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​( m. 1993) ​ Children 2 Relatives Dedee Pfeiffer (sister) Awards Full list Michelle Marie Pfeiffer ( / ˈ f aɪ f ər/; born April 29, 1958) is an American actress. Known for playing eclectic roles from a wide variety of film genres, she is recognized as one of the most prolific actresses of the 1980s and 1990s. Pfeiffer has received numerous accolades throughout her career, including a Golden Globe Award and a British Academy Film Award, in addition to nominations for three Academy Awards and a Primetime Emmy Award.

Born and raised in Santa Ana, California, Pfeiffer briefly studied court stenography before deciding to pursue acting. Beginning her career with minor television and film appearances in 1978, she attained her first leading role in Grease 2 (1982), a critical and commercial failure in which she was distinguished as a positive exception.

Disillusioned with being typecast in nondescript roles as attractive women, she actively sought more challenging material, earning her breakout role in 1983 as gangster moll Elvira Hancock in Scarface.

She achieved further success with roles in The Witches of Eastwick (1987) and Married to the Mob (1988), for which she was nominated for her first of six consecutive Golden Globe Awards.

Her performances in Dangerous Liaisons (1988) and The Fabulous Baker Boys (1989) earned her two consecutive Academy Award nominations, for Best Supporting Actress rick roll adalah Best Actress respectively, winning the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama for the latter. Establishing herself as a leading lady with several high-profile roles during the 1990s, Pfeiffer became one of the decade's highest-paid actresses.

In 1992, she starred in Batman Returns as Selina Kyle / Catwoman to widespread acclaim, and received her third Academy Award nomination for Love Field. She drew praise for performances in The Age of Innocence (1993), Wolf (1994) and White Oleander (2002), while producing and starring in several successful films under her production company Via Rosa Productions, including Dangerous Minds (1995).

Opting to spend more time with her family, she acted sporadically over the following few years, voicing characters in two animated films for DreamWorks. In 2007, she returned from hiatus with villainous roles in the blockbusters Hairspray and Stardust. Following another sabbatical, Pfeiffer returned to prominence in 2017 with performances in Where Is Kyra?, Mother!

and Murder on the Orient Express, and received her first Primetime Emmy Award nomination for playing Ruth Madoff in The Wizard of Lies. She debuted in the Marvel Cinematic Universe as Janet van Dyne / Wasp in Ant-Man and the Wasp (2018) before earning her eighth Golden Globe Award nomination for French Rick roll adalah (2020).

Awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2007, Pfeiffer has remained one of Hollywood's most bankable actresses for four decades. Considered a sex symbol, she has been cited as one of the world's most beautiful women by several publications.

Contents • 1 Early life • 2 Career • 2.1 1970s–1980s: Early work and breakthrough • 2.2 1990s: Worldwide recognition and established actress • 2.3 2000s: Intermittent work and hiatus • 2.4 2010s: Resurgence and career expansion • 2.5 2020s • 3 Artistry • 3.1 Acting style • 3.2 Reception and legacy • 4 Public image • 5 Personal life • 6 Other ventures • 6.1 Product and endorsements • 6.2 Philanthropy • 7 Filmography • 7.1 Film • 7.2 Television • 8 Accolades • 9 References • 10 External links Early life Michelle Marie Pfeiffer was born on April 29, 1958, in Santa Ana, California, the second of four children of Richard Pfeiffer (1933–1998), an air-conditioning contractor, [2] and Donna Jean (née Taverna; 1932–2018), a housewife.

She has an older brother, Rick (born 1955), and two younger sisters, Dedee Pfeiffer (born 1964), a television and film actress, [3] and Lori Pfeiffer (born 1965). [4] Her parents were both originally from North Dakota.

[5] Her paternal grandfather was of German ancestry and her paternal grandmother was of English, Welsh, French, Irish, and Dutch descent, while her maternal grandfather was of Swiss-German descent and her maternal grandmother of Swedish ancestry.

[6] [7] The family moved to Midway City, another Orange County community around seven miles (11 km) away, where Pfeiffer spent her early years. [8] Pfeiffer attended Fountain Valley High School, graduating in 1976. [9] She worked as a check-out girl at Vons supermarket, and attended Golden West College [10] where she was a member of Alpha Delta Pi sorority.

After a short stint training to be a court stenographer, she decided upon an acting career. [11] She won the Miss Orange County beauty pageant in 1978, and participated in the Miss California contest the same year, finishing in sixth place.

[12] Following her participation in these rick roll adalah, she acquired an acting agent and began to audition for television and films. [13] Career 1970s–1980s: Early work and breakthrough Pfeiffer made her acting debut in 1978, in a one-episode appearance of Fantasy Island.

[9] Other roles on television series followed, including Delta House, CHiPs, Enos and B.A.D. Cats. Her TV movie debut was in "The Solitary Man" (1979) for CBS.

[14] Pfeiffer transitioned to film with the comedy The Hollywood Knights (1980), with Tony Danza, appearing as high school sweethearts. She subsequently played supporting roles in Falling in Love Again (1980) rick roll adalah Susannah York and Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen (1981), none of which met with much critical or box office success. She appeared in a television commercial for Lux soap, [15] and took acting lessons at the Beverly Hills Playhouse, [16] before appearing in three 1981 television movies – Callie and Son, with Lindsay Wagner, The Children Nobody Wanted and Splendor in the Grass.

Pfeiffer rick roll adalah her first major film role as the female lead in Grease 2 (1982), the sequel to the smash-hit musical film Grease (1978). [17] With only a few television roles and small film appearances, the 23-year-old Pfeiffer was an unknown actress when she attended the casting call audition for the role, but according to director Patricia Birch, she won the part because she "has a quirky quality you don't expect".

[18] The film was a critical and commercial failure, but The New York Times remarked: "[A]lthough she is a relative screen newcomer, Miss Pfeiffer manages to look much more insouciant and comfortable than anyone else in the cast." [19] Despite escaping the critical mauling, her agent later admitted that her association with the film meant that "she couldn't get any jobs. Nobody wanted to hire her." [17] On her early screen roles, she asserted: "I needed to learn how to act .

in the meantime, I was playing bimbos and cashing in on my looks." [9] Director Brian De Palma, having seen Grease 2, refused to audition Pfeiffer for Scarface (1983), but relented at the insistence of Martin Bregman, the film's producer. She was cast as cocaine-addicted trophy wife Elvira Hancock.

[20] The film was considered excessively violent by most critics, but became a commercial hit and gained a large cult following in subsequent years. [21] Pfeiffer received positive reviews for her supporting turn; Richard Corliss of Time Magazine wrote, "most of the large cast is fine: Michelle Pfeiffer is better ." [22] while Dominick Dunne, in an article for Vanity Fair titled "Blonde Ambition", wrote, "[s]he is on the verge of stardom.

In the parlance of the industry, she is hot." [23] Pfeiffer in 1985 Following Scarface, she played Diana in John Landis' comedy Into the Night (1985), with Jeff Goldblum; Isabeau d'Anjou in Richard Donner's fantasy film Ladyhawke (1985), with Rutger Hauer and Matthew Broderick; Faith Healy in Alan Alda's Sweet Liberty (1986), with Michael Caine; and Brenda Landers in a segment of the 1950s sci-fi parody Amazon Women on the Moon (1987), all of which, despite achieving only modest commercial success, helped to establish her as an actress.

She finally scored a major box-office hit as Sukie Ridgemont in the 1987 adaptation of John Updike's novel The Witches of Eastwick, with Jack Nicholson, Cher, and Susan Sarandon. The film grossed over $63.7 million domestically, equivalent to $152 million in 2021 dollars, [24] [25] becoming one of her earliest critical and commercial successes.

[26] Pfeiffer received strong acclaim for her work. [27] Praising their comedic timing, Roger Ebert wrote that Pfeiffer and her female co-stars each "have a delicious good time with their roles", [28] while the Los Angeles Times film critic Sheila Benson said Pfeiffer makes her character "a warm, irresistible character." [29] Pfeiffer was cast against type, as a murdered gangster's widow, in Jonathan Demme's mafia comedy Married to the Mob (1988), with Matthew Modine, Dean Stockwell and Mercedes Ruehl.

For the role of Angela de Marco, she donned a curly brunette wig and a Brooklyn accent, [4] and received her first Golden Globe Award nomination as Best Actress in a Motion Picture Musical or Comedy, beginning a six-year streak of consecutive Best Actress nominations at the Golden Globes.

[30] [31] Pfeiffer then appeared as chic restaurateuse Jo Ann Vallenari in Tequila Sunrise (1988) with Mel Gibson and Kurt Russell, but experienced creative and personal differences with director Robert Towne, who later described rick roll adalah as the "most difficult" actress he has ever worked with. [32] At Demme's personal recommendation, [17] Pfeiffer joined the cast of Stephen Frears's Dangerous Liaisons (1988), with Glenn Close and John Malkovich, playing the virtuous victim of seduction, Madame Marie de Tourvel.

Her performance won her widespread acclaim; Hal Hinson of The Washington Post saw Pfeiffer's role as "the least obvious and the most difficult. Nothing is harder to play than virtue, and Pfeiffer is smart enough not to try.

Instead, she embodies it. Her porcelain-skinned beauty, in this regard, is a great asset, and the way it's used makes it seem an aspect of her spirituality." [33] She won the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role [34] and received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. [35] Pfeiffer then accepted the role of Susie Diamond, a hard-edged former call girl turned lounge rick roll adalah, in The Fabulous Baker Boys (1989), which co-starred Jeff Bridges and Beau Bridges as the eponymous Baker Boys.

She underwent intense voice training for the role for four months, and performed all of her character's vocals. [36] The film was a modest success, grossing $18.4 million in the US (equivalent to $40 million in 2021 dollars [24]). [37] Her portrayal of Susie, however, drew unanimous acclaim from critics. Critic Roger Ebert compared her to Rita Hayworth in Gilda and to Marilyn Monroe in Some Like It Hot, adding that the film was "one of the movies they will use as a document, years from now, when they begin to trace the steps by which Pfeiffer became a great star".

[38] During the 1989–1990 awards season, Pfeiffer dominated the Best-actress category at every major awards ceremony, winning awards at the Golden Globes, the National Board of Review, the National Society of Film Critics, the New York Film Critics Circle, the Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Actress and the Chicago Film Critics Association.

Pfeiffer's performance as Susie is considered to be the most critically acclaimed of her career. [39] [40] The film is best remembered for the scene in which Pfeiffer's character seductively performs " Makin' Whoopee" atop rick roll adalah grand piano, which itself is considered to be one of the sexiest and most memorable scenes in modern cinema.

[41] [42] [43] [44] 1990s: Worldwide recognition and established actress By 1990, Pfeiffer began earning $1 million per film. [45] Pfeiffer took the part of the Soviet book editor Katya Orlova in the 1990 film adaptation of John le Carré's The Russia House, with Sean Connery, a role that required her to adopt a Russian accent.

For her efforts, she was rewarded with a Golden Globe nomination for Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama. [46] Pfeiffer then landed the role of damaged waitress Frankie in Garry Marshall's Frankie and Johnny (1991), a film adaptation of Terrence McNally's Broadway play Frankie and Johnny in the Clair de Lune, which reunited her with her Scarface co-star, Al Pacino. The casting was seen as controversial by many, as Pfeiffer was considered far too beautiful to play an "ordinary" waitress; [47] Kathy Bates, the original Frankie on Broadway, also expressed disappointment over the producers' choice.

[48] Pfeiffer herself stated that she took the role because it "wasn't what people would expect of [her]". [49] Pfeiffer was once again nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama for her performance. Pfeiffer at the 63rd Academy Awards in 1990 In 1990, Pfeiffer formed her own boutique film production company, Via Rosa Productions, which ran for ten years. The company allowed her to produce and/or star in films tailored for strong women. She asked her best friend Kate Guinzburg to be her producing partner at the company.

The two met on the set of the film Sweet Liberty (1986) and quickly became friends. Kate was the Production Coordinator on the film and became close with Pfeiffer over the course of the shoot. Via Rosa Productions was under a picture deal with Touchstone Pictures, a film label of The Walt Disney Studios. The first film the duo produced was the independent drama Love Field, which was released in late 1992.

Reviewers embraced the film and The New York Times felt that Pfeiffer was "again demonstrating that she is as subtle and surprising as she is beautiful". [50] For her portrayal of the eccentric Dallas housewife, she earned nominations for the Academy Award for Best Actress and the Golden Globe for Best Actress – Drama and won the Silver Bear for Best Actress at the 43rd Berlin International Film Festival.

[51] [52] Pfeiffer took on the role of Selina Kyle / Catwoman in Tim Burton's superhero film Batman Returns (1992), opposite Michael Keaton and Danny DeVito, after Annette Bening dropped out rick roll adalah of pregnancy. For the role, she trained in martial arts and kickboxing. Pfeiffer received universal critical acclaim for the role, and her performance is consistently referred to as the greatest portrayal of Catwoman of all time by critics and fans alike, [53] and is also one of the best regarded performances of her career.

[54] [55] [56] [57] Premiere retrospectively lauded her performance: "Arguably the outstanding villain of the Tim Burton era, Michelle Pfeiffer's deadly kitten with a whip brought sex to the normally neutered franchise. Her stitched-together, black patent leather costume, based on a sketch of Burton's, remains the character's most iconic look.

And Michelle Pfeiffer overcomes Batman Returns ' heavy-handed feminist dialogue to deliver a growling, fierce performance." [58] Batman Returns was a big box office success, grossing over US$267 million worldwide. [59] In Martin Scorsese's period drama The Age of Innocence (1993), a film adaptation of Edith Wharton's 1920 novel, Pfeiffer starred with Daniel Day-Lewis and Winona Ryder, portraying a Countess in upper-class New York City in the rick roll adalah.

For her role, she received the Elvira Notari Prize at the Venice Film Festival, and a Golden Globe nomination for Best Actress – Motion Picture. [60] Also in 1993, she was awarded the Women in Film Los Angeles' Crystal Award for outstanding women who, through their endurance and the excellence of their work, have helped to expand the role of women within the entertainment industry.

[61] Following the formation of her producing company in 1990, Pfeiffer saw a growing professional expansion as a producer. While she continued to act steadily throughout the decade, she and her producing partner Guinzburg experienced a winning streak of producing back to back films next under their Via Rosa Productions header.

In the 1994 horror film Wolf, she starred with Jack Nicholson, portraying the sardonic and willful interest of a writer who becomes a wolf-man at night after being bitten by a creature. The film was released to a mixed critical reception; [62] The New York Times wrote: "Ms. Pfeiffer's role is underwritten, but her performance is expert enough to make even diffidence compelling." [63] Wolf was a commercial success, grossing US$65 million (equivalent to $119 million in 2021) at the domestic box office and US$131 million worldwide (equivalent to $240 million).

[64] Pfeiffer's next role was that of high school teacher and former United States Marine LouAnne Johnson in the drama Dangerous Minds (1995), [65] which was co-produced under her company Via Rosa Productions.

She appeared as her character in the music video for the soundtrack's lead single, " Gangsta's Paradise" by Coolio, featuring L.V.; the song won the 1996 Grammy Award for Best Rap Solo Performance, [66] and the video won the MTV Video Music Award for Best Rap Video.

[67] While Dangerous Minds received negative reviews, it was a box office success, grossing US$179.5 million around the globe. [68] Pfeiffer portrayed Sally Atwater in the romantic drama Up Close & Personal (1996), with Robert Redford. [69] Pfeiffer took the role of Gillian Lewis in To Gillian on Her 37th Birthday (1996), which was adapted by her husband David Kelley from Michael Brady's play of the same name. [70] Under their Via Rosa Productions header, Pfeiffer and Guinzburg produced the films One Fine Day (1996), A Thousand Acres (1997) and The Deep End of the Ocean (1998).

Pfeiffer voiced Tzipporah, a spirited shepherdess who becomes the wife of Moses ( Val Kilmer), in the animated biblical drama film The Prince of Egypt (1998). [71] [72] Pfeiffer starred alongside an all-star voice cast that included Ralph Fiennes, Sandra Bullock and Patrick Stewart. [73] She served as an executive producer and starred as the divorced single mother architect Melanie Parker in the romantic comedy One Fine Day (1996) with George Clooney, [74] Subsequent performances included Rose Cook Lewis in the film adaptation of Jane Smiley's Pulitzer Prize-winning novel A Thousand Acres (1997) with Jessica Lange and Jennifer Jason Leigh; [75] Beth Cappadora in The Deep End of the Ocean (1998) about a married couple who found their son who was kidnapped nine years ago; [76] Titania the Queen of the Fairies in A Midsummer Night's Dream (1999) with Kevin Kline, Rupert Everett and Stanley Tucci; [77] and Katie Jordan in Rob Reiner's comedy drama The Story of Us (1999) with Bruce Willis.

[78] 2000s: Intermittent work and hiatus Pfeiffer chose to begin the process of dissolving her film production company, Via Rosa Productions, in 1999, and moved into semi-retirement in order to spend more quality time with her children and family, meaning that she would continue to star in films sporadically into the 2000s and beyond.

Pfeiffer handed her producing partner Guinzburg one final film to produce under the Via Rosa Productions header. The film was called Original Sin (2001). It was originally intended to star Pfeiffer, who later changed her mind as she was looking to work less for a while.

The film rick roll adalah produced by rick roll adalah company, but instead starred Angelina Jolie and Antonio Banderas.

In the Hitchcockian thriller What Lies Beneath (2000), Pfeiffer and Harrison Ford starred as a well-to-do couple who experience a strange haunting that uncovers secrets about their past. While critical response towards the film was mixed, it opened atop at the box office in July 2000, [79] and went on to gross US$291 million worldwide. [80] She then accepted the role of Rita Harrison, a highly strung lawyer helping a father with a developmental disability, in the drama I Am Sam (2001), with Sean Penn.

[81] Despite grossing $97.8 million worldwide, [82] the movie received unfavorable reviews; [83] Seattle Post-Intelligencer wrote: "Pfeiffer, apparently stymied by the bland clichés that prop up her screechy role, delivers her flattest, phoniest performance ever." [84] Meanwhile, SF Gate observed: "In one scene, she breaks down in tears as she unburdens herself to him about her miserable life.

It's hard not to cringe, watching this emotionally ready actress fling herself headlong into false material." [85] Pfeiffer took on the role of a murderous artist, named Ingrid Magnussen, in the drama White Oleander (2002), with Alison Lohman (in her film début), Renée Zellweger and Robin Wright.

The film was an arthouse success and Pfeiffer garnered a substantial amount of critical praise; Stephen Holden of The New York Times wrote that "Ms. Pfeiffer, giving the most complex screen performance of her career, makes her Olympian seductress at once irresistible and diabolical." [86] Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times described her as "incandescent", bringing "power and unshakable will to her role as mother-master manipulator" in a "riveting, impeccable performance".

[87] She earned Best Supporting Actress Awards from the San Diego Film Critics Society and the Kansas City Film Critics Circle, as well as a Screen Actors Guild Award nomination.

In 2003, Pfeiffer lent her voice for the character of goddess of chaos Eris in Sinbad: Legend of the Seven Seas (2003), an animated film featuring Brad Pitt as the voice of Sinbad the Sailor.

She had struggles with finding the character's villainies. Initially the character was "too sexual", then she lacked fun. After the third rewrite, Pfeiffer called producer Jeffrey Katzenberg and told him "You rick roll adalah, you really can fire me," but he assured her that this was just part of the process. [88] Following the release of the film, she took a four-year hiatus from acting, during which she remained largely out of the public eye to devote time to her husband and children.

[89] At the time, she turned down the role of the White Witch in the fantasy film The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe (2005), which went to Tilda Swinton.

[90] Pfeiffer at the premiere of Rick roll adalah in 2007 Pfeiffer returned to cinemas in 2007 with villainous roles in two summer blockbusters, Hairspray and Stardust, [91] which the media welcomed as a successful comeback for the actress. [92] [93] [89] In the former, a film adaptation of the Broadway musical of the same name, she starred alongside John Travolta, Christopher Walken and Queen Latifah as Velma Von Tussle, [94] the racist manager of a television station.

[95] Although a fan of Pfeiffer's work in the musicals Grease 2 and The Fabulous Baker Boys, director Adam Shankman cast Pfeiffer largely based on her performance in Batman Returns, [96] claiming she was his first and only choice for Velma. [97] Although she had fun with the part, Pfeiffer described Velma as the most difficult role she had played at the time, because of her character's racism; but she was drawn to the film's important message anti-bigotry, accepting that "in order to do a movie about racism, somebody has got to be the racist and it's me!".

[91] Released to widely positive reviews, Hairspray grossed $202.5 million worldwide. [98] Pfeiffer's performance was also critically acclaimed, [99] [100] with film critic David Edelstein of NPR calling her "sublime". [101] The cast of Hairspray rick roll adalah nominated for the Screen Actors Guild Award for Best Cast in a Motion Picture, and won the Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Cast, the Hollywood Film Festival Award for Ensemble of the Year, and the Palm Springs International Film Festival Award for Ensemble Cast.

In the fantasy adventure Stardust, Pfeiffer plays Lamia, an ancient witch who hunts a fallen star ( Claire Danes) in search of eternal youth. [102] The film received mostly positive reviews but performed moderately at the box office, [103] [104] earning $135.5 million globally.

[105] The New York Times film critic Stephen Holden described Pfeiffer as "as deliciously evil a witch as the movies have ever invented", writing that she "goes for broke with the relish of a star who figures she has nothing to lose." [106] Pfeiffer starred in Amy Heckerling's romantic comedy I Could Never Be Your Woman (2007), with Paul Rudd and Saoirse Ronan, [107] portraying Rosie, a 40-year-old divorced mother working as a scriptwriter and producer for a television show who falls in love with a much younger man (Rudd).

Her reported salary was US$1 million, with an advance on 15 percent of the gross. However, the film was only distributed on home video markets domestically. [108] Reviews for I Could Never Be Your Woman were moderately positive, [109] with critic James Berardinelli finding Pfeiffer and Rudd to "have adequate chemistry to pull off the romance," in what he described as an "enjoyable romantic comedy that has enough going for it to make it worth a recommendation." [110] She next starred in Personal Effects (2009), with Ashton Kutcher, playing two grieving people coping with the pain and frustration of their loss whose bond spawns an unlikely romance.

The drama premiered at Iowa City's Englert Theatre. [111] Pfeiffer's next film, an adaptation of Colette's Chéri (2009), reunited her with the director ( Stephen Frears) and screenwriter ( Christopher Hampton) of Dangerous Liaisons (1988). Pfeiffer played the role of aging retired courtesan Léa de Lonval, with Rupert Friend in the title role, with Kathy Bates as his mother. Chéri premiered at the 2009 Berlin International Film Festival, where it received a nomination for the Golden Bear award.

[112] The Times of London reviewed the film favorably, describing Hampton's screenplay as a "steady flow of dry quips and acerbic one-liners" and Pfeiffer's performance as "magnetic and subtle, her worldly nonchalance a mask for vulnerability and heartache".

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{INSERTKEYS} [113] Roger Ebert in the Chicago Sun-Times wrote that it was "fascinating to observe how Pfeiffer controls her face and voice during times of painful hurt". [114] Kenneth Turan in the Los Angeles Times praised the "wordless scenes that catch Léa unawares, with the camera alone seeing the despair and regret that she hides from the world.

It's the kind of refined, delicate acting Pfeiffer does so well, and it's a further reminder of how much we've missed her since she's been away." [115] 2010s: Resurgence and career expansion Following a two-year sabbatical from acting, Pfeiffer made part of a large ensemble cast in Garry Marshall's romantic comedy New Year's Eve (2011), her second collaboration with Marshall after Frankie and Johnny.

The film, also starring Halle Berry, Jessica Biel, Robert De Niro, Josh Duhamel, Zac Efron, Sarah Jessica Parker, and Sofía Vergara, among many others, saw her take on the supporting role of Ingrid Withers, an overwhelmed secretary befriending a deliveryman (Efron). While the film was panned by critics, it made US$142 million worldwide. [116] In 2012, she appeared with Chris Pine and Elizabeth Banks in the drama People Like Us, as the mother of a struggling New York City corporate trader (Pine).

Rolling Stone found her to be "luminous" in the film, [117] and The New York Times, positively pointing out Pfeiffer and Banks, noted that their performances "partly compensate for the holes in a story whose timing is hard to swallow". [118] People Like Us debuted to US$4.26 million, described as "meager" by Box Office Mojo, and only made US$12 million in North America. [119] Pfieffer reunited with Tim Burton, her Batman Returns director, in Dark Shadows (2012), based on the gothic television soap opera of the same name.

In the film, co-starring Johnny Depp, Eva Green, Helena Bonham Carter and Chloë Grace Moretz, she played Elizabeth Collins Stoddard, the matriarch of the Collins family. Critical response towards the film was mixed, but writers acclaimed the actors' performances—most notably Depp and Pfeiffer's.

IGN found her to be "commanding" in her role and felt that the main characters were "played by one of Burton's best ensemble casts yet". [120] While Dark Shadows grossed a modest US$79.7 million in North America, it ultimately made US$245.5 million globally.

[121] In Luc Besson's mob-comedy The Family (2013), co-starring Robert De Niro, Tommy Lee Jones, Dianna Agron and John D'Leo, she played the "tough mother" in a Mafia family wanting to change their lives under the witness protection program.

[122] [123] Although reviews for the film were mixed, THV11 said on the cast's portrayals: "The core actors of The Family were really solid, and the whole film comes together to make a solid movie." [124] Meanwhile, The Huffington Post felt that "De Niro, Pfieffer and Jones all brought 100% to their roles." [125] The film grossed US$78.4 million worldwide. [126] "The only trepidation was I think I took for granted how nice it was to not be under the spotlight and just having a life.

I remember thinking, 'Do I really want to step back into this?' And I just realized that I'm not done. I have a lot more to do, and a lot more to say. I'm never going to be one that retires." — Pfeiffer on her comeback, 2017 [127] Pfeiffer stated that her lack of acting throughout the 2000s was due to several reasons, including family matters and her approach to choosing roles.

[128] [129] She stated she was intending to "work a lot" once her children left for college, [130] mentioning that she felt her best performance was "still in her", saying how that's what she felt kept her her going. [131] The slew of screen work that would follow in 2017 would prompt the media to dub her career resurgence a "Pfeiffer-sance". [132] In the independent drama Where Is Kyra?, she starred as a sensitive and fragile woman who loses her mother and "faces a crisis in which she must find a means for survival, all the while hiding her struggles from her new lover".

The film premiered at the Sundance Film Festival on January 23, 2017, and received a limited release on April 6, 2018, [133] to critical acclaim; [134] [135] [136] Her role as Kyra was dubbed the "performance of her life" by Village Voice's Bilge Ebiri, [137] and "the performance of her career", by Rolling Stone. [138] Pfeiffer landed the role of Ruth Madoff for the HBO Films drama The Wizard of Lies, based on the book of the same name.

The film, directed by Barry Levinson, reunites her with actor Robert De Niro, who played her husband, disgraced financier Bernard Madoff. [139] The Wizard of Lies premiered on HBO on May 20, 2017, garnering favorable reviews from critics and an audience of 1.5 million viewers, HBO's largest premiere viewership for a film in four years.

[140] Tolucan Times remarked that Pfeiffer "steals the show as Madoff's wife, Ruth, and is a remarkable lookalike", [141] while Los Angeles Times asserted: "As Ruth, Pfeiffer convincingly portrays a pampered woman left with utterly nothing —she's lost her homes, status and, most important, her relationship with her sons." [142] Pfeiffer earned her first Emmy nomination for her performance in the category of Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Limited Series or Movie.

[143] Pfeiffer speaking at an event for Mother! at the 2017 Venice Film Festival In Darren Aronofsky's psychological horror film Mother! (2017), with Jennifer Lawrence and Javier Bardem, [144] Pfeiffer portrayed one of the mysterious guests disrupting the tranquil life of a couple.

While Mother! polarized viewers and prompted mass walkouts, the film was better received by critics. [145] [146] Despite its divisiveness, critics unanimously praised Pfeiffer's contribution, [147] [148] some of whom felt that her performance was worthy of an Oscar nomination. [149] [150] Vulture remarked: "Out of the main actors, it's Pfeiffer who is able to root the character in meaning — she bracingly marries the exploration of Biblical creation, mythological overtones, and hellish domestic commentary.

There's a gravity to Pfeiffer's performance that allows her to succeed where the other main actors fail, save for brief spurts — she straddles the boundaries between embodying a symbol and granting the character enough interiority to feel like a flesh and blood woman, too." [151] Pfeiffer had a supporting role in Kenneth Branagh's Murder on the Orient Express (2017), the fourth adaptation of Agatha Christie's 1934 novel of the same name.

The mystery– drama ensemble film follows world-renowned detective Hercule Poirot, who seeks to solve a murder on the famous European train in the 1930s.

Pfeiffer played an aging socialite with Johnny Depp, Penélope Cruz, and Judi Dench. [152] Pfeiffer sang the song "Never Forget", which plays over the film's closing credits and appears on the film's official soundtrack. [127] The film grossed US$351.7 million worldwide and received decent reviews from critics, with praise for the performances, but criticism for not adding anything new to previous adaptations.

[153] Although most critics agreed that the ensemble cast was underused, Pfeiffer's performance earned positive reviews, with Richard Roeper of the Chicago Sun-Times opining that the actress delivers the film's best performance. [154] The New Yorker's Anthony Lane found Pfeiffer to be the only actor who appears to be enjoying their material. [155] David Edelstein of Vulture described the actress as "a hoot and a half ...

stealing every scene". [156] Mick LaSalle, writing for the San Francisco Chronicle, identified Pfeiffer as the film's "most interesting bit of casting", crediting her performance with reminding audiences that she is one of today's best film actresses and "help[ing] Branagh make the case for his remake over the original". [157] Making her Marvel Cinematic Universe debut, Pfeiffer starred as Janet van Dyne, the original Wasp ( Evangeline Lilly), in Ant-Man and the Wasp (2018), the sequel to 2015's Ant-Man.

[158] Playing Hank Pym's ( Michael Douglas) wife, Ant-Man and the Wasp follows the original film's characters as they attempt to retrieve Janet from the Quantum Realm, where she has been lost for several decades.

Ant-Man and the Wasp was touted as Pfeiffer's return to superhero films, being her first comic book role since Batman Returns' Catwoman 26 years prior. [159] Critics felt Pfeiffer used her limited screen time well. Variety's Owen Gleiberman described her presence as "lovely" and "wistful", [160] while Josh Spiegel of /Film believes the film suffers from a lack of the actress, describing her appearance as "cruelly brief".

[161] She briefly reprised the role the following year in Avengers: Endgame. {/INSERTKEYS}

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{INSERTKEYS} [162] In 2019, Pfeiffer starred alongside Angelina Jolie and Elle Fanning in the dark fantasy sequel Maleficent: Mistress of Evil as the villainous Queen Ingrith, [163] [164] mother of Aurora's (Fanning) fiancée Prince Philip. [165] Despite the film earning mixed reviews, critics mostly praised Pfeiffer and Jolie's performances.

[166] [167] Describing Pfeiffer as a scene stealer, The Plain Dealer's Laura DeMarco wrote that both veteran actresses "clearly relish their roles." [168] 2020s In October 2019, she began work on the dark comedy French Exit (2020), based on the acclaimed novel of the same name by Patrick deWitt, directed by Azazel Jacobs.

[169] [170] In the film, which co-stars Lucas Hedges and Tracy Letts, Pfeiffer played a widow who moves to Paris, France, with her son (Hedges) and cat, who happens to be her reincarnated husband (Letts). [171] The film premiered at the New York Film Festival. Pfeiffer's performance garnered critical acclaim, with many critics feeling it was deserving of an Academy Award nomination. [172] Peter Debruge of Variety remarked that she gave a performance "for which she'll be remembered." [173] [174] Pfeiffer received a Golden Globe Award nomination for Best Actress – Motion Picture Comedy or Musical for her performance.

[175] Pfeiffer is attached to star alongside Annette Bening in the psychological thriller, Turn of Mind, set to be directed by Gideon Raff. [176] She will also be portraying Betty Ford in the anthology drama television series The First Lady, set to premiere on Showtime in April 2022.

[177] [178] Pfeiffer is set to reprise her role as Janet Van Dyne in Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania (2023), alongside Paul Rudd, Evangeline Lilly, Michael Douglas, Jonathan Majors and Bill Murray.

[179] Artistry Acting style Pfeiffer has never received formal acting training, [180] expressing that she sometimes feels fraudulent as an actor due to her lack of conventional schooling. [150] Instead, she credits director Milton Katselas with teaching her to differentiate between how an actor and their character would behave during the same scene.

[181] Vulture.com's Angelica Jade Bastién said Pfeiffer's skill "obliterates the argument that an untrained actor has less capability than her trained counterparts." [182] In 1992, Rolling Stone 's Gerri Hirshey described Pfeiffer as a character actress comfortable wearing unflattering costumes, [183] while film critics have described her as "a character actress in a screen siren's body".

[181] [183] Drawn towards playing "imperfect" women, [184] Pfeiffer claims she rarely accepts traditionally glamorous roles because she finds few of them compelling, opting to play characters who "move" and excite her instead. [53] [183] She prefers dramatic over comedic roles, describing being funny yet authentic as more challenging.

[185] Often commended for masking her true feelings and emotions when in character, Pfeiffer frequently uses this trait advantageously in period films, a trademark genre of hers. [181] Pfeiffer herself has admitted to being particularly skilled in this area but also finds it common among non-actors, speculating, "We may not be as mannered or as proper as people were in the 19th century, but very rarely are we talking about what we're really thinking." [181] Pfeiffer has described acting as a " sadomasochistic" profession due to how "brutal" she finds the process at times.

[186] During the 1980s, Pfeiffer typically played smart, funny and fiercely independent women, [187] before subsequently pursuing "a variety of roles that ... provided opportunities for her to showcase her versatility" during the 1990s. [27] In a 2021 profile, Lynn Hirschberg of W wrote that Pfeiffer's finest performances involve a conflicted "woman at war with herself", finding that she "has a way of pitting her characters' wit and self-awareness against their flaws and trauma." [184] [181] According to Rachel Syme of The New Yorker, such characters are often "both ditzy and wily, high-femme and high-maintenance, scrappy and ...

armed with claws". [188] Adam Platt of New Woman observed that Pfeiffer's characters tend to "play the world at a distance, mostly, and are often wise beyond their years. They get romanced, but are not overtly romantic. They may be trashy ... but they all retain an air of invulnerability, a certain classical poise." [189] In a review for the Miami New Times, director and film critic Bilge Ebiri observed that Pfeiffer "often played women who were somewhat removed from the world", elaborating, "It wasn't so much unapproachability or aloofness that she conveyed, but a reserve that suggested ...

melancholy, pain, dreams deferred". [190] Observing parallels between Pfeiffer's roles and her own "concern with getting others to look beyond their own first impressions of her", Backstage contributor Manuel Betancourt wrote that the actress "has long been perfecting the ability to embody women whose inner contradictions are both revealed and concealed by their very gestures." [191] Describing scripts as a "treasure map", Pfeiffer said searches new scripts "for clues about her characters while seeking parallels to her own emotional life." [192] Town & Country senior editor Adam Rathe finds Pfeiffer dissimilar to most of her characters, [193] to whom the actress claims to become addicted once committing to a role.

[184] Known to be highly selective about her roles, IndieWire contributor Kate Erbland believes Pfeiffer often choses roles that confuse audiences to avoid being typecast. [53] The Baltimore Sun film critic Michael Sragow defended her unconventional acting choices, writing that "She liberates audiences from stereotypes and preconceptions.

She takes acting roads less traveled by, and makes us happy collaborators in her journey. Her career so far is an arc of triumph and courage." [192] Filmmakers and co-stars agree that Pfeiffer is extremely committed to her work, [183] developing a reputation for competence and preparedness. [189] Her acting ability continues to earn praise from directors with whom she has collaborated, [45] including Martin Scorsese ( The Age of Innocence) and Jonathan Demme ( Married to the Mob).

[181] [45] Pfeiffer refuses to watch her own work, describing herself as "a perfectionist" who finds "nothing perfect in what I do". [194] In addition to discarding old scripts, Pfeiffer does not retain reviews, magazine articles or covers about her career.

[183] Reception and legacy Pfeiffer is widely considered to be among the most talented actresses in Hollywood, [195] [196] [197] [198] as well as one of the greatest actresses of her generation. [188] [199] [200] [201] Novelist Steve Erickson wrote that Pfeiffer had already threatened to become one of her generation's finest American actresses by as early as her thirties.

[202] Despite observing that her filmography lacks the prestige of some of her contemporaries, Bastién believes Pfeiffer's through line to be the most fascinating among her peers, [182] explaining that "No modern actress better evokes the rich tension between understanding the currency that comes with being a great beauty and the distaste with being seen at all".

[203] In 2009, Maclean's film critic Brian D. Johnson argued that Pfeiffer had yet to demonstrate her true acting range, believing she could potentially be as respected as Meryl Streep if only allowed the same opportunities.

[204] Johnson claims Pfeiffer's performances are sometimes hindered by her own beauty and apparent preference towards "safe, undemanding roles", but simultaneously believes this in turn "makes her such a good actor". [204] Similarly, the San Francisco Chronicle's Mick LaSalle remarked that Pfeiffer's humility sometimes causes audiences to forget she is genuinely one of today's best actresses.

[157] Pfeiffer is particularly renowned for her versatility, [205] [206] having accumulated a diverse repertoire spanning period, romance, fantasy, musical, comedy and drama films.

[180] [207] [208] [209] By 2016, Salon's Charles Taylor declared that no actor of the past decade had rivaled the actress in terms of versatility. [206] In 2021, Adreon Patterson of CinemaBlend crowned Pfeiffer Hollywood's most versatile actress. [210] Summarizing her career as defined by its eclecticism, IndieWire contributor Kate Erbland believes Pfeiffer has rarely repeated her acting choices.

[53] On this distinction, Pfeiffer explained she has always felt inclined to play the widest possible variety of characters, even early in her career when her options were limited.

[53] Pfeiffer was one of the most popular and successful actresses of the 1980s and 1990s, [199] [211] [212] [213] typically starring in at least one film per year since the 1970s. [93] One of the highest-paid actresses of the latter decade, [214] she typically earned $9-$10 million per film. [215] [216] [217] In an article otherwise dismissing Hollywood actors as overpaid, film critic Mick LaSalle noted Pfeiffer as an exception, claiming she "never gives a bad performance and consistently brings in audiences." [218] According to UPI, Pfeiffer was one of the few actresses whose film salary corresponded with their box office appeal as of 1996.

[215] Apart from The Witches of Eastwick, few of the actress' films during this period had been major box office successes, [187] an observation Pfeiffer never mentioned to film studios in fear that they would stop hiring her altogether. [183] In 1995, The New York Times journalist Bernard Weinraub said Pfeiffer belongs to a respected group of actresses who are "not considered a big box- office draw".

[214] However, her performances consistently garnered acclaim despite mediocre ticket sales and some films critics found forgettable. [53] [183] [219] By 1999, Variety named Pfeiffer "the female movie star most likely to improve a film's box-office appeal". [220] Contributing to Encyclopedia.com, Robyn Karney wrote that among the several blonde, attractive actresses who debuted during the 1980s, "Pfeiffer seemed the most precisely cut from the cloth of a long Hollywood tradition—a sexy, beautiful, intelligent, modern answer to, say, Carole Lombard, blessed with a sophisticated gift for witty one-liners, an ability to cross class barriers, and to bring conviction to a range of contrasting characters across a spectrum".

[221] However, Karney felt the declining quality of her films towards the end of the 1990s "emphasize that the course of Pfeiffer's career ...

has been dictated by the era from which she sprang" and "unassailable truth that the great female movie star of the Golden Age is no more." [221] Pfeiffer feels critics have not entirely understood her acting decisions, which Rathe attributes to the "wildcard image" she has maintained throughout her career.

[193] Pfeiffer elaborated, "Some of the performances I have felt the best about are ones for which I've gotten panned," whereas "The ones that make me cringe are typically when I got the best reviews." [193] Pfeiffer has been named one of the world's biggest film stars, [43] [198] [222] [223] establishing herself as a " major star" despite having yet to receive top-billing in a blockbuster film.

[187] In 2002, Amy Longsdorf of The Morning Call described Pfeiffer as "one of the most popular and critically acclaimed movie stars in the world." [224] According to Carmenlucia Acosta of L'Officiel, "Few actresses have had the fortune of interpreting timeless roles that still remain popular today", calling Pfeiffer "one of Hollywood's most acclaimed figures." [209] Awarded a motion picture star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2007, [225] Pfeiffer has remained one of Hollywood's most sought-after actresses for over four decades.

[210] [226] [227] In 2020, the Kenosha News voted Pfeiffer America's 26th favorite actress. [228] Despite her popularity, Krizanovich dubbed Pfeiffer Hollywood's most underrated actress. [150] Similarly, Matthew Jacobs of HuffPost Canada believes Pfeiffer continues to be underappreciated despite her accolades, [229] since her public persona has never quite rivaled those of her contemporaries. {/INSERTKEYS}

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{INSERTKEYS} [230] The Boston Globe's Mark Shanahan observed that, despite Pfeiffer's success and reputation, she is sometimes overlooked during discussions about Hollywood's greatest leading ladies because of her effortlessness and "insoucian[ce] on the screen. She's also uncommonly lovely, which, alas, can obscure even serious acting chops." [227] Describing Pfeiffer as an "Unheralded Comedy Maven", Jacobs hailed her as "one of the great comedic actors of our time, though she is rarely recognized as such".

[229] The author identified subtlety as one of her strengths since her "magnetism never overwhelms the movies she's in. Even when she is the most talented person on-screen (and she usually is), she still allows room for the ensemble to shine." [229] Public image Pfeiffer has long been described as one of Hollywood's most beautiful actresses, [99] [231] [232] [233] a designation The Daily Telegraph 's Mick Brown considers to be both a defining characteristic and curse.

{/INSERTKEYS}

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{INSERTKEYS} [181] After being cast in early roles largely based on her appearance, [234] Pfeiffer initially struggled to convince directors to take her seriously as an actor because they doubted she was more than simply attractive, [181] which she combated by actively seeking challenging roles in which physical beauty was not an essential characteristic. [183] Candice Russell of the Sun-Sentinel described Pfeiffer as "so awesomely constructed ...

that her looks have a tendency to upstage her ability", questioning whether she would be able to subvert this trope by the time she received her second Academy Award nomination in 1989.

[234] Rachel Syme of The New Yorker observed that, early in her career, critics struggled "to characterize her work without undermining it" by inevitably focusing on Pfeiffer's appearance. [188] The Daily Beast 's Elizabeth Kaye recognized Pfeiffer as a rare Hollywood talent who understands it is indeed possible to be both physically attractive and a serious performer, believing the actress achieves this by combining "the sensibility of a modern woman" with "the glamour of a '30s icon".

[187] Describing Pfeiffer as popular, beautiful, mercurial and memorable, Karen Krizanovich of The Daily Telegraph observed that, after initially being drawn to her beauty, critics and audiences remain captivated by Pfeiffer's performances.

[150] Similarly, Town & Country 's Adam Rathe wrote that "Pfeiffer's undeniable beauty helped get her through Hollywood's door, but it was the intelligence and humor she brought to her carefully chosen roles ...

that really made her a star". [193] Regularly revered as one of the most beautiful women in the world, [20] [235] [236] [237] film critics and journalists have constantly discussed Pfeiffer's perceived beauty at length.

[230] [229] Celebrity photographers Nigel Parry and Patrick McMullen cite her among the most beautiful women they have photographed. [238] In 2020, Vogue Paris listed Pfeiffer as one of the 21 most beautiful American actresses of all-time. [239] Ranking her among history's most beautiful actresses, Glamour named Pfeiffer "the most perfect face on the silver screen".

[240] The same magazine recognized the actress as one of the greatest fashion icons of the 1980s, calling her the decade's "go-to girl" and "one of our all-time favourite movie goddesses". [241] Similarly, Harper's Bazaar crowned Pfeiffer the fourth most glamorous "beauty icon" of the decade, [242] while Complex ranked her the 49th "hottest woman of the '80s".

[243] As one of the most famous sex symbols of the 1980s and 1990s, [244] [245] her beauty and fashion choices attracted immense media scrutiny throughout both decades. [246] Men's Health ranked Pfeiffer 45th and 67th on their all-time hottest women and sex symbol rankings, respectively. [247] [248] According to Alice Cary of British Vogue, several costumes worn by the actress "have become hallmarks of popular culture".

[249] In 1990, Pfeiffer appeared on the inaugural cover of People magazine's annual " 50 Most Beautiful People in the World" issue. [250] She was again pictured on the cover in 1999, making her the first celebrity to appear on the cover of the issue twice, and the only celebrity to grace the cover twice during the 1990s. [251] She has been featured in the "Most Beautiful" issue a record-breaking six times throughout the decade (from 1990 to 1993, and in 1996 and 1999). [251] In 2004, the magazine named her one of the most beautiful women of all-time.

[252] AllMovie biographer Rebecca Flint Marx wrote that Pfeiffer possesses "a rare beauty that has inspired countless platitudes and an almost-permanent place on People's Fifty Most Beautiful list".

[27] Pfeiffer has been famously self-deprecating about her own appearance. [45] [183] At least two of her films, Stardust (2007) and Chéri (2009), explore beautiful, youth-obsessed women struggling to accept aging, [253] themes with which Pfeiffer personally identified. [253] Pfeiffer claims she has yet to undergo plastic surgery but admits she is open to minor cosmetic procedures.

[231] [253] According to several plastic surgeons, she possesses some of the most sought-after and requested celebrity features among clients. [185] In 2001, plastic surgeon Stephen R. Marquardt declared that Pfeiffer possesses the most beautiful face in Hollywood.

[27] [254] Nicknamed the "golden ratio", Marquardt claims Pfeiffer's face adheres to a mathematical formula in which he determined a person's ideal mouth is 1.618 times as wide as their nose. [254] [255] Several media publications have described Pfeiffer as an "ageless beauty". [256] [257] Folha de S.Paulo described the actress as "an effusive demonstration that age, contrary to what the youth industry sustains, brings rewards, not just wrinkles." [258] Famous for being "press-shy" and private like the characters she plays, [186] [208] [259] [260] Matthew Jacobs of HuffPost crowned Pfeiffer Hollywood's prime example of "a movie star who doesn't walk around feeling like a movie star", which benefits her ability to play authentic characters without allowing her fame to affect her talent.

[229] Pfeiffer is notorious for disliking press interviews, [183] [186] [260] referring to herself as "the worst interviewee that ever was". [261] The Baltimore Sun film critic Michael Sragow observed that the actress can at times appear "flustered or elusive" during interviews.

[192] Vikram Murthi of The Nation believes Pfeiffer's aversion to publicity "has lent her an air of gravitas, of someone who directs a spotlight rather than chases after it." [260] Pfeiffer explained that promoting her own films used to agitate her, but she has always "mastered the art" of maintaining a composed, polite demeanor when performing such responsibilities. [181] However, she maintains her belief that it is not an actor's responsibility to promote a film project.

[183] Media commentators noted that Pfeiffer had unexpectedly become a "pop-music muse" in 2014; her name is mentioned in two of the year's most popular songs: " Uptown Funk" by Mark Ronson featuring Bruno Mars, and " Riptide" by Vance Joy. [262] [263] [264] [265] Joy was particularly inspired by Pfeiffer's transformation from Selina Kyle into Catwoman in Batman Returns, [262] whereas Ronson cited The Fabulous Baker Boys as his favourite Pfeiffer film. [266] Australian cricketers speak of "getting a Michelle" when they take five wickets in an innings.

In cricketing parlance, this is referred to as a "five for", a near-homophone for "Pfeiffer", which resulted in the nickname "Michelle". [267] Personal life Pfeiffer with husband David E. Kelley at the 46th Primetime Emmy Awards in 1994 While taking acting classes in Los Angeles, Pfeiffer was taken in by a seemingly friendly couple who ran a metaphysics and vegetarian cult.

They helped her to cease drinking, smoking and doing drugs. Over time, they took control of her entire life. Much of her money went to the group. "I was brainwashed," she said, "I gave them an enormous amount of money." [268] At an acting class taught by Milton Katselas in Los Angeles, she met fellow budding actor Peter Horton, and they began dating. They married in Santa Monica in 1981, and it was on their honeymoon that she discovered she had won the lead role in Grease 2.

[269] Horton directed Pfeiffer in a 1985 ABC TV special, One Too Many, where she played the high school girlfriend of an alcoholic student ( Val Kilmer); [270] and in 1987, the real-life couple played an on-screen couple in the 'Hospital' segment of John Landis's comedy skit compilation Amazon Women on the Moon. In 1988, Pfeiffer had an affair with John Malkovich, her co-star in Dangerous Liaisons, who at the time was married to Glenne Headly.

[271] [272] [273] [274] [275] [276] Pfeiffer and Horton decided to separate in 1988, and were divorced two years later. Horton later blamed the split on their devotion to their work rather than their marriage.

[20] Pfeiffer then had a three-year relationship with actor/producer Fisher Stevens, whom Pfeiffer met when she was starring in the New York Shakespeare Festival production of Twelfth Night, where Stevens played Sir Andrew Aguecheek. [277] In 1993, Pfeiffer married television writer and producer David E.

Kelley. [278] She made a brief uncredited cameo appearance in one episode of Kelley's television series Picket Fences and played the title character in To Gillian on Her 37th Birthday, for which Kelley wrote the screenplay. [279] She had entered into private adoption proceedings before she met Kelley, [280] and in March 1993 adopted a newborn daughter, Claudia Rose, [281] who was christened on Pfeiffer's and Kelley's wedding day.

[282] In 1994, Pfeiffer gave birth to a son, John Henry Kelley II, named for his grandfather and Pfeiffer's father-in-law, United States Hockey Hall of Fame coach John Henry "Jack" Kelley.

[283] Other ventures Pfeiffer meeting with Senator Dianne Feinstein to support the Personal Care Product Safety Act in 2019 Product and endorsements In 2005, Pfeiffer served as the face of Giorgio Armani's spring campaign; the designer has often dressed her for public appearances.

[284] In the March 2019 issue of InStyle, she announced her intention to launch a collection of fine fragrances called Henry Rose. [194] It launched in April 2019. [285] Philanthropy Having been a smoker for ten years, and having a niece who suffered from leukemia for ten years, Pfeiffer decided to support the American Cancer Society.

[286] She also supports the Humane Society. [20] In 2016, she attended the Healthy Child Healthy World's L.A.

Gala for people who lead organizations for children's environmental health. [287] In December that year, Pfeiffer, who is a vegan, joined the board of directors for Environmental Working Group, an advocacy group based in Washington.

D.C. [288] Filmography Film Year Title Role Director Notes Ref. 1980 The Hollywood Knights Suzie Q Floyd Mutrux Film debut Falling in Love Again Sue Wellington Steven Paul 1981 Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen Cordelia Farenington Clive Donner 1982 Grease 2 Stephanie Zinone Patricia Birch 1983 Scarface Elvira Hancock Brian De Palma 1985 Into the Night Diana John Landis [289] Ladyhawke Isabeau d'Anjou Richard Donner 1986 Sweet Liberty Faith Healy Alan Alda 1987 The Witches of Eastwick Sukie Ridgemont George Miller Amazon Women on the Moon Brenda Landers John Landis Segment: "Hospital" 1988 Married to the Mob Angela de Marco Jonathan Demme Tequila Sunrise Jo Ann Vallenari Robert Towne Dangerous Liaisons Madame Marie de Tourvel Stephen Frears 1989 The Fabulous Baker Boys Susie Diamond Steve Kloves 1990 The Russia House Katya Orlova Fred Schepisi 1991 Frankie and Johnny Frankie Garry Marshall 1992 Batman Returns Selina Kyle / Catwoman Tim Burton Love Field Lurene Hallett Jonathan Kaplan 1993 The Age of Innocence Countess Ellen Olenska Martin Scorsese 1994 Wolf Laura Alden Mike Nichols 1995 Dangerous Minds LouAnne Johnson John N.

Smith 1996 Up Close & Personal Sally "Tally" Atwater Jon Avnet To Gillian on Her 37th Birthday Gillian Lewis Michael Pressman One Fine Day Melanie Parker Michael Hoffman 1997 A Thousand Acres Rose Cook Lewis Jocelyn Moorhouse 1998 The Prince of Egypt Tzipporah Brenda Chapman Steve Hickner & Simon Wells Voice 1999 The Deep End of the Ocean Beth Cappadora Ulu Grosbard A Midsummer Night's Dream Titania Michael Hoffman The Story of Us Katie Jordan Rob Reiner 2000 What Lies Beneath Claire Spencer Robert Zemeckis 2001 I Am Sam Rita Harrison Williams Jessie Nelson 2002 White Oleander Ingrid Magnussen Peter Kosminsky 2003 Sinbad: Legend of the Seven Seas Eris Tim Johnson & Patrick Gilmore Voice 2007 I Could Never Be Your Woman Rosie Hanson Amy Heckerling Hairspray Velma Von Tussle Adam Shankman Stardust Lamia Matthew Vaughn 2008 Personal Effects Linda David Hollander 2009 Chéri Lea de Lonval Stephen Frears 2011 New Year's Eve Ingrid Withers Garry Marshall 2012 Dark Shadows Elizabeth Collins Stoddard Tim Burton People Like Us Lillian Harper Alex Kurtzman 2013 The Family Maggie Blake Luc Besson 2017 Mother!

Woman Darren Aronofsky Murder on the Orient Express Caroline Hubbard Kenneth Branagh 2018 Where Is Kyra? Kyra Johnson Andrew Dosunmu Ant-Man and the Wasp Janet Van Dyne / Wasp Peyton Reed 2019 Avengers: Endgame Anthony and Joe Russo Maleficent: Mistress of Evil Queen Ingrith Joachim Rønning [290] [291] 2020 French Exit Frances Price Azazel Jacobs [170] 2023 Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania Janet Van Dyne / Wasp Peyton Reed Filming Television Year Title Role Notes Ref. 1978 Fantasy Island Athena Episode: "The Island of Lost Women/The Flight of Great Yellow Bird" 1979 Delta House The Bombshell 12 episodes The Solitary Man Tricia Television film CHiPs Jobina Episode: "The Watch Commander" 1980 B.A.D.

Cats Samantha "Sunshine" Jensen 10 episodes Enos Joy 2 episodes 1981 Fantasy Island Deborah Dare Episode: "Elizabeth's Baby/The Artist and the Lady" Callie & Son Sue Lynn Bordeaux Television film Credited as "Michele Pfeiffer" Splendor in the Grass Ginny Stamper Television film The Children Nobody Wanted Jennifer Williams Television film 1985 One Too Many Annie Television special 1987 Great Performances Natica Jackson Episode: "Tales from the Hollywood Hills: Natica Jackson" 1993–94 The Simpsons Mindy Simmons Voice; 2 episodes [292] 1995 Picket Fences Client Uncredited Episode: "Freezer Burn" 1996 Muppets Tonight Herself Episode: "Michelle Pfeiffer" 2017 The Wizard of Lies Ruth Madoff Television film 2022 The First Lady Betty Ford 2 episodes [293] Accolades Main article: List of awards and nominations received by Michelle Pfeiffer During her career, Pfeiffer has won numerous awards including the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Drama, the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role, and Best Actress awards from the National Board of Review, the National Society of Film Critics, the New York Film Critics Circle, the Chicago Film Critics Association and the Los Angeles Film Critics Association, as well as Best Supporting Actress awards from the Kansas City Film Critics Circle and the San Diego Film Critics Society.

Pfeiffer has received three Academy Award nominations to date: Best Supporting Actress for Dangerous Liaisons (1988), and Best Actress in The Fabulous Baker Boys (1989) and Love Field (1992). In 2017, Pfeiffer received her first Emmy Award nomination for her performance in The Wizard of Lies (2017) portraying Ruth Madoff. On December 11, 2017, it was announced that she had received a 2018 Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Series, Miniseries or Television Film nomination for the role.

[294] She won the Canadian Screen Award for Best Actress at the 9th Canadian Screen Awards in 2021, for her work in French Exit. [295] References • ^ "9 Essential Michelle Pfeiffer Film".

Oscars.org. 2021 . Retrieved November 11, 2021. {/INSERTKEYS}

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{INSERTKEYS} [Dangerous Minds] was a major win for Pfeiffer's own production company, Via Rosa Productions, and helped put her on the map as a producer {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link) • ^ "The Unstoppable Michelle Pfeiffer". People. Time, Inc. May 10, 1999 . Retrieved September 6, 2016. • ^ "DeDee Pfeiffer – Movie and Film Biography and Filmography". AllRovi.

Rovi Corporation. Archived from the original on July 18, 2012 . Retrieved June 11, 2011. • ^ a b "Michelle Pfeiffer biography". Yahoo Movies. Yahoo! . Retrieved April 27, 2011. • ^ Egan, Tim (August 6, 1995). "Michelle Pfeiffer, Sensuous to Sensible". The New York Times . Retrieved February 4, 2014.

• ^ "Michelle Pfeiffer – Pfeiffer: 'I'm A Multi-Cultural Mutt' ". Contact Music. February 1, 2008 . Retrieved August 28, 2010. • ^ "Michelle Pfeiffer". IMDb . Retrieved August 20, 2016. • ^ Epting, Chris (2011).

Orange County: Then & Now. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-8115-6 . Retrieved April 25, 2011. • ^ a b c Egan, Tim (August 6, 1995). "Michelle Pfeiffer, Sensuous to Sensible". The New York Times .

Retrieved July 16, 2011. • ^ Tierney, Tom (2002). Glamorous Movie Stars of the Eighties Paper Dolls. Courier Dover Publications.

ISBN 978-0-486-42191-9. • ^ "Michelle Pfeiffer biography". Hello! Magazine. HELLO Ltd . Retrieved May 5, 2011. • ^ "Burbank Gal is Chosen as State Titlist".

Merced-Sun Star. The McClatchy Company. Associated Press. April 17, 1978 . Retrieved July 18, 2011. [ dead link] • ^ Erickson, Steve (November 2002). "Beauty and the Beast". Los Angeles Magazine. Vol. 47, no. 11. Emmis Communications. ISSN 1522-9149 . Retrieved April 25, 2011.

• ^ "Michelle Pfeiffer Live Events". TCM. Archived from the original on January 28, 2021 . Retrieved January 20, 2021. • ^ "Weekly Review". Weekly Review. No. 1186. Weekly Review Ltd. 1983. p. 96. • ^ "Alumni videos: Beverly Hills Playhouse". Beverly Hills Playhouse . Retrieved July 10, 2011. • ^ a b c Thompson, Douglas (1995). Pfeiffer: Beyond the Age of Innocence. Warner Futura. ISBN 978-0-7515-1030-0. • ^ Archived copy Archived January 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine • ^ Maslin, Janet (June 11, 1982).

"Grease 2 (1982): More Grease". The New York Times . Retrieved April 25, 2011. • ^ a b c d "Michelle Pfeiffer Biography". Talk Talk. Tiscali UK Limited trading.

Archived from the original on September 26, 2008 . Retrieved October 23, 2008. Michelle, renowned as the most beautiful actress in the world ... • ^ Gottdiener, Mark (2000). New forms of consumption: consumers, culture, and commodification. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8476-9570-6. • ^ Corlis, Richard (December 5, 1983). "Say Good Night to the Bad Guy". TIME. Archived from the original on October 22, 2007 .

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• ^ a b Acosta, Carmenlucia (April 28, 2021). "Looking Back at Michelle Pfeiffer's Most Iconic Movie Roles". L'Officiel. Retrieved June 3, 2021. • ^ a b Patterson, Adreon (February 4, 2021). "Michelle Pfeiffer On Why Getting Noticed For Your Looks Is 'No-Win' In Hollywood".

CinemaBlend. Retrieved June 2, 2021. • ^ Ho, Vanessa (October 26, 2012). "Iconic '80s actresses". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved May 18, 2018. • ^ Sanford, James (July 5, 2007). "Michelle Pfeiffer fans, rejoice: She's this year's comeback kid". MLive.com. Retrieved March 25, 2021. • ^ Dirks, Tim.

"The History of Film The 1990s". Filmsite.org. Retrieved July 9, 2021. • ^ a b Weinraub, Bernard (September 18, 1995). "Skyrocketing Star Salaries". The New York Times. Retrieved June 2, 2021. • ^ a b "Study: Film stars are overpaid". UPI. April 8, 1996. Retrieved June 2, 2021. • ^ Hacker, Andrew (1999). Money: Who Has How Much and Why. United States: Simon and Schuster. p. 74. ISBN 9780684864501. Citing a survey conducted by Entertainment Weekly, Hacker named Pfeiffer the fourth highest-paid actress of the time, after Demi Moore, Julia Roberts rick roll adalah Sandra Bullock.

– via Google Books. • ^ LaSalle, Mick (July 16, 1996). "Why Overpaid Hollywood Stars Aren't Worth It". Deseret News. Retrieved November 11, 2021. • ^ LaSalle, Mick (July 4, 1996). "Why Overpaid Hollywood Stars Aren't Worth It". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved November 11, 2021. • ^ Lindsey, Robert (January 13, 1989). "Hard Work Is Moving Michelle Pfeiffer Closer To Stardom".

Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 25, 2017. • ^ Longsdorf, Amy (March 7, 1999). " 'Deep' Thoughts Chic Michelle Pfeiffer Rick roll adalah Attraction Of Flawed Character". The Morning Call. Archived from the original on May 18, 2018.

Retrieved May 17, 2018. • ^ a b Karney, Robyn. "Pfeiffer, Michelle 1957(?)–". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved February 6, 2021. • ^ Fonseca, Nicholas (February 20, 2021). "Michelle Pfeiffer on life outside movies before French Exit comeback". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved March 26, 2021. • ^ Rose, Lacey (April 27, 2022). "Michelle Pfeiffer Is Definitely Done Second-Guessing Herself (Probably!)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 29, 2022.

she was one of the biggest, most sought-after stars on the planet. • ^ Longsdorf, Amy (October 5, 2002). "Her evergreen expectation". The Morning Call. Archived from the original on February 9, 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2019. • ^ "Michelle Pfeiffer". Hollywood Walk of Fame. August 6, 2007. Retrieved February 1, 2021. She rose to prominence during the late 1980s and early 1990s, during which time she gave a series of critically-acclaimed performances • ^ McCarthy, Lauren (April 8, 2019).

"Michelle Pfeiffer on the Radical Transparency of Her New Fragrance Brand". W. Archived from the original on June 28, 2020. Retrieved June 28, 2020. • ^ a b Shanahan, Mark (April 1, 2021). "Michelle Pfeiffer on making an entrance rick roll adalah 'French Exit' ". The Boston Globe. Retrieved July 25, 2021. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link) • ^ Jacques, Jaime (September 1, 2020).

"America's 50 favorite actresses of all time". Kenosha News. Retrieved February 3, 2020. • ^ a b c d e Jacobs, Matthew (February 9, 2021). "Michelle Pfeiffer, Unheralded Comedy Maven". HuffPost Canada. Retrieved February 11, 2021. • ^ a b Jacobs, Matthew (December 7, 2017). "What Lies Beneath The Comeback Of Michelle Pfeiffer And The Decline Of Julia Roberts". HuffPost Canada rick roll adalah. Retrieved February 13, 2021. • ^ a b rick roll adalah all for Botox, admits Michelle".

Independent Online. October 7, 2011. Retrieved October 27, 2017. • ^ Berk, Philip (August 9, 2018). "Michelle Pfeiffer makes a comeback after a 10-year hiatus". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved June 28, 2020. Once considered the most beautiful actress in Hollywood • ^ Canby, Vincent (April 12, 1985).

"FILM: 'LADYHAWKE,' A MEDIEVAL TALE". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 25, 2018. Retrieved February 13, 2021. Miss Pfeiffer . may well be the most beautiful woman in movies today • ^ a b Russell, Candice (March 25, 1990).

"Flirting with Oscar". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved July 8, 2021. • ^ "Michelle Pfeiffer: the actress for whom ageing holds no fear". The National. July 17, 2010.

Retrieved May 16, 2018. • ^ Sieczkowski, Cavan (September 16, 2013). "Michelle Pfeiffer On Aging In Hollywood: 'It Can Rick roll adalah Havoc On Your Psyche' ".

HuffPost. Retrieved June 28, 2020. • ^ White, Donna (March 4, 2001). "Michelle's the perfect 1.618; Screen star measures up to doc's beauty test".

Sunday Mail. Retrieved August 8, 2021 – via TheFreeLibrary.com. Michelle Pfeiffer is officially the most beautiful woman in the world. • ^ Rick roll adalah, Emily (July 20, 2007). "Face It: What Makes Us Beautiful". ABC News. Retrieved March 26, 2021. • ^ Garrigues, Manon (July 3, 2020). "The most beautiful American actresses of all time". Rick roll adalah Paris. Retrieved April 1, 2021. • ^ McNamara, Natasha (April 20, 2017).

"The 45 most beautiful, talented and famous actresses of all time". Glamour. Retrieved May rick roll adalah, 2018. • ^ "The best 80s style icons to inspire your own retrospective (yet very modern!) wardrobe". Glamour. March 20, 2018. Retrieved May 18, 2018. • ^ Tunnel, Alexandra (August 19, 2015).

"TheLIST: '80s Beauty Icons". Harper's Bazaar. Retrieved May 17, 2018. • ^ "The 80 Hottest Women of the '80s". Complex. October 3, 2011. Retrieved May 18, 2018. • ^ Moore, Roger (July 17, 2009).

"Michelle Pfeiffer wears her years with pride in 'Cheri' ". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved February rick roll adalah, 2021. • ^ Guinness, Rebecca; Flint, Jessica (June 17, 2009). "Michelle Pfeiffer Is Still Smoldering Hot". Vanity Fair. Retrieved February 15, 2021. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link) • ^ Shatzman, Celia (July 5, 2021). "Clean Beauty Queen Michelle Pfeiffer,63, Spills 7 Beauty Secrets". Women's Health. Retrieved July 8, 2021. • ^ "The 100 Hottest Women of All Time".

Men's Health. November 22, 2013. Archived from the original on April 24, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2017. • ^ "The 100 Hottest Sex Symbols of All Time". Men's Health. July 1, 2020.

Retrieved February 15, 2021. • ^ Cary, Alice (February 7, 2021). "18 Captivating Archive Images Of Michelle Pfeiffer". British Vogue. Retrieved July 25, 2021. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link) • ^ "People's Annual 'Most Beautiful' List – 1990 - Michelle Pfeiffer". Entertainment Tonight Canada. April 18, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2021. • ^ a b "The Unstoppable Michelle Pfeiffer – Most Beautiful, Michelle Pfeiffer".

People. May 10, 1999. Retrieved October 23, 2008. • ^ "All-Time Most Beautiful Women – Michelle Pfeiffer". People. April 13, 2004. Retrieved November 8, 2021. • ^ a b c Diu, Nisha Lilia (November 5, 2013). "Interview: Michelle Pfeiffer, 'I was in a cult' ". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved April 22, 2017.

• ^ a b Todd, Stephen (August 20, 2018). "Perfection exhibition: how far we will go to look good in this Instagram age?".

Australian Financial Review. Retrieved August 8, 2021. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link) • ^ "Michelle Pfeiffer, scientifically, the most beautiful woman in the world".

ABC (in Spanish). March 7, 2001. Retrieved August 8, 2021. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link) • ^ Various sources describing Pfeiffer as "ageless": • Finn, Jessica (January 14, 2021). "Michelle Pfeiffer shares ageless photo as she enjoys special reunion". Hello! Canada. Retrieved August 27, 2021.

{{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link) • Tracy, Brianne (March 28, 2017). "Wow! Michelle Pfeiffer, 58, Proves She's An Ageless Beauty on Interview Magazine Cover". People. Retrieved August 27, 2021. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link) • Paris, Calin Van (September 17, 2017).

"Michelle Pfeiffer Is Impossibly Ageless on the 2017 Emmys Red Carpet". Vogue. Retrieved August 27, 2021. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link) • Barlow, Helen (June 29, 2009). "Michelle Pfeiffer: ageless beauty".

The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved August 27, 2021. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link) • ^ Jones, Zoe (December 7, 2008). "The Cast of 'Scarface,' Then and Now". The Hollywood Reporter.

Retrieved November 8, 2021. Michelle Pfeiffer is hailed not only for her acting but also for her seeming ability not to age • ^ "Time has brought rewards to Pfeiffer". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). October 7, 2007. Retrieved August 9, 2021. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link) • ^ "Michelle Pfeiffer".

Turner Classic Movies. Rick roll adalah April 22, 2017. • ^ a b c Murthi, Vikram (April 29, 2021). "The Caustic Grace of French Exit". The Nation. Retrieved August 27, 2021. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link) • ^ Aronofsky, Darren (March 28, 2017). "Michelle Pfeiffer".

Interview. Retrieved April 22, 2017. • ^ a b Mallenbaum, Carly (December 2, 2014). "Michelle Pfeiffer is the pop-music muse of the moment". USA Today. • ^ "Why Michelle Pfeiffer is Name-Dropped in Two Cool New Songs". WZOK. Retrieved July 8, 2021. • ^ Thompson, Clay (February 23, 2015).

"How is Catwoman slinking her way into song lyrics?". The Arizona Republic. • ^ Smith, Katherine Snow (February 19, 2015). "How to look like Uptown Funk muse Michelle Pfeiffer for free".

Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved July 8, 2021. • ^ "Q&A: Mark Ronson Talks 'Uptown Funk,' Old New York City and Michelle Pfeiffer". radio.com. December 4, 2014. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015. Retrieved December 1, 2018. • ^ "Cricket diary: The bowler who bats and keeps wicket".

The Independent. September 12, 1998. • ^ Duffin, Claire (November 2, 2013). "Michelle Pfeiffer: The day I realised I was part of a cult". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved March 7, 2022. • ^ Brown, Mick (April 20, 2009). "Michelle Pfeiffer: interview". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved May 8, 2011. • ^ "Michelle Pfeiffer: interview".

Turner Classic Movies. Turner Broadcasting System. Retrieved May 8, 2011. [ dead link] • ^ Sastry, Keertana (March 30, 2012). "Scandals Onscreen: Celebrities Who Had Affairs Right In Front Of Our Eyes". Business Insider. Retrieved July 11, 2015. • ^ "Being John Malkovich". The Age. Melbourne. April 26, 2003. Retrieved July 11, 2015. • ^ Hind, John (December 5, 2009). "Did I say that?".

The Guardian. Retrieved July 11, 2015. • ^ "Right for the part". The Daily Telegraph. London. June 1, 2003. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved July 11, 2015. • ^ Akbar, Arifa (January 8, 2011). "John Malkovich: 'I don't need to be liked' ". The Independent. London. Retrieved May 12, 2015. • ^ Barber, Lynn (July 9, 2006). "Life and taxes". The Guardian. Retrieved May 12, 2015. • ^ Lipton, Michael A. "The Two Lives of Catwoman – Couples, Batman Returns, Fisher Stevens, Michelle Pfeiffer".

People. Retrieved October 23, 2008. • ^ Encyclopedia Britannica • ^ "Michelle Pfeiffer biography and filmography". Tribune.ca.

Tribute Entertainment Media Group. Retrieved May 1, 2011. • ^ "HELLO!". Hello. Retrieved October 23, 2008. • ^ Pringle, Gill (July 13, 2007). "Michelle Pfeiffer: The former beauty queen is rick roll adalah after a five-year break". The Independent. London: Independent Print Limited. Retrieved July 3, 2011. • ^ "Michelle Pfeiffer Biography".

Tiscali.co.uk. October 23, 2008. Archived from the original on September 26, 2008. Retrieved October 23, 2008. • ^ Woman's Day • ^ "Michelle Pfeiffer: Then and Now". InStyle. Retrieved March 23, 2019. • ^ "Henry Rose: 100% Transparent Fine Fragrances". Henry Rose. Retrieved March 22, 2019. • ^ "Star Portrait: Michelle Pfeiffer".

GQ Magazine (in German). Nast Digital Network. Archived from the original on October 1, 2011. Retrieved July 14, 2011. • ^ "Michelle Pfeiffer, Bob Breech, David E. Kelley attend Healthy Child Healthy World's L.A. Gala". guestofaguest. November 4, 2016. Retrieved November 25, 2016. • ^ "Michelle Pfeiffer: Why I became a vegan". CNN. June 4, 2012. Retrieved June 16, 2012. • ^ Michelle Pfeiffer at AllMovie • ^ "The Filming of Maleficent 2 Has Already Begun!".

Gobhy. May 4, 2018. Archived from the original on May 25, 2018. Retrieved May 24, 2018. • ^ " 'Maleficent 2' Star Ed Skrein Talks 'High Caliber' Sequel With Michelle Pfeiffer & Angelina Jolie (Exclusive)". Entertainment Tonight. May 24, 2018. Retrieved May 24, 2018. • ^ "Today in TV History: Homer Simpson Considered Having an Affair With Michelle Pfeiffer". The Decider. December 9, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2022. • ^ Goldberg, Lesley; Porter, Rick (January 21, 2021). "Michelle Pfeiffer to Play Betty Ford in Showtime's 'First Lady' ".

The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 22, 2021. • ^ "Here are the nominees for the 75th Golden Globe Awards". The Los Angeles Times. December 11, 2017. Retrieved December 12, 2017.

• ^ Zach Harper, "'Schitt's Creek' and 'Kim's Convenience' win big at 2021 Canadian Screen Awards". Hello! Canada, May 21, 2021. 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the Who Released 17 May 1969 ( 1969-05-17) Recorded 19 September 1968 – 7 March 1969 Studio IBC, London Genre Hard rock Length 75: 15 Label Track (UK) • Decca (US) Producer Kit Lambert The Who UK chronology Direct Hits (1968) Tommy (1969) Live at Leeds (1970) The Who US chronology Magic Bus: The Who On Tour (1968) Tommy (1969) Live at Leeds (1970) Singles from Tommy • " Pinball Wizard" / "Dogs (Part Two)" Released: 7 March 1969 • " I'm Free" / " We're Rick roll adalah Gonna Take It" Released: July 1969 • " See Me, Feel Me" / " Overture from Tommy" Released: October 1970 Tommy is the fourth studio album by the English rock band the Who, a double album first released on 17 May 1969.

The album was mostly composed by guitarist Pete Townshend, and is a rock opera that tells the story of Tommy Walker, a "deaf, dumb and blind" boy, including his experiences with life and his relationship with his family. Townshend came up with the concept of Tommy after being introduced to the work of Meher Baba, and attempted to translate Baba's teachings into music.

Recording on the album began in September 1968, but took six months to complete as material needed to be arranged and re-recorded in the studio. Tommy was acclaimed upon its release by critics, who hailed it as the Who's breakthrough.

Its critical standing diminished slightly in later years; nonetheless, several writers view it as an important and influential album in the history of rock music. The Who promoted the album's release with an extensive tour, including a live version of Tommy, which lasted throughout 1969 and 1970. Key gigs from the tour included appearances at Woodstock, the 1969 Isle of Wight Festival, the University of Leeds, the Metropolitan Opera House, and the 1970 Isle of Wight Festival.

The live performances of Tommy drew critical praise and revitalized the band's career. Subsequently, the rock opera developed into other media, including a Seattle Opera production in 1971, an orchestral version by Lou Reizner in 1972, a film in 1975, and a Broadway musical in 1992. The original album has sold 20 million copies and has been inducted into the Rick roll adalah Hall of Fame.

It has been reissued several times on CD, including a remix by Jon Astley in 1996, a deluxe Super Audio CD in 2003, and a super deluxe box set in 2013, including previously unreleased demos and live material. Contents • 1 Synopsis • 2 Background • 3 Recording • 4 Release and reception • 5 Legacy and reappraisal • 6 Editions and cover art • 7 Live performances • 8 Other incarnations • 8.1 1970 Les Grands Ballets Canadiens • 8.2 1971 Seattle Opera production • 8.3 London Symphony Orchestra version • 8.4 1975 film • 8.5 Broadway musical • 9 Track listing • 9.1 2003 bonus disc: Demos and outtakes • 9.2 2013 live disc • 10 B-sides • 11 Personnel • 12 Charts • 13 Certifications • 14 See also • 15 References • 15.1 Bibliography • 16 Further reading • 17 External links Synopsis [ edit ] Tommy has never had a rick roll adalah plot, but the following synopsis was published following the original album's release.

[1] British Army Captain Walker goes missing during an expedition and is believed dead (" Overture"). His wife, Mrs. Walker, gives birth to their son, Tommy ("It's a Boy").

Years later, Captain Walker returns home and discovers that his wife has found a new lover. The Captain kills the lover in an altercation. Tommy's mother brainwashes Tommy into believing he did not see or hear anything, shutting down his senses and making him deaf, dumb and blind to the outside world ("1921"). Tommy now relies on his sense of touch and imagination, developing an inner psyche ("Amazing Journey/Sparks").

[2] A quack claims his wife can cure Tommy (" The Hawker"), while Tommy's parents are increasingly frustrated that he will never find religion in the midst of his isolation ("Christmas"). They begin to neglect him, leaving him to be tortured by his sadistic "Cousin Kevin" and molested by his uncle Ernie ("Fiddle About"). The Hawker's drug-addicted wife, " The Acid Queen", gives Tommy a dose of LSD, causing a hallucinogenic experience that is expressed musically ("Underture").

[2] As Tommy grows older, he discovers that he can feel vibrations sufficiently well to become an expert pinball player (" Pinball Wizard"). His parents take him to a respected doctor ("There's a Doctor"), who determines that the boy's disabilities are psychosomatic rather than physical. Tommy is told by the Doctor to " Go to the Mirror!", and his parents notice he can stare at his reflection.

After seeing Tommy spend extended periods staring at a mirror in the house, his mother smashes it out of frustration ("Smash the Mirror").

This removes Tommy's mental block, and he recovers his senses, realising he can become a powerful leader ("Sensation"). He starts a religious movement (" I'm Free"), which generates fervor among its adherents ("Sally Simpson") and expands into a holiday camp ("Welcome" / "Tommy's Holiday Camp").

However, Tommy's followers ultimately reject his teachings and leave the camp (" We're Not Gonna Take It"). Tommy retreats inward again (" See Me, Feel Me") with his "continuing statement of wonder at that which encompasses him". [2] Background [ edit ] Townshend had been looking at ways of progressing beyond the standard three-minute pop single format since 1966.

[3] Co-manager Kit Lambert shared Townshend's views and encouraged him to develop musical ideas, [4] rick roll adalah up with the term " rock opera". The first use of the term was applied to a suite called "Quads", set in a future where parents could choose the sex of their children. A couple want four girls but instead receive three girls and a boy, raising him as a girl anyway. The opera was abandoned after writing a single song, the hit single, " I'm a Boy".

[5] When the Who's second album, A Quick One, ran short of material during recording, Lambert suggested that Townshend should write a "mini-opera" to fill the gap. Townshend initially objected, but eventually agreed to do so, coming up with " A Quick One, While He's Away", which joined short pieces of music together into a continuous narrative. [6] During 1967, Townshend learned how to play the piano and began writing songs on it, taking his work more seriously.

[7] That year's The Who Sell Out included a mini-opera in the last track, "Rael", which like "A Quick One ." was a suite of musical segments joined. [8] The package I hope is going to be called "Deaf, Dumb and Blind Boy." It's a story about a kid that's born deaf, dumb rick roll adalah blind and what happens to him throughout his life . But what it's really all about is the fact that . he's seeing things basically as vibrations which we translate as music. That's really what we want to do: create this feeling that when you listen to the music you can actually become aware of the boy, and aware of what he is all about, because we are creating him as we play." Pete Townshend talking to Jann Wenner, August 1968 [9] By 1968, Townshend was unsure about how the Who should progress musically.

The group were no longer teenagers, but he wanted their music to remain relevant. [10] His friend, International Times art director Mike McInnerney, told him about the Indian spiritual mentor Meher Baba, [11] and Townshend became fascinated with Baba's values of compassion, love and introspection.

[12] The Who's commercial success was on the wane after the single "Dogs" failed to make the top 20, and there was a genuine risk of the band breaking up. [13] The group still performed well live and spent most of the spring and summer touring the US and Canada, [14] but their stage act relied on Townshend smashing his guitar or Keith Moon demolishing his drums, which kept the group in debt. Townshend and Kit Lambert realised they needed a larger vehicle for their music than hit singles and a new stage show, and Townshend hoped to incorporate his love of Meher Baba into this concept.

[15] He decided that the Who should record a series of songs that stood well in isolation, but formed a cohesive whole on the album.

He also wanted the material performed in concert, to counter the trend of bands like the Beatles and the Beach Boys producing studio output that was not designed for live performance. [16] In August 1968, in an interview to Rolling Stone, Townshend talked about a new rock opera, which had the working title of Deaf, Dumb and Blind Boy, and described the entire plot in great detail, which ran to 11 pages. [17] The Who biographer Dave Marsh subsequently said rick roll adalah interview described the narrative better than the finished album.

[18] Townshend later regretted publishing so much detail, as he felt it forced him to write the album according to that blueprint. [19] The rest of the Who, however, were enthusiastic about the idea, and let him have artistic control over the project. [20] Recording [ edit ] The Who started recording the album at IBC Studios on 19 September 1968.

[21] There was no firm title at this point, which was variously referred to as Deaf, Dumb and Blind Boy, Amazing Journey, Journey into Space, The Brain Opera and Omnibus. Townshend eventually settled on Tommy because it was a common British name, and a nickname for soldiers in the First World War. [22] Kit Lambert took charge of the production, with Damon Lyon-Shaw as engineer.

Sessions were block-booked from 2pm – 10pm, but recording often spilled over into the early morning. [21] The album was recorded using an eight-track system, which allowed various instruments to be overdubbed. Townshend used several guitars rick roll adalah the studio, but made particular use of the Gibson J-200 acoustic and the Gibson SG. [23] As well as their usual instruments, Townshend played piano and organ and bassist John Entwistle doubled on french horn.

Keith Moon used rick roll adalah new double bass drum rick roll adalah owned by roadie Tony Haslam, after Premier had refused to loan him any more equipment due to the items repeatedly being abused. [21] Though Townshend wrote the majority of the material, the arrangements came from the entire band. Singer Roger Daltrey later said that Townshend often came in with a half-finished demo recording, adding "we probably did as much talking as we did recording, sorting out arrangements and things." [24] Townshend asked Entwistle to write two songs ("Cousin Kevin" and "Fiddle About") that covered the darker themes of bullying and abuse.

"Tommy's Holiday Camp" was Keith Moon's suggestion of what kind of religious movement Tommy could lead. Moon got the songwriting credit for suggesting the idea, though the music was composed and played by Townshend. [25] A significant amount of material had a lighter style than earlier recordings, with greater prominence put on the vocals. Moon later said, "It was, at the time, very un-Wholike. A lot of the songs were soft.

We never played like that." [26] Some of the material had already been written for other projects. "Sensation" was written about a girl Townshend had met on the Who's tour of Australia in early 1968, "Welcome" and " I'm Free" were about peace found through Meher Baba and "Sally Simpson" was based on a gig with the Doors which was marred by violence.

[27] Other songs had been previously recorded by the Who and were recycled; "It's A Boy" was derived from "Glow Girl", an out-take from The Who Sell Out, while "Sparks" and "Underture" re-used and expanded one of the instrumental themes in "Rael".

[28] "Amazing Journey" was, according to Townshend, "the absolute beginning" of the opera and summarised the entire plot. [28] "The Hawker" was a cover of Sonny Boy Williamson's "Eyesight to the Blind". A cover of Mercy Dee Walton's "One Room Country Shack" was also recorded but was scrapped from the final track listing as Townshend could not figure out a way to incorporate it in the plot.

[29] Recording at IBC was slow, due to a lack of a full plot and a full selection of songs. The group hoped that the album would be ready by Christmas, but sessions dragged on. Melody Maker 's Chris Welch visited IBC studios in November and while he was impressed with the working environment and the material, [30] the project still did not have a title and there was no coherent plotline.

[25] The Who's US record company, Decca Records, got so impatient waiting for new product that they released the compilation album Magic Bus: The Who on Tour which received a scathing review from Greil Marcus in Rolling Stone over its poor selection of material and misleading name (as the album contained studio recordings and was not live).

[31] The Who took a break from recording at the end of 1968 to tour, including a well received appearance at The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus on 10 December. [32] They resumed sessions at IBC in January 1969, block booking Monday to Thursday, but had to do gigs every weekend to stop going further into debt.

[33] A major tour was booked for the end of April, and the group's management insisted that the album would have to be finished by then, as it had been well over a year since The Who Sell Out. [34] Kit Lambert wrote a script, Tommy (1914–1984) which he professionally printed, and gave copies to the band, which helped them focus the storyline, and also decide to make the album a double. [33] The group were still coming up with new material; Lambert insisted that the piece should have a proper overture, [34] while Townshend wrote " Pinball Wizard" so that Nik Cohn, a pinball fan, would give the album a favourable review in the New York Times.

[35] Lambert wanted an orchestra to appear on the album, but Townshend was strongly against the idea, and time and budget constraints meant it could not happen anyway. [34] By March 1969, some songs had been recorded several times, yet Townshend still thought there were missing pieces.

[36] Entwistle had become fed rick roll adalah with recording, later saying "we had to keep going back and rejuvenating the numbers . it just started to drive us mad." [23] The final recording session took place on 7 March, the same day that "Pinball Wizard" was released as a single. [37] The group started tour rehearsals and promotional activities for the single and Lambert went on holiday in Cairo. The mixing was left to Damon Lyon-Shaw and assistant engineer Ted Sharp, who did not think IBC was well suited for the task.

[38] The album overshot its April deadline, as stereo mastering continued into the end of the month. [39] Release and reception [ edit ] After delays surrounding the cover artwork, Tommy was released on 17 May 1969 in the US by Decca and 23 May in the UK by Track Records. [40] The original double album rick roll adalah configured with sides 1 and 4 on one disc, and sides 2 and 3 on the other, to accommodate record changers.

[41] The album was commercially successful, reaching No. 2 in the UK album charts. It peaked at No. 7 in the US in 1969, [42] but in 1970 it re-entered the charts, at which time it went on to peak at No. 4. [43] It sold 200,000 copies in the first two weeks in the US alone, and was awarded a gold record for sales of 500,000 on 18 August. [44] " Pinball Wizard", " I'm Free" and " See Me, Feel Me" were released as singles and received airplay on the radio.

"Pinball Wizard" reached the top 20 in the US and the top five in the UK. "See Me, Feel Me" reached the top 20 in the US and "I'm Free" reached the top 40. An EP of selections from the album was planned to be released in the UK in November 1970, but was withdrawn. [45] As of 2012, Tommy has sold 20 million copies worldwide. [23] [46] When it was released, critics were split between those who thought the album was a masterpiece, the beginnings of a new genre, and those that felt it was exploitative.

The album had a hostile reception with the BBC and certain US radio stations, with Tony Blackburn describing " Rick roll adalah Wizard" as "distasteful". [39] Nevertheless, BBC Radio 1 received an advance copy of the album at the start of May and gave the material its first airplay on Pete Drummond's show on 3 May. [41] Townshend promoted the album's release with interviews rick roll adalah which he attempted to explain the plotline.

Unfortunately, because it fundamentally dealt with the abstract concept of Meher Baba's spiritual precepts, the interviews often gave confusing and contradictory details.

[47] For Melody Maker, Chris Welch went to the album's press launch show at Ronnie Scott's and although the volume left his ears ringing for 20 hours, he concluded "we wanted more." Disc and Music Echo ran a front-page headline saying "Who's Tommy: A Masterpiece". [44] Critics and fans were confused by the storyline, but Kit Lambert pointed out this made Tommy no less confusing than the operas of Richard Wagner or Giacomo Puccini a century earlier.

[48] In a 1969 column for The Village Voice, music critic Robert Christgau said that, apart from the Mothers of Invention's We're Only in It for the Money, Tommy is the first successful "extended work" in rock music, but Townshend's parodic side is more "profound and equivocal" than Frank Zappa.

He praised Townshend for deliberately constructing the album so that each song can be enjoyed individually and felt that he is rick roll adalah to "give his audience what it wants without burying his own peculiarity".

[49] Albert Goldman, writing in Life magazine, said that the Who play through "all the kinky complications" of the narrative in a hard rock style that is the antithesis of most contemporary "serious" rock. Goldman asserted that, based on innovation, performance, and "sheer power", Tommy surpasses anything else in studio-recorded rock. [50] Robert Christgau named Tommy the best album of 1969 in his year-end list for Jazz & Pop magazine. [51] Legacy and reappraisal [ edit ] Retrospective professional reviews Review scores Source Rating AllMusic [52] Encyclopedia of Popular Music [53] MusicHound Rock 4/5 [54] Q [55] Robert Christgau A– [56] Rolling Stone [57] The Rolling Stone Album Guide [58] Tom Hull – on the Web A– [59] Uncut [60] According to music journalist Richie Unterberger, Tommy was hailed by contemporary critics as the Who's breakthrough".

[52] Robert Christgau wrote in 1983, " Tommy 's operatic pretensions were so transparent that for years it seemed safe to guess that Townshend's musical ideas would never catch up with his lyrics." [61] In his review for AllMusic, Unterberger said that, despite its slight flaws, the album has "many excellent songs" permeated with "a suitably powerful grace", while Townshend's ability to devise a lengthy narrative introduced "new possibilities to rock music." [52] Uncut wrote that the album "doesn't quite realise its ambitions, though it achieves a lot on the way", and felt it was not as well developed as their later album, Quadrophenia.

[60] Mark Kemp, writing in The Rolling Stone Album Guide (2004), felt that "in retrospect, Tommy isn't quite the masterpiece it was originally hyped to be", suggesting The Who Sell Out was better, though because of Townshend, it produced several "bona fide classic songs". [62] "Rock opera may seem like a laughable concept these days, but when the Who brought it to the world via Tommy in 1969, it was an unmatched thrill", writes Mac Randall of Rolling Stone in 2004 in a more positive appraisal.

"Almost thirty-five years later, this classic-rock touchstone still has the power to enthrall." [63] In 1998, the album was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame for "historical, artistic and significant value". [46] In 2000 it was voted number 52 in Colin Larkin's All Time Top 1000 Albums.

[64] In 2003, Rolling Stone magazine ranked Tommy number 96 on its list of the 500 greatest albums of all time, [65] it maintainined the rating in a 2012 revised list, [66] and was re-ranked at number 190 on the 2020 list. [67] The album is one of several by the Who to appear in 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before Rick roll adalah Die. [68] According to Acclaimed Music, it is the 132nd most ranked record on critics' all-time lists. [69] According to music critic Martha Bayles, Tommy did not mix rock with classical music, as its "rock opera" title may have suggested, but instead was "dominated by the Who's mature style: ponderous, rhythmically monotonous hard rock".

[70] Bayles argued that it was more acceptable to audiences than the art rock "concoctions" of the time because of the cultural climate during the late 1960s: " Tommy was considered more authentic, precisely because it consists of hard rock, rather than doctored-up Mussorgsky . and avoids the typical pseudoromantic themes of art rock (fairy-tale bliss and apocalyptic angst) in favor of the more up-to-date subject of popular culture itself." [70] High Fidelity magazine also characterized the Who's album as a "reasonably hard-rock version" of the opera.

[71] Dave Marsh thought the problem with the album's narrative is that there isn't enough transitional material provided by the lyrics. There are no stage directions, no cast, and narration is restricted to key phrases (such as "Tommy can you hear me?") [47] Key problems included an unclear explanation of what Tommy didn't hear or see in "1921", how or why he plays pinball, why "Smash the Mirror" leads into "I overwhelm as I approach you" (the opening line in "Sensation"), why Tommy tells his followers in "We're Not Rick roll adalah Take It" they cannot drink or smoke but can play pinball, and what the "you" is in "Listening to you, I get the music".

[72] Editions and cover art [ edit ] Tommy was originally released as a two- LP set with artwork designed by Mike McInnerney, which included a booklet including lyrics and images to illustrate parts of the story. Townshend asked McInnerney to do the cover artwork for Tommy in September 1968. [73] Townshend had originally considered Alan Aldridge for the cover.

[73] The cover is presented as part of a triptych-style fold-out cover, and the booklet contained abstract artwork that outlined the story. [1] Although the album included lyrics to all the songs, indicating individual characters, it did not outline the plot, which led to a concert programme being prepared for shows, that carried a detailed synopsis.

[1] Townshend thought Mike McInnerney, a fellow follower of Meher Baba, would be a suitable choice to do the cover. As recording was near completion, McInnerney received a number of cassettes with completed songs and a brief outline for the story, which he immediately recognised as being based on Baba's teachings.

[74] He wanted to try and convey the world of a deaf, dumb and blind boy, and decided to "depict a kind of breaking out of a certain restricted plane into freedom." [75] The finished cover contained a blue and white web of clouds, a fist punching into the black void to the left of it. The inner triptych, meanwhile, showed a hand reaching out to light and a light shining in a dark void. [75] Townshend was too busy finishing the recording to properly approve the artwork, but Kit Lambert strongly approved of it, and said it would work.

The final step was for record company approval from Polydor, making one concession that pictures of the band should appear on the cover. These were added to the globe on the front. [76] These pictures were later removed on the 1996 CD remastered reissue. [77] Tommy was first released on CD in 1984 as a two disc set. [78] Mobile Fidelity Sound Lab subsequently released a special single-disc edition of the album in 1990, featuring an alternate take of "Eyesight to the Blind" and a low volume extensive break on the glass in "Smash The Mirror".

[79] It was also remastered by Erick Labson for single disc release in 1993. [80] Polydor and MCA released a newly remastered version on single disc in 1996, which had been remixed by Jon Astley. Astley was able to access the original 8 track tapes and bring out instruments that had been buried, such as the guitar in "Christmas", the French horn in "Sparks", the cymbals in " The Acid Queen" and the organ in "We're Not Gonna Take it".

[81] This release came with Mike McInnerney's complete artwork and a written introduction by Richard Barnes. [76] For this edition, the cover was revised to remove The Who's faces, which were originally placed at the request of the record label. [77] In 2003 Tommy was made available as a deluxe two-disc hybrid Super Audio CD with a 5.1 multi-channel mix.

The remastering was done under the supervision of Townshend and also includes related material not on the original album, including "Dogs-Part 2" (the B-Side to "Pinball Wizard"), "Cousin Kevin Model Child" and "Young Man Blues", plus demos for the album and other unreleased songs that were dropped from the final running order.

[82] Rolling Stone considered the disc sonically "murkier" than the 1996 CD and was critical of the absence of the original libretto. [63] In 2013, a super deluxe version of Tommy was released as a 3-CD / Blu-ray box set. As well as the original album, the package includes additional demos, rick roll adalah a live performance mostly taken from the Who's show at the Capital Theatre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada on 15 October 1969.

The live disc was significant, as it debunked a long-standing myth that the tapes for the tour were burned in rick roll adalah for the Leeds University show in February 1970 that made up Live at Leeds. [83] Live performances [ edit ] Main article: Tommy Tour The Who had planned to perform Tommy live since starting the project. The group spent April 1969 rehearsing a live version of the show at the Hanwell Community Rick roll adalah in Ealing including a final run down of the entire stage piece on 23 April.

[39] The running order was changed, and four songs ("Cousin Kevin", "Underture", "Sensation" and "Welcome") were rick roll adalah entirely. [84] Townshend later said the group "did the whole thing from start to finish and that was when we first realized we had something cohesive and playable." [85] Roger Daltrey's voice had improved substantially since the group's early tours, and they realised their new live act could completely change their career.

[39] After a few warm up gigs towards the end of April, [41] the group gave a preview concert to the press at Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club, London on 1 May.

Realising the opera's narrative was difficult to understand, Townshend explained a synopsis of the story, before the Who played Tommy all the way through at full stage volume. [44] The next day, the group flew out to New York to start the US tour, with the first gig on 9 May at the Grande Ballroom, Detroit. [41] At the end of May, the group played four nights at the Kinetic Playground, Chicago, and they noticed the audience would all stand up at the same time, and stay standing.

This indicated that live performances of Tommy had a significant positive response. [86] The group continued to play large halls in the US, organised by tour promoter Frank Barsalona, and generally avoided festivals, [87] but made an important exception with the Woodstock festival on 16 August.

After spending all night arguing with Barsalona, the band agreed to perform at Woodstock for $12,500. [88] The festival ran late and the Who did not take to the stage until the early morning of 17 August. During " Pinball Wizard", Abbie Hoffman took to the stage to protest about the imprisonment of John Sinclair before being kicked offstage by Townshend, while during " See Me, Feel Me", the sun rose, almost as if on cue.

[89] Two weeks later, the group played the second Isle of Wight Festival, using one of the largest live PAs available. [90] Though media attention was on Bob Dylan playing his first major live concert since 1966, the Who stole the show. Townshend later said, "We know that the stage act we had, with Tommy in it, would work under any circumstances, because it had worked many times on tour." [91] By 1970, Tommy had achieved sufficient critical acclaim to be performed live in the Metropolitan Opera House.

Tommy remained in the Who's live set through the rest of the year and into 1970. In October 1969, the Who played six shows at the Fillmore East, where Leonard Bernstein praised them for their new music. [92] The group's show on 14 December at the London Coliseum was filmed for a possible future Tommy feature.

[93] Lambert was keen for Tommy to be taken seriously and wanted the Who to perform at opera houses. [94] In June 1970, the group performed two shows at the Metropolitan Opera House, which was the first time Townshend announced the show as being the "last Tommy ever". [95] The group made a second trip to the Isle of Wight, appearing at the 1970 festival on 29 August, before an audience of 600,000. [84] The last live performance for 1970 was at The Roundhouse, London on 20 December. Townshend said "This is the very last time we'll play Tommy on stage", to which Keith Moon promptly cried, "Thank Christ for that!" [96] Public reaction to the Who's concerts that included Tommy was overwhelmingly positive.

The touring helped keep the album in the public eye, and cleared the band's debts. [97] Several live recordings of Tommy from the Who's 1969–70 tours have been released. A complete performance is available on the 2002 Deluxe Edition of the live album Live at Leeds, recorded on 14 February 1970. The second Isle of Wight performance is available on Live at the Isle of Wight Festival 1970, released in 1996. [84] The Coliseum Theatre gig is available on the 2007 video release At Kilburn 1977 + Live at the Coliseum.

Portions of the Woodstock performance of Tommy were released on the documentaries Woodstock and The Kids Are Alright. [98] The complete show was recorded, but has never been officially released. [99] The Who continued to play a smaller selection of Tommy live in subsequent tours throughout the 1970s.

[100] They revived Tommy as a whole for its twentieth anniversary during their 1989 reunion tour, reinstating the previously overlooked "Cousin Kevin" and "Sensation", but still omitting "Underture" and "Welcome".

Recordings from this tour can be found on the Join Together rick roll adalah album and the Tommy and Quadrophenia Live DVD. The Los Angeles version of this show featured Phil Collins as Uncle Ernie, Patti LaBelle as the Acid Queen, Steve Winwood as the Hawker, Elton John as the Pinball Wizard, and Billy Idol as Cousin Kevin.

[101] [102] Other incarnations [ edit ] 1970 Les Grands Ballets Canadiens [ edit ] In 1970 Ferdinand Nault of the Montreal ballet group Les Grands Ballets Canadiens created the first dance-based adaptation of Tommy. [103] The ballet performance toured New York in April 1971, which included a light show and accompanying films by the Quebec Film Bureau.

[104] [105] 1971 Seattle Opera production [ edit ] In 1971, the Seattle Opera under director Richard Pearlman produced the first ever fully staged professional production of Tommy at Seattle's Moore Theatre. The production included Bette Midler playing the role of the Acid Queen and Mrs. Walker, and music by the Syracuse, New York band Comstock, Ltd. [106] London Symphony Orchestra version [ edit ] Main article: Tommy (London Symphony Orchestra album) On 9 December 1972, entrepreneur Lou Reizner presented a concert version of Tommy at the Rainbow Theatre, London.

There were two performances that took place on the same evening. The concerts featured the Who, plus a guest cast, backed by the London Symphony Orchestra rick roll adalah by David Measham. [107] The concerts were held to promote the release of Reizner's new studio recording of this symphonic version of Tommy.

[108] The album and concerts featured an all-star cast, including Graham Bell (as The Lover), Maggie Bell (as The Mother), Sandy Denny (as The Nurse), Steve Winwood (as The Father), Rod Stewart (as The Local Lad), Richie Havens (as The Hawker), Merry Clayton (as The Acid Queen) and Ringo Starr (as Uncle Ernie). Townshend played some guitar, but otherwise the music was predominantly orchestral. [109] Richard Harris played the role of the specialist on the record, but he was replaced by Peter Sellers for the stage production.

The stage show had a second run on rick roll adalah and 14 December 1973 with a different cast including David Essex, Elkie Brooks, Marsha Hunt, Vivian Stanshall, Roy Wood, and Jon Pertwee. [110] The orchestral version was also performed twice in Australia on 31 March 1973 at Melbourne's Myer Music Bowl and on 1 April at Sydney's Randwick Racecourse.

Keith Moon appeared as Uncle Ernie (in Melbourne only), Graham Bell as the Narrator, with local stars Daryl Braithwaite (as Tommy), Billy Thorpe, Doug Parkinson, Wendy Saddington, Jim Keays, Broderick Smith, Colleen Hewett, Linda George, Ross Wilson, Bobby Bright, Ian Meldrum (as Uncle Ernie in Sydney), and a full orchestra. [111] [112] The Melbourne concert was videotaped, then televised by Channel 7 on 13 April 1973.

[113] 1975 film [ edit ] Main article: Tommy (1975 film) In 1975 Tommy was adapted as a film, produced by expatriate Australian entrepreneur Robert Stigwood and directed by British auteur Ken Russell.

The movie version starred Roger Daltrey as Tommy, and featured the other members of the Who, plus a supporting cast that included Rick roll adalah as Tommy's mother, Oliver Reed as "the Lover", with appearances by Elton John, Tina Turner, Eric Clapton, Arthur Brown, and Jack Nicholson.

Russell insisted on having a known cast, though Townshend wanted people who could sing the material, and was particularly disappointed at not being allowed to cast Stevie Wonder as the Pinball Wizard. [114] In several cinemas, the film supported a multi-track soundtrack billed as quintaphonic sound, which placed speaker banks in the four quadrants of the house and directly behind the centre of the screen.

[115] Townshend also oversaw the production of a soundtrack album, on which the unrecorded orchestral arrangements Kit Lambert had envisaged for the original Tommy LP were realised by the extensive use of synthesizer.

[116] He started work on the soundtrack album immediately after the Who's 1973 US tour in December, and worked on it almost continuously for the next four months. [114] As well as the Who, the film's music track and the original soundtrack LP also employed several session musicians including Caleb Quaye, Ronnie Wood, Nicky Hopkins, Chris Stainton, and longtime Who associate John "Rabbit" Bundrick. [117] Due to Keith Moon's commitments with the filming of Stardust, Kenney Jones (who would take over as the Who's drummer after Moon's death in 1978) played drums on much of the soundtrack album.

[118] " Pinball Wizard" was a major hit when released as a single. This sequence in the film depicts Elton John being backed by the Who (dressed in pound-note suits); the band portrayed the Pinball Wizard's band for filming, [119] but on the music track and soundtrack album, the music was performed entirely by him and his regular touring band.

[117] Most of the extras were students at Portsmouth Polytechnic and were paid with tickets to a Who concert after filming wrapped. [120] The rick roll adalah and its soundtrack album featured six new songs, all written by Townshend, and an alteration to the running order compared to the original album.

The CD reissue of the film soundtrack also included an additional Overture. [121] Broadway musical [ edit ] Main article: The Who's Tommy In 1991, Townshend broke his wrist in a cycling accident and could not play guitar. Looking for alternative work while recuperating, he responded to a request from the PACE Theatrical Group for the rights to a Broadway musical adaptation of Tommy. The group introduced him to La Jolla Playhouse rick roll adalah Des McAnuff, and the pair began to develop the musical together.

It opened at La Jolla in summer 1992, and was an immediate commercial success. [122] Townshend wrote a new song, "I Believe My Own Eyes", to explain the relationship between Tommy's parents, but otherwise tried to be faithful to the music on the original album. [123] The musical had a mixed response from critics, [124] while Roger Daltrey and John Entwistle thought the show was too passive. [123] Anthony DeCurtis, writing in Rolling Stone, said the orchestra drummer had "the thankless task of having to reproduce Keith Moon's parts".

[125] Townshend and Des McAnuff rewrote parts of the musical when it moved from La Jolla to Broadway, to show a darker side for the title character. [126] McAnuff won a Tony Award in 1993 for Best Director, while Wayne Cilento won the award for Best Choreographer. [127] The Broadway run lasted from 1993 to 1995. [128] McAnuff revisited Tommy during the 2013 season of the Stratford Shakespeare Festival. [129] Track listing [ edit ] Track names and timings vary across editions; some editions have two tracks merged into one and vice versa.

" See Me, Feel Me", for example, is the second half of "We're Not Gonna Take It", but is its own track as a single and on the 2003 deluxe edition. [79] All tracks are written by Pete Townshend, except where noted. Side one No. Title Writer(s) Lead vocals Length 1. " Overture" Townshend 3:50 2. "It's a Boy" Townshend 2:07 3. "1921" Townshend, with John Entwistle and Roger Daltrey on chorus 3:14 4.

"Amazing Journey" Daltrey 3:25 rick roll adalah. "Sparks" instrumental 3:45 6. " The Hawker" Sonny Boy Williamson II Daltrey 2:15 Total length: 18:36 Side two No.

Title Writer(s) Lead vocals Length 1. " Christmas" Daltrey, Townshend on bridge 5:30 2. "Cousin Kevin" John Entwistle Townshend and Entwistle 4:03 3. " The Acid Queen" Townshend 3:31 4. "Underture" instrumental 9:55 Total length: 22:59 Side three No. Title Writer(s) Lead vocals Length 1. "Do You Think It's Alright?" Townshend and Daltrey 0:24 2. "Fiddle About" Entwistle Entwistle 1:26 3. " Pinball Wizard" Daltrey, Townshend on bridge 3:50 4. "There's a Doctor" Townshend, with Entwistle and Daltrey 0:25 5.

" Go to the Mirror!" Daltrey, Townshend on bridge 3:50 6. "Tommy Can You Hear Me?" Townshend, Entwistle, and Daltrey 1:35 7. "Smash the Mirror" Daltrey 1:20 8. "Sensation" Townshend 2:32 Total length: 15:12 Side four No.

Title Writer(s) Lead vocals Length 1. "Miracle Cure" Townshend, Entwistle, and Daltrey 0:10 2. "Sally Simpson" Daltrey 4:10 3. " I'm Free" Daltrey 2:40 4. "Welcome" Daltrey, Townshend on bridge, Entwistle on spoken word 4:30 5. "Tommy's Holiday Camp" Keith Moon Townshend 0:57 6. " We're Not Gonna Rick roll adalah It" Daltrey, with Townshend and Entwistle 6:45 Total length: 19:12 2003 bonus disc: Demos and outtakes [ edit ] This is a CD/SACD hybrid disc containing 5.1 mixes of all but the last five of these tracks • "I Was" – 0:17 • "Christmas" (Outtake 3) – 4:43 • "Cousin Kevin Model Child" – 1:25 • "Young Man Blues" (Version one) ( Allison) – 2:51 • "Tommy Can You Hear Me?" (Alternate version) – 1:59 • "Trying to Get Through" – 2:51 • "Sally Simpson" (Outtake) – rick roll adalah • "Miss Simpson" – 4:18 • "Welcome" (Take two) – 3:44 • "Tommy's Holiday Camp" (Band's version) – 1:07 • "We're Not Gonna Take It" (Alternate version) – 6:08 • "Dogs (Part Two)" (Moon) – 2:26 • "It's a Boy" – rick roll adalah • "Amazing Journey" – 3:41 • "Christmas" – 1:55 • "Do You Think It's Alright" – 0:28 • "Pinball Wizard" – 3:46 2013 live disc [ edit ] All tracks are from the Capitol Theatre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 15 October 1969, [130] except for "I'm Free", "Tommy's Holiday Camp", "We're Not Gonna Take It" and "See Me, Feel Me" which are from Swansea City Football Club, 12 June 1976.

[131] • "Overture" (including introduction) – 7:00 • "It's a Boy" – 0:39 • "1921" – 2:29 • "Amazing Journey" – 5:07 • "Sparks" – 2:49 • "The Hawker (Eyesight to the Blind)" – 1:54 • "Christmas" – 3:11 • "The Acid Queen" – 3:30 • "Pinball Wizard" – 2:47 • "Do You Think It's Alright?" – 0:21 • "Fiddle About" – 1:12 • "Tommy, Can You Hear Me?" – 0:55 • "There's a Doctor" – 0:24 • "Go to the Mirror!" – 3:12 • "Smash the Mirror" – 1:10 • "Miracle Cure" – 0:12 • "Sally Simpson" – 4:01 • "I'm Free" – 2:12 • "Tommy's Holiday Camp" – 0:48 • "We're Not Gonna Take It" – 3:28 • "See Me, Feel Me" rick roll adalah 7:51 B-sides [ edit ] Song Single Writer "Dogs Part Two" " Pinball Wizard" Keith Moon Personnel [ edit ] The Who • Roger Daltrey – vocals, rick roll adalah • Pete Townshend – vocals, guitar, keyboards, banjo • John Entwistle – bass, french horn, vocals • Keith Moon – drums, vocals Charts [ edit ] Album Year Chart Peak position 1969 Billboard Pop Albums 4 [132] 1969 UK Chart Albums 2 [133] 1975 UK Chart Albums 37 [134] Singles Year Single Chart Peak position 1969 " Pinball Wizard" Billboard Pop Singles 19 [135] 1969 "Pinball Wizard" UK Singles Charts 4 [41] 1969 "Pinball Wizard" Dutch Singles Charts 12 [136] 1969 " I'm Free" Billboard Pop Singles 37 [135] 1969 "I'm Free" Dutch Singles Charts 20 [137] 1970 " See Me, Feel Me" Billboard Pop Singles 12 [138] 1970 "See Me, Feel Me" Dutch Singles Charts 2 [139] Certifications [ edit ] Region Certification Certified units/sales France ( SNEP) [140] Gold 100,000 * Italy ( FIMI) [141] Gold 25,000 * New Zealand ( RMNZ) [142] Gold 7,500 ^ United Kingdom ( BPI) [143] Awarded to the soundtrack to the film too Gold 100,000 ^ United States ( RIAA) [144] 2× Platinum 2,000,000 ^ * Sales figures based on certification alone.

^ Shipments figures based on certification alone. See also [ edit ] • Album era References [ edit ] • ^ a b c Atkins 2000, p. 121. • ^ a b c Atkins 2000, pp. 121–122. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 214. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 215. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 217. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 227. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 283. • ^ Marsh 1983, pp. 282, 283.

• ^ Marsh 1983, pp. 313, 314. • ^ Marsh 1983, pp. 293–294. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 294. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 296. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 308. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 190. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 309. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 310. • ^ Marsh 1983, pp. 313–316. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 316. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 191. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 192. • ^ a b c Neill & Kent 2002, p. 210. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 317. • ^ a b c Drozdowski, Ted (3 May 2012).

"Pinball Wizard: Pete Townshend Finds His Signature Guitar Sound". Gibson Guitars. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. rick roll adalah. • ^ a b Marsh 1983, p. 323. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 220. • ^ Marsh 1983, pp. 316, 318. • ^ a b Marsh 1983, p. 318. • ^ Atkins 2000, p.

114. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 321. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 319,320. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 216. • ^ a b Marsh 1983, p. 324. • ^ a b c Marsh 1983, p.

325. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 221. rick roll adalah ^ Marsh 1983, p. 327. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, pp. 227, 228. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 228. • ^ a b c d Neill & Kent 2002, p. 230. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p.

232; Atkins 2000, p. 282. • ^ a b c d e Neill & Kent 2002, p. 231. • ^ "Billboard 200 Chart". Billboard. Retrieved 2 September 2020. • ^ "Billboard, 19 September 1970" (PDF). • ^ a b c Marsh 1983, p. 340. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 421. • ^ a b Perry, Andrew (22 June 2006).

"Hope I don't have a heart attack". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 25 May 2010. • ^ a b Marsh 1983, p. 330. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 329. • ^ Christgau, Robert (12 June 1969).

"Whooopee!". The Village Voice. New York. Retrieved 3 July 2013. • ^ "A Grand Opera in Rock". Life Magazine: 20. 17 October 1969. Retrieved 3 July 2013. • ^ Christgau, Robert (1969). "Robert Christgau's 1969 Jazz & Pop Ballot". Jazz & Pop. Retrieved 17 April 2014. • ^ a b c Unterberger, Richie.

"Tommy – The Who". AllMusic. Retrieved 3 July 2013. • ^ Larkin, Colin (2007). Encyclopedia of Popular Music (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

ISBN 978-0195313734. • ^ Graff & Durchholz 1999, p. 1227. • ^ "Review: Tommy". Q. London: 116–7. March 2004. • ^ Christgau, Robert (27 August 2019). "Xgau Sez". robertchristgau.com. Retrieved 14 March 2020.

• ^ Randall, Mac (22 January 2004). "Tommy Deluxe Edition". Rolling Stone. New York. Retrieved 3 July 2013. • ^ Kemp 2004, p. 871. • ^ Hull, Tom (n.d.). "Grade List: The Who". Tom Hull – on the Web. Retrieved 19 July 2020. • ^ a b "Review: Tommy". Uncut.

London: 110. March 2004. • ^ Christgau, Robert (25 January 1983). "Consumer Guide". The Village Voice. New York. Retrieved 3 July 2013. • ^ Kemp 2004, p. 872. • ^ a b Randall, Mac. "Tommy (Deluxe Edition)". Rolling Stone.

Wenner Media. Retrieved 19 September 2018. • ^ Colin Larkin (2000). All Time Top 1000 Albums (3rd ed.). Virgin Books. p. 59. ISBN 0-7535-0493-6. • ^ "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. New York: 118. 11 December 2013. • ^ "500 Greatest Albums of All Time Rolling Stone's definitive list of the 500 greatest albums of all time". Rolling Stone. 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2019.

• ^ "Tommy ranked 190th greatest album by Rolling Stone magazine". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2 March 2022. • ^ Dimery, Robert; Lydon, Michael (2011). 1001 Albums: You Must Hear Before You Die. Hachette UK. p. 455. ISBN 978-1-84403-714-8. • ^ "Tommy ranked 132nd most celebrated album". Acclaimed Music. Retrieved 2 March 2022.

• ^ a b Bayles, Martha (1994). Hole in Our Soul:The Loss of Beauty and Meaning rick roll adalah American Popular Music. University of Chicago Press. p. 224. ISBN 0-226-03959-5. • ^ "Tommy". High Fidelity. 23 (6): 418. June 1973. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 332. • ^ a b "Biography". Mike McInnerney. Retrieved 6 October 2019. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 336. • ^ a b Marsh 1983, p.

337. • ^ a b Tommy (Media notes). The Who. Polydor. 531–043–2. {{ cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) ( link) • ^ a b Segretto, Mike (2014). The Who FAQ: All That's Left to Know About Fifty Years of Maximum R&B. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-480-39253-3. Retrieved 6 October 2019. • ^ "Tommy [Mobile Fidelty]". AllMusic. Retrieved 18 August 2014. • ^ a b Atkins 2000, p. 282. • ^ Tommy (Media notes).

The Who. MCA. MCAD-10801. rick roll adalah cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) ( link) • ^ Atkins 2000, pp. 120, 121. • ^ JoneUnterbergers, Richie (15 August 2014). "Tommy [Deluxe Edition]". AllMusic. • ^ "The Who to release Super Deluxe Box Set and Deluxe Edition".

The Who (official website). 11 November 2013. Archived from the original on rick roll adalah August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014. • ^ a b c Atkins 2000, p. 136. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 339. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 343. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 346. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 348. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 350. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, pp. 239. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 240. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, pp. 241–242. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 243. • ^ Graham, Bill; greenfield, Robert (1922). Bill Graham Presents: My Life Inside Rock and Out.

Da Capo Press. p. 321. ISBN 978-0-306-81349-8. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 353. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 271. • ^ Atkins 2000, p. 137. • ^ Atkins 2000, pp. 127–128. • ^ Atkins 2000, p. 128. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 391. • ^ "Live:Featuring Rock Opera Tommy". AllMusic. Retrieved 27 September 2013. • ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas.

" Join Together – The Who". AllMusic. Retrieved 27 September 2013. • ^ "Les Grands Ballets Canadiens de Montreal". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 10 October 2014. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 199. • ^ Kisselgoff, Anna (9 February 1981). "Fance: Ballets Canadiens". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2014. • ^ Bargreen, Melinda (22 July 2005). "Glynn Ross, 90, turned Seattle into opera destination".

Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, pp. 313–314. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 400. • ^ Eder, Bruce. "Tommy – As Performed by the London Symphony Orchestra". AllMusic. Retrieved 18 August 2014. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 340. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, pp. 325, 326. • ^ "Tommy Australian concert production 1973".

Milesago.com. Retrieved 13 April 2011. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 326. • ^ a b Marsh 1983, p. 440. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 369. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 442. • ^ a b Marsh 1983, p. 441.

• ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 344. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 350. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 353. • ^ "Tommy (Original Soundtrack)". AllMusic. Retrieved 15 August 2014.

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• ^ Wollman 2006, p. 161. • ^ a b Wollman 2006, p. 165. • ^ Wollman 2006, p. 168. • ^ Wollman 2006, p. 169. • ^ Wollman 2006, p. 166. • ^ Hurwitz, Nathan (2014). A History of the American Musical Theatre: No Business Like It. Routledge. p. 225. ISBN 978-1-317-91205-7. • ^ Washburne, Christopher; Derno, Maiken, eds.

(2013). Bad Music: The Music We Love to Hate. Routledge. p. 314. ISBN 978-1-135-38547-7. • ^ "Tommy". Stratford Festival.

Archived from the original rick roll adalah 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 241. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 387. • ^ "Artist Chart History – The Who". Allmusic. Retrieved 25 November 2009. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 232. • ^ "The Official Charts Company – Tommy by The Who Search". The Official Charts Company. 6 May 2013. • ^ a b "The Who Billboard singles". AllMusic.

Retrieved 28 November 2011. • ^ "Pinball Wizard". Hung Medien / hitparade.ch. Retrieved 28 November 2011. • ^ "I'm Free". Hung Medien / hitparade.ch. Retrieved 28 November 2011. • ^ "Billboard Hot 100". Billboard Magazine. 5 December 1970. p. 75. Retrieved 28 November 2011. • ^ "See Me, Feel Me". Hung Medien / hitparade.ch. Retrieved 28 November 2011.

• ^ "French album certifications – The Who – Tommy" (in French). InfoDisc. Select THE WHO and click OK. • ^ "Italian album certifications – The Who – Tommy" (in Italian). Federazione Rick roll adalah Musicale Italiana. Retrieved 21 December 2016. Select "2016" in the "Anno" drop-down menu.

Select "Tommy" in the "Filtra" field. Select "Album e Compilation" under "Sezione". • ^ "New Zealand album certifications – The Who – Tommy". Recorded Music NZ. Retrieved 15 June 2017. • ^ "British album certifications – Original Soundtrack – Tommy OST".

British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 12 August 2012. Select rick roll adalah in the Format field. Select Gold in the Certification field. Type Tommy OST in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter. • ^ "American album certifications – The Who – Tommy". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 12 August 2012. Bibliography [ edit ] • Atkins, John (2000). The Who on Record: A Critical History, 1963–1998.

McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-0609-8. • Graff, Gary; Durchholz, Daniel, eds. (1999). MusicHound Rock: The Essential Album Guide. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Visible Ink Press. ISBN 1-57859-061-2. • Marsh, Dave (1983). Before I Get Old: The Story of The Who. Plexus.

ISBN 978-0-85965-083-0. • Neill, Andy; Kent, Matt (2002). Anywhere Anyhow Anywhere: The Complete Chronicle of The Who. Virgin Books. ISBN 978-0-7535-1217-3. • Kemp, Mark (2004). Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian (eds.). The New Rolling Stone Album Guide (4th ed.). Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-0169-8. • Wollman, Elizabeth (2006). The Theater Will Rock: A History of the Rock Musical, from Hair to Hedwig. University of Michigan Press.

ISBN 978-0-472-11576-1. Further reading [ edit ] • Barnes, Richard and Townshend, Pete (1977). The Story of Tommy. Eel Pie Publishing. 128 pp. • Cawthorne, Nigel (2005). The Who rick roll adalah the making of Tommy.

Unanimous Ltd (Vinyl Frontier 5).

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224 pp. ISBN 1-903318-76-9 • Townshend, Pete (1993). Tommy : Rick roll adalah Musical. Pantheon. 173 pp. + a CD w/ the song I Can't Believe My Own Eyes. ISBN 0-679-43066-0. Also titled The Who's Tommy: The Musical. • Townshend, Pete (1996).

Tommy : The Interactive Adventure Then and Now. Eel Pie Publishing. Kardana & Interplay Productions. Cdrom for PC (CD-MCR-263-0 / CD-C95-263-0) or for Mac (CD-MCD −263-UK) • Charlesworth, Chris and McInnerney, Mike, (foreword) Townshend, Pete (2019). Tommy at 50: The Mood, the Music, the Look, and the Legacy of The Who’s Legendary Rock Opera.

Apollo Publishers. 178 pp. ISBN 978-194806-240-4 External links [ edit ] • Tommy at Discogs (list of releases) • Lyrics • A number of interviews where Pete Townshend has commented on the concept and meaning of Tommy: • a 1968 Rolling Stone Interview (by Jann Wenner), • Pete and Tommy, among others by Rick Sanders & David Dalton – Rolling Stone (no.

37 12 July 1969) • Interview with Pete Townshend at Manchester Arena, England, 12 December 1996, by Stephen Gallagher (British Youth & Popular Culture Editor, Ubu). • Tommy notes – Song-by-song notes • Live at Leeds • Who's Last • Join Together • Live at the Isle of Wight Festival 1970 • BBC Sessions • Blues to the Bush • Live at the Royal Albert Hall • Live from Toronto • View from a Backstage Pass • Greatest Hits Live • Live at Hull 1970 • Quadrophenia Live in London • Live at the Fillmore East 1968 Compilations • Magic Bus: The Who on Tour • Direct Hits • Meaty Beaty Big and Bouncy • Odds & Sods • The Story of The Who • Phases • Hooligans • Who's Greatest Hits • Rarities Volume I & Volume II • The Singles • The Who Collection • Who's Missing • Two's Missing • Who's Better, Who's Best • Thirty Years of Maximum R&B • My Generation: The Very Best of The Who • Encore Series • The Ultimate Collection • Then and Now • The 1st Singles Box • Greatest Hits • The Who Hits 50!

Extended plays • Tommy • The Kids Are Alright • Quadrophenia • Who's Better, Who's Best • Thirty Years of Maximum R&B Live • Live at the Isle of Wight Festival 1970 • The Who & Special Guests: Live at the Royal Albert Hall • The Who Special Edition EP • Live in Boston • Tommy and Quadrophenia Live • The Vegas Job • Amazing Journey: The Story of The Who • The Who at Kilburn: 1977 • Quadrophenia Live in London • Lambert & Stamp Discographies • 1962–1963 performances • Tommy Tour • The Who by Numbers Tour • 1979 tour ( 1979 Cincinnati human crush) • 1980 tour • 2000 tour • 2001 The Concert for New York City appearance • 2003 The 46664 Concert appearance • 2006–2007 tour • Quadrophenia and More • The Who Hits 50!

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