • Department K: The Canadian government group which secretly operated the Weapon X Project. [32] • Euromind: Another European subdivision of S.H.I.E.L.D., called Euromind, was introduced in the Marvel Italia series Europa.

[33] • F.I.6: British Intelligence agency, former employers of Micromax. Led by Brigadier Theodore 'Inky' Blott. Employed psychics. Disbanded after most agents, including Blott, were killed by Necrom. Introduced in Excalibur and created by Alan Davis. [34] • G.R.A.M.P.A.: The covert organization known as G.R.A.M.P.A., the Global Reaction Agency for Mysterious Paranormal Activity, debuted in Amazing Fantasy vol.

2 #15. G.R.A.M.P.A.'s most prominent field operatives are Ace and One-Eyed Jacquie; the two agents refer to themselves collectively as " Blackjack". G.R.A.M.P.A. is tasked with protecting the world from paranormal threats. [35] • H.A.M.M.E.R. • H.A.T.E.: H.A.T.E., the Highest Anti- Terrorism Effort, better known by its acronym, is one of two antagonistic quantum realm in Nextwave: Agents of H.A.T.E. H.A.T.E. and its leader, Dirk Anger, are parodies of Marvel's S.H.I.E.L.D.

and Nick Fury. H.A.T.E. is a government agency that is funded by the Beyond Corporation, a company that was formerly a terrorist cell called S.I.L.E.N.T. (the acronym has not been explained yet). • The Lodge: Created by Basil Wentworth towards the end of World War II, the Lodge's purpose was to prepare for the Cold War that was destined to come about. The Lodge started covert operations in China, the Soviet Union, and East Germany, and has continued its "dirty quantum realm into the present day.

• MI-13 • Mutant Response Division: The Mutant Response Division is a mutant-hunting group founded by known anti-mutant scientists Steven Lang and Bolivar Trask and funded by Bastion via the United Nations. It is also referred to by its abbreviated name MRD. The organization's first appearance outside comic books was in Wolverine and the X-Men and The Avengers: Earth Mightiest Heroes. • Office of National Emergency: The Office of National Emergency, commonly referred to as O*N*E, is known as the originator of the Sentinel squads that were assigned to protect/observe the X-Men and the remaining mutants after the event known as M-Day, which reduced the number of mutants on Earth to only a few hundred.

[36] • Project Pegasus: An organization that was originally intended to research alternative (and unusual) forms of energy. It has also been used as a prison for super-powered individuals, prior to the creation of The Vault.

[37] • Project Wideawake: Quantum realm Wideawake is a government program with the purpose of detecting and capturing mutants, which employs the robots known as Sentinels. [38] [39] • R.C.X.: The Resources Control Executive is a British intelligence agency, introduced in Captain Britain as a replacement to S.T.R.I.K.E.

and created by Jamie Delano and Alan Davis. The Quantum realm intelligence agency for the investigation of paranormal and superhuman activity known as S.T.R.I.K.E.

was infiltrated by a criminal organization and nearly all of its members were killed. A weakened S.T.R.I.K.E., unable to deal with the consequences of the Jaspers' Warp, was subsequently disbanded, and the Resources Control Executive (R.C.X.) was created to take its place. The members of the R.C.X. use codenames based on biblical figures to hide their true identity. [40] • S.A.F.E.: Introduced in Marvel's line of novels in the mid-1990s, S.A.F.E.

(Strategic Action For Emergencies) is the United States' answer to S.H.I.E.L.D. They first appeared in Spider-Man & the Incredible Hulk: Rampage (Doom's Day Book 1), and may not be part of comics canon.

Whereas S.H.I.E.L.D. is a UN-funded and run organization dealing with international incidents, Quantum realm. is tasked with similar duties inside of America's borders. It is run by Colonel Sean Morgan and a prominently featured agent is Joshua Ballard, who, among other things, survived an encounter with Doctor Doom and later Baron Zemo.

[41] • S.H.I.E.L.D.: Strategtic Hazard Intervention Enforcement Logistics Division is the United States' quantum realm spy agency led by Nick Fury. • S.T.A.R.S.: The Commission on Superhuman Activities, created a special division of the federal government's U.S.

Marshals called S.T.A.R.S., the Superhuman Tactical Activities Response Squad. A federal organization authorized to monitor and manage all activities regarding the supervision, apprehension, and detention of superhuman criminals in the United States. The group's leader was John Walker, the U.S. Agent. S.T.A.R.S. uncovered a Ruul plot to use Earth as a penal quantum realm for alien criminals.

U.S. Agent and S.T.A.R.S. were ultimately responsible for exposing and defeating the Ruul. [42] • S.T.A.K.E.: Special Threat Assessment for Known Extranormalities.

• S.T.R.I.K.E. • Superhuman Restraint Unit • S.W.O.R.D.: Sentient World Observation And Response Department is an agency that deals with cosmic threats to Earth • Ultimate S.H.I.E.L.D.: The Ultimate Marvel version. • W.A.N.D.: Wizardry Alchemy Necromancy Department, the magical division of S.H.I.E.L.D.

Introduced in the Marvel NOW! relaunch of Thunderbolts. [43] • Weapon X • W.H.O.: The Weird Happenings Organization was mandated by the UK government with the investigation into and research of supernatural and paranormal phenomena until it was replaced by Black Air.

It was featured in Excalibur. Criminal organizations [ edit ] • Advanced Idea Mechanics: Advanced Idea Mechanics first appeared in Strange Tales #146. A.I.M. is a conglomeration of brilliant scientists and their hirelings dedicated to the acquisition of power and the overthrow of all governments by technological means. A.I.M. was organized late in World War II by Baron Wolfgang von Strucker to develop advanced weaponry for his subversive organization HYDRA. They were close to developing and attaining nuclear weapons when HYDRA Island was invaded by American and Japanese troops.

Although A.I.M. suffered a major setback, it survived and grew in secret over the following decades. [44] • Beyond Corporation: What is quantum realm the Beyond Corporation was once a high-tech terrorist cell known as S.I.L.E.N.T.

which legitimized itself as the Beyond Corporation, yet did not abandon their ulterior motive—the location, activation, distribution, and testing of various Unusual Weapons of Mass Destruction at various points throughout the United States of America.

Also, through "faith-based bidding", the Beyond Corporation became the sole financial backer of the H.A.T.E. (Highest Anti-Terrorism Effort), providing them with extremely advanced technology. [45] • Black Quantum realm Jerome Beechman, the Mandrill, created Black Spectre by organizing his female followers, who disguised themselves as men using bulky armor. Beechman planned to use Black Spectre to confuse America through terrorism and racism, instilling chaos in the world and intending to rule it after anarchy ensued.

[46] • Brotherhood of Mutants: The Brotherhood of Mutants, originally known as the Brotherhood of Evil Mutants and briefly as Freedom Force and the Brotherhood, is a Marvel Comics supervillain team devoted to mutant superiority over normal humans. They are adversaries of the X-Men. The original Brotherhood was created by writer Stan Lee and artist/co-writer Jack Kirby and first appeared in The X-Men #4 (March 1964).

• Friends of Humanity: The Friends of Humanity is a human-supremacist hate group started by Graydon Creed, a man infamous for quantum realm bigotry against mutants. Groups inspired by or splintered from the Friends of Humanity include the survivalist Humanity's Last Stand and the religious fundamentalist Church of Humanity.

[47] • Quantum realm Nation: On the anniversary of the Mutant Massacre, a horrific event in which Mr. Sinister's henchmen the Marauders killed many Morlocks, the members of the terrorist group known as Gene Nation reappeared in the main universe ( Earth-616). Their mission was to destroy one human for every Morlock life that was lost. • The Hand: The Hand is a cult of evil, mystical ninja who are heavily involved in organized crime and mercenary activities such as assassination plots.

The Hand covets power above all other objectives. They are primarily based in Japan, but operate internationally. They were founded in the 16th century, and soon became servants of the primordial demon known only as the Beast. • Hellfire Club: Although the club appears to merely be an international social club for wealthy elites, its Inner Circle consists of mutants who try to influence world events for the accumulation of power.

They dress in 18th century garb and rank themselves in a system of chess pieces (Black Rook, White Queen, etc.). The group first battled the X-Men in the classic " The Dark Phoenix Saga" and the club, or branches of it, have since appeared periodically in various X-Men series. The club is based on the actual Hellfire Club, a secret society of 18th century England. • Humanity's Last Stand: Humanity's Last Stand is a radical anti-mutant hate group and enemies of the X-Men.

In the group's first appearance they were behind the creation of a false Mutant Liberation Front, formed by human members of H.L.S. posing as mutants through the use of mutagenic drugs and/or technologically enhanced suits, in order to mimic mutant powers. [48] • HYDRA: The fictional terrorist organization first appeared in Strange Tales #135.

In its quantum realm continuity, it was headed by nondescript businessman Arnold Brown, who was killed as S.H.I.E.L.D.

apparently crushed the organization. It soon returned, however, headed by Baron Wolfgang von Strucker, under the aegis of the Nazi Red Skull; HYDRA's changing origin was one of the earliest Marvel retcons. After its initial defeat, several of its branches surfaced, appearing to be unrelated and independent. HYDRA's scientific branch was initially A.I.M. (Advanced Idea Mechanics), which later split off into its own organization.

Other factions included THEM (the ruling council of HYDRA) and the Secret Empire (which, like A.I.M., also split off into its own organization). • Maggia: The Maggia is an international crime syndicate, somewhat similar to the Mafia, but the Maggia differs in that it frequently hires supervillains and mad scientists to work for them.

Count Nefaria and his daughter Madame Masque have both been leaders of an important Maggia family. [49] • Maelstrom's Minions: Maelstrom's Minions are a trio of supervillains that work for Maelstrom. They are Gronk, Helio, and Phobius. [50] • Mys-Tech: The board of Mys-Tech, a multinational corporation, were originally seven mages who in AD 987 sold their souls to the demon Mephisto in exchange for immortality.

The Mys-Tech board members quantum realm provide a steady stream of souls to the demon, otherwise they will breach their contract and forfeit their own souls. Over the years, the board accumulated power and wealth and in the modern age this power and wealth became a business empire. [51] • National Force: The National Force is a neo-fascist organization founded by Doctor Faustus. Faustus had captured William Burnside, the fourth Captain America, and his partner Jack Monroe, both heroes from the 1950s, frozen in suspended animation.

Faustus took control of the mind of the replacement Captain America in an attempt to use him against Steve Rogers, the original Captain America, and later turned him into the Grand Director. [52] • Purifiers: The Purifiers, also known as the "Stryker Crusade", are a paramilitary group of Christian terrorists led by Reverend William Stryker. The group debuted in the graphic novel X-Men: God Loves, Man Kills.

The Purifiers see themselves in a holy war against mutants, believing them to be the children of the devil and thus deserving of extermination. [53] • Quantum realm Roxxon Oil is a massive petroleum corporation notorious for its determination to make massive profits regardless of any laws or moral principles, often employing superhuman criminals in order to achieve their goals.

[54] • Secret Empire: The subversive organization known as the Secret Empire has followed a number of different leaders, always known as "Number One". The Secret Empire began as a subsidiary of HYDRA, which provided it with financial support. The Secret Empire served to distract the attention of authorities such as S.H.I.E.L.D. from HYDRA's activities, although the original Number One sought to break away from HYDRA.

[55] • Serpent Society: The Serpent Society is an organization of snake-themed terrorists in the Marvel Comics universe. The group was initially formed from the membership of two previous supervillain teams, both of them called the Serpent Squad.

The group, like its predecessor, has been made up of longtime antagonists of Captain America and his fellow Avengers. The Serpent Society was the brainchild of Seth Voelker (Sidewinder) and is a descendant of sorts from the original two Serpent Squads.

• Sons of the Serpent: The Sons of the Serpent is a subversive organization of costumed American racist super-patriots who oppose all racial, ethnic, and religious minorities. They sought to subvert America through hate crimes and organized protests, and were opposed by the Avengers and the Defenders. [56] • THEM: THEM, through its founder Baron Strucker, is the managing power of a supraorganization which includes HYDRA, A.I.M., and the Secret Empire.

THEM was founded by Nazi war criminal Baron Strucker after World War II. Later Strucker appointed a businessman named Arnold Brown to the position of Supreme Hydra; HYDRA's highly visible operations served as a front for THEM.

[57] [58] • U.L.T.I.M.A.T.U.M.: The Underground Liberated Totally Integrated Mobile Army To Unite Mankind is a fictional terrorist organization in the Marvel Comics universe. It was founded by the Flag-Smasher in his attempts to destroy nationalism. [59] Most notably, they have been engaged in a feud with Deadpool ever since he slaughtered many of them aboard their own helicarrier, downed it (dooming the remaining), [60] and confronted them (led by a new Flag-Smasher) in a final revenge showdown on a Kansas farm, where Deadpool slaughtered every single one of them (presumably ending them for good).

[61] • The Universal Church of Truth: The Universal Church of Truth is a fictional star-spanning religious empire headed by the Magus, and enemies of the Guardians of the Galaxy. A different version of the Universal Church appeared in the second volume of Guardians of the Galaxy, The Thanos Imperative miniseries, and Annihilators: Earthfall miniseries.

The church was responsible for resurrecting Thanos [62] and the Magus. [63] • Zodiac Cartel: The original Zodiac group debuted in the title the Avengers [64] and is established as quantum realm criminal organization founded and funded by member Quantum realm Van Lunt (who adopts the identity of Taurus).

The group's identity is based on the zodiac from the discipline astrology, with each member adopting the persona of a sign of the zodiac, being 12 in all.

The group members share leadership of the organization, with the position rotating just as the astrological zodiac changes. Alien races [ edit ] Main article: List of alien races in Marvel Comics • Kree – A quantum realm alien race.

• Skrulls – A race of green-skinned shape-shifting aliens. • Shi'ar – A race of species of bird-like descent. • Symbiotes – A race of organic, amorphous, multicellular, shape-shifting alien symbiotes. • Watchers, a species committed to observing and compiling knowledge on all aspects of the universe vowed to never interfere with other civilizations. • Chitauri, a race of organic and machine hybrid reptilian warriors.

• Badoon, a race of reptilian aliens that are notable for living under strict gender segregation. • Brood, a race of insectoid, parasitic, extraterrestrial beings. • Phalanx, a cybernetic species that quantum realm a hive-mind linking each member by a telepathy-like system. • Cotati, a race of highly intelligent species of telepathic plants. Objects [ edit ] Vehicles [ edit ] "Leapfrog (comics)" redirects here.

For the Marvel characters, see Leap-Frog (comics). • Atomic Steed: The Black Knight sometimes employs one of the "Atomic Quantum realm built by the Knights of Wundagore, engineered by the High Evolutionary.

• Battle Van: The Battle Van was used by the Punisher as his primary mode of transportation. It is customized with a various array of weaponry and armor, and serves as a mobile armory. • Blackbird: The Blackbird is the X-Men's primary aircraft. • Fantastic Four's Pogo Plane: so called because of its tail-down landing/take-off attitude, was the first significant air-breathing engine design of Reed Richards. Employing new turbine blade configurations and a new titanium-alloy process, Richards increased overall engine performance quantum realm a very high thrust-to-weight ratio.

It is loosely based on the never mass-produced Convair XFY Pogo. • Fantasticar: Various flying hovercraft used by the Fantastic Four, most versions are able to split into quantum realm smaller vehicles. • Freedom's Lady: The original Guardians of the Galaxy operate from the Starship Freedom's Lady, a medium-weight, 700-foot (210 m) Annihilator-class battleship of 30th century Earth design. Trans-light power is furnished by inter-reacting tachyon and anti-tachyon beams.

Fully equipped for deep-space and inter-galactic excursion, it carried a full complement of offensive weapons as well as an impenetrable energy barrier, divided into 14 overlapping segments. • Goblin Glider: A metal bat-shaped glider that Green Goblin uses to travel around the skies.

• Hellcycle: Ghost Rider's flaming motorcycle. The vehicle is created by the Ghost Rider's own mystical hellfire being imbued in an otherwise normal motorcycle, usually the property of the Ghost Rider's host at the time.

• Kang's time-ship: Kang the Conqueror's time-ship is a 20-foot (6.1 m) long, non-aerodynamic, space-worthy vehicle and is mostly a housing for the large energy-generating devices that power the time machine.

The time machine itself is a device whose major timestream-bridging components are the size of a two-drawer file cabinet. It utilizes energy to generate a chronal-displacement internal field, enabling a being or object to break through the "reality walls" of the timestream into the trans-temporal realm quantum realm Limbo, from which all time eras and alternate worlds are accessible.

• The Leapfrog: The Leapfrog is the method of transportation for the Runaways. • Mooncopter: Moon Knight's copter is a VTOL vehicle capable of precision, computer-assisted maneuvering for air-land-and-sea rescues, tracking automobiles through traffic, and many other purposes.

Moon Knight is in constant contact with the copter, piloted by Frenchie (but also with a sophisticated, computer-aided auto-pilot), at all times quantum realm a miniature transceiver with a microphone in his cowl. The on-board computer performs navigation functions, remote sensor image-enhancement, and radar interpretation. Moon Knight has had at least two different designs of copter. One resembled a conventional helicopter with a crescent moon tail. The second actually resembled an airship more than a helicopter, but was also crescent shaped.

• Quinjet: A technologically advanced S.H.I.E.L.D. jet used primarily by the Avengers, the Quinjet first appeared in The Avengers #61 (Feb. 1969). • S.H.I.E.L.D. flying car: The flying car is a S.H.I.E.L.D. personal vehicle that looks like a car but can fly.

quantum realm

It made appearances in Spider-Man and his Amazing Friends and Spider-Man: The Animated Series. In Captain America: The First Avenger, Howard Stark unveils a flying car at 1943 Stark Expo. A flying car appears in the possession of Phil Coulson in the TV series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

called "Lola", a 1962 red Chevrolet Corvette (C1). Flying Car makes its final appearance in Agent Carter season 2, final episode "Hollywood Ending." • S.H.I.E.L.D. Helicarrier: The aircraft used by S.H.I.E.L.D. around the world. • Ship: Apocalypse's gigantic, self-aware AI ship which was simply known as "Ship".

It is hinted to have been built by the Celestials. It made several appearances in the comics as well as the 1990s X-Men cartoon series. • Shockwave Rider: The superhero team Nextwave steals quantum realm Shockwave Rider, its base of operations, from H.A.T.E., a compromised anti-terrorist organization.

The Shockwave Rider is powered by a Zero-Point Quantum realm Drive, giving it a nearly unlimited fuel supply.

The Rider contains 5 tesseract zones, allowing it to be spacious on the inside while keeping it compact on the outside. To deploy in the field, the team dives through a pool of an orange membrane to exit via the underside of the ship.

It was destroyed in Nextwave's final battle with the Beyond Corporation. • Skuttlebutt: A Korbinite-designed sentient starship, quantum realm of Beta Ray Bill where it's A.I. serves as his companion.

[65] quantum realm Sky Bike: Hawkeye sometimes travels about in a custom-built sky bike (also called a sky-cycle or skymobile), designed and built at Cross Technological Enterprises. It is voice-operated and requires no hands to steer. The sky bike first appeared in Hawkeye #1 (Sept. 1983). It was also featured in the Iron Man animated series. Hawkeye also uses the bike in the animated series The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes.

Weapons [ edit ] • Absorbing Man's ball and chain • Ant-Man's armor and helmet • Black Panther's Panther Habit armor • Black Widow's Bite stingers and gauntlets • Blade's sword • Captain America's shield • Chase Stein's fistigons • Quantum realm cloak • Colleen Wing's katana • Cyclops's visor • Daredevil's billy club • Deadpool's katanas and guns • Doctor Octopus's mechanical tentacles • Drax's dual knives • Ebony Blade, a sword wielded by Black Knight • Elektra's sais • Falcon's wing harness • Gamma Bomb • Gamora's Godslayer sword • Ghost Rider's chain and hellfire shotgun • Gorr's All-Black the Necrosword • Quake's gauntlets • Green Goblin's pumpkin bombs • Hawkeye's bow and trick arrows • Hercules's mace • Hulkling's Excelsior sword • Iron Man's armors • Iron Man's Hulkbuster armor • Kraven the Hunter's spear • Magneto's helmet • Misty Knight's bionic arm • Mjolnir, the quantum realm of Thor • Moon Knight's crescent darts • Mysterio's helmet • Namor's trident • The Nova Force of Nova • Pepper Potts's sword and shield • Psylocke's katana • Punisher's arsenal of weapons • Rocket Raccoon's arsenal of guns • Scorpion's mechanical tail • Shocker's gauntlets • The Soulsword, wielded by Magik • Spider-Man's web shooters • Star-Lord's helmet • Star-Lord's quad-blasters • Stormbreaker, the hammer of Beta Ray Bill • The Tactigon quantum realm Taskmaster's sword and shield • Vulture's electro-magnetic wing harness • War Machine's armor • Wasp's armor and helmet • Winter Soldier's bionic arm • Wolverine's adamantium claws Artifacts [ edit ] Some items have been created specifically for the Marvel Universe and many of them carry immense powers: Mystical artifacts [ edit ] • Book of the Vishanti: A grimoire most closely associated with Doctor Strange.

[1] It is the greatest known source of "white" magical knowledge on the Earth of the Marvel Universe dimension. • The Casket of Ancient Winters: An Asgardian relic and the greatest weapon of Malekith the Accursed. When opened, it can reproduce the infinite icy cold of Niflheim. Later entrusted to the care of Edwin Jarvis, butler to the Avengers, by Thor. Causes its holder to grow younger gradually. • The Cloak of Levitation: A potent mystical item worn by Doctor Strange. It has the primary purpose of granting its wearer levitation.

The greatest advantage of this is that its wearer need know little about the mystic arts in order to operate it, nor must the wearer use any of his "mystical strength" in order to operate it.

• The Darkhold: Aka The Book of Sins, is a fictional book (a grimoire) and collection of iron-bound scrolls containing the collected magical knowledge of the Elder God-turned demon Chthon, the first practitioner of dark magics. The Darkhold has appeared in the Marvel Cinematic Universe television series Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D., Runaways, WandaVision, and the 2022 film Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness. It first appeared in the Werewolf by Night story in Marvel Spotlight #4.

• Dragonfang: An enchanted sword said to be carved by the wizard Kahji-Da from a tooth of an extra-dimensional dragon wielded by Valkyrie • The Dreamstones: A limited magical stone that turns the emotions of a person into reality, found among the Dark Elves.

• The Evil Eye of Avalon: A powerful blasting device used by Prester John. • The Eye of Agamotto: An artifact that is worn by Doctor Strange.

• The Orb of Agamotto: A globe in the possession of Doctor Strange. • Mjolnir: The Hammer of Thor. • The Mark of Shou-Lao: After defeating Shou-Lao, Danny Rand acquired the power of the Iron Fist. He had the mark of the Dragon burned onto his chest, which allowed him to channel his Chi into his fist to turn it into a powerful weapon. • The Serpent Crown: Created by the demon Set, it links the wearer to its creator, providing various physical and mental powers.

• The Siege Perilous is the name of two fictional devices appearing in books published by Marvel Comics. The first appeared in books starring Captain Britain, and the second in books featuring the X-Men.

Both devices were created by writer Chris Claremont, who named it after the Siege Perilous, the empty chair at the round table of King Arthur. The latter device, featured in X-Men, had the ability to transport individuals to new locations with rejuvenated, amnesiac bodies.

• The Staff of One: A powerful magical staff used by the runaway Nico Minoru. Whenever Nico bleeds, the staff emerges from her chest, allowing Nico to bend magic. • Stormbreaker: The hammer of Beta Ray Bill. • The Twilight sword: The weapon of the giant Surtur. • The Wand of Watoomb: An artifact controlled by the thoughts of the wielder, and can be used to project and absorb mystical energy; create force fields; control weather; quantum realm dimensional portals; observe events in other locations and heal wounds.

Used thousands of years quantum realm the modern era by priestess of the god Yog against the barbarian Conan, it is sought out by Xandu in modern times to destroy Doctor Strange. The Wand first appears in The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #2 (Dec.

1965) and was created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko. Cosmic artifacts [ edit ] • The Cosmic Cube • The Cosmic Egg: A powerful artifact created by the Goddess from combining 30 Cosmic Cubes. • The Phoenix Egg: Every time it is destroyed, the Phoenix Force is always reborn within a cosmic egg. This process has happened several times in the past.

[66] • Infinity Gems/ Infinity Gauntlet: Six gems that grant their owner quantum realm power over six different aspects of existence: Mind, Power, Quantum realm, Time, Space, and Reality. They can be combined in the Gauntlet. A seventh gem was discovered in another dimension. This gem, called the Ego gem, contained the essence of the entity Nemesis, whose self-destruction created the gems.

• Abundant Gems/Abundant Glove: Six "marginally powerful" gems – the Compassion, Laughter, Dance, Respect, and "another Dance Gem". • M'Kraan Crystal: The "nexus of realities" (unknown if it is connected to the "Nexus of All Realities" located in the Florida Everglades). By entering the crystal, users can enter any quantum realm they wish.

The protector of the crystal is singular in all universes, with the same memories in each, which suggests that the reality immediately surrounding the crystal is anchored in place.

• Quantum bands, used by Quasar and temporarily used by Silver Surfer to wield cosmic energy. • The Silver Quantum realm surfboard (his source of power in the movie), which he is mentally linked to. When it is destroyed, the Surfer can recreate another at will.

• The Ultimate Nullifier • Heart of the Universe • Cosmic Regulator Other artifacts [ edit ] • Cerebro • The Legacy Virus, a devastating plague that tore through the mutant population. • The Mandarin's Ten Rings • The Tallus Substances [ edit ] Drugs [ edit ] • Goblin formula ( OZ Formula): The chemical formula that gave the Green Goblin his powers. • Growth pills: Capsules containing the size-altering Pym particles that allow Giant Man, Ant-Man, and the Wasp to change their size.

• Extremis: A techno-organic virus created in an attempt to recreate the Super-Soldier Serum that gave Captain America his powers. • Lizard formula: The chemical formula that transforms scientist Dr. Curt Connors into his reptilian form, the Lizard. • Red Skull's Dust of Death: A red powder which kills a victim within seconds of skin contact.

The powder causes the skin of the victim's head to shrivel, quantum realm, and take on a red discoloration, while causing the hair to fall out; hence, the victim's head resembles a "red skull". • Super Quantum realm Serum: An experimental military drug that enhances physical abilities and gave several superheroes their powers, most notably Captain America. • Terrigen mists: A mutagenic catalyst discovered and used by the Inhumans that can grant superpowers, but leaves many subjects with deformities and amnesia.

Elemental substances and minerals [ edit ] • Adamantium, a virtually indestructible metal alloy which is best known for being integrated into the skeleton and claws of Wolverine and was created in an attempt to duplicate the Vibranium-steel alloy of Captain America's shield.

• Carbonadium • Promethium, not to be confused with the real-life element, a magical metal found only in Belasco's dimension, known as Otherplace. • Tritonium, an unstable radioactive mineral. • Vibranium, a metal which comes in two forms; one variety (Wakandan) absorbs vibratory and kinetic energy, while the other (Antarctic) causes all nearby metals to melt.

Vibranium is a component of Quantum realm America's shield alloy. • Uru, the Asgardian metal of which Thor's hammer is made. • Scabrite, a god-like metal which can only be found in the mines of Surtur's realm. Surtur possesses the giant sword Twilight, also known as the Sword of Doom, composed of Scabrite.

The sword is magical, capable of manipulating vast amounts of mystical energy. • Gravitonium, a fictitious element on the periodic table. This substance can control gravity fields ( Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. television series). • Yaka, a sound-sensitive metal found on Centauri IV • Plandanium, a metal used by the Spaceknights of Galador to make their armor • Netheranium, a psychosensitive metal found only in "Satan's" extra-dimensional realm.

The Son of Satan, Daimon Hellstrom wielded a trident made of netheranium. Cosmic forces [ edit ] • Enigma Force • Uni Force • Goblyn Force • Nova Force • Omega Force • Phoenix Force • Power Cosmic • Power Primordial See also [ edit ] • List of fictional towns in comics • DC Comics: • List of locations of the DC Universe quantum realm List of DC Comics teams and organizations • List of government agencies in DC Comics • List of criminal organizations quantum realm DC Comics • List of objects in the DC Universe • Comics portal References [ edit ] • ^ a b Sanderson, Peter (2007).

The Marvel Comics Guide to New York City. New York City: Pocket Books. pp. 30–33. ISBN 978-1-4165-3141-8. • ^ The Sub-Mariner #62, "Tales of Atlantis" backup story. Written by Steve Gerber and Howard Chaykin.

quantum realm

• ^ Fear #15 • ^ Marvel Spotlight #17 • ^ Marvel Premiere #15 (May 1974) • ^ The Avengers #187 • ^ a b Ultimate Power #1 • ^ Ultimate Comics: Doom #3 • ^ Ultimate Comics: Spider-Man #8 • ^ Ultimate Origin #5 • ^ Ultimate Comics: Doom #2 • ^ Ultimate Comics: Mystery #3 • ^ Included In "Deleted/Extended Scenes" section of Deadpool (2016) Blu-Ray Edition.

• ^ "The Amazing Spider-Man 2 Welcomes You to Ravencroft". SuperHeroHype. March 18, 2013. • ^ Man-Thing vol. 2 #6. Marvel Comics. • ^ Man-Thing #17–18.

• ^ Sub-Mariner #61. Marvel Comics. • ^ "Marvel's Agent Carter Explores the Origins of the Black Widow Program". Marvel.com. February 3, 2015. • ^ "MARVEL'S AGENT CARTER EXCLUSIVE: SHOWRUNNERS REVEAL WHO DOTTIE WORKS FOR". IGN. January 28, 2015. • ^ Doty, Meriah; Errico, Marcus (May 1, 2015). " 'Age of Ultron': We Decode Those Angst-Ridden Quantum realm Dreams (Spoilers!)". Yahoo! Movies. Retrieved May 4, 2015. • ^ Evangelista, Chris (July 29, 2019). " 'Black Widow' Will Have Multiple Black Widows".

/Film. Archived from the original on July 30, 2019. Retrieved August 27, 2019. • ^ Ant-Man: Last Days #1. Quantum realm Comics. • ^ The Avengers #133 (March 1975) • ^ The Immortal Hulk #10. Marvel Comics. • ^ Moon Knight vol. 8 #2–10. Marvel Quantum realm. • ^ "Heliopolis". Marvel Directory. Retrieved November 22, 2011. • ^ "An MCU Icon's Tragic Origin is Bringing Back a Mystical Marvel Location".

CBR. February 5, 2022. Retrieved March 31, 2022. • ^ Mondor, Brooke (September 6, 2021). "All of the Incredible Creatures In Shang-Chi Explained". Looper. Archived from the original on September 12, 2021. Retrieved September 12, 2021. • ^ Shang-Chi vol. 2 #7 Marvel Comics • ^ Break-Thru #1 (Dec.

1993) • ^ "Department H". Retrieved October 13, 2014. • ^ "Department K" at Marvel.com • ^ "Euroforce" at Marvel.com • ^ "Micromax" at Marvel.com • ^ Amazing Fantasy vol.

2 #15 (November 2004) • ^ Decimation: House of M — The Day After (Jan. 2006) • ^ Marvel Two-In-One #42 (August 1978) • ^ The Uncanny X-Men #142 • ^ The New Mutants #2 • ^ First appeared in Captain Britain vol. 2 #1 (Jan. 1985) • ^ First appeared in the paperback novel Spider-Man and the Incredible Hulk: Rampage (Sept. 1996) • ^ "S.T.A.R.S." at Marvel.com • ^ Beard, Jim (November 7, 2013).

"TUESDAY Q&A: THUNDERBOLTS ANNUAL". Marvel.com. Retrieved July 3, 2014. • ^ Strange Tales #146 (July 1966) • ^ Nextwave: Agents of H.A.T.E. #1 (March 2006) • ^ Daredevil #108 (March 1974) • ^ The Uncanny X-Men #299 (April 1993) • ^ The Uncanny X-Men Annual #19 (Nov.

1995) • ^ The Avengers #13 (Feb. 1965) • ^ Rovin, Jeff (1987). The Encyclopedia of Super-Villains. Facts on File Publications. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-8160-1356-2. • ^ Warheads #1 (June 1992) • ^ Captain America #232 (April 1979) • ^ X-Men: God Loves, Man Kills (1982) • ^ Captain America #180 (Dec. 1974) • ^ Strange Tales #149 (Oct. 1966) • ^ The Avengers #32 (Sept.

1966) • ^ Strange Tales #135 (August 1965) • ^ "Hydra". Retrieved October 13, 2014. • ^ Captain America #321 (September 1986) • ^ Deadpool vol. 2 #23 • ^ Deadpool vol. 2 #45 • ^ Guardians of the Galaxy vol. 2 #24 • ^ Annihilators: Earthfall #2 • ^ The Avengers #72 (Jan. 1970) • ^ Thor #337 • ^ New X-Men #150 • Amalgam • DC Comics joint quantum realm CrossGen • Disney property • Epic • Icon • Infinite • Malibu • Marvel 2099 • Marvel Absurd • Marvel Adventures/Marvel Age • Marvel Books • Marvel Comics 2 • Marvel CyberComics • Marvel Edge • Marvel Graphic Novel • Marvel Illustrated • Marvel Knights • Marvel Mangaverse • Marvel Music • Marvel Next • Marvel Noir • Marvel UK • MAX • New Universe • Paramount • Razorline • Star • The End • Tsunami • Ultimate Marvel Reprints Hidden categories: • Use mdy dates from August 2021 • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Articles with a promotional tone from February 2017 • All articles with a promotional tone • Wikipedia articles with style issues from February 2017 • All articles with style issues • Articles needing additional references from August 2016 • All articles needing additional references • Articles with multiple maintenance issues • All articles with unsourced statements • Articles quantum realm unsourced statements from August 2014 • Articles with unsourced statements from May 2010 Add links • This page was last edited on 6 May 2022, at 13:59 (UTC).

• Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. Quantum realm using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

• Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • •Home • Science, Tech, Math • Science • Math • Social Sciences • Computer Science • Animals & Nature • Humanities • History & Culture • Visual Arts • Literature • English • Geography • Philosophy • Issues • Languages • English as a Second Language • Spanish • French • German • Italian • Japanese • Mandarin • Russian • Resources • For Students & Parents • For Educators • For Adult Learners • About Us How Computers Work Computers function by storing data in a binary number format, which result in a series of 1s & 0s retained in electronic components such as transistors.

Each component of computer memory is called a bit and can be manipulated through the steps of Boolean logic so that the bits change, based upon the algorithms applied by the computer program, between the 1 and 0 modes (sometimes referred to as "on" and "off"). Specifically, a quantum quantum realm would be able to perform calculations on a far greater order of magnitude than traditional computers . a concept which has serious concerns and applications in the realm of cryptography & encryption.

Some fear that a successful & practical quantum computer would devastate the world's financial system by ripping through their computer security encryptions, which are based on factoring large numbers that literally cannot be cracked by traditional computers within the lifespan of the universe.

A quantum computer, on the other hand, could factor the numbers in a reasonable period of time. To understand how this speeds things up, consider this example. If the qubit is in a superposition of the 1 state and the 0 state, and it performed a calculation with another qubit in the same superposition, then one calculation actually obtains 4 results: a 1/1 result, a 1/0 result, a 0/1 result, and a 0/0 result. This is a result of the mathematics applied to a quantum system when in a state of decoherence, which lasts quantum realm it is in a superposition of states until it collapses down into one state.

The ability of a quantum computer to perform multiple computations simultaneously (or in parallel, in computer terms) is called quantum parallelism. The exact physical mechanism at work within the quantum computer is somewhat theoretically complex and intuitively disturbing. Generally, it is explained in terms of the multi-world interpretation of quantum physics, wherein the computer performs calculations not only in our universe but also in other universes simultaneously, while the various qubits are in a state of quantum decoherence.

While this sounds far-fetched, the multi-world interpretation has been shown to make predictions which match experimental results.

History of Quantum Computing Quantum computing tends to trace its roots back to a 1959 speech by Richard P. Feynman in which he spoke about the effects of miniaturization, including the idea of exploiting quantum effects to create more powerful computers. This speech is also generally considered the starting point of nanotechnology. Of course, before the quantum effects of computing could be realized, scientists and engineers had to more fully develop the technology of traditional computers.

This is why, for many years, there was little direct progress, nor even interest, in the idea of making Feynman's suggestions into reality. A handful of quantum computers has been built. The first, a 2-qubit quantum computer in 1998, could perform trivial calculations before losing decoherence after a few nanoseconds.

In 2000, teams successfully built both a 4-qubit and a 7-qubit quantum computer. Research on the subject is still very active, although some physicists and engineers express concerns over the difficulties involved in upscaling these experiments to full-scale computing systems.

Still, the success of these initial steps does show that the fundamental theory is sound. Difficulties With Quantum Computers The quantum computer's main drawback is the same as its strength: quantum decoherence. The qubit calculations are performed while the quantum wave function is in a state of superposition between states, which is what allows it to perform the calculations using both 1 & 0 states simultaneously.

However, when a measurement of any type is made to a quantum system, decoherence breaks down and the wave function quantum realm into a single state. Therefore, the computer has to somehow continue making these calculations without having any measurements made until the proper time, when it can then drop out of the quantum state, have a measurement taken to read its result, which then gets passed on to the rest of quantum realm system.

The physical requirements of manipulating a system on this scale are considerable, touching on the realms of superconductors, nanotechnology, and quantum electronics, as well as others.

Each of these is itself a sophisticated field which is still being fully developed, so trying to merge them all together into a functional quantum computer is a task which I don't particularly envy anyone .

except for the person who finally succeeds. Jones, Andrew Zimmerman. "Quantum Computers and Quantum Physics." ThoughtCo, Aug. 27, 2020, thoughtco.com/what-is-a-quantum-computer-2699359.

Jones, Andrew Zimmerman. (2020, August 27). Quantum Quantum realm and Quantum Physics. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-a-quantum-computer-2699359 Jones, Andrew Zimmerman. "Quantum Computers and Quantum Physics." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-a-quantum-computer-2699359 (accessed May 9, 2022).

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At the end of Avengers: Infinity War, Thanos uses powerful gems called Infinity Stones to snap his fingers and destroy half of all life in the universe.

At the beginning of its follow-up film Avengers: Endgame, the Avengers hunt down Thanos and try to take the Infinity Stones back to undo the damage. Unfortunately for them, Thanos has already destroyed the Stones.

There is nothing they can do. Fast forward five years. A rat happens to crawl over a machine that allows people to travel through the Quantum Realm and accidentally releases Ant-Man (Paul Rudd).

He’s been stuck in the Quantum Realm for half a decade, even though it feels to him as if only five minutes have passed. Ant-Man rushes to Avengers headquarters to tell his fellow superheroes that they can travel back in time and collect all the Infinity Stones.

Tony Stark (Robert Downey Jr.) agrees to work on a machine that would allow the Avengers to time travel — on one condition. He has started a family in the last five years and thus does not want to alter recent history in any way. Instead of trying to rewind time once they have the Time Stone and undo everything that has happened in the last five years, they decide to use quantum realm Infinity Stones to bring back everyone who disappeared in this current timeline, five years later.

That way, Tony can preserve his daughter’s life, while saving dusted characters like Spider-Man (Tom Holland). If you’re already confused, well, we’re just getting started. Time travel in pop culture can get rather tricky.

Just ask J.K. Rowling, who destroyed all the Time Turners in Harry Potter just to avoid dealing with time-loop-related plot holes. Avengers: Endgame tries to side step these problems by establishing certain time travel rules. It’s complicated, so bear with me. The Avengers time travel through the Quantum Realm Film Frame—Marvel Studios Ant-Man theorizes that because he quantum realm able to jump forward five quantum realm in what felt like five minutes, the Avengers could travel back in very little time.

They use Pym Particles (created by his mentor Hank Pym before he disappeared in the snap) to shrink to subatomic size and enter the Quantum Realm. Tony just has to mess around with some of the technology for a day and ta-da! He’s solved the problem of how to control where they land in time using tiny little watches. Anyway, back to the plot. READ MORE: We Ranked Every Single Marvel Cinematic Universe Movie They decide to split up and visit a few spots to intercept the Infinity Stones.

Captain America (Chris Evans), Iron Man, Hulk (Mark Ruffalo) and Ant-Man travel to New York in 2012 when both the Mind Stone and the Space Stone (then known as the Tessearact) were in Loki’s (Tom Hiddleston) possession during the Battle of New York and the Time Stone resided at the Sanctum Sanctorum in the same city. Iron Man and Ant-Man flub stealing the Space Stone (Loki gets away with it), so then Captain America and Iron Man travel further back in time to a military lab in New Jersey in 1970 to quantum realm it from Tony’s father’s lab.

They also grab more Pym particles from Pym’s lab while they’re at it. Thor (Chris Hemsworth) and Rocket (Bradley Cooper) travel to Asgard in 2013 where the The Reality Stone resides inside Jane Foster (Natalie Portman). Nebula (Karen Gillan) and James Rhodes (Don Cheadle) travel to Morag in 2014, where Peter Quill (Chris Pratt) found the Power Stone.

And Black Widow (Scarlett Johansson) and Hawkeye (Jeremy Renner) travel to Vormir in that same time period to find the Soul Stone.

What the Avengers do in the past won’t affect the future in their timeline Film Frame—Marvel Studios 2019 Let’s say they steal the Space Stone from Tony Stark’s father in 1970. Doesn’t that mean that Tony Stark’s father was never able to study the Stone, thus he never creates the Arc Reactor technology that Tony later uses to power the Iron Man suit? And Iron Man is never born?

This is basically a version of the Grandfather Paradox of time travel: Travel back in time to kill your grandfather, and then you are never born — hence you are unable to kill your grandfather. Well, not in this movie! This movie version of time travel isn’t quite what most moviegoers are used to. For example, the rules of the butterfly effect where changing one tiny aspect of the past will alter the future in unpredictable ways — think Back to the Future or this famous Simpsons episode — aren’t in place.

READ MORE: How to Stream Every Single Marvel Movie Nor is there a time loop. For example, in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, the characters who travel back through time know exactly what they need to do in the quantum realm because it’s already happened in the future.

(For example, future Harry and Hermione know they have to hit their past selves with rocks because they already felt themselves being hit with rocks at the time.) They also know they will tear apart their world if they diverge from that strict plan.

If the Avengers change something in the past, they create a parallel timeline Time travel in Avengers: Endgame is based on a popular time travel theory in the field of quantum physics. At one point, Iron Man even drops the name David Deutsch — that’s the guy who came up with the “Many Worlds Theory” or “Multiverse Theory.” Basically, he argues that the place we conceive of as our universe is just one of many parallel universes. And if you change something in the past, you create a new timeline, branching out from the original timeline.

So nothing they do in the past affects their main timeline. For example, in the original timeline, Loki was captured and taken to Asgard by Thor in 2012. In Endgame, the 2023 Avengers accidentally facilitate Loki’s escape with the Tesseract (the Space Stone). But when they travel back quantum realm the future, Loki hasn’t used the Stone to wreak havoc for a decade. That all happened in a separate timeline.

This logic eliminates the option of simply traveling back in time and quantum realm Thanos as a baby, as Rhodes suggests, because it would not change their future, only an alternate universe. But they have to return the Infinity Stones to their original places The Ancient One (Tilda Swinton) insists that in order to maintain the reality of each universe that they visit, the Avengers need to return the Infinity Stones to the places they found them after they are done using them.

It’s fine if they create separate timelines, but if they deprive one timeline of the gems that maintain its reality, then they essentially break that timeline. Captain America does return all the stones at the end of the movie. (He also returns Mjolnir, the hammer that Thor took from Asgard, back to Thor’s home planet for the same reason.) Nebula can kill her past self and still survive Film Quantum realm Studios The movie contains an extreme example of why parallel timelines are different from the butterfly effect.

Toward the end of Endgame, the new, good Nebula (Karen Gillan) from 2023 shoots and kills old, evil Nebula quantum realm 2014. And though you might expect 2023 Nebula to start bleeding out or disappear, she’s completely fine. That’s because when 2014 Nebula traveled to the future on Thanos’ orders, she created a split timeline.

Thus these are two different Nebulas who exist on two different timelines. What happens to one does not directly affect the other. Still from 'Avengers: Endgame' quantum realm Hawkeye/Clint Barton (Jeremy Renner), War Machine/James Rhodey (Don Cheadle), Iron Man/Tony Stark (Robert Downey Jr.), Captain America/Steve Rogers (Chris Evans), Nebula (Karen Gillan), Rocket (voiced by Bradley Cooper), Ant-Man/Scott Lang (Paul Rudd) and Black Widow/Natasha Romanoff (Scarlett Johansson).

Film Frame—Marvel Studios 2019 Remember when I said earlier that there were no time loops? That’s not entirely true. There is one time loop that seems to work differently from time travel in the rest of the movie.

I don’t know why. It just does. Mid-way through the movie, Hulk promises the Ancient One that he will return the Infinity Stones to their original places in space and time. At the end of the movie, Captain America goes back in time to do this. But instead of returning after five seconds, like he agreed upon with Hulk, he stays in the past.

A few seconds later, Bucky and Sam (Anthony Mackie) see an old Captain America sitting on a nearby bench. We see in a flashback that after returning the Infinity Stones, he goes back to live out a quiet life with Peggy. We see them dancing together in quantum realm shared home. According the logic of the movie, Captain America didn’t actually create a new timeline. If he did, he wouldn’t have been able to return to that same bench.

He just lived out what had always happened to him. He was always married to Peggy (Hayley Atwell). Back in Captain America: Winter Soldier, Peggy mentions a husband, though she never reveals his name. In a video that plays on a loop at the Captain America exhibit, Peggy says, “[Steve Rogers] saved 1,000 men, including the man who would become my husband, as it turned out.

Even quantum realm he died, Steve is still changing my life.” She looks down after saying this, perhaps evasive — probably because said husband was, in fact, Steve. Later, when Steve visits her hospital bed, we see pictures of children but none of her husband — presumably because that would give away who her husband was.

Tellingly, Peggy says in that scene that “none of us can go back.” She then forgets that Steve is there — because at that point, she’s suffering from Alzheimer’s — and exclaims, “You came back!” He replies, “I couldn’t leave my best girl.

Not when she owes me a dance.” Likely this is a parallel quantum realm the off-screen reunion that happens when Steve travels back in time to find Peggy. As long as Steve maintained his false identity and didn’t interfere with anything in the past that would bring the Avengers to their fight with Thanos (like saving Bucky from being brainwashed by HYDRA) the timeline stays stable. The other version of Steve still wakes up in 2012 after being frozen during World War II and still joins the Avengers.

Older Steve watches on from afar. It’s unclear whether the two Steves would have encountered one another at Peggy’s funeral: They were both alive when it happened during Captain America: Civil War, but perhaps they were both there and the younger version simply didn’t recognize the older version or his fake moniker.

Everything happened the way it did because it had to, according to Doctor Strange Doctor Strange suggests in Infinity War that the Avengers could only beat Thanos in one possible future out of millions. In Avengers: Endgame, he tells Tony Quantum realm, “If I tell you what happens, it won’t happen.” Given that the Avengers defeat Thanos at the end of the battle (and Doctor Strange not-so-subtly flashes one finger at Iron Man during the fight), we know that we are seeing that one single future in which the Avengers defeat Thanos.

Knowing that, old Steve would resist meddling in the Avengers’ affairs so that they would eventually win their fight against the big purple baddie. More Must-Read Stories From TIME • Who Should Be on the 2022 TIME100? Vote Now • What to Know About the Leaked Roe v.

quantum realm

Wade Supreme Court Draft Opinion • The Economy is Great. The Middle Class is Mad • The Ukraine Food Price Crisis is Just a Quantum realm of What Could Happen as Climate Change Worsens • The U.S. Is in a 'Controlled Pandemic' Phase of COVID-19. But What Does That Mean? • Column: Elon Musk and the Tech Bro Obsession With 'Free Speech' • The Best (and Most Outrageous) Fashion Moments From the 2022 Met Gala Write to Eliana Dockterman at eliana.dockterman@time.com. © 2022 TIME USA, LLC.

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Hank Pym's Journey to the Quantum Realm

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