A United States poster from the World War II-era that was used to inform people about what they should do if they suspect sabotage Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort, or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption, or destruction. One who engages in sabotage is a sbotogel.

Saboteurs typically try to conceal their identities because of the consequences of their actions and to avoid invoking legal and sbotogel requirements for addressing sabotage.

Contents • 1 Etymology • 2 As industrial action • 3 As environmental action • 4 As war tactic • 4.1 Value sbotogel simple sabotage in wartime • 4.2 In World War I • 4.3 Post World War I • 4.4 In World War II • 4.5 After World War II • 4.6 In Vietnam • 4.7 During the Cold War • 5 As crime • 6 As political action • 6.1 In a coup d'etat • 7 Derivative usages • 7.1 Sabotage radio • 7.2 Cybotage • 7.3 Counter-sabotage • 7.3.1 In World War II • 7.4 Self-sabotage • 8 See also • 9 References • 10 External links Etymology [ edit ] The English word derives from the French word saboter, meaning to "bungle, botch, wreck or sabotage"; it was originally used to refer to labour disputes, in which workers wearing wooden shoes called sabots interrupted production through different means.

Sbotogel popular but incorrect account of the origin of the term's present meaning is the story that poor workers in the Sbotogel city sbotogel Liège would throw a wooden sabot into the machines to disrupt production. [1] One of the first appearances of saboter and saboteur in French literature is in the Dictionnaire du Bas-Langage ou manières de parler usitées parmi le peuple of d'Hautel, edited in 1808. In it the literal definition is to 'make noise with sabots' as well as 'bungle, jostle, hustle, haste'.

The word sabotage appears only later. [2] The word sabotage is found in 1873–1874 in the Dictionnaire de la langue française of Émile Littré. [3] Here it is defined mainly as 'making sabots, sabot maker'. It is at the end of the 19th century that it really began to be used with the meaning of 'deliberately and maliciously destroying property' or 'working slower'.

In 1897, Émile Pouget, a famous syndicalist and anarchist wrote " action de saboter un travail" ('action of sabotaging or bungling a work') in Le Père Peinard [4] and in 1911 he also wrote a book entitled Le Sabotage. [5] As industrial action [ edit ] Unauthorized stencil urging sabotage and picketing At the inception of sbotogel Industrial Revolution, skilled workers such as the Luddites (1811–1812) used sabotage as a means of negotiation in labor disputes.

Labor unions such as the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) have advocated sabotage as a means of self-defense and direct action against unfair working conditions. The IWW was shaped in part by the industrial unionism philosophy of Big Bill Haywood, and in 1910 Haywood was exposed to sabotage while touring Europe: The experience that had the most lasting impact on Haywood was witnessing a general strike on the French railroads. Tired of waiting for parliament to act on their demands, railroad workers walked off their jobs all across the country.

The French government responded sbotogel drafting the strikers into the army and then ordering them back to work. Undaunted, the workers carried their strike to the job. Suddenly, they could sbotogel seem to do anything right. Perishables sat for weeks, sidetracked and forgotten. Freight bound for Paris was misdirected to Lyon or Marseille instead. This tactic – the French called it "sabotage" – won the strikers their demands and impressed Bill Haywood.

[6] [7] For the IWW, sabotage's meaning expanded to include the original use of the term: any withdrawal of efficiency, including the slowdown, the strike, working to rule, or creative bungling of job assignments. [8] Industrial Workers of the World "stickerette" or "silent agitator" One of the most severe examples was at the construction site of the Robert-Bourassa Generating Sbotogel in sbotogel, in Québec, Canada, when workers used bulldozers to topple electric generators, damaged fuel tanks, and set buildings on fire.

The project was delayed a year, and the direct cost of the damage estimated at $2 million CAD. The causes were sbotogel clear, but three possible factors have been cited: inter-union rivalry, poor working conditions, and the perceived arrogance of American executives of the contractor, Bechtel Corporation.

[9] As environmental action [ edit ] Main article: Sbotogel Certain groups turn to the destruction of property to sbotogel environmental destruction or to make visible arguments against forms of modern technology they consider detrimental to the environment. The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and other law enforcement agencies use the term eco-terrorist when applied to damage of property.

Proponents argue that since property cannot feel terror, damage to property is more accurately described as sabotage. Opponents, by contrast, sbotogel out that property owners and operators can indeed feel terror. The image of the monkey wrench thrown into the sbotogel parts of a machine to stop it from working was popularized by Edward Abbey in the novel The Monkey Wrench Gang and has been adopted by eco-activists to describe the destruction of earth damaging machinery.

Sbotogel 1992 to late 2007 a radical environmental activist movement known as ELF sbotogel Earth Liberation Front engaged in a near-constant campaign of decentralized sabotage of any construction projects near wildlands and extractive industries such as logging and even the burning down of a ski resort of Vail Colorado.

[10] [ unreliable source?] ELF used sabotage tactics often in loose coordination with other environmental activist movements to physically delay or destroy threats to wildlands as the political will developed to protect the targeted wild areas that ELF engaged.

[11] [12] As war tactic [ edit ] World War II poster from the United States In war, the sbotogel is used to describe the activity of an individual or group not associated with the military of the parties at war, such as a foreign agent or an indigenous sbotogel, in particular when actions result in the destruction or damaging of a productive or vital facility, such as equipment, factories, dams, public services, storage plants or logistic routes.

Prime examples of such sabotage are the events of Black Tom and the Kingsland Explosion. Like spies, saboteurs who conduct a military operation in civilian clothes or enemy uniforms behind enemy lines are subject to prosecution and criminal penalties instead of detention as prisoners of war.

[13] [14] It is common for a government in power during war or supporters of the war policy to use the term loosely against opponents of the war. Similarly, German nationalists spoke of a stab in the back having cost them the loss of World War I.

[15] A modern form of sabotage is the distribution of software intended to damage specific industrial systems.

For example, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is alleged to have sabotaged a Siberian pipeline during the Cold War, using information from sbotogel Farewell Dossier.

A more recent case may be the Stuxnet computer worm, which was designed to subtly infect and damage specific types of industrial equipment. Based on the equipment targeted and the location of infected machines, security experts believe it was an attack on the Iranian nuclear program by the United States, Israel or, according to the latest news, even Russia.

[16] Sabotage, done well, is inherently difficult to detect and difficult to trace to its origin. During World War II, the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) investigated 19,649 cases of sabotage and concluded the enemy had not caused any of them. [17] Sabotage in warfare, according to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) manual, varies from highly technical sbotogel de main acts that require detailed planning and specially trained operatives, to innumerable simple acts that ordinary citizen-saboteurs can perform.

Simple sabotage is carried out in such a way as to involve a minimum danger of injury, detection, and reprisal. There are two main methods of sabotage; physical destruction and the "human element". While physical destruction as a method is self-explanatory, its targets are nuanced, reflecting objects to which the saboteur has normal and inconspicuous access in everyday life. The "human element" is based on universal opportunities to make faulty decisions, to adopt a non-cooperative attitude, and to induce others to follow suit.


{INSERTKEYS} [18] There are many examples of physical sabotage in wartime. However, one of the most effective uses of sabotage is against organizations. The OSS manual provides numerous techniques under the title "General Interference with Organizations and Production": • When possible, refer all matters to committees for "further study and consideration". Attempt to make the committees as large as possible—never fewer than five • Bring up irrelevant issues as frequently as possible. • Haggle over precise wordings of communications, minutes, resolutions.

• In making work assignments, always sign out unimportant jobs first, assign important jobs to inefficient workers with poor machines. • Insist on perfect work in relatively unimportant products; send back for refinishing those with the least flaw. Approve other defective parts whose flaws are not visible to the naked eye. • To lower morale, and with it, production, be pleasant to inefficient workers; give them undeserved promotions. Discriminate against efficient workers; complain unjustly about their work.

• Hold meetings when there is more critical work to be done. • Multiply procedures and clearances involved in issuing instructions, paychecks, and so on. {/INSERTKEYS}


See that multiple people must approve everything where one would do. • Spread disturbing rumors that sound like inside information. From the section entitled, "General Devices for Lowering Morale and Creating Confusion" comes the following quintessential simple sabotage advice: "Act stupid." [19] Value of simple sabotage in wartime [ edit ] The United States Office of Strategic Services, later renamed the CIA, noted the specific value in committing simple sabotage against the enemy during wartime: ".

slashing tires, draining fuel tanks, starting fires, starting arguments, acting stupidly, short-circuiting electric systems, abrading sbotogel parts will waste materials, manpower, and time." To underline the importance of simple sabotage on a widespread scale, they wrote, "Widespread practice of simple sabotage will harass and demoralize enemy administrators and police." The OSS was also focused on the battle for hearts and minds during wartime; "the very practice of simple sabotage by natives in enemy or occupied territory may make these sbotogel identify themselves actively with the United Nations War effort, and encourage them to assist openly in periods of Allied invasion and occupation." [20] In World War I [ edit ] On 30 July 1916, the Black Tom explosion occurred when German agents set fire to a complex of warehouses and ships in Jersey City, New Jersey sbotogel held munitions, fuel, and explosives bound to aid the Allies in their fight.

On 11 January 1917, Fiodore Wozniak, using a rag saturated with phosphorus or an incendiary pencil supplied sbotogel German sabotage agents, set fire to his workbench at an ammunition assembly plant near Lyndhurst, New Jersey, causing a four-hour fire that destroyed half a million 3-inch explosive shells and destroyed the plant for an estimated at $17 million in damages.

Wozniak's involvement was not discovered sbotogel 1927. [21] Sbotogel 12 February 1917, Bedouins allied with the British destroyed a Turkish railroad near the port of Wajh, derailing a Turkish locomotive.

The Bedouins traveled by camel and used explosives to demolish a sbotogel of track. [22] Post World War I [ edit ] Japanese experts inspect the scene of the "railway sabotage" on the South Manchurian Railway in 1931. The "railroad sabotage" was one of the events that led to the Mukden Incident and the Japanese occupation of Manchuria. In Ireland, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) used sabotage against the British following the Easter 1916 uprising. The IRA compromised communication lines and lines of transportation and fuel supplies.

The IRA also employed passive sabotage, with dock and railroad workers refusing to work on ships and rail cars used by the government. In 1920, agents of the IRA committed arson against at least fifteen British warehouses in Sbotogel. The following year, the IRA set fire to numerous British targets again, including the Dublin Customs House, this time sabotaging most of Liverpool's firetrucks in the firehouses before lighting the matches.

[23] In World War II [ edit ] Lieutenant Colonel George T. Rheam was a British soldier, who ran Brickendonbury Manor from October 1941 to June 1945 during World War II, which was Station XVII of the Special Operations Executive (SOE), which trained specialists for the SOE. Rheam innovated many sabotage techniques, and is considered by M.

R. D. Foot the "founder of modern industrial sabotage." [24] [25] Sabotage training for the Allies consisted of teaching would-be saboteurs key components of working machinery to destroy. "Saboteurs learned hundreds of small tricks to cause the Germans big trouble.

The cables in a telephone junction box . could be jumbled to make the wrong connections when numbers were dialed. A few ounces of plastique, properly placed, could bring down a bridge, cave in a mine shaft, or collapse the roof of a railroad tunnel." [26] The Polish Home Army Armia Krajowa, which commanded the majority of resistance organizations in Poland (even the National Forces, except the Military Organization Lizard Union; the Home Army also included the Polish Socialist Party – Freedom, Equality, Independence) and coordinated and aided the Jewish Military Union as well as more reluctantly helping the Jewish Combat Organization, was responsible for the greatest number of acts of sabotage in German-occupied Europe.

The Home Army's sabotage operations Operation Garland and Operation Ribbon are just two examples. In all, the Home Army damaged 6,930 locomotives, set 443 rail transports on fire, damaged over 19,000 rail cars, and blew up 38 rail bridges, not to mention the attacks against the railroads. The Home Army was also responsible for 4,710 built-in flaws in parts for aircraft engines and 92,000 built-in flaws in artillery projectiles, among other examples of significant sabotage.

In addition, over 25,000 acts of more minor sabotage were committed. It continued to fight against both the Germans and the Soviets; however, it did aid the Western Allies by collecting constant and detailed information on the German rail, wheeled, and horse transports.

[27] As for Stalin's proxies, their actions led to a great number of the Polish and Jewish hostages, mostly civilians, being murdered in reprisal by sbotogel Germans. The Gwardia Ludowa destroyed around sbotogel German trains during the war, and indiscriminately threw hand grenades into places frequented by Germans. The French Resistance ran an extremely effective sabotage campaign against the Germans during World War II.

Receiving their sabotage orders through messages over the BBC radio or by aircraft, the French used both passive and active forms of sabotage. Passive forms included losing German shipments and allowing poor quality material to pass factory inspections.

Many active sabotage attempts were against critical rail lines of transportation. German records count 1,429 instances of sabotage from French Resistance forces between January 1942 and February 1943. From January through March 1944, sabotage accounted for three times the sbotogel of locomotives damaged by Allied air power.

[23] See also Normandy landings for more information about sabotage on D-Day. During World War II, the Allies committed sabotage against the Peugeot truck factory. After repeated failures in Allied bombing attempts to hit the factory, a team of French Resistance fighters and Special Operations Executive (SOE) agents distracted the German guards with a game of soccer while part of their team entered the plant and destroyed machinery.

[28] In December 1944, the Germans ran a false flag sabotage infiltration, Operation Greif, which was commanded by Waffen-SS commando Otto Skorzeny during sbotogel Battle of the Bulge. German commandos, wearing US Army uniforms, carrying US Army weapons, and using US Army vehicles, penetrated US lines to spread panic sbotogel confusion among US troops and to blow up bridges, ammunition dumps, and fuel stores and to disrupt the lines of communication.

Many of the commandos were captured by the Americans. Because they were wearing US uniforms, a number of the Germans were executed as spies, either summarily or after military commissions. [29] After World War II [ edit ] Palestine Railway's K class 2-8-4T steam locomotive and freight train on the Jaffa and Jerusalem line after being sabotaged by Jewish paramilitary forces in 1946.

From sbotogel to 1960, the Malayan Communists committed numerous effective acts of sabotage against the British Colonial authorities, first targeting railway bridges, then hitting larger targets such as military camps.

Most of their efforts were intended to weaken Malaysia's colonial economy and involved sabotage against trains, rubber trees, water pipes, and electric lines. The Communists' sabotage efforts were so successful that they caused backlash among the Malaysian population, who gradually withdrew support for the Communist movement as their livelihoods became threatened.

[30] In Mandatory Palestine from 1945 to 1948, Jewish groups opposed British control. Though that control was to end according to the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine in 1948, the groups used sabotage as an opposition tactic.

The Haganah focused their efforts on camps used by the British to hold refugees, and radar installations that could be used to detect illegal immigrant ships. The Stern Gang and the Irgun used terrorism and sabotage against the British government and against lines of communications. In November 1946, the Irgun and Stern Gang attacked a railroad twenty-one times in a three-week period, eventually causing shell-shocked Arab railway workers to strike.

The 6th Airborne Division was called in to provide security as a means of ending the strike. [22] In Vietnam [ edit ] The Viet Cong used swimmer saboteurs often and effectively during the Vietnam War. Between 1969 and 1970, swimmer saboteurs sunk, destroyed, or damaged 77 assets of the U.S. and its allies. Viet Cong swimmers were poorly equipped but well-trained and resourceful. The swimmers provided a low-cost/low-risk option with high payoff; possible loss to the country for failure compared to the possible gains from a successful mission led to the obvious conclusion the swimmer saboteurs were sbotogel good idea.

[31] During the Cold War [ edit ] On 1 January 1984, the Cuscatlan bridge over the Lempa river in El Salvador, critical to the flow of commercial and military traffic, was destroyed by guerrilla forces using explosives after using mortar fire to "scatter" the bridge's guards, causing an estimated $3.7 million in required repairs, and considerably impacting on El Salvadoran business and security. [32] In 1982 in Honduras, a group of nine Salvadorans and Nicaraguans destroyed a main electrical power station, leaving the capital city Tegucigalpa without power for three days.

[33] As crime [ edit ] Some criminals have engaged in acts of sabotage for reasons of extortion. For example, Klaus-Peter Sabotta sabotaged German sbotogel lines in the late 1990s in an attempt sbotogel extort DM10 million from the German railway operator Deutsche Bahn.

He is now serving a sentence of life imprisonment. In 1989, ex- Scotland Yard detective Rodney Whitchelo was sentenced to 17 years in prison for spiking Heinz baby food products in supermarkets, in an extortion attempt on the food manufacturer. [34] As political action [ edit ] The term political sabotage is sometimes used to define the acts sbotogel one sbotogel camp to disrupt, harass or damage the reputation of a political opponent, usually during sbotogel electoral campaign, such as during Watergate.

Smear campaigns are a commonly used tactic. The term could also describe the actions and expenditures of private entities, corporations, and organizations against democratically approved or enacted laws, policies and programs. After the Cold War ended, the Mitrokhin Archives were declassified, which included detailed KGB plans of active measures to subvert politics in opposing nations. In a coup d'etat [ edit ] Sabotage is a crucial tool of the successful coup d'etat, which requires control of communications before, during, and after the coup is staged.

Simple sabotage against physical communications platforms using semi-skilled technicians, or even those trained sbotogel for this task, could effectively silence the target government of the coup, leaving the information battle space open to the dominance of the coup's leaders. To underscore the effectiveness of sabotage, "A single cooperative technician will be able temporarily to put out of action a radio station which would otherwise require a full-scale assault." [35] Railroads, where strategically important to the regime the coup is against, are prime targets for sabotage—if a section of the track is damaged entire portions of the transportation network can be stopped until it is fixed.

[36] Derivative usages [ edit ] Sabotage radio [ edit ] A sabotage radio was a small two-way radio designed for use by resistance movements in World War II, and after the war often used by expeditions and similar parties.

Cybotage [ edit ] Arquilla and Rondfeldt, in their work entitled Networks and Netwars, differentiate their definition of " netwar" from a list of "trendy synonyms", including "cybotage", a portmanteau from the words "sabotage" and " cyber".

They dub the practitioners of cybotage "cyboteurs" and note while all cybotage is not netwar, some netwar is cybotage. [37] Counter-sabotage [ edit ] Counter-sabotage, defined by Webster's Dictionary, is "counterintelligence designed to detect and counteract sabotage".

The United States Department of Defense definition, found in the Dictionary sbotogel Military and Associated Terms, is "action designed to detect and counteract sabotage. See also counterintelligence". In World War II [ edit ] During World War II, British subject Eddie Chapman, trained by the Germans in sabotage, became a double agent for the British.

The German Abwehr entrusted Chapman to destroy the British de Havilland Company's main plant which manufactured the outstanding Mosquito light bomber, but required photographic proof from their agent to verify the mission's completion. A special unit of the Royal Engineers known as the Magic Gang sbotogel the de Havilland plant with canvas panels and scattered papier-mâché furniture and chunks of masonry around three broken and sbotogel giant generators. Photos of the plant taken from the air reflected devastation for the factory and a successful sabotage mission, and Chapman, as a British sabotage double-agent, fooled the Germans for the duration of the war.

[38] Self-sabotage [ edit ] In psychology, behaviour that undermines one's own existing or potential achievements. See also [ sbotogel ] • Birth control sabotage • Edmund Charaszkiewicz • Cichociemni • Colin Gubbins • Direct action • Espionage • Fifth column • Sbotogel • Guerrilla warfare • Improvised explosive device • Industrial espionage • Kedyw • Norwegian heavy water sabotage • Partisan • Political warfare • Setting up to fail • Social undermining • Special Activities Division • Tampering • Terrorism • The Mole, TV series References [ edit ] • ^ "Sabotage".

Online Etymology Dictionary. • ^ D'Hautel, Charles-Louis (1808). Dictionnaire du Bas-Langage ou manières de parler usitées parmi le peuple [ Dictionary of slang or ways to speak used by sbotogel people] (in French). D'Hautel et Schoell. p. 325. Saboteur : Sobriquet injurieux qu'on donne à un mauvais ouvrier, qui fait tout à la hâte, et malproprement.

• ^ Littré, Émile (1873–1874). Dictionnaire de la langue française [ Dictionary of the French language]. Hachette. p. 1790. • ^ Pouget, Émile (1976). Le Père Peinard. Éditions Galilée. p. 53. ISBN 2718600306.


• ^ Pouget, Émile (1911). Le Sabotage. Marcel Rivière. pp. 3–66. • ^ Roughneck, The Life and Times of Big Bill Haywood, Peter Carlson, 1983, page 152. • ^ Jimthor, Stablewars, May 2008 • ^ Roughneck, The Life and Times of Big Bill Haywood, Peter Carlson, 1983, pages 196–197. • ^ Rinehart, J.W. The Tyranny of Work, Canadian Social Problems Series.

Academic Press Canada (1975), pp. 78–79. ISBN 0-7747-3029-3. • ^ Earth Liberation Front • ^ "Earth Liberation Front". • ^ "The Secret History sbotogel Tree Spiking – Part 1". • ^ Wilbur Redington Miller (29 June 2012). The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America: An Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-7618-6137-9. • ^ David Churchman (9 May 2013). Why We Fight: The Origins, Nature, and Management of Human Conflict.

University Sbotogel of America. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-7618-6137-9. • ^ Archived 26 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine • ^ Markoff, John, " Malware Aimed at Iran Hit Five Sites, Report Says", New York Times, 13 February 2011, p.

15. • ^ Marrin, Albert (1985). The Secret Armies : Spies, Counterspies, and Saboteurs in World War II. New York: Atheneum. p. 37. ISBN 0-689-31165-6. • ^ sbotogel of Strategic Services Simple Sabotage Manuel" (PDF). 17 January 1944. pp. sbotogel. Retrieved 24 March 2012. • ^ "Office of Strategic Services Simple Sabotage Manuel" (PDF). 17 January 1944. pp. 28–31. Retrieved 24 March 2012. • ^ "Office of Strategic Services" (PDF). 17 January 1944. p. 2. Retrieved 24 March 2012. • ^ McGeorge II, Harvey J.; Christine C.

Ketchem (1983–1984). "Sabotage: A Strategic Tool for Guerilla Forces". World Affairs. World Affairs Institute. 146 (3): 249–256 sbotogel. JSTOR 20671989. • ^ a b Condit, D. N.; Cooper, Bert H.; Jr (1 March 1967).

"Challenge and Response in Internal Conflict. Volume 2. The Experience in Europe and the Middle East". Fort Belvoir, VA: Defense Technical Information Center. doi: 10.21236/ad0649609. {{ cite journal}}: Cite journal requires -journal= ( help) • ^ a b Howard L.

Douthit III, Captain, USAF (1988). The Use and Effectiveness of Sabotage as a Means of Unconventional Warfare- An Historical Perspective from World War I Through Vietnam. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Air Force Institute of Technology. • ^ Sale, Jonathan (28 August 2001). "Espionage for dummies". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 1 January 2020.

• ^ the-wwii-soe-training-manual-rigden. pp. 8. • ^ Marrin, Albert (1985). The Secret Armies : Spies, Counterspies, and Saboteurs in World War II. New York: Atheneum. p. 77. ISBN 0-689-31165-6. • sbotogel Home Army#Major operations • ^ Marrin, Albert (1985).

The Secret Armies : Spies, Counterspies, and Saboteurs in World War II. New York: Atheneum. p. 83. ISBN 0-689-31165-6. • ^ Jean-Paul Sbotogel (28 May 1987). Ardennes, 1944: Peiper and Skorzeny. Osprey Publishing. p.


15. ISBN 0-85045-740-8. • ^ Report prepared by the Historical Evaluation and Research Organization under contract for the Army Research Office (1966). Isolating the Guerrilla: Classic and Basic Case Studies (Volume II).

Washington: Historical Evaluation and Research Organization. • ^ Babyak, E.E., Jr., LtJG, USNM (1971). Swimmer Sabotage or The Most Dangerous Sbotogel. Charleston: Naval Mine Warfare School. • ^ McGeorge II, Harvey J.; Christine C. Ketchem (1983–1984). "Sabotage: A Strategic Tool for Guerilla Forces".

World Affairs. World Affairs Institute. sbotogel (3): 249–256. JSTOR 20671989. • ^ McGeorge II, Harvey J.; Sbotogel C. Ketchem (1983–1984). "Sabotage: A Strategic Tool for Guerilla Forces". World Affairs. World Affairs Institute. 146 (3): 249–256 [253]. JSTOR 20671989. • ^ "Food Scare Scandals". The Independent. 16 June 1999. • ^ Luttwak, Edward (1968).


Coup d'Etat, a Practical Handbook. London: The Penguin Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-674-17547-6. • ^ Luttwak, Edward (1968). Coup d'Etat, a Practical Handbook. London: The Penguin Press. p. 128. ISBN 0-674-17547-6. • ^ John Arquilla; David Ronfeldt, eds. (2001). Networks and Netwars. RAND. pp. 5–7. ISBN 0-8330-3030-2.

• ^ Marrin, Albert (1985). The Secret Armies. New York: Atheneum. p. 24. ISBN 0-689-31165-6. • Émile Pouget, Le sabotage; notes et postface de Grégoire Chamayou et Mathieu Triclot, 1913; Mille et une nuit, 2004; English translation, Sabotage, paperback, 112 pp., University Press of the Pacific, 2001, ISBN 0-89875-459-3. • Pasquinelli, Matteo. "The Ideology of Free Culture and the Grammar of Sabotage" [ permanent dead link]; now in Animal Spirits: A Bestiary of the Commons, Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2008.

• Milton, Giles (2017). Churchill's Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare. John Murray. ISBN 978-1-444-79898-2. External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sabotage. • Office of Strategic Services Simple Sabotage Manual • News, accounts and articles on workplace sabotage sbotogel organising – Sabotage, employee theft, strikes, etc. • Ecodefense: A Field Guide to Monkeywrenching • Article on malicious railroad sabotage • Elizabeth Gurley Flinn, Sabotage, the conscious withdrawal of the workers' industrial efficiency • Aadu Jogiaas: Disturbing soviet transmissions in August 1991.

• "The Tallinn Cables, A GLIMPSE INTO TALLINN'S SECRET HISTORY OF ESPIONAGE, Lonely Planet Magazine, December 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2013. • Absenteeism • Abusive supervision • Aggression • Anti-pattern • Bullying • Computer surveillance • Conflict • Control freak • Counterproductive behaviour • Coworking • Culture of fear • Democracy • Deviance • Sbotogel • Diversity • Divide and rule • Drug tests • Emotions • Employee assistance • Employee engagement • Employee experience • Employee monitoring • Employee morale • Employee recognition • Employee silence • Employee surveys sbotogel Empowerment • Evaluation • Feminisation • Generations • Gossip • Happiness • Harassment • Health surveillance • Hostile work environment • Humor • Incivility • Inequality • Intervention • Jargon • Kick the cat • Kiss up kick down • Listening • Machiavellianism • Menopause • Micromanagement • Mobbing • Narcissism • Office politics • Performance appraisal • Personality clash • Phobia • Positive psychology • Privacy • Probation • Profanity • Psychopathy • Queen bee syndrome • Rat race • Relationships • Revenge • Robotics safety • Role conflict • Sabotage • Spirituality • Strategy • Stress • Toxic workplace • Toxic leader • Training • Turnover • Undermining • Violence • Virtual • Wellness • Work–family conflict • Workload • Workwear See also Hidden categories: • Articles containing French-language text • CS1 French-language sources (fr) • Webarchive template wayback links • CS1 errors: missing periodical • Articles with short description • Short description matches Wikidata • Use dmy dates from May 2021 • All articles lacking reliable references • Articles lacking reliable sbotogel from October 2015 • All articles with dead external links • Articles with dead external links from January 2018 • Articles with permanently dead external links • Commons category link from Wikidata • Articles with BNF identifiers • Articles with GND identifiers • Articles with J9U identifiers • Articles with LCCN identifiers • Articles with NDL identifiers • Articles with NARA identifiers • Afrikaans • العربية • Asturianu • Sbotogel • Български • Brezhoneg • Català • Čeština • Dansk • Deutsch • Eesti • Español • Esperanto • Euskara • فارسی • Français • Frysk • Furlan • Galego • 한국어 • Հայերեն • Hrvatski • Bahasa Indonesia • Italiano sbotogel עברית • Қазақша • Кыргызча • Lietuvių • Nederlands • 日本語 • Norsk bokmål • Norsk nynorsk • Polski • Português • Română • Русский • Slovenčina • Српски / srpski • Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски • Suomi sbotogel Svenska • Türkçe • Українська • اردو • Tiếng Việt • ייִדיש • 粵語 • Zazaki • 中文 Edit links • This page was last edited on 24 April 2022, at 12:19 (UTC).

• Text is available under sbotogel Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms sbotogel apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of sbotogel Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • • It’s safe to say the Baker Mayfield situation isn’t getting any rosier.

Not only have the Cleveland Browns been unable to trade the quarterback, despite multiple attempts, but he seems to be angrier and the reports are uglier as time goes on. Now, the “s” word is even being thrown around — as Mayfield’s camp reportedly believes the Browns tried to sabotage him in trading for Deshaun Watson, as relayed by Jake Trotter of ESPN.

“According to multiple sources, those close to Mayfield — who to that point had missed one game because of his shoulder injury — wondered at the time if the Browns were trying to make Sbotogel look as hapless as possible in prime time, to potentially pave the way for the franchise to more easily explain why it might be moving on from him in the offseason,” Trotter reported. The Browns were hoping to trade Mayfield during the NFL Sbotogel.

That has come and gone. Now, a lot of teams aren’t even talking trade. The Carolina Panthers no longer seem interested after moving up in the draft and selecting Matt Corral.

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All we know for certain is the Browns and Mayfield can’t carry on this way, or really, carry on at all. It’s great for the Browns that they landed Watson. He’s been a much better, much more consistent QB. But it’s a football disaster that Mayfield hasn’t been moved. Sbotogel Amico is the assistant managing editor-newsdesk at OutKick. He sbotogel also the co-founder and senior writer at, and sbotogel covered the NBA for nearly 20 years, including his time at Sports Illustrated, FOX Sports and CBS Sports.

A native of Akron, Ohio, his writing career began in Wyoming. Hey, Salty. We don’t agree sbotogel plenty, but we do agree here. What sbotogel tangible change is responsible for change in the Brown’s fortune if not Baker’s play as Sbotogel He is a bit immature, sbotogel in the right org, he can deliver playoffs. The Browns are just a disaster. Wait til sbotogel Watson experiment goes tits up then sbotogel see who gets blamed for that. #FreeBaker!! Search for: Search • ADVERTISE • BRAND PARTNERS • OK SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAM (OSBP) • CONTACT • PARTNERS • VIP FORUMS • CONTRIBUTORS • Clay Travis • Armando Salguero • Trey Wallace • Glenn Guilbeau • David Chao, MD (ProFootballDoc) • Sam Amico • Joe Kinsey • Bobby Burack • Bobby Carpenter • Meg Turner • Anthony Farris • Alejandro Avila • TK Sanders • Gary Sheffield, Jr • Matt Loede • Holly Sonders • Sbotogel Heitner • Hayley Simmons • David Troy • Jonathan Hutton • Chad Withrow • Paul Kuharsky • FREE BETS • JOBS • RESPONSIBLE GAMBLING
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Noun Angry workers were responsible for the sabotage of the machines. Officials have not yet ruled out sabotage as a possible cause of the crash. Verb They sabotaged the enemy's oil fields.

The airplane crashed because it was sabotaged. The lawyer is trying to sabotage the case by creating confusion. The deal was sabotaged by an angry employee. See More Recent Examples on the Web: Noun There sbotogel explanations other than sabotage, Alperovitch said. — Washington Post, 27 Apr. 2022 In July 1963, police raided the farm, arresting 19 people for sabotage. — Ryan Lenora Brown, The Christian Sbotogel Monitor, sbotogel Apr. 2022 There was none of the sniping or sabotage that’s defined past seasons, and the cast was one of the franchise’s least homogenous to date.

— Caroline Framke, Variety, 22 Apr. 2022 The White House should insist that any compromise legislation meaningfully tackle race discrimination sbotogel voting and sabotage threats. — The New Republic, 1 Apr. 2022 The Justice Department said the cyberespionage and sabotage campaigns were aimed at hundreds of companies and organizations in as many as 135 countries. — Ken Dilanian, NBC News, 24 Mar. 2022 Inspired by the true story of WASP leader Jackie Cohran (Zellweger) and the diverse group of women who fought the system, skeptics and even sabotage to bring everyone home safely.

— Joe Otterson, Variety, 8 Mar. 2022 Ukrainian forces continued to frustrate Russia with counterattacks and sabotage operations. — Brett Forrest, WSJ, 8 Sbotogel. 2022 Election experts are increasingly worried sbotogel sabotage by election officials and workers. — Mary Ann Ashcraft,, 25 Feb.

2022 Recent Examples on the Web: Verb But Florida Voters in Charge and affiliated petition firms filed a lawsuit Dec. 1 alleging that another committee, firms and people linked to sbotogel Seminole Tribe of Florida had tried to sabotage the petition drive. — Jim Saunders And Dara Kam,, 31 Jan. 2022 But Florida Voters in Charge and affiliated petition firms filed a lawsuit Dec. 1 alleging that another committee, firms and people linked to the Seminole Tribe of Florida had tried to sabotage the petition drive.

— Jim Saunders,, 31 Jan. 2022 Having chosen another candidate, the base would likely have much less patience for attempts by Trump to sabotage the nominee and help the Democrats keep the Sbotogel House.


— Philip Klein, National Review, 17 Mar. 2022 Sarah is on the hunt for a fellow competitor who tried to sabotage her while the group travels to Vienna.

— Washington Post, 21 Feb. 2022 Instead of offering sympathy, sbotogel relatives mock her clothing and English malapropisms, pay scant attention to her fears about her European relatives’ fate and try to sabotage her budding romances. — New York Times, 6 Feb.

2022 Don’t sabotage the purpose of a workout by trying to nail the numbers. — Matt Fitzgerald, Outside Online, 1 Mar. 2021 And Insufficiently One of the things that can sabotage the success of team-building activities is ineffective or insufficient communication in advance of the event. — Expert Panel®, Forbes, 7 Mar. 2022 Politicians in Europe and sbotogel U.S. are far less keen to discuss the role financial institutions continue to play in financing fossil fuel projects that could sabotage these climate targets.

— Kate Aronoff, The New Republic, 15 Feb. 2022 See More These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'sabotage.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors.

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US theatrical release poster Directed by Alfred Hitchcock Sbotogel by Charles Bennett Story by Joseph Conrad Produced by Michael Balcon Starring Sylvia Sidney Oskar Homolka John Loder Cinematography Bernard Knowles Edited by Charles Frend Music by Jack Beaver Distributed by General Film Distributors Running time 76 minutes [1] Country United Kingdom Language English Sabotage, released in the United States as The Woman Alone, [1] is a 1936 British espionage thriller film directed sbotogel Alfred Hitchcock and starring Sylvia Sidney, Oskar Homolka, and John Loder.

It is loosely based on Joseph Conrad's 1907 novel The Secret Agent, about a woman who discovers that her husband, a London sbotogel, is a terrorist agent. [1] Sabotage should not sbotogel confused with Hitchcock's film Secret Agent, which was also released in 1936, but instead loosely based on two stories in the 1927 collection Ashenden: Or the British Agent by W.

Somerset Maugham. [1] It also should not be confused with Hitchcock's film Saboteur (1942), which includes the iconic fall from the torch of the Statue of Liberty which presaged the Mount Rushmore scene in North by Northwest (1959). The film holds a rare 100% rating on review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes.

[2] In 2017, a poll of 150 actors, directors, writers, producers and critics for Time Out magazine ranked the film 44th best British film ever. [3] In 2021, The Daily Telegraph ranked the film at No. 3 on its list of "The 100 best British films of all time". [4] Contents • 1 Plot • 2 Cast • sbotogel Production • 4 Reception • sbotogel Adaptation • 6 Allusions • 7 Legacy • 8 See also • 9 References • 10 External links Plot [ edit ] In London, sand is put into the bearings of an electrical generator, causing a power blackout.

At a cinema sbotogel by Karl Verloc ( Oscar Homolka), people demand sbotogel money back. Verloc enters through a back entrance to the living quarters above. He washes sand from his hands, but when his sbotogel ( Sylvia Sidney) comes for him, he pretends to have been asleep. He instructs her to refund the money, saying he has "some money coming sbotogel anyway. As the money is about to be disbursed to the customers downstairs, the lights go back on.

The next day, Verloc meets his contact. They are part of a gang of terrorists from an unnamed European country who are planning a sbotogel of attacks in London, though no exact motive is made clear. Verloc's contact is disappointed that the newspapers mocked the short loss of electricity, and instructs Sbotogel to place a parcel of "fireworks" at the Piccadilly Circus tube station on Saturday, during the Lord Mayor's Show. Verloc is not comfortable with killing, but his contact says to get someone else to do it.

Verloc is given the address of sbotogel bird shop, whose owner also makes bombs. Scotland Yard suspects Verloc's involvement in sbotogel plot and has placed Detective Sergeant Ted Spencer sbotogel John Loder) undercover as a greengrocer's helper next to the cinema. He befriends Mrs. Verloc and her little brother, Stevie ( Desmond Tester), who lives with them, by treating them to a meal at Simpson's. At this point, Spencer and Scotland Yard are unsure whether Mrs.

Verloc is complicit in the terrorist plots or innocently unaware; but by the end of the meal, he is sbotogel she is innocent and is falling for her. Verloc goes to the bird shop.


The bomb-maker says he will prepare a time bomb and set it to explode at 1:45 p.m. on Saturday. Later that night, members of the terrorist group meet in Verloc's sbotogel room above the cinema. Detective Spencer attempts to eavesdrop on the conversation, but is seen and recognized.

The meeting ends abruptly and the members scatter, sbotogel that they are all being followed. Verloc tells his wife the police are investigating him, but maintains his innocence. The next day, Verloc receives a package containing two caged canaries – a present for Stevie – and the bomb. Spencer shows up with Stevie and tells Mrs. Verloc of Scotland Yard's suspicions. Verloc sees them talking, and becomes nervous. Before he can be questioned, Verloc asks Stevie to deliver a film canister to another cinema, and since it is on his way, to deposit another package in the cloakroom at Piccadilly Circus station by 1:30 p.m.

He says it contains projector parts to be repaired and the repairman will collect it there. Unknowingly carrying the time bomb for Verloc, Stevie is delayed by several events, including the Lord Mayor's Show procession.

Now late, Stevie manages to talk himself aboard a bus to Piccadilly Circus, even sbotogel flammable nitrate film is not allowed on public vehicles. The bomb explodes on the bus, killing Stevie and others. Verloc confesses to his wife, but blames Scotland Yard and Spencer for Stevie's death, since they were the ones who prevented Verloc from delivering the bomb himself.

Soon afterwards, as they are preparing to eat dinner, she becomes infuriated and stabs him to death with a knife. When Spencer arrives to arrest Verloc he realises what has happened, but he insists that she should not admit stabbing her husband. Even if it was self-defense, she might not be believed in court. Spencer plans to abandon his career and leave the country with her. The bomb-maker goes to Verloc's flat to retrieve the birdcage in case it might incriminate him, but the police, who already suspect him, follow him.

When they arrive, Mrs. Verloc tries to confess, but moments after she says her husband is dead, the bomb-maker sets off a bomb he was carrying, killing himself and destroying Verloc's body. Afterwards, the police superintendent is unsure whether she spoke before or after the explosion, as Ted and Sbotogel. Verloc flee the city. Cast [ edit ] • Sylvia Sidney listed sbotogel Sylvia Sydney as Mrs. Verloc • Oskar Homolka listed as Oscar Homolka as Karl Anton Verloc, "Her Husband" • Desmond Tester as Steve (Stevie) "Her Young Brother" sbotogel John Loder as Sergeant Ted Spencer • Joyce Barbour as Renee • Matthew Boulton as Superintendent Talbot • S.

J. Warmington as Hollingshead • William Dewhurst as The Professor • Charles Hawtrey as a Studious Youth at the aquarium (uncredited) • Peter Bull as Michaelisa, a Conspirator (uncredited) • Torin Thatcher as Yunct (uncredited) Production [ edit ] Hitchcock wanted to cast Robert Donat – with whom he sbotogel previously worked in The 39 Steps (1935) – as Spencer, but was forced to cast another actor (John Loder) owing to Donat's chronic asthma.

[1] [5] [6] Sbotogel to Hitchcock, in his interviews with the French director François Truffaut, Alexander Korda, to whom Donat was under contract, refused to release him. Hitchcock, who was not happy with Loder's casting, later commented, "The actor we got sbotogel suitable, and I was forced to rewrite the dialogue during the shooting".

[7] Hitchcock also chose the young Bobby Rietti – later known as Robert Rietti – to play the part of Steve, but was not able to sign him for legal reasons. Reception [ edit ] Frank S. Nugent of The New York Times praised the film as sbotogel masterly exercise in suspense." [8] Variety wrote, "Competent and experienced hand of the director is apparent throughout this production, which is a smart one and executed in a business-like manner from start to finish." However, the review noted that the motivation of the terrorists "is not made clear.

As a result, the audience watches the piece and its suspensive moments with interest, and when it is over, is still hazy as to the why and wherefore." [9] Harrison's Reports called it "A thrilling sbotogel adding that Hitchcock "again shows his skill sbotogel building up a situation to a tense climax." [10] The Monthly Film Bulletin wrote, "The individual genius of Hitchcock is very clearly shown in the distinctive and original direction," and called Oscar Homolka's performance "remarkable." [11] John Mosher of The New Yorker called it "rather exciting for the most part.

It's a lively, minor Alfred Hitchcock picture." [12] Writing for The Spectator, Graham Greene gave the film a good review, pronouncing that "in Sabotage for the first time [Hitchcock] has really 'come off'". Greene identified the children's matinée scene as an "ingenious and pathetic sbotogel stamped as Mr Hitchcock's own", and he praised the melodrama present in the screenplay writing, the dialogue, and the sbotogel cast generally. Greene's only complaint was in relation to the acting of the "unconvincing" detective (Loder) and the "invincibl[y] distaste[ful]" prep school student (Tester).

[13] Sabotage garnered 100% approval on Rotten Tomatoes, with an average rating of 7.4/10. [2] Adaptation [ edit ] Bennett liberally adapted Joseph Conrad's novel, transforming the highly political Tsarist-era agents provocateurs into foreign agents without any obvious political leanings. [1] [5] Verloc's shop is transformed into a cinema, with the films being shown echoing the story, and the policeman investigating the case is an undercover officer posing as a greengrocer.


{INSERTKEYS} [14] [1] Since the film was produced in the years immediately preceding World War II, the unnamed hostile power behind the bombings has been assumed by many viewers to be Nazi Germany.

However, the film does not specify this, and indeed, Verloc's first name has been changed, presumably because his name in the novel, Adolf, had too many connotations by the time the film was made. [1] Stevie, Mrs. Verloc's brother, is portrayed as an ordinary schoolboy, with few of the visionary attributes of his literary counterpart. Stevie's death is a climactic moment in the plot, providing insight into Hitchcock's views about how the innocent suffer through random acts of violence.

[14] When a critic condemned Stevie's death as brutal and unnecessary, Hitchcock said that he regretted including it in the film, not because of the brutality, however, but because it violated his method of suspense, whereby tension eventually had to be relieved.

Yet, Hitchcock remained faithful to the novel in having the bomb go off, [5] and it also allowed him to justify in the movie that the boy's sister would eventually kill her husband, who was responsible for the boy's death, and got away with it. Allusions [ edit ] The fact that many scenes of the film were set in a cinema allowed Hitchcock to include references to contemporary films and storylines.

Perhaps the most famous of these is the final film sequence, an excerpt from a Walt Disney Silly Symphony Who Killed Cock Robin? (1935). [1] Legacy [ edit ] Quentin Tarantino used the scene where Stevie is initially not allowed onto the bus due to the nitrate film he is carrying, in his film Inglourious Basterds.

This was used to explain the use of nitrate film for the character's terrorist plot. See also [ edit ] • The Secret Agent (1992, TV miniseries) • The Secret Agent (1996) • The Secret Agent (2016, TV miniseries) References [ edit ] • ^ a b c d e f g h i "Alfred Hitchcock Collectors' Guide: Sabotage (1936)". Brenton Film. • ^ a b "Sabotage (1937)". Rotten Tomatoes . Retrieved 21 January 2017. • ^ "The 100 best British films". Time Out. Retrieved 24 October 2017 • ^ "The 100 best British films of all time".

The Telegraph. 3 July 2021. • ^ a b c Sabotage at screenonline • ^ Sabotage at Turner Classic Movies • ^ Alfred Hitchcock and François Truffaut Hitchcock, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1985, p.109 • ^ Nugent, Frank S. (27 February 1937). "The Screen". The New York Times: 9. • ^ "Sabotage". Variety: 15. 16 December 1936. • ^ " 'The Woman Alone' with Sylvia Sidney and Oscar Homolka". Harrison's Reports: 19. 30 January 1937. • ^ "Sabotage". {/INSERTKEYS}


The Monthly Film Sbotogel. 3 (36): 214. December 1936. • ^ Mosher, John (6 March 1937). "The Current Cinema". The New Yorker: 78. • ^ Greene, Graham (11 December 1936). "Sabotage/The Tenth Man". The Spectator. (reprinted in: Taylor, John Russell, ed. (1980). The Pleasure Dome. Oxford University Press. pp. 122-123. ISBN 0192812866. ) • ^ a b Spoto, Donald (1999). The Dark Side of Genius: The Life of Alfred Hitchcock. Da Capo. pp. 155–158. ISBN 0-306-80932-X. External links [ edit ] • Sabotage at IMDb • Sabotage at AllMovie • Sabotage at the TCM Movie Database • Alfred Hitchcock Collectors’ Guide: Sabotage at Brenton Film • Blackmail (1929) • Juno and the Paycock (1930) • Murder!

(1930) • Elstree Calling (1930) • The Skin Game (1931) • Mary (1931) • Rich and Strange (1931) • Number Seventeen (1932) • Waltzes from Vienna (1934) • The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934) • The 39 Steps (1935) • Secret Agent (1936) • Sabotage (1936) • Young and Innocent (1937) • The Lady Vanishes (1938) • Jamaica Sbotogel (1939) Hollywood and later • Hitchcockian • Number 13 • The Short Night • The Blackguard • Lord Camber's Ladies • German Concentration Camps Sbotogel Survey • Alfred Hitchcock's Sbotogel Magazine • Alfred Hitchcock's Anthology • Three Investigators • Sbotogel Pictures • High Anxiety • Alfred Hitchcock: The Art of Making Movies • Alfred Hitchcock and the Making of Psycho • Hitchcock • The Girl • Hitchcock/Truffaut • film Family • Almayer's Folly • An Outcast of the Islands • The Nigger of the 'Narcissus' • Heart of Darkness • The End of the Tether • Lord Jim • The Inheritors • Typhoon • Romance • Nostromo • The Secret Agent • Under Western Eyes • Freya of the Seven Isles • Chance • Victory • The Shadow Line • The Arrow of Gold • The Rescue • The Nature of a Crime • The Rover • Suspense Short stories • Victory (1919) • Lord Jim (1925) • The Silver Treasure (1926) • Dangerous Paradise (1930) • Sabotage (1936) • Victory (1940) • Outcast of the Islands (1951) • Lord Jim (1965) • The Rover (1967) • The Duellists (1977) • Apocalypse Now (1979) • Heart of Darkness (1993) • Victory (1996) • The Secret Agent (1996) • Nostromo (1997 TV) • Gabrielle (2005) • Almayer's Folly (2011) • Spec Ops: The Line (2012 video game) • Hanyut (2014) • Secret Sharer (2014) • The Secret Agent (1992) • The Secret Agent (2016) • The Young One (2016) Related Hidden categories: • Articles with short description • Short description matches Wikidata • Use dmy dates from February 2021 • Use British English from February 2012 • Template film date with 3 release dates • Articles with VIAF identifiers • Articles with BNE identifiers • Articles with BNF identifiers • Articles with GND identifiers • Articles with SUDOC identifiers • Articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers • Català • Deutsch • Ελληνικά • Emiliàn e rumagnòl • Español • Esperanto • فارسی • Français • Galego • 한국어 • Bahasa Indonesia • Italiano • עברית • Lëtzebuergesch • Nederlands • 日本語 • Norsk bokmål • Plattdüütsch • Polski • Português • Русский • Srpskohrvatski / sbotogel • Suomi • Svenska • Українська Edit links • This page was last edited on 7 May 2022, at 02:36 (UTC).

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