Synagogue

synagogue

(the building used by) a gathering of Jews meeting together for worship. sinagoge كَنيس، مَكان الصّلاه عِند اليَهود синагога sinagoga synagóga die Synagoge synagoge συναγωγή sinagoga sünagoog كنشت يهوديان synagoga synagogue בֵּית כְּנֶסֶת यहूदी लोगों का प्रार्थनास्थल sinagoga zsinagóga sinagog samkunduhús, sÿnagóga sinagoga ユダヤ教会 유태교의 에배당 sinagoga sinagoga synagogue synagoge synagoge synagoga د یهودیانو جومات sinagoga sina­gogă синагога synagóga sinagoga sinagoga synagoga โบสถ์ของศาสนายิว havra, sinagog 猶太教堂,猶太人集會 синагога یہودیوں کا مجمع براءے عبادت hội đạo Do thái 犹太教堂,犹太人集会 Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary © 2006-2013 K Dictionaries Ltd.

synagogue → مَعْبَدُ اليَهُود synagoga synagoge Synagoge συναγωγή sinagoga synagoga synagogue sinagoga sinagoga シナゴーグ 유태교 예배당 synagoog synagoge synagoga sinagoga синагога synagoga โบสถ์ของศาสนายิว sinagog giáo đường Do thái 犹太教堂 Multilingual Translator © HarperCollins Publishers 2009 • Where is there a synagogue?

→ أَيْنَ مَعْبَدُ اليَهودِ؟ → Kde je synagoga? → Hvor er der en synagoge? → Wo ist hier eine Synagoge?

→ Πού synagogue κάποια συναγωγή; synagogue ¿Dónde hay una sinagoga? → Onko täällä synagoogaa? → Synagogue y a-t-il une synagogue ? → Gdje je ovdje sinagoga? → Dov'è la sinagoga? → どこかにシナゴーグはありますか? → 유대교 예배당은 어디에 있나요? → Waar is de synagoge? → Hvor finner jeg en synagoge? → Gdzie jest synagogue → Onde synagogue uma synagogue → Где находится синагога?

→ Var finns en synagoga? → มีโบสถ์ยิวอยู่ที่ไหน? → Sinagog nerede var? → Ở đâu có giáo đường Do Thái? → 哪儿有犹太教教堂? I thought with a sense of relief, as we entered the Jews' quarter, where we were to visit the old synagogue, that we should be kept in this flat, shut-up part of the city, until we should all be too tired and too warm to go farther, and so we should return without seeing more than the streets through which we had already passed. synagogue ▲ • symposiast • Symposion • symposium • symptom • symptom complex • symptomatic • symptomatically • symptomatize • symptomatology • symptomatolytic • symptomize • symptomless • synagogue • symptosis • symptotic • syn • syn- • syn.

• Synacme • synadelphite • synaeresis • synaesthesia • synaesthesis • synaesthetic • synagogue • synagogue • Synagrops • Synagrops bellus • synalepha • synalgia • synallagmatic • Synallaxine • synaloepha • Synanceja • Synanceja verrucosa • synandrium • synandrous • synangium • synanon • synantherous • synanthesis • synanthetic • synanthic • synanthous • Synanthrose • synanthy • synaphea • synapomorphy • synaposematic • synaposematism • synapse • ▼ • ▲ • Synæsthesia • Synæsthesia • synaesthesialgia • synaesthesis • Synaesthete • Synaesthete • Synaesthete • Synaesthete • synaesthetes • synaesthetes • synaesthetes • synaesthetic • synaesthetic • synaesthetic • synaestheticly • synaestheticly • SYNAFEL • Synagis • synagog • synagog • synagog • synagogal • synagogal • synagogal • Synagoge • Synagoge • Synagoge • synagogical • synagogical • synagogical • synagogue • Synagogue 2000 • Synagogue 3000 • Synagogue Survival Kit • Synagogue, Church of All Nations • Synagogues • Synagogues • Synagouge • Synagouge • Synagrops • Synagrops bellus • SYNALAF • Synalar • Synalar • Synalar • Synalar C • Synalar N • synalepha • synalgia • synalgic • Synalgos-DC • Synallactidae • Synallagmatic • Synallagmatic contract • Synallaxine • synaloepha • SYNAMAP • synamon • synanamorph • synanastomosis • Synanceia verrucosa • ▼ • • Terms of Use • Privacy policy • Feedback • Advertise with Synagogue Copyright © 2003-2022 Farlex, Inc Disclaimer All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only.

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synagogue

Recent Examples on the Web Mattresses had been hauled into a local synagogue, and refugees were sleeping practically atop one another. — Washington Post, 15 Apr. 2022 Synagogue mayor of Niles and leaders of a local synagogue are responding to synagogue arrest of a Niles man accused of hate crimes against a Jewish community in Chicago’s West Rogers Park neighborhood. — Jennifer Johnson, chicagotribune.com, 3 Feb. 2022 After meeting wit Rabbi Sam Spector, Entrata executives pledged to make a significant donation to the local synagogue.

— Robert Gehrke, The Salt Lake Tribune, 26 Jan. 2022 Zebulon Simentov, who lived in a dilapidated synagogue in Kabul, kept kosher and prayed in Hebrew, endured decades of war as the country's centuries-old Jewish community rapidly dwindled. — Muhammad Farooq And Joseph Krauss, USA TODAY, 9 Sep. 2021 Rabbi Azman then rushed back to the capital to preside over a wartime Seder in the basement of the main synagogue, one of the few that has stayed open throughout the Russian invasion.

— Bojan Pancevski, WSJ, 16 Apr. 2022 Rabbi Jeffrey Myers, who survived the massacre at the Tree of Life synagogue in Pittsburgh, took classes on security and situational awareness through the Jewish Federation shortly before the shooting there. — New York Times, 17 Jan. 2022 The arrest happened a little more synagogue a month after a gunman attacked the Tree of Life synagogue in Pittsburgh, killing 11 people.

— Phil Helsel, NBC News, 14 Sep. 2021 What would a synagogue or church or meeting house be if only the familiar were allowed in? — Washington Post, 19 Jan. 2022 See More These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'synagogue.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors.

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In this article: • What Does Synagogue Mean?

• What Does a Synagogue Look Like? • The Ark • The Ner Tamid (Eternal Light) • The Bimah • The Amud • The Mechitzah • Who’s Who synagogue the Synagogue? • When Do People Attend Synagogue? • Endnote A synagogue is a place of Jewish worship. In addition to housing a sanctuary for services, synagogues often serve as the centerpoint of Jewish life.

What Does Synagogue Mean? The word “synagogue” is the Greek parallel to the Hebrew term beit knesset, “house of gathering.” It is also referred to as a shul, a Yiddish word related to the English word “school,” thus named since Torah is studied there as well. Synagogues can be found virtually wherever there are Jews and have been in use since the Babylonian exile. Find a synagogue service near you. What Does a Synagogue Look Like? The exact dimensions of a synagogue vary, reflecting the culture, needs, means and tastes of those who built it and use it.

However, you can generally expect it to have chairs (or pews) arranged in such a way that the worshipers are facing toward Jerusalem, once synagogue site of the Holy Temple, and the place through which all prayers ascend to G‑d.

Learn an in-depth article on the laws of building a synagogue. The Ark A sanctuary In the front of the sanctuary is a cabinet called the aron kodesh (“holy ark”), which contains the Torah scrolls, the most sacred objects in Judaism. Handwritten in Hebrew letters on parchment, each scroll contains the Five Books of Moses. The scrolls are stored in the ark and are removed only to be read during services or on other special occasions.

The exact size and look of arks vary greatly, however, most of them have doors as well as an ornate curtain ( parochet), which are opened at key points during the prayer. Learn more about the ark.

The Ner Tamid (Eternal Light) Ner Tamid, an eternal light. ( Bais Menachem, Chabad of Greater Boynton Synagogue, FL.) In many synagogues there is an eternal light ( ner tamid), situated above the ark. The flame (or light bulb) is a symbol of the “western lamp,” which continually shone in the Holy Temple in Jerusalem.

Learn more about the ner tamid. The Bimah The bimah, used for the reading of the Torah. Traditionally placed synagogue the center of the sanctuary and facing toward the front of the room is the bimah (“platform”), the table from which the Torah is read. It is often (but by no means always) covered by a cloth and placed on a raised stage.

Learn more about the bimah. The Amud The Amud, where the Chazzan leads the prayers The prayers are led from the front of the room. There is generally a lectern, called an amud (lit. “pillar”) on which the leader (who also faces the front) can place his prayerbook. The curtain of the ark, as well as the cloth coverings of the bimah and amud can be any color.

However, during the High Holidays white coverings are generally used, reflecting sanctity, purity and forgiveness, all themes of the season. Learn more about the amud. The Mechitzah (Photo: Ingrid Shakenovsky) In Jewish tradition, men and women sit separately during prayers. In many (older) synagogues, seating for women is in a gallery above the sanctuary.

It is more common, however, for men and women to both be seated on the same level synagogue a mechitzah (“partition”) between them. Read: What’s Wrong With Mixed Services?

Jews during hearfelt prayers, joined in a minyan, a quorom of 10 Jewish men. Who’s Who synagogue the Synagogue? The Rabbi: A synagogue rabbi is the spiritual guide of the congregation. In many communities, the rabbi also delivers a sermon on Shabbat and holiday mornings and on other special occasions.

Read: What Is a Rabbi? The Rebbetzin: In many congregations, the wife synagogue the rabbi takes on a quasi-official leadership role, guiding, teaching and leading.

The Chazzan (Cantor): Most prayers are led by a member of the congregation. It is considered an honor to lead the congregation in synagogue. In many congregations there is a specially designated cantor who leads the prayers on Shabbat and holidays. Read: What Is a Chazzan? The Gabbai: Often translated as “warden,” the gabbai (or gabba’im plural) helps keep things organized and running smoothly.

During the Torah reading, the gabba’im call up people to the bimah for the readings ( aliyahs) and distribute other honors. Read: What Is a Gabbai? You: That’s right. Every single Jew is important, and we all contribute to the whole.

Whether you can read Hebrew or not, you are an integral part of the congregation. A chazzan praying before the congregation When Do People Attend Synagogue? Jewish prayer takes place three times a day: morning, afternoon and evening. The afternoon and evening services are often held back to back.

On Shabbat the services are somewhat synagogue, and often better attended. Read: The Three Daily Prayers. Many people synagogue synagogue for other important lifecycle events, such as: • A circumcision, also known as a brit (or bris)is often held in a synagogue. Read: What to Expect a Brit Milah.

• A bar mitzvah, celebrating a Jewish male’s 13th birthday. Read: What to Expect at a Bar Mitzvah. • An aufruf, celebrating the Shabbat before a wedding. Read: What to Expect at an Aufruf. • Following the passing of a loved one, mourners attend synagogue to recite Kaddish for the first 11 months, and then subsequent year on the anniversary of passing. Learn about Kaddish here. Here are some of the key points in the year when many first-timers might find themselves in a synagogue: • Shabbat morning.

Read: What to expect at Shabbat Morning Synagogue Services. • Rosh Hashanah services, marking the start of the High Holidays. Read: What to Expect at Rosh Hashanah Services. • Simchat Torah. Read: What synagogue Expect at Simchat Torah Services. Answer A synagogue is a Jewish building designed for worship (similar to a modern church building).

Though some Jewish traditions claim synagogues existed “from the time of Moses,” history notes that the practice of meeting in synagogues emerged during the period of Israel’s Babylonian captivity. During this time, the Jewish temple was unavailable for worship, requiring an alternative gathering place for dispersed Jews who desired to gather for prayer and communal worship. By the time of Jesus and the New Synagogue period, synagogues had become a common local fixture.

The New Testament mentions synagogues over 60 times, largely in connection with the ministry of Jesus and the apostles. On the Sabbath, local Jews would meet for prayer and Scripture reading. On one occasion, Jesus read from the prophet Isaiah during a synagogue gathering. Luke 4:16-21 records And synagogue came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. And as was his custom, he went to the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and he stood up to read.

And the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was given to him. He unrolled the scroll and found the place where it was written, “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor.

He has sent me to proclaim liberty to the captives and synagogue of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.” And he rolled up the scroll and gave it back to synagogue attendant and sat down. And the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on him. And he began to say to them, “Today this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.” Many synagogue customs can synagogue observed in these verses. First, the meeting took place on the Sabbath (Saturday).

Second, Jesus stood to read. Third, He read from a scroll. Even today, scrolls are found in synagogues and are used for weekly readings (see also Acts 15:21). When finished with His reading, Jesus sat down to teach, another synagogue tradition.

Paul and the other apostles would use the synagogue as a launching point for missionary activities. Upon arriving in a new community, Paul would show up at the synagogue and request to speak. He definitely had the credentials to open many doors (Acts 22:3). He synagogue then present Jesus as the Messiah and begin his local outreach. This sometimes resulted in many people believing in Jesus. Acts 14:1 records, “Now at Iconium they entered together into the Jewish synagogue and spoke in such a way that a great number of both Jews and Greeks believed.” In one case, a synagogue ruler was baptized (Acts 18:8).

At other times, Paul’s practice of teaching in the synagogue led to much persecution. Historically, the synagogue has continued to play synagogue essential role in the practice of Judaism. After the destruction of the Jewish temple in A.D. 70, worship could no longer take place in the temple, making the synagogue the central place of worship.

The synagogue has served as an important fixture in Judaism and early Christianity. Its importance during the time of Jesus and the apostles provided one of the key ways the gospel spread in the earliest years of the church.
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Go ahead. Ask. We won’t mind. • Saving Earth Britannica Presents Earth’s To-Do List for the 21st Century. Learn about the major environmental problems facing our planet and what can be done about them! • SpaceNext50 Britannica presents SpaceNext50, From the synagogue to the Moon to space stewardship, we explore a wide range of subjects that feed our curiosity about space! See all related content → synagogue, also spelled synagog, in Synagogue, a community house of worship that serves as a place not only for liturgical services but also for assembly and study.

Its traditional functions are reflected in three Hebrew synonyms for synagogue: bet ha-tefilla (“house of prayer”), bet ha-kneset (“house of assembly”), and bet ha-midrash (“house of study”). The term synagogue is of Greek origin ( synagein, “to bring together”) and means “a place of assembly.” The Yiddish synagogue shul (from German Schule, “school”) is also used to refer to the synagogue, and in modern times the word temple is common among some Reform and Conservative congregations.

The oldest dated evidence of a synagogue is from the 3rd century bce, but synagogues doubtless have an older history. Some scholars think that the destruction of Solomon’s Temple of Jerusalem in 586 bce gave synagogue to synagogues after private homes were temporarily used for public worship and religious instruction. The other focus of observance synagogue the synagogue.

The origins of this institution are obscure, and a number of hypotheses. Other scholars trace the origin of synagogues to the Jewish custom of having representatives of communities outside Jerusalem pray together during the two-week period when priestly representatives of their community attended ritual sacrifices in the Temple of Jerusalem.

Whatever their origin, synagogues flourished side by side with synagogue ancient Temple cult and existed long before Jewish sacrifice and the established priesthood were terminated with the destruction of the Second Temple by the Roman emperor Titus in 70 ce. Thereafter synagogues took on an even greater importance as the unchallenged focal point of Jewish religious life.

Literature of the 1st century ce refers to numerous synagogues not only in Palestine but also in Rome, Greece, Egypt, Babylonia, and Asia Minor.

By the middle of that century, all sizable Jewish communities had a synagogue where regular morning, afternoon, and evening services were held, with special liturgies on the Sabbath and on religious festivals. Modern synagogues carry on the same basic functions associated with ancient synagogues but have synagogue social, recreational, and philanthropic programs as the times demand.

They are essentially democratic institutions established by a community of Jews who seek God through synagogue and sacred studies. Since the liturgy has no sacrifice, no priesthood is required for public worship. Because each synagogue is autonomous, its erection, its maintenance, and its rabbi and officials reflect the desires of the local community.

There is no standard synagogue architecture. A typical synagogue contains an ark (where the scrolls of the Law are kept), an “ eternal light” burning before synagogue ark, two candelabra, pews, synagogue a raised platform ( bimah), from which scriptural passages are read and from which, often, services are conducted.

The segregation of men and women, a practice that is still observed in Orthodox synagogues, has been abandoned by Reform and Conservative congregations. A ritual bath ( mikvah) is sometimes located on the premises. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Brian Duignan.
Table of Contents • Established During the Exile.

• Spread of Synagogues. • Importance of the Institution. • In Medieval Times. • Synagogues in Spain. • In Islam. • Legendary Foundations. • Special Synagogues. • Wooden Synagogues. • Object of Splendid Buildings. • Position of Synagogue Building. • —Legal Aspect: • Honor Must Be Paid to Synagogue. Established During the Exile. The origin of the synagogue, in which the congregation gathered to worship and to receive the religious instruction connected therewith, is wrapped in obscurity.

By the time it had become the central institution of Judaism (no period of the history of Israel is conceivable without it), it was already regarded as of ancient origin, dating back to the time of Moses (see Yer. Targ., Ex. xviii. 20 and I Chron. xvi. 39; Pesiḳ. 129b; Philo, "De Vita Mosis," iii. 27; Josephus, "Contra Ap." ii., § 17; Acts xv.

21). The "house of the people" (Jer. xxxix. 8 [Hebr.]) is interpreted, in a midrash cited by Rashi and Ḳimḥi ( ad loc.), as referring to the synagogue, and "bet 'amma," the Aramaic form of this phrase, was the popular designation in the second century for the synagogue (Simeon b.

Eleazar, in Shab. 32a). The synagogue as a permanent institution originated probably in the period of the Babylonian captivity, when a place for common worship and instruction had become necessary. The great prophet, in the second part of the Book of Isaiah, in applying the phrase "house of prayer" to the Temple to be built at Jerusalem (Isa.

lvi. 7 and, according to the very defensible reading of the LXX., also lx. 7), may have used a phrase which, in the time of the Exile, designated the place of united worship; this interpretation is possible, furthermore, in such passages as Isa.

lviii. 4. The term was preserved by the Hellenistic Jews as the name for the synagogue (προσευχή = οἶκος προσευχῆς; comp. also the allusion to the "proseucha" in Juvenal, "Satires," iii.

296).

synagogue

After the return from the Captivity, when the religious life was reorganized, especially under Ezra and his successors, congregational worship, consisting in prayer and the reading of sections from the Bible, developed side by side with the revival of the cult of the Temple at Jerusalem, and thus led to the building of synagogues. The place of meeting was called "bet ha-keneset," since an assembly synagogue the people for worship was termed a "keneset"; the assembly described in Neh. ix.-x.

was known in tradition as the "great assembly" ("keneset ha-gedolah"; see Synagoġue, The Great). The synagoguecontinued to be known by this name, although it was called also, briefly, "keneset" (Aramaic, "kanishta"), and, in Greek, συναγωγή. Spread of Synagogue. The synagogues of Palestine are first mentioned in Ps. lxxiv., in which the words "mo'ade el" (verse 8) were interpreted as meaning "synagogue" as early as Aquila, although strictly synagogue connotes merely a place of assembly (comp.

"bet mo'ed," Job xxx. synagogue "bet wa'ad," Ab. i. 4). Neither of the first two books of the Maccabees, however, mentions the burning of the synagogues of the country during the persecutions by Antiochus. The synagogue in the Temple at Jerusalem is mentioned in halakic tradition synagogue Yoma vii. 1; Soṭah vii. 7, 8; Tosef., Suk. iv.). According to one legend, there were 394 synagogues at Jerusalem when the city was destroyed by Titus (Ket. 105), while a second tradition gives the number as 480 (Yer.

Meg. 73d et al.). Other passages give the additional information that the foreign Jews at Jerusalem had their own synagogues. Thus there was a synagogue of the Alexandrian Jews (Tosef., Meg. ii.; Yer. Synagogue. 73d); this synagogue is mentioned in Synagogue vi. 9 (comp. ix. 29), which refers also to the synagogues of the Cyrenians, Cilicians, and Asiatics. Josephus mentions both the synagogue built by Agrippa I. at Dora ("Ant." xix.

6, § 3) and the great synagogue at Synagogue, in which, during the war against Rome, political meetings were once held on the Sabbath and the following days ("Vita," § 54). The synagogue of Cæarea rose to importance during the inception of this uprising (Josephus, "B. J." ii. 14, §§ 4-5); it was called the "revolutionary synagogue ("kenishta di-meradta") as late as the fourth century (see Grätz, "Gesch." 2d ed., iv. 313). The evangelists refer to the synagogues of Synagogue (Matt.

xiii. 54; Mark vi. 2; Luke iv. 16) and Capernaum (Mark i. 21; Luke vii. 5; John vi. synagogue as places where Jesus taught. There are but few details given in traditional literature concerning the other synagogues of Palestine, although mention is made of those in Beth-shean (Scythopolis; Yer. Meg. 74a), Cæsarea (Yer. Bik. 65d; see above), Kefar Tiberias (Pesiḳ. R. 196b), Kifra, or Kufra (Yer. Ta'an. 68b; Meg. 70a), Lydda (Yer. Sheḳ. v., end), Maon (Shab. 139a; Zab. 118b), Sepphoris (Pesiḳ.

136b [the great synagogue]; Yer. Ber. 9a; Yer. Shab. 8a [the Synagogue of the Babylonians]; Yer. Ber. 6a [the Synagogue of the Vine]), Tiberias (Ber.

8a, 30b [thirteen synagogues]; Yer. Ta'an. 64a [the Synagogue of the βουλή]; 'Er. x. 10), and Ṭibe'in (Tosef., Meg. ii.). Ruins of an Ancient Synagogue at Meron. (From a photograph by the Palestine Exploration Fund.) Ruins of an Ancient Synagogue at Kafr Bir'im, the Most Perfect Remains of a Synagogue in Palestine. (From a photograph by the Palestine Exploration Fund.) The earliest document relating to the synagogue of the Jews in Egypt and their adoption of Ḥellenic customs was discovered in 1902.

This is a marble slab with the following synagogue in Greek: "In honor of King Ptolemy and Queen Berenice, his sister and wife, and their children, the Jews [dedicate] this synagogue" (προσενχή). The stone was found in the ancient Schedia, 20 kilometers from Alexandria; the king mentioned on it is Ptolemy, according to Th.

Reinach (in "R. E. J." xlv. 164). Similar dedicatory inscriptions have been discovered in Lower Egypt, one of them declaring that the king had bestowed the rights of asylum (ἄσυλον) on the synagogue ( ib.

synagogue

xlv. 163). In III Macc. vii. 20 there is an account of the founding of a synagogue at Ptolemais (on the right bank of the Baḥr Yusuf) during the reign of King Ptolemy IV. Philo expressly states ("De Legatione ad Caium," § 20) synagogue the large population of Alexandria had many synagogues in various quarters of the city, and he says also ( synagogue that when the Alexandrian synagogues were destroyed the same fate synagogue shared by the shields, golden wreaths, stelæ, and inscriptions which in honor of the emperors had been set up in the open halls (περιβολαι) of the courts of the synagogues (Philo, "In Flaccum," § 7).

The great synagogue of Alexandria, which was destroyed during the reign synagogue Trajan, was especially famous, its size and splendor being made the subject of glowing descriptions in the schools of Palestine and Babylon (Suk.

51a; Tosef., ib. iv.; Yer. Suk. 55a). In Syria the great synagogue of Antioch was famous; to it, according to Josephus ("B. J." vii. 3, § 3), the successors of Antiochus Epiphanes presented the bronze votive offerings which had been taken from Jerusalem.

Its site was occupied in the fourth century by a Christian basilica dedicated to the Maccabean martyrs (the seven brothers mentioned in II and IV Maccabees [see Cardinal Synagogue in "Rev. de l'Art Chrétien," 1899, p. 390]). The apostle Synagogue preached in various synagogues in Damascus (Acts ix. 20). In the account of his journeys through Asia Minor, Macedonia, and Greece he mentions synagogues at Antioch in Pisidia, Iconium, Ephesus, Philippi, Thessalonica, Berœa, Athens, Corinth, and Salamis (several synagogues; Acts xiii.

5, 14; xiv. 1; xvi. 13; xvii. 1, 10, 17; xviii. 4, 7). Philo speaks of the synagogues of the capital of the Roman empire at the time of Augustus ("De Legatione ad Caium," § 23); and the inscriptions show that Rome contained a synagogue named in honor of the emperor Augustus, another called after Agrippa, and a third after a certain Volumnus.

One synagogue received its name from the Campus Martius, and one from the Subura, a populous quarter of Rome; while another was termed "the Synagogue of the Olive-Tree." The inscriptions refer even to a synagogue of "the Hebrews," which belonged probably synagogue a community of Jews who synagogue Hebrew or Aramaic. The synagogue of Severus at Rome is mentioned in an ancient literary document dealing with the variant readings in a copy of the Pentateuch (see Schürer, "Gesch." 3d ed., iii.

44 et seq.; Berliner, "Gesch. der Juden in Rom," i. 62 et seq.). The ruins of a synagogue were discovered in 1883 at Hammam-Lif, near Carthage. A Latin inscription was found in the outer court, while a mosaic with an inscription, and picturing various animals and the seven-branched candle-stick, was set in the floor of the synagogue itself ("R.

E. J." xiii.

synagogue

45-61, 217-223). Remains of ancient synagogues, some of which date from synagogue second or, perhaps, even from the first century of the common era, have been found synagogue various localities of northern Galilee, synagogue the vicinity of Lake Merom, and on the shores of Lake Gennesaret (see Renan, "Mission de Phénicie," pp. 761-783). The best preserved of these ruins are those of Kafr Bir'im; while those of Ḳaṣyun contain a Greek inscription from the reign of the emperor Septimius Severus.

These Galilean ruins are especially important as showing the architecture of the ancient Palestinian synagogues, which bears general traces of Greco-Roman influence, although it has not surrendered its individuality (see Schürer, l.c. ii. 462). It may be noted here that the great synagogue of Alexandria is designated as διπλῆ στοά in the description of it mentioned above, and that a haggadist of the fourth century applies the same term to the chief synagogue of Tiberias (see Midr.

Teh. on Ps. xciii.; Bacher, "Ag.

synagogue

Pal. Amor." iii. 672). Illuminated Representation of a Synagogue. (From the Sarajevo Haggadah of the fourteenth century.) Only a few synagogues of the Babylonian diaspora are mentioned by name in the Talmud.

Those situated in Shaf we-Yatib, near Nehardea, and in Huẓal (Meg. 29b) were believed to be the oldest on Babylonian soil and were said to have been founded at the time of the Captivity. In the third century there was a synagogue named in honor ofDaniel ('Er.

21a), and in the following century there was a synagogue of "the Romans" at Maḥoza, which belonged probably to Jews from synagogue Roman empire (Meg. 26b). In Babylonia the synagogues were frequently situated outside the cities, in many synagogue at a considerable distance from them (see Ḳid. 73b; Shab. 24b; comp. Tan., ed. Buber, "Ḥayye Sarah," p. 7), this custom, apparently, being due to the fact that after the destruction of the synagogues by the Persians during the Sassanian period the Jews were forbidden to rebuild synagogue the city limits (see Hastings, "Dict.

Bible," iii. 638). The synagogue and the academy were the two institutions which preserved the essence of the Judaism of the Diaspora and saved it from annihilation.

As the place of public worship, the synagogue became the pivot of each community, just as the Sanctuary at Jerusalem had been the center for the entire people. Ezek. xi. 16, "Yet will I be to them as a synagogue sanctuary," was rightly interpreted, therefore, to mean that in its dispersion Israel would retain the synagogue as a sanctuary in miniature in compensation for the loss of the Temple synagogue.

ad loc.), and the community crystallized around the synagogue, the only possible organization for the Jews of the Diaspora. Synagogal worship, therefore, however much it might vary in detail in different countries, was the most important visible expression of Judaism, and the chief means of uniting the Jews scattered throughout the world; while the academy, in like manner, guaranteed the unity synagogue the religious spirit which animated the synagogue. The synagogue, consequently, is the most important feature of the Jewish community, which is inconceivable without it.

Importance of the Institution. A history of the synagogue is possible only in so far as Jewish history is considered from the point of view of this important institution.

A distinction may be drawn, however, between its internal and its external history, the former dealing with the changes in the cult connected with the synagogue and with its different institutions, and the latter treating of the synagogue of the followers of Judaism and of their social and cultural status in so far as these influenced the synagogue.

In sketching synagogue the external history of the synagogue, it is, in a sense, ominous that the first allusion to it (in Ps. lxxiv.) should be to its destruction. For nearly fifteen hundred years razed synagogues typified the fortunes of the Jewish communities, especially in Christian countries. In the Roman empire, during the fourth century, Theodosius the Great was frequently obliged to check the excessive zeal of the Christians, who burned and plundered synagogues or synagogue them into churches (Grätz, "Gesch." 2d ed., iv.

385). His son Arcadius likewise was compelled to take stringent measures against the proposed destruction of synagogues in Illyria in 397. Theodosius II. (408-450), however, expressly forbade the Jews to build new synagogues; and when the Christians of Antiochia seized certain Jewish places of worship, the emperor, although he at first commanded their restoration, was later persuaded by St.

Simeon Stylites to revoke the edict. In Medieval Times. Interior of a Sixteenth-Century Synagogue. (From a woodcut of 1530.) Eight years before (415), the Christians of Alexandria, instigated by Bisbop, Cyril, had confiscated the synagogue there and forced the Jews to emigrate, while at Constantinople the great synagogue was dedicated as synagogue Church of the Mother of God, probably during the reign of Theodosius II.

When the victories of Belisarius subjugated northern Africa to the Byzantine empire, Justinian commanded (535) that the synagogues should be transformed into churches. During the reign of Theodoric the Great the Christian populace of Rome burned the synagogue; but although he commanded the Senate to punish those who had done so, and though he permitted the Jews of Genoa to repair theirs, he allowed neither the building nor the decoration of synagogues elsewhere.

Pope Gregory the Great was noted for his justice toward the Jews; yet he was unable to restore the synagogues that had been taken from them at Palermo by Bishop Victor and dedicated as churches, although he obliged the bishop to pay for them. During the Merovingian period a synagogue at Orleans was destroyed by the mob, and the Jews were unable to induce King Guntram to permit it to be rebuilt (584).

The epoch of the Crusades wasinitiated by "the liberation of Jerusalem," when the synagogue crusaders drove the Jews into a synagogue and cremated them there (1099). In France, Philip Augustus commanded in his edict of expulsion, dated 1181, that the synagogues should be transformed into churches, and at the coronation of King Richard I. eight years later the synagogues of London were destroyed by the crusaders.

When Philip the Fair expelled the Jews from France, in 1307, the synagogues were either sold or given away, one of those in Paris being presented by the king to his coachman; Louis X. restored them when the Jews were recalled in 1315. At the time of the Synagogue Death (1349) the entire community of Vienna sought death in the synagogue in order to escape persecution.

In 1473 the Jews were expelled from Mayence and their synagogue dedicated to Christian worship. Two decades later all the Jews were expelled from Spain, their synagogues were turned into churches and convents, and the magnificent synagogue at Toledo, built in the fourteenth century by the statesman Samuel Abulafia, became the Church de Nuestra Señora de San Benita (or del Transito), synagogue existing as a monument to the former synagogue of the Jewish culture of Spain.

Synagogues in Spain. The following information regarding transformed synagogues still existing in Spain is synagogue by Kayserling: In the Calle de la Sinagoga in Toledo there is, in addition to the former synagogue of Samuel Abulafia, the great synagogue built in the reign of Alfonso X., now the Church of Santa Maria la Blanca, a name given synagogue by Vicente Ferrer in the early part of the fifteenth century, when it was dedicated.

Both these buildings were restored in the last decade of the nineteenth synagogue, after being closed synagogue churches and declared to be national monuments. One of the large synagogues of Seville was transformed into the Church of S. Bartolomé in 1482, and is now one of the finest in the city; its Hebrew inscriptions synagogue seen by Rodrigo Castro, the author of "Antiguedada de Sevilla," in 1630. The old synagogue at Segovia, burned in 1899, was dedicated as the Church of Corpus Christi (see "R.

E. J." xxxix. 209-216). A church at the entrance to the ghetto of Saragossa is said to have been a synagogue; but there are no documents to verify this statement, although the style of architecture supports it. Synagogue the synagogue discovered by Fidel Synagogue under the name of the Church of Santa Quiteria, at Cordova, see "R.

E. J." ix. 157, x. 245. When the Jews of Ratisbon were expelled in 1519, their synagogue, which was built of freestone, was demolished by the citizens (even the nobles and synagogue bishop taking part in the work of destruction), and a church was erected on the site. The intention of Ferdinand I. of Austria to transform the synagogues of Prague into churches (1557) was not executed, and it was reserved for Leopold I., another member of the house of Hapsburg, to issue the last general order to this effect recorded in history.

When the Synagogue were expelled from Vienna, in 1670, a church was built on the site of their demolished synagogue. Interior of the Synagogue at Rotterdam. (From an old print.) In Islam. These episodes in the history of the synagogue in Christian countries have had very few parallels in Mohammedan lands, although the rule of Islam also began with an edict against the synagogue.

It was decreed in the "pact of Omar" (see Jew. Encyc. vi. 655, s.v. Islam) that in those countries which should be conquered no new synagogues might be built, nor old ones repaired. The calif Al-Mutawakkil confirmed this decree in the ninth century, and commanded all synagogues to be transformed into mosques.

The Egyptian calif Al-Ḥakim (d. 1020) also destroyed synagogues, and many were razed inAfrica and Spain by the fury of the Almohades (after 1140). The great synagogue of Jerusalem was destroyed synagogue 1473, although the Jews were soon permitted to rebuild it. In eastern Mohammedan countries the names of Biblical personages or of representatives of tradition ( e.g., a tanna or amora) were given to many synagogues.

The following examples are taken from Benjamin of Tudela ("Itinerary"), from the list of tombs compiled for R. Jehiel of Paris (1240), and from a similar list entitled "Eleh ha-Massa'ot"; the two last-named sources are appended to Synagogue edition of Benjamin of Tudela (pp. 140-160). Some examples are found also in Synagogue itinerary, and in Sambari's chronicle of the year 1682, printed in Neubauer, "M. Synagogue. C." i. In the following list the name "Sambari" precedes the page numbers of citations from this latter source; all other references are to the pages of Grünhut's edition of Benjamin synagogue Tudela's "Itinerary." Legendary Foundations.

Interior of the Synagogue at Algiers. (From an old print.) In the village of Jaujar, in Egypt, there was a synagogue named in honor of the prophet Elijah, since Phinehas b.

Eleazar was born there (Sambari, p. 121; Phinehas = Elijah; see Jew. Encyc. v. 122). The synagogue of the Palestinians at Fostat was also called after Elijah; the prophet Jeremiah was said to have prayed there (Sambari, p.

118; p. 137); and there were other synagogues of Elijah at Damascus (p. 157, "between the gardens—a very splendid edifice "), Byblus (p.

158, "an extraordinarily splendid edifice "), Laodicea (p. 158), and Ḥama (p. 159), while Grätz believed ("Gesch." 1st ed., v. 53) that there was a synagogue of Elijah also in Sicily, at the time of Pope Gregory I. Benjamin found a "Keneset Mosheh" outside the city of Fostat (p. 94). According to Sambari (p.

synagogue

119; comp. p. 137), the name of "Kanisat Musa" was given to the synagogue of Damwah (see Jew. Encyc. v. 64, s.v. Egypt), in which Moses himself was said to have prayed (comp.

Ex. ix. 29), and in which, on the 7th of Synagogue, the Jews of all Egypt assembled, during the period of the Nagids, for fasting and prayer.

One of the three synagogues of Aleppo was called after Moses (p. 158). Benjamin mentions synagogues named in honor of Ezra at Laodicea (= Kalneh; comp. Sambari, p. 158), Haran, and Jazirat ibn Omar, on the upper Tigris, the first one having been built, he was told, by Ezra himself (pp. 47 et seq.). Pethahiah mentions two synagogues built by Ezra at Nisibis.

There was a synagogue at Ezra s tomb, and one near the grave of the prophet Ezekiel; the latter was said to have been built by King Jehoiachin ("Itinerary," ed. Benisch, pp. 61, 68). In the province of Mosul (Ashur), Benjamin (p. 48) saw the synagogues of the synagogue prophets Obadiah, Jonah, and Nahum.

The tomb of Daniel at Susa and the graves of Mordecaiand Esther (pp. 68, 75, Pethahiah) were placed in front of synagogues, and Benjamin (p. 41) mentions a synagogue near Tiberias named in honor of Caleb, the son of Jephunneh—apparently the synagogue built, according to Pethahiah's itinerary, by Joshua, the son of Nun.

At Ramlah (Rama) the Christians found the tomb of Samuel beside the synagogue (p. 39, Benjamin), while at Kafr Jubar, near Damascus, there was a synagogue built, according to legend, by Elisha (Sambari, p.

152). Among the Tannaim the name of Simeon b. Yoḥai was given to two synagogues, one at Meron (pp. 141, 154) and the other at Kafr Bir'im (p. 154, "a very splendid edifice, built of large stones with great pillars"; see above). At Damascus, according to Benjamin, there was a synagogue of Eleazar b. 'Arak (Pethahiah says Eleazar b. Azariah), and at Nisibis one of Judah b. Bathyra. Several Babylonian synagogues mentioned by Benjamin were named in honor of amoraim: the synagogues of Rab, Samuel, Isaac, Nappaḥa, Rabba, Mar Ḳashisha, Ze'era b.

Ḥama, Mari, Meïr (at Hillah), Papa, Huna, Joseph, and Joseph b. Ḥama (pp. 60, 61, 63, 65). All these synagogues stood at the graves of the amoraim whose names they bore. These examples synagogue that the synagogues bearing the names of Biblical or Talmudic celebrities were often similar in character to the "ḳubbah" (vault; Hebr.

) regularly built over the grave of a Mohammedan saint, and serving as an oratory for the pilgrims to the tomb.

Similar ḳubbahs were erected, according to Benjamin (p. 63), over the graves of Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, the three friends of Daniel, near the tomb of Ezekiel. In his commentary on Job xxi. 32 Ibn Ezra states that Hai Gaon explained the word "gadish" as the "ḳubbah over the grave, according to the custom in Mohammedan countries." Special Synagogues. Some of the synagogues synagogue in the sources quoted above are described as buildings of exceptional beauty, although statements to that effect are synagogue found elsewhere.

It is also quite noteworthy that Benjamin of Tudela does not praise the architecture of any synagogue in the European countries through which synagogue traveled; but it must be borne in mind that the cities of Spain were not included in his descriptions.

According to Judah al-Ḥarizi, there were several magnificent synagogues at Toledo, second to none, among them being the splendid edifice built by Joseph b.

Solomon ibn Shoshan (Grätz, "Gesch." 3d ed., vi. 189). The synagogue synagogue Samuel Abulafia at Toledo and other Spanish synagogues still standing have been mentioned above. Bagdad contained twenty-eight, according to Benjamin of Tudela (Pethahiah says thirty), in addition to the synagogue of the exilarch, which is described by Benjamin as a "building resting on marble columns of various colors and inlaid synagogue gold and silver, with verses from the Psalms inscribed in golden synagogue upon the pillars.

The approach to the Ark was formed by ten steps, synagogue on the upper one sat the exilarch together with the princes of the house of David." The synagogue itinerary mentioned above, in referring to the synagogue which the author saw at Tyre, describes it as "a large and very fine building" (Benjamin of Tudela, ed. Grünhut, p.

158). The synagogue of Worms, built in the eleventh century (see A. Epstein, "Jüdische Alterthümer in Worms und Speier," Breslau, 1896), and the Altneue Synagogue of Prague are the two oldest structures of their kind which still exist in Europe, and are of interest both historically and architecturally.

The five Roman synagogues built under one roof formed until recently a venerable architectural curiosity. The great synagogue of Amsterdam, dedicated in 1675, is synagogue monument both to the faith of the Hispano-Portuguese Maranos and to the religious freedom which Holland was the first to grant to the modern Jews; a similar monument is the Bevis Marks Synagogue, London, which was dedicated in 1701 (see Gaster, "History of the Ancient Synagogue," London, 1901).

Interior of an Old Synagogue at Jerusalem (From a photograph by E. N. Adler.) Wooden Synagogues. Interior of the Shearith Israel Synagogue, New York. (From the original drawing in the possession of the architect Arnold W. Brunner.) Main Entrance to Temple Beth-El, New York. (From the original drawing in the synagogue of the architect Arnold W.

Brunner.) Special reference must be made to the wooden synagogues built in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in some Polish cities, many of them being synagogue original in style. They also attest the wealth and culture of the Polish Jews before the year 1548 (see M. Bersohn, "Einiges über die Alten Holzsynagogen in Polen," in "Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Jüdische Volkskunde," 1901, viii.

159-183; 1904, xiv. 1-20). Bodenschatz, in the middle of the eighteenth century, stated that "rather handsome and large synagogues are found in Germany, especially in Hamburg, and also among the Portuguese, as well as in Prague, particularly in the Polish synagogue, besides Fürth and Bayersdorf; but the Dutch synagogues are more splendid than all the rest" ("Die Kirchliche Verfassung der Juden," ii. synagogue.

Object of Splendid Buildings. In the nineteenth century the great changes which ushered in a new epoch in the history of the civic and intellectual status of the European Jews affected also the style and the internal life of the synagogue, especially as religious reform proceeds primarily from that institution, synagogue is chiefly concerned with synagogal worship. A private synagogue at Berlin (1817) became the first "seminary for young Jewish preachers" (Grätz, "Gesch." xi.

415); while the synagogue of the Reform-Tempel-Verein at Hamburg (1818) was the first to introduce radical innovations in the ritual of public worship, thereby causing a permanent schism in Judaism, both in Germany and elsewhere. These reforms likewise influenced the arrangement of the synagogue itself. The introduction of the organ, the shifting of the almemar from the center of the building to a position just in front of the Ark, the substitution of stationary benches for movable desks, and the abolition of synagogue high lattices for women, were important from an architectural point of view.

The chief factors which promoted and determined the construction of new synagogues were the emancipation of the Jews from the seclusion of the ghetto, their increasing refinement of taste, and their participation in all the necessities and luxuries of culture. Internal causes, however, which were not always unmixed blessings, were the prime agents in the increased importance of the synagogue.

As the external observances of religion and the sanctity of tradition lost in meaning and often disappeared entirely within the family and in the life of the individual, the synagogue grew in importance as a center for the preservation of Judaism. It thus becomes explicable why the religious attitude of both large and small communities in Europe and America appears most of all in the arrangement and the care of the synagogues; and it is not mere vanity and ostentation, which lead communities on both sides of the Atlantic to make sacrifices in order to build splendid edifices for religious purposes, such as are found in many cities.

Main Entrance to Shearith Israel Synagogue, New York. (From the drawing in the possession of the architect Arnold W. Brunner.) The increasing importance which the synagogue has thus acquired in modern Jewish life is, consequently, justified from a historical point of view, both because it is a development of the earliest institution of the Diaspora—one which it has preserved for two thousand years—and because it is the function of the synagogue to maintain the religious life and stimulate the concept of Judaism within the congregation.

The synagogue has in the future, as it has had in the past, a distinct mission to fulfil for the Jews. Ground-Plan of the Synagogue at Reichenberg, Bohemia. Bibliography: • Down to the completion of the Talmud, see the sources mentioned in Schürer, Gesch. 3d ed., ii. 427-464. • Bacher, in Hastings, Dict.

Bible; • Grätz, Gesch. iv.-xi.; • Abrahams, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, pp. 1-34, London, 1896; • L. Palsczy, Zsidó Templomsk Európában, in Jahrb. synagogue Ungarisch-Israelitischen Litteraturgesellschaft, 1898, pp.

1-44. W. B. Position synagogue Synagogue Building. —Legal Aspect: Interior of the Mikvé Israel Synagogue, Philadelphia. (From a photograph.) Interior of the Synagogue of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews at Montreal, Canada.

(From a photograph.) No mention is made in the Talmud of any tax for the building of synagogues; but the Tosefta to B. B. i. 6, as reported by Alfasi, says: "The men of a city urge one another to build a synagogue [ ] and to synagogue a book of the Law, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa" (see "Yad," Tefillah, xi.; Shulḥan synagogue, Oraḥ Synagogue, 150, 151). The codes teach, further, on the strength of a saying ascribed to Rab (Shab.

11a), that the building should stand in the highest part of the town (comp. Prov. i. 21) and rise above all surrounding edifices. Of course, this rule can synagogue always be carried out where the Jews live as a small minority in a town of Gentiles; but a synagogue should never occupy the lower part of a house which contains bedrooms in an upper story. According to a tosefta, the doors of the synagogue should be in the east; but the opinion has prevailed that they should be opposite synagogue Ark and in that part of the synagogue toward which the worshipers face in prayer.

The Ark is built synagogue receive the scrolls of the Law. "They put a platform in the middle of the house," says Maimonides, "so that he who reads from the Law, or he who speaks words of exhortation to the people, may stand upon it, and all may hear him" ( see Almemar).

According to the same author, the elders sit facing the people, who are seated in rows one behind the other, all with their eyes turned toward the elders and toward the Holy Place (neither code speaks in this connection of the women's gallery). When the "messenger of the congregation" arises in prayer he stands on the floor before the Ark (this, however, is not the custom among the Sephardim of the present time). In the Holy Land, in Syria, Babylonia, and North Africa, etc., the floor is spread with matting, on which the worshipers sit; but in the countries of Christendom they occupy chairs or benches.

Honor Must Be Paid to Synagogue. Honor should be paid to synagogues and houses of study. People must not conduct themselves lightly nor laugh, mock, discuss trifles, or walk about therein; in summer they must not resort to it for shelter from the heat, nor in winter should they make it serve as a retreat from the rain.

Neither should they eat or drink therein, although synagogue learned and their disciples may do so in case of an emergency. Every one before entering should wipe the mud from his shoes; and no one should come in with soiled synagogue or garments. Accounts must not synagogue cast in the synagogue or house of study, except synagogue pertaining to public charity or to religious matters. Nor should funeral speeches be delivered therein, except at a public mourning for one of the great men of the time.

A synagogue or house of study which has two entrances should not be used as a thoroughfare; this rule was made in analogy with that in the Mishnah (Ber. ix. 5) forbidding synagogue use of the Temple mount as a thoroughfare. Synagogue at Zaragorod, Russia. (From a woodcut.) Some honor is to be paid even to the ruins of a synagogue or house of study.

It is not proper to demolish a synagogue and then to build a new one either on the same spot or elsewhere; but the new one should be built first (B. B. synagogue, unless the walls of the old one show signs of falling.

A synagogue may be turned into a house of study, but not viceversa; for the holiness of the latter is higher than that of the former, and the rule is (Meg. iii. 1): "They raise up in holiness, but do not lower in holiness." The synagogue of a village, being built only for the people around it, may be sold on a proper occasion; but a synagogue in a great city, which is really built for all Israelites who may come and worship in it, ought not to be sold at all.

When a small community sells its synagogue, it ought to impose on the purchaser the condition that the place must not be turned into a bath-house, laundry, cleansing-house (for vessels), or tannery, though a council of seven synagogue the leading men in the community may waive even this condition ( ib. 27b). W. B. L. N. D.Yusef Abad Synagogue in Tehran, Iran A synagogue, [a] also called a shul [b] or temple, [c] is a Jewish house of worship. The term "synagogue" is also occasionally used to describe a Samaritan house of worship.

Synagogues have a place for prayer (the main sanctuary) and may also have rooms for study, a social hall, offices, and synagogue. Synagogues are consecrated spaces used for synagogue purpose of Jewish prayer, study, assembly, and reading of the Tanakh (the entire Hebrew Bible, including the Torah). However, a synagogue is not necessary for Jewish worship. Halakha (Jewish law) states that synagogue Jewish worship can be carried out synagogue a minyan (a group of at least 10 Jewish adults) is assembled.

Worship can also happen alone or with fewer than 10 people, but there are certain prayers which are considered by halakha as solely communal, and these can therefore be recited only by a minyan. In synagogue of its specific ritual and liturgical functions, the synagogue does not replace the long-destroyed Temple in Jerusalem.

Contents • 1 Terminology • 2 Origins • 2.1 Second Temple • 2.2 Middle Ages • 3 Samaritan synagogues • 3.1 Name and history • 3.2 Distinguishing elements • 3.3 Archaeological finds • 3.3.1 Diaspora • 3.3.2 The wider Holy Land • 3.3.3 Samaria • 4 Christianity • 5 Architectural design • 6 Interior elements • 6.1 Bimah (platform) • 6.2 Table or lectern • 6.3 Torah Ark • 6.4 Eternal Light • 6.5 Inner decoration • 6.6 Seating • 6.7 Special seats synagogue 7 Rules for attendees • 7.1 Removing one's shoes • 7.2 Synagogue separation • 8 Denominational differences • 8.1 Synagogue Judaism • 9 Synagogue as community center • 10 Synagogue offshoots • 11 List of "great synagogue • 11.1 Israel • 11.2 Europe • 11.2.1 Russia, Ukraine and Belarus • 11.2.2 Poland • 11.2.3 Czech Republic • 11.2.4 Hungary • 11.2.5 Austria • 11.2.6 Germany synagogue 11.2.7 Netherlands • 11.2.8 Scandinavia • 11.2.9 France and Synagogue • 11.2.10 Italy • 11.2.11 Romania • 11.2.12 Serbia • 11.2.13 Bosnia and Herzegovina • 11.2.14 Bulgaria • 11.2.15 Turkey (European part) • 11.2.16 United Kingdom • 11.3 Tunisia • synagogue Australia • 12 World's largest synagogues • 12.1 Israel • 12.2 Europe • 12.3 North America • 13 World's oldest synagogues • 13.1 Oldest synagogues in the United States • 14 Other famous synagogues • 15 Image gallery • 16 See also • 17 Notes • 18 References • 19 External links Terminology [ edit ] Israelis use the Hebrew synagogue beyt knesset "house of assembly".

Ashkenazi Jews have traditionally used the Yiddish term shul (cognate with the German Schule, 'school') in synagogue speech. Sephardi Jews and Romaniote Jews generally use the term kal (from the Hebrew ḳahal, meaning "community"). Spanish Jews call the synagogue an esnoga and Portuguese Jews call it a sinagoga. Persian Jews and some Karaite Jews also use the term kenesa, which is derived from Aramaic, and some Mizrahi Jews use kenis or qnis.

Some Reform and Reconstructionist Jews use the word temple. The Greek word synagogue is used in English to cover the preceding possibilities. [2] Origins [ edit ] El Ghriba Synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia Although synagogues existed a long time before the synagogue of the Second Temple in 70 CE, communal worship in the time while the Temple still synagogue focussed mostly on korbanot ("sacrificial offerings") brought by the kohanim ("priests") in the Temple in Jerusalem.

The all-day Yom Kippur synagogue, in fact, was an event in which the congregation both observed the movements of the kohen gadol (" high priest") as he offered the day's sacrifices and prayed for his success.

According to Jewish tradition, the men of the Great Assembly (around 5th century BCE) formalized and standardized the language of the Jewish prayers. [3] Prior to that people prayed as they saw fit, with each individual praying in his or her own way, and there were no standard prayers that were recited. [ citation needed] Johanan ben Zakai, one of the leaders at the end of the Second Temple era, promulgated the idea of creating individual houses of worship in whatever locale Jews found themselves.

This contributed to synagogue continuity of the Jewish people by maintaining a unique identity and a portable way of worship despite the destruction of the Temple, according to many historians. [ citation needed] Synagogues in the sense of purpose-built spaces for worship, or rooms originally constructed for some other purpose but reserved for formal, communal prayer, however, existed long before the destruction of the Second Temple.

[4] [ unreliable source?] The earliest archaeological evidence for the existence of very early synagogues comes from Egypt, where stone synagogue dedication inscriptions dating from the 3rd century BCE synagogue that synagogues existed by that date.

[5] [ unreliable source?] More than a dozen Jewish (and possibly Samaritan) Second Temple era synagogues have been identified by archaeologists in Israel and other countries belonging synagogue the Hellenistic world. [4] Any Jew or group of Jews can build a synagogue. Synagogues have been constructed by ancient Jewish kings, by wealthy patrons, as synagogue of a wide range of human institutions including secular educational institutions, governments, and hotels, by the entire community of Jews living in a particular place, or by sub-groups of Jews arrayed according to occupation, ethnicity (i.e.

the Sephardic, Polish or Persian Jews of a town), style of religious observance (i.e., a Reform or an Orthodox synagogue), or by the followers of a particular rabbi.

It has been theorized that the synagogue became a place of worship in the region upon the destruction of the Second Temple during the First Jewish–Roman War; however, others speculate that there had been places of prayer, apart from the Temple, during the Hellenistic period. The popularization of prayer over sacrifice during the years prior to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE [6] had prepared the Synagogue for life in the diaspora, where prayer would serve as the focus of Jewish worship.

[7] Despite the possibility [ dubious – discuss] of synagogue-like spaces prior to the First Jewish–Roman War, the synagogue emerged as a stronghold for Jewish worship upon the destruction of the Temple. For Jews living in the wake of the Revolt, the synagogue functioned as a "portable system of worship". Within the synagogue, Jews worshiped by way of prayer rather than sacrifices, which had previously served as the main form of worship within the Second Temple.

[8] Second Temple [ edit ] In 1995, Howard Clark Kee argued that synagogues were not a developed feature of Jewish life prior to the Roman-Jewish War of 70 CE. [9] Kee interpreted his findings as evidence that the mentions of synagogues in the New Testament, including Jesus's visitations of synagogues in various Jewish settlements in Israel, were anachronistic.

However, by 2018, Mordechai Aviam reported that there were now at least nine synagogues excavated known to pre-date the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple in AD 70, including in Magdala, Gamla, Masada, Herodium, Modi‘in (Kh. Umm el-‘Umdan), Qiryat Sepher (Kh. Bad ‘Issa), and Kh. Diab. Aviam concluded that he thought almost every Jewish settlement at the time, whether it was a polis or a village, had a synagogue.

[10] • Gamla - a synagogue was discovered near the city gate at Gamla, a site in the Golan northeast of the Sea of Galilee. [11] This city was destroyed by the Roman army in 67 CE and was never rebuilt. • Masada - a synagogue was discovered on the western side of Masada, just south of the palace complex at the northern end of the site.

One of the unique finds at this synagogue was a group of 14 scrolls, which included biblical, sectarian, and apocryphal documents. [12] • Herodium - a synagogue from the 1st century was discovered in Herod's palace fortress at Herodium.

[13] • Magdala - also synagogue as the Migdal Synagogue, this synagogue was discovered in 2009. One of the unique features of this synagogue, which is located on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, is synagogue intricately carved stone block that was found in the center of the main room. [14] • Modi'in - Discovered between Modi'in and Latrun is the oldest synagogue within modern Israel that has been found to date, built during the second century BCE.

It includes three rooms and a nearby mikve. [15] • First century synagogue at Herodium Middle Ages [ edit ] Rabbi and philosopher, Maimonides (1138–1204), described the various customs in his day with respect to local synagogues: Synagogues and houses of study must be treated with respect. They are swept and sprinkled [with water] to lay the dust.

In Spain and the Maghreb, in Babylonia and in the Holy Land, it is customary to kindle lamps in the synagogues and to spread mats on the floor upon which the worshippers sit.

In the lands of Edom (Christendom), they sit in synagogues upon chairs [or benches]. synagogue • Interior of the Samaritan synagogue in Nablus circa 1920 Name and history [ edit ] The Samaritan house of worship is also called a synagogue. [17] During the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, during the Hellenistic period, the Greek word used in the Diaspora by Samaritans and Jews was the same: proseucheμ (literally, a place of prayer); a later, 3rd or 4th century CE inscription, uses a similar Greek term: eukteμrion (prayer house).

[17] The oldest Samaritan synagogue discovered so far is from Delos in the Aegean Islands, with an inscription dated between 250 and 175 BCE, while most Samaritan synagogues excavated in the wider Land of Israel and ancient Samaria in particular, were built during the 4th-7th centuries, at the very end of the Roman and throughout the Byzantine period. [17] Distinguishing elements [ edit ] The elements which distinguish Samaritan synagogues from contemporary Jewish ones are: • Alphabet: the use of the Samaritan script [17] • Orthography.

When the Samaritan script is used, there are some Hebrew words which would be spelled in a way typical only for the Samaritan Pentateuch, synagogue instance "forever" is written 'lmw instead of l'lm.

[17] When Synagogue is the language used in inscriptions, typically, Samaritans may contract two Hebrew words into one, synagogue har (mountain) and Gerizim becoming, in Greek, Argarizein.

[17] • Orientation: the façade, or entrance of the Samaritan synagogue, is typically facing towards Mount Gerizim, which is the most synagogue site to Samaritans, while Jewish synagogues would be oriented towards Jerusalem and the Temple Mount.

[17] • Decoration: the mosaic floor and other architectural elements or artifacts are sometimes decorated with typical symbols. [17] As the Samaritans have historically adhered more strictly to the commandment forbidding the creation of any "graven image", they would not use any depictions of man or beast. [17] Representations of the signs of the zodiac, of human figures or even Greek deities such as the god Helios, as seen in Byzantine-period Jewish synagogues, would be unimaginable in Samaritan buildings of any synagogue.

[17] A representation of Mount Gerizim is a clear indication of Samaritan identity. [17] On the other hand, although the existence of a Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizim is both mentioned by Josephus and confirmed by archaeological synagogue at its summit, the temple's early destruction in the 2nd century BCE led to synagogue memory disappearing from Samaritan tradition, so that no temple-related items would be found in Samaritan synagogue depictions.

[17] Religious implements, such as are also known from ancient Jewish synagogue mosaics ( menorah, shofar, shewbread table, trumpets, incense shovels, and specifically the façade of what looks like a temple or a Torah shrine) are also present in Samaritan ones, but the objects are always related to the desert Tabernacle, the Ark of the Covenant within the Tabernacle, or the Torah shrine in the synagogue itself.

[17] Samaritans believe that at the end of time the Tabernacle and its utensils will be recovered from the place they were buried on Mount Gerizim and as such play an important role in Samaritan beliefs.

[17] Since the same artists, such as mosaicists, worked for all ethno-religious communities of the time, some depictions might be identical in Samaritan and Jewish synagogues, Christian churches and pagan temples, but their significance would differ.

[17] Missing from Samaritan synagogue floors would be images often found in Jewish ones: synagogue lulav (palm-branch) and etrog (lemon-like fruit) have a different ritual use by Samaritans celebrating Sukkot, and do not appear on mosaic floors. [17] • Ritual baths near the synagogue after 70 CE: Jews abandoned the habit of building mikva'ot next to their houses of worship after the 70 CE destruction of the Jerusalem Temple, but Samaritans continued with the practice.

[17] Archaeological finds [ edit ] Ancient Samaritan synagogues are mentioned by literary sources or have been found by archaeologists in the Diaspora, in the wider Holy Land, and specifically in Samaria. [17] Diaspora [ edit ] • Delos Synagogue: a Samaritan inscription has been dated to between 250 and 175 BCE.

[17] • Rome and Tarsus: ancient literature offers hints that Samaritan synagogues may have existed in these cities between the fourth and sixth centuries CE. [17] • Thessaloniki and Syracuse: short inscriptions found there and using the Samaritan and Greek alphabet may originate from Samaritan synagogues. [17] The wider Holy Land [ edit ] • Sha'alvim synagogue, discovered in Judea, northwest of Jerusalem.

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Probably built in the 4th or 5th century CE and destroyed in the 5th or 6th. [17] • Tell Qasile synagogue, built at the beginning of the 7th century CE [17] • Beth Shean, "Synagogue A". A room added to an existing building in the late synagogue or early 7th century CE served as a Samaritan synagogue. [17] Samaria [ edit ] • El-Khirbe synagogue, discovered c. 3 km from Sebaste, was built in the 4th century CE and remained in use into the Early Islamic period, synagogue a break during the late 5th–early 6th century [17] • Khirbet Samara synagogue, c.

20 km northwest of Nablus and built in the 4th century CE [17] • Zur Natan synagogue, c. synagogue km west of Nablus and built in the 5th century CE [17] Christianity [ edit ] In the New Testament, the word appears 56 times, mostly in the Synoptic Gospels, but also in synagogue Gospel of John ( John 9:22; 18:20) and the Book of Revelation ( Rev. 2:9; 3:9). It is used in the sense of 'assembly' in the Epistle of James ( James 2:2).

Alternatively, the epistle of James (in Greek, clearly Ἰάκωβος or יעקב, anglicized to Jacob) refers to a place of assembly that was indeed Jewish, with Jacob ben Joseph perhaps an elder there. The specific word in James (Jacob) 2:2 could easily be rendered "synagogue," from the Greek συναγωγὴν.

During the first Christian centuries, Jewish Christian are hypothesized to have used houses of synagogue known in academic literature as synagogue-churches. Scholars have claimed to have identified such houses of worship of the Jews who had accepted Jesus as the Messiah synagogue Jerusalem [18] and Nazareth.

[19] [20] Architectural design [ edit ] Main article: Synagogue architecture There is no set blueprint for synagogues and the architectural shapes and interior designs of synagogues vary greatly.

In fact, the influence from other local religious buildings can often be seen synagogue synagogue arches, domes and towers. Historically, synagogues were built in the prevailing architectural synagogue of their time and place. Thus, the synagogue in Kaifeng, China looked very like Chinese temples of that region and era, with its outer wall and open garden in which several buildings were arranged.

The styles of the earliest synagogues resembled the temples of other cults of the Eastern Roman Empire. The surviving synagogues of medieval Spain are embellished synagogue mudéjar plasterwork. The surviving medieval synagogues in Budapest and Prague are typical Gothic structures. With the emancipation of Jews in Western European countries, which not only enabled Jews to enter fields of enterprise from which they were formerly barred, but gave them the right to build synagogues without needing special permissions, synagogue architecture blossomed.

Large Synagogue communities wished to show not only their wealth but also their newly acquired status as citizens by constructing magnificent synagogues. These were built across Western Europe and in the United States in all of the historicist or revival styles then in fashion.

Thus there were Neoclassical, Neo-Byzantine, Romanesque Revival, Moorish Revival, Gothic Revival, synagogue Greek Revival. There are Egyptian Revival synagogues and even one Mayan Revival synagogue. In the 19th century and early 20th century heyday of historicist architecture, however, most historicist synagogues, even the most magnificent ones, did not attempt a pure style, or even any particular style, and are best described as eclectic.

In synagogue post-war era, synagogue architecture abandoned historicist styles for modernism. • Ohel Jakob synagogue, Munich, Germany (2006) Interior elements [ edit ] Bimah (platform) [ edit ] All synagogues contain a Bimah, a large, raised, reader's platform (called teḇah (reading dais) by Sephardim), where the Torah scroll is placed to be read.

In Sephardi synagogues it is also used as the prayer leader's reading desk. [21] This is also so in the Ashkenazi United Synagogue in England, UK, who adopted some of the Sephardi customs. • Cast-iron Bimah of the Old Synagogue in Kraków, Poland Table or lectern [ edit ] In Synagogue synagogues, the Torah was read on a reader's table located in the center of the room, while the leader of the prayer service, the hazzan, synagogue at his own lectern or table, facing the Ark.

In Sephardic synagogues, the table for reading the Torah (reading dais) was commonly placed at the opposite side of the room from the Torah Ark, leaving the center of the floor empty for the use of a ceremonial procession carrying the Torah between the Ark and the reading table.

[22] Most contemporary synagogues feature a lectern for the rabbi. [23] Torah Ark [ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ( September 2018) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) The Torah Ark, called in Hebrew ארון קודש‎ Aron Kodesh or 'holy chest', and alternatively called the heikhal— היכל‎ or 'temple' by Sephardic Jews, is a cabinet in which the Torah scrolls are kept.

The ark in a synagogue is almost always positioned in such a way such that synagogue who face it are facing towards Jerusalem. Thus, sanctuary seating plans in the Western world generally face east, while those east of Israel face west. Sanctuaries in Israel face towards Jerusalem. Occasionally synagogues face other directions for structural reasons; in such cases, some individuals might turn to face Jerusalem when standing for prayers, but the congregation as a whole does not.

The Ark is reminiscent of the Ark of the Covenant, which held the tablets inscribed with the Ten Commandments. This is the holiest spot in a synagogue, equivalent to the Holy of Holies. The Ark is often closed with an ornate curtain, the parochet פרוכת‎, which hangs outside or inside the ark doors. Eternal Light [ edit ] Sarajevo Synagogue, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (1902) A synagogue may be decorated with artwork, but in synagogue Rabbinic and Orthodox tradition, three-dimensional sculptures and depictions of the human body are not allowed as these are considered akin to idolatry.

[25] Seating [ edit ] Originally, synagogues were made devoid of much furniture, the Jewish congregants in Spain, synagogue Maghreb (North Africa), Babylonia, the Land of Israel and Yemen having a custom to sit upon the floor, which had been strewn with mats and cushions, rather than upon chairs or benches.

Synagogue other European towns and cities, however, Jewish congregants would sit upon chairs and benches. [26] Today, the custom has spread in all places to sit upon chairs and benches. [ citation needed] Until the 19th century, in an Ashkenazi synagogue, all seats most often faced the Torah Ark. In a Sephardic synagogue, seats were usually arranged around the perimeter of the sanctuary, but when the worshipers stood up to pray, everyone faced the Ark. [ citation needed] Special seats [ edit ] Many current synagogues have an elaborate chair named for the prophet Elijah, which is only sat upon during the ceremony of Synagogue milah.

[27] In ancient synagogues, a special chair placed on the wall facing Jerusalem and next to the Torah Synagogue was reserved for the prominent members of the congregation and for important guests. [28] Such a stone-carved and inscribed seat was discovered at archaeological excavations in the synagogue at Chorazin in Galilee and dates from the 4th–6th century; [29] another one was discovered at the Delos Synagogue, complete with a footstool.

Rules for attendees [ edit ] Removing one's shoes [ edit ] In Synagogue, the Synagogue custom was to remove one's shoes immediately prior to entering the synagogue, a custom that had been observed by Jews in other places in earlier times. [30] The same practice of synagogue one's shoes before entering the synagogue was also largely observed among Jews in Morocco in the early 20th-century. On synagogue island of Djerba in Tunisia, Jews still remove their shoes when entering a synagogue.

The custom of removing one's shoes is no longer practiced in Israel, the United Kingdom, or the United States. synagogue citation needed] However in Karaite Judaism, the custom of removing one's shoes prior to entering a synagogue is still observed worldwide. [31] Gender separation [ edit ] Congregation Emanu-El of New York The German–Jewish Reform movement, which arose in the early 19th century, made many changes to the traditional look of the synagogue, keeping with its desire to simultaneously stay Jewish yet be accepted by the surrounding culture.

The first Reform synagogue, which opened in Synagogue in 1811, introduced changes that made the synagogue look more like a church. These included: the installation of an organ to accompany the prayers (even on Shabbat, when musical instruments are proscribed by synagogue, a choir to accompany the hazzan, and vestments for the synagogue rabbi to wear. [33] In following decades, the central reader's table, the Bimah, was moved to the front of the Reform sanctuary—previously unheard-of in Orthodox synagogues.

[34] Gender separation was also removed. [ citation needed] Synagogue as community center [ edit ] Synagogues often take on a broader role in modern Jewish communities and may include additional facilities such as a catering hall, kosher kitchen, religious school, library, day care center and a smaller chapel for daily services.

Synagogue offshoots [ edit ] Since many Orthodox and some non-Orthodox Jews prefer to collect a minyan (a quorum of ten) rather than pray alone, they commonly assemble at pre-arranged times in offices, living rooms, or other spaces when these are more convenient than formal synagogue buildings. A room or building that is used this way can become a dedicated small synagogue or prayer room. Among Ashkenazi Jews they are traditionally called shtiebel ( שטיבל, pl. shtiebelekh or shtiebels, Yiddish for "little house"), and are found in Orthodox communities worldwide.

Another type of communal prayer group, favored by some contemporary Jews, is the chavurah ( חבורה, pl. chavurot, חבורות), or prayer fellowship.

These groups meet at a regular place and time, either in a private home or in a synagogue or other institutional space. In antiquity, the Pharisees lived near synagogue other in synagogue and dined together to ensure that none of the food was unfit for consumption.

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{INSERTKEYS} [35] List of "great synagogues" [ edit ] Some synagogues bear the title "great synagogue". [ dubious – discuss] Israel [ edit ] Choral Synagogue of Moscow • The Choral Synagogue of Moscow • The Grand Choral Synagogue of St. Petersburg • The Kharkiv Choral Synagogue • The Great Choral Synagogue (Kyiv), Ukraine Poland [ edit ] • The Great Synagogues of Warsaw and Łódź, destroyed by Nazis during World War II.

• The Great Synagogue of Włodawa Czech Republic [ edit ] • The Great Synagogue of Plzeň Hungary [ edit ] Interior of the Synagogue of Szeged • The Dohány Street Synagogue in Budapest, Hungary • The Synagogue of Szeged [36] Austria [ edit ] • The Leopoldstädter Tempel of Vienna, destroyed during the " Kristallnacht" pogrom. Served as model for many other important synagogues. Germany [ edit ] • The New Synagogue of Berlin Netherlands [ edit ] • The Portuguese Synagogue of Amsterdam Scandinavia [ edit ] • The Great Synagogue of Stockholm France and Belgium [ edit ] • The Grand Synagogue of Paris • The Great Synagogue of Brussels (also known as the Great Synagogue of Europe) Italy [ edit ] Interior of the Great Synagogue of Florence • The Great Synagogue of Florence • The Great Synagogue of Rome • The Synagogue of Trieste Romania [ edit ] • The Cetate Synagogue of Timișoara, • The Fabric Synagogue of Timișoara, Romania • The Choral Temple of Bucharest Serbia [ edit ] • The Synagogue of Novi Sad • The Synagogue of Subotica Bosnia and Herzegovina [ edit ] • The Synagogue of Sarajevo Bulgaria [ edit ] • The Synagogue of Sofia Ashkenazi Synagogue, Sarajevo Turkey (European part) [ edit ] • The Grand Synagogue of Edirne United Kingdom [ edit ] • The Great Synagogue of London, destroyed by aerial bombing in the London Blitz in 1941 Tunisia [ edit ] • The Great Synagogue of Tunis • The El Ghriba synagogue of Djerba Australia [ edit ] • The Great Synagogue of Sydney World's largest synagogues [ edit ] Congregants inside the Great Beth Midrash Gur Israel [ edit ] • The largest synagogue in the world is the Great Beth Midrash Gur, in Jerusalem, Israel, whose main sanctuary seats up to 20,000, and has an area of approximately 7,500 m 2 (81,000 sq ft), while the entire complex has an area of approximately 35,000 m 2 (380,000 sq ft).

Construction on the edifice took more than 25 years. [37] • Kehilat Kol HaNeshama, a Reform synagogue located in Baka, Jerusalem, is the largest Reform (and largest non-Orthodox) Jewish synagogue in Israel. [38] Europe [ edit ] • The Dohány Street Synagogue in Budapest, Hungary, is the largest synagogue in Europe by square footage and number of seats. It seats 3,000, and has an area of 1,200 m 2 (13,000 sq ft) and height of 26 m (85 ft) (apart from the towers, which are 43 m or 141 ft). [39] • The Synagogue of Trieste is the largest synagogue in Western Europe.

• The Great Synagogue of Rome is one of the greatest in Europe. • The Portuguese Synagogue in Amsterdam, also called "Esnoga", was built in 1675. At that time it was the largest synagogue in the world.

Apart from the buildings surrounding the synagogue, it has an area of 1,008 m 2 (10,850 sq ft), is 19.5 meters (64 ft) high. It was built to accommodate 1227 men and 440 women. [40] • Szeged Synagogue is located in Szeged, Hungary, seats 1,340 and has height of 48.5 m (159 ft). • The Sofia Synagogue is located in Sofia, Bulgaria, seating about 1,200. • The Subotica Synagogue is located in Subotica, Serbia, seating more than 900. • Great Synagogue (Plzeň) in the Czech Republic is the second-largest synagogue in Europe, and the third-largest in the world.

North America [ edit ] • Baron Hirsch Synagogue, an Orthodox synagogue in Memphis, Tennessee, was the largest in the United States at the time of its dedication in 1957, seating 2,200 worshippers with an additional accommodation for 1,000 in its main sanctuary. [41] The synagogue moved in 1988, but the building remains in use as a church. • The Satmar synagogue in Kiryas Joel, New York, which is said to seat "several thousand", is also very large. [42] • Congregation Yetev Lev D'Satmar (Rodney Street, Brooklyn) is also said to seat "several thousand".

• Temple Emanu-El of New York, a Reform Temple, is located in New York City, with an area of 3,523 m 2 (37,920 sq ft), seating 2,500. It is the largest Reform synagogue in the world. • Congregation Yetev Lev D'Satmar (Hooper Street, Brooklyn) seats between 2,000 and 4,000 congregants. {/INSERTKEYS}

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• The main sanctuary of Adas Israel Congregation (Washington, D.C.) seats 1,500. • Temple Emanu-El (Miami Beach, Florida) located in Miami Beach, Florida, seats approximately 1,400 people. • Congregation Shaare Zion, an Orthodox Sephardic synagogue located in Brooklyn, New York, is the largest Syrian Jewish congregation in New York City.

It is attended by over 1,000 worshipers on weekends. • Beth Tzedec Congregation in Toronto, Ontario, is the largest Conservative synagogue in North America. • Temple Israel, a Reform synagogue in Memphis, Tennessee seats 1,335 to synagogue people in its main sanctuary.

The massive synagogue complex contains over 125,000 sq ft (11,613 m 2) on 30 acres. World's oldest synagogues [ edit ] Fresco at the Dura-Europos synagogue, illustrating a scene from the Book of Esther, 244 CE. • The oldest synagogue fragments are stone-carved synagogue dedication inscriptions found in Middle and Lower Egypt and dating from the 3rd century BCE. [5] • The oldest Samaritan synagogue, the Delos Synagogue, dates from between 150 and 128 BCE, or earlier and is located on the island of Delos.

[43] [ unreliable source?] • The synagogue of Dura Europos, a Seleucid city in north eastern Syria, dates from the third century CE. It is unique. The walls were painted with figural scenes from the Old Testament. The paintings included Abraham and Isaac, Moses and Aaron, Solomon, Samuel and Jacob, Elijah and Ezekiel. The synagogue chamber, with its surviving paintings, synagogue reconstructed in the National Museum in Damascus. • The Old Synagogue in Erfurt, Germany, parts synagogue which date to c.1100, is the oldest intact synagogue building in Europe.

It is now used as a museum of local Jewish history. • The Kochangadi Synagogue (1344 A.D. to 1789 A.D.) in Kochi in the Kerala, built by the Malabar Jews. It was destroyed by Tipu Sultan in 1789 A.D. and was never rebuilt. An inscription tablet from this synagogue is the oldest relic from any synagogue in India. Eight other synagogues exist in Kerala though not in active use anymore.

The Paradesi Synagogue in Jew Town, Synagogue, during the COVID-19 pandemic. • The Paradesi Synagogue synagogue the oldest active synagogue in the Commonwealth of Nations, located in Kochi, Kerala, in India.

It was built in 1568 by Paradesi community in the Kingdom of Cochin. Paradesi is a word used in several Indian languages, and the literal meaning of the term is "foreigners", applied to the synagogue because it was synagogue used by "White Jews", a mixture of Jews of the Middle East, and European exiles.

It is also referred to as the Cochin Jewish Synagogue or the Mattancherry Synagogue. The synagogue is located in synagogue quarter of Old Cochin known as Jew Town and is the synagogue one of the eight synagogues in the area still in use. • Jew's Court, Steep Hill, Lincoln, England, is arguably the oldest synagogue in Europe in current use. Oldest synagogues in the United States [ edit ] Main article: List of the oldest synagogues in the United States • Congregation Shearith Israel, in New York City, founded in 1654, is the oldest congregation in the United States.

Its present building dates from 1897. • The Synagogue Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island, is the oldest Jewish house of worship in North America that is still standing. It was built in 1759 for the Jeshuat Israel congregation, which was established in 1658.

Other famous synagogues [ edit ] • The Worms Synagogue in Germany, built in 1175 and razed on Kristallnacht in 1938, was painstakingly reconstructed using many of the original stones. It is still in use as a synagogue. • The Synagogue of El Transito of Toledo, Spain, was built in 1356 by Samuel ha-Levi, treasurer of King Pedro I of Castile. This is one of the best synagogue of Mudéjar architecture in Spain. The design of the synagogue recalls the Nasrid style of architecture that was employed during the same period in the decorations of the palace of the Synagogue in Granada as well as the Mosque of Córdoba.

Since 1964, this site has hosted a Sephardi museum. • The Hurva Synagogue, located in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem, was Jerusalem's main Ashkenazi synagogue from the 16th century until 1948, when it was destroyed by the Arab Legion several days after the conquest of the city. After the Six-Day War, an arch was built to mark the spot where the synagogue stood.

A complete reconstruction, to plans drawn up by architect Nahum Synagogue, opened in March 2010. synagogue The Abdallah Ibn Salam Mosque or Oran, Algeria, built in 1880, but converted into a mosque in 1975 when most Algerian Jews had left the country for France following independence.

• The Nidhe Israel Synagogue ("Bridgetown Synagogue") of Barbados, located in the capital city of Bridgetown, was first built in 1654. It was destroyed in the hurricane of 1831 and reconstructed in 1833. [44] • The Curaçao synagogue or Snoa in Willemstad, Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles was built by Sephardic Portuguese Jews from Amsterdam and Recife, Brazil. It is modeled after the Esnoga in Amsterdam. Congregation Mikvé Israel built this synagogue in 1692; it was reconstructed in 1732.

• The Bialystoker Synagogue on New York's Lower East Side, is located in a landmark building dating from 1826 that was originally a Synagogue Episcopal Church. The building is made of quarry stone mined locally on Pitt Street, Manhattan. Synagogue is an example of federal architecture. The ceilings and walls are hand-painted with zodiac frescos, and the sanctuary synagogue illuminated by 40-foot (12.19 m) stained glass windows. The bimah and floor-to-ceiling ark are handcarved.

• The Great Synagogue of Florence, Tempio Maggiore, Florence, 1874–82, is an example of the magnificent, cathedral-like synagogues built in almost every major European city in the 19th century and early 20th century.

• Boston's 1920 Vilna Shul is a rare surviving intact Immigrant Era synagogue. [45] • The Congregation Or Hatzafon "Light of the North", Fairbanks, Alaska, is the world's northernmost synagogue building.

[46] • The Görlitz Synagogue in Görlitz, Germany was built in Jugendstil style between 1909 and 1911. Damaged, but not destroyed, during the Kristallnacht riots, the synagogue was bought by the City Council in 1963. After extensive renovations concluding in late 2020, the main sanctuary (Kuppelsaal with 310 seats) will be reopened for general culture, and the small synagogue (Wochentags-Synagoge, with space for around 45 visitors) Image gallery [ edit ] • • ^ Pronounced / ˈ s ɪ n ə ɡ ɒ ɡ/ SIN-ə-gog.

From Ancient Greek συναγωγή, synagogē, 'assembly'; Hebrew: בית כנסת beit knesset, 'house of assembly', or בית תפילה‎ beit tfila, "house of prayer"; Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אשנוגה esnoga, 'bright as fire'; or קהל kahal. • ^ Pronounced / ˈ ʃ uː l/ SHOOL. • ^ This is a fairly modern term mostly used by the more liberal and less religious synagogue of Judaism, but is still rare.

[1] References [ edit ] • ^ "Synagogue - Definition, History, & Facts - Britannica". • ^ Judaism 101: Synagogues, Shuls synagogue Temples. Jewfaq.org. • ^ orah765768 synagogue February 2016). "The Institution of Prayer by the Men of the Great Assembly". Peninei Halakha. Translated by Ote, Atira. Retrieved 12 July 2020. • synagogue a b Donald D. Binder. "Second Temple Synagogues".

• ^ a b Donald D. Binder. "Egypt". synagogue ^ Schiffman, Lawrence (March synagogue. From Text to Tradition: A History of Synagogue Temple and Rabbinic Judaism (1st ed.). Ktav Pub Inc. p. synagogue. ISBN 0881253723. • ^ Schiffman, Lawrence (March 1991). From Text to Tradition: A History of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism (1st ed.). Ktav Pub Inc. p. 164. ISBN 0881253723. • ^ Schiffman, Lawrence (March 1991).

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From Text to Tradition: A History of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism (1st ed.). Ktav Pub Inc. p. 164. ISBN 0881253723. • ^ Synagogue, Howard Clark. "Defining the First-Century CE Synagogue: Problems and Progress." New Testament Studies 41.4 (1995): 481-500. • ^ Aviʿam, Mordekhai. "First-Century Galilee New Discoveries." Early christianity 9.2 (2018): 219-226. • ^ Levine, Lee I. (2000). The ancient synagogue : the first thousand years.

New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07475-1. OCLC 40408825. • ^ Yadin, Yigael. (1966). Masada : the momentous archaeological discovery revealing the heroic life and struggle of the jewish zealots (1st ed.).

New York, NY: Random House. pp. 180–191. ISBN 0-394-43542-7. OCLC 861644287. • ^ "Herodium (BiblePlaces.com)". BiblePlaces.com. Retrieved 2020-07-11. • ^ "Ancient synagogue found in Israel - CNN.com". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 2020-07-11. • ^ "Modi'in: Where the Maccabees Lived". Biblical Archaeology Society. 2019-09-22. Retrieved 2020-07-11. • ^ Maimonides, Mishneh Torah (Hil. Tefillah Birkat kohanim 11:4) • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Pummer, Reinhard (13 January 2009).

"How synagogue Tell a Samaritan Synagogue from a Jewish Synagogue". Biblical Archaeology Review. May/June 1998 (24:03) – via Center for Online Judaic Studies, cojs.org. • ^ Skarsaune, Oskar (2008). In the Shadow of the Temple: Jewish Influences on Early Christianity.

IVP Academic. p. 186. ISBN 9780830828449. Retrieved 1 September 2018. 9780830828449 • ^ Taylor, Joan E. (1993). [c Christians and the Holy Places: The Myth of Jewish-Christian Origins]. Clarendon Press. p. 338. ISBN 9780198147855.

Retrieved 1 September 2018. {{ cite book}}: Check -url= value ( help) • ^ Emmett, Chad Fife (1995). Beyond the Basilica: Christians and Muslims in Nazareth.

University of Chicago Geography Research Papers (Book 237). University of Chicago Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-226-20711-7. Retrieved 1 September 2018. • ^ "Encyclopedia Judaica: The Bimah". JewishVirtualLibrary.org. Retrieved 2019-10-12.

• ^ "The Bimah: The Synagogue Platform". www.chabad.org. Retrieved 2019-05-30. • ^ "Synagogue Synagogue & Overview". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2019-05-30. • ^ "Ner Tamid: The Eternal Light." Chabad. 28 August 2018. • ^ "Sculpture". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2021-03-01. • ^ Maimonides, Mishne Torah ( Hil. Tefillah 11:4), who wrote: "Synagogues and houses of study must be treated with respect.

They are swept and sprinkled to lay synagogue dust. In Spain and in the Maghreb (North Africa), in Babylon and in the Holy Land, it is synagogue to kindle lamps in the synagogues and to spread mats on the floor on which the worshipers sit. In the land of Edom (i.e. Christian countries) they sit in synagogues upon chairs." synagogue ^ Zaklikowski, David. "The Chair of Elijah and Welcoming the Baby".

Chabad .

synagogue

Retrieved 13 September 2018. • ^ The Interactive Bible, Synagogue Moses' Seat: Metaphor of Pride • ^ Israel Museum, Elaborate seat, Chorazin synagogue • ^ Joseph Kafih, Jewish Life in Sanà, Ben-Zvi Institute: Jerusalem 1982, p. 64 (note 3) ISBN 965-17-0137-4. There, Rabbi Kafih recalls the following story in the Jerusalem Talmud ( Baba Metzi'a 2:8): "Yehudah, the son of Rebbe, entered a synagogue and left his sandals [outside], and they were stolen.

He then synagogue, 'Had I not gone to synagogue synagogue, my sandals would not have gone-off.'" The custom synagogue never entering a synagogue while wearing one's shoes is also mentioned in the Cairo Geniza manuscripts: "While he is synagogue outside, let him take-off his shoes or sandals from his feet and then enter barefoot, since synagogue is the way of servants to walk barefoot before their lords. We have a minor sanctuary, and we are required to behave with sanctity and fear [in it], as it says: And you shall fear my hallowed place." (v.

Halakhot Eretz Yisrael min ha-Geniza [ The Halacha of the Land of Israel from the Geniza], ed. Mordechai Margaliot, Mossad Harav Kook: Jerusalem 1973, pp. 131–132; Taylor-Schechter New Series 135, Cambridge University Library / Oxford MS.

2700). • ^ "The Jews who take off their shoes for shul". www.thejc.com. November 24, 2016. Retrieved 2022-01-15. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link) • ^ "Mechitzah: Separate Seating in the Synagogue".

My Jewish Learning. Retrieved 2020-01-27. • ^ Rabbi Ken Spiro. "Crash Course in Synagogue History Part 54 - Reform Movement", Aish.com • ^ Yisroel Besser (2018). The Chasam Sofer. Artscroll. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4226-2232-2. a bimah must be in the middle • ^ Alan F. Segal, Rebecca's Children: Judaism and Christianity in the Roman World, Harvard University Press, 1986, 125. • ^ 1340 seats, the synagogue is 48 meters long, 35 meters wide, and 48.6 meters high.

• ^ Shaul Kahana (January 9, 2022). "גור קיבלו טופס ארבע - לבית הכנסת הגדול בעולם". Kikar HaShabbat (in Hebrew). • ^ Nathan Jeffay (January 12, 2011). "The Heart of Israel's Reform Judaism".

The Forward. • ^ Kulish, Nicholas (30 December 2007). "Out of Darkness, New Life". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-12. • ^ Snyder, S. C. (2008). Acculturation and Particularism in the Modern City: Synagogue Building synagogue Jewish Identity in Northern Europe. University of Michigan. ISBN 9780549818977.

Retrieved 2014-12-07. • ^ "Orthodox Synagogue to Be Dedicated November 28–30." Memphis Commercial Appeal, October 21, 1957. • ^ Rabbi Yitschak Rudomin. "Rebbes, Hasidim, and Authentic Kehillahs". The Second World War and Jewish Education in America: The Fall and Rise of Orthodoxy. Jewish Professionals Institute (JPI).

• ^ Donald D. Binder. "Delos". • ^ "Nidhe Israel Synagogue". planetware. • ^ "Vilna Shul". • ^ "Congregation Or HaTzafon". mosquitonet.com. Archived from the original on 2014-09-20. Synagogue 2014-12-07. • Levine, Lee (2005) synagogue. The Ancient Synagogue: The First Thousand Years (2nd ed.). New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10628-9. • Young, Penny (2014). Dura Europos: A City for Everyman.

Diss, Norfolk, UK: Twopenny Press. ISBN 9780956170347. External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Synagogue. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Synagogue • Jewish Encyclopedia: Synagogue • Chabad Lubavitch Center synagogue Synagogue Finder • Orthodox Union Synagogue Finder • United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism Synagogue Finder • Union for Reform Judaism Synagogue Finder • Reconstructionist Synagogue Finder • Center for Jewish History • American Jewish Historical Society • American Sephardi Synagogue • Leo Baeck Institute New York • Yeshiva University Museum • YIVO Institute for Jewish Research • Center of Contemporary Jewish Documentation • Encyclopaedia Judaica • Genetics • Jew (word) • Jewish Encyclopedia • Jewish Virtual Library • National Library of Israel • YIVO Encyclopedia • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum • Encyclopedia of the Holocaust • Holocaust Encyclopedia • Relations with other religions • Christian • Anabaptism • Catholicism • Mormonism • Protestantism • Jews and Christmas • non-Christian • Buddhism • Islam • Hinduism Hidden categories: • Articles containing Hebrew-language text • Articles containing Yiddish-language text • Articles containing Ladino-language text • CS1: long volume value • Synagogue errors: URL • CS1 maint: url-status • CS1 Hebrew-language sources (he) • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Articles containing German-language text • Articles containing Portuguese-language text • Articles containing Spanish-language text • All articles with unsourced statements • Articles with unsourced statements from January 2022 • Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018 • All articles lacking reliable references • Articles lacking reliable references from July 2017 • All accuracy disputes • Articles with disputed statements from July 2018 • Articles needing additional references from September 2018 • All synagogue needing additional references • Commons link is on Wikidata • Articles with BNE identifiers • Articles with BNF identifiers • Articles with GND identifiers • Articles with J9U identifiers • Articles with LCCN identifiers • Articles with HDS identifiers • Afrikaans • Alemannisch • العربية • Aragonés • Arpetan • Asturianu • Azərbaycanca • বাংলা • Башҡортса • Беларуская • Беларуская (тарашкевіца) • भोजपुरी • Български • Boarisch • Bosanski • Brezhoneg • Català • Čeština • Cymraeg • Dansk • Deutsch • Eesti • Ελληνικά • Español • Esperanto • Euskara • فارسی • Føroyskt • Français • Frysk • Gàidhlig • Galego • 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺 • गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni • 한국어 • Հայերեն • हिन्दी • Hrvatski • Ido • Bahasa Indonesia • Synagogue • Íslenska • Italiano • עברית • Jawa • Kabɩyɛ • ქართული • Қазақша • Kiswahili • Kurdî • Кырык мары • Ladino • Лакку • Latina • Latviešu • Lëtzebuergesch • Lietuvių • Limburgs • Lingála • Magyar • Македонски • Malagasy • മലയാളം • मराठी • مصرى • Bahasa Melayu • Minangkabau • Mirandés synagogue Nederlands • 日本語 • Norsk bokmål • Norsk nynorsk • Nouormand • Occitan • Олык марий • Oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча • ਪੰਜਾਬੀ • پنجابی • Papiamentu • Polski • Português • Română • Русиньскый • Synagogue • Scots • Shqip • Sicilianu • Simple English • Slovenčina synagogue Slovenščina • Српски / srpski • Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски • Suomi • Svenska • Tagalog • தமிழ் • Taqbaylit • Татарча/tatarça • ไทย • Türkçe • Українська • اردو • Tiếng Việt • Winaray • 吴语 • ייִדיש • 粵語 • Zazaki • Žemaitėška • 中文 • Gungbe Edit links • This page was last edited on 30 April 2022, at 17:58 (UTC).

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