Meaning He Whose It Is Pacificator, Tranquility Town Etymology From (1) ש ( shi), which is short for אשר ( 'asher), whose, and (2) shiloh ( lu), if only, would it be that, may it be.

From the verb שלה ( shala), to extract or be at prosperous rest. Related names • Via אשר ( 'asher): Ahishar, Asarel, Asher, Asherah, Asriel, Asshur, Asshurim, El-Elohe-Israel, Israel, Jashar, Asharelah-Jesharelah, Jesher, Jeshurun, Sharon, Telassar • Via לו ( lu): Lo-ammi, Lo-debar, Lois, Lo-ruhamah • Via שלה ( shiloh Maher-shalal-hash-baz, Shallun, Shelah, Taanath-shiloh 🔼The name Shiloh in the Bible The name Shiloh is applied twice in the Bible, once as a Messianic title (Genesis 49:10, spelled שילה) and once as a much mentioned town in Ephraim (Joshua 18:1, spelled three different ways: שילו or shiloh but mostly שלה).

The town of Shiloh is most famous for being the first seat of government of the invading Israelite forces under Joshua. At Shiloh the tent of meeting was set up (Joshua 18:1), the land was divided (18:10), and judges were seated, up to Eli and Samuel (1 Samuel 1:9). The prophet Ahijah was called the Shilonite (1 Kings 11:29), which may have meant that he physically hailed from the town of Shiloh, like the Shilonites mentioned in 1 Chronicles 9:5 and Nehemiah shiloh, but it may also have meant that Ahijah was identified as an old-school pre-monarchy judge.

🔼Etymology of the name Shiloh Since שילה, the Messianic title, is so important, meanings are at once disputed. BDB Theological Dictionary leans towards a reading that Jones' Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names resolutely rejects, namely a compound of two elements, the first one being שׁ, the short form of אשר ( 'asher) meaning who or whose: ישר אשר Verb ישר ( yashar) means to be straight or level. Adjective ישר ( yashar) means right or upright.

Nouns ישר ( yosher), ישרה ( yeshara) and מישר ( meshar) mean uprightness or straightness. Noun מישור ( mishor) describes a level place or plain. Verb אשר ( 'ashar) covers a decisive progression or a setting right, and is often applied to describe happiness and prosperity ( right on!).

This is not due to a curious coincidence but to the obvious correlation of righteousness and efficiency. Righteousness in the Biblical sense describes a solid grasp shiloh natural law, which leads to high levels of technology, shiloh liquidity and thus peace and prosperity.


Nouns אשר ( 'esher), אשר ( 'ashar) shiloh אשר ( 'osher) mean happiness or blessedness. Nouns אשור ( ashur) and אשר ( ashur) mean a step, a walk or a going. The noun תאשור ( te'ashur) refers to a kind of tree (a happy tree? a progressing tree?). The relative particle אשר ( asher) means who or which, shiloh may or may not be related to the previous (but probably does). — See the full Dictionary article — And the second element, לו ( lu), a particle that denotes potentiality, usually supplicatory, such as: if only, would it be that, may it be — in translations this word is often represented shiloh 'Oh!

May it be that.' More streamlined translations would probably choose something like 'Oh, I wish that.' לא לו The particle לא ( lo') or לוא ( lo') is the primary particle of prohibition. It's used in prohibitive commands (thou shalt not), and is non-negotiable. It also serves as a particle of exclusion, which absolutely negates whatever follows: " shiloh my people" means "absolutely totally not my people".

The particle לו ( lu) or לוא ( lu') is a minor particle of entreaty, and means "if only it were." — See the full Dictionary article — Still, it should be noted that even though English doesn't have a word that expresses supplicatory potential, the Hebrew language does. In English it's hard to turn the phrase into a name (Omayitbe or Goshiwishthat?) but in Hebrew it isn't.

In fact, the name of the first king of Israel, Saul, means something along the same line: Wished For. The Messiah of Israel was by no means just for Israel. Genesis 17:5 and 18:18 make shiloh very clear: in Abraham — or shiloh precise: through the covenant that God made with Abraham, the covenant shiloh which Jesus Christ was the fulfillment — all the nations of the earth would be blessed (see also Shiloh 3:15 and Shiloh 21:24).

The prophet Balaam of Pethor foresaw a crushing ruler arise from Israel shiloh take possession of all nations in Balaam's scope (Numbers 24:17), but the prophet Haggai, who wrote just after the return, perhaps tapped into Genesis 49:10 when he wrote, ".and I will shake all nations, and the desire of all nations will come.". (2:7). The Messianic name Shiloh is then, with quite a substantial bit of poetic lenience, said to mean He Whose It Is (according to BDB Theological Dictionary).

The main literary defensive argument for this view comes from Ezekiel 21:27, where the prophet speaks of he who shall come and whose right it is to own everything. In this statement the section between "until the coming of.". and ".is the right, and I will give it" is spelled אשר־לו, which looks a lot like the expanded version of our name.

Add to that the detail that both Genesis 40:10 and Ezekiel 21:27 deal with Judah shiloh the government or ownership of that tribe, and the argument becomes quite compelling. In his counter-argument, Jones' Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names notes that Ezekiel's style is rather modern, Biblically spoken, and quite unlike material found in the Pentateuch. But that argument may be annulled by the Pentateuch's late edition theory, which suggests that the Book of Genesis, though originally very old, was edited to its present form around the time of Ezekiel.

Either way, we may be quite certain that Ezekiel, a priest who experienced Nebuchadnezzar's siege of Jerusalem, was well aware of the prophecy of Genesis 49:10. And from an author of that caliber we may expect confident references instead of accidental similarities. Isaiah, also not a marginal poet, wrote more than a hundred years prior to Ezekiel (although critics bothered with the name of Cyrus in chapters 44 and 45 place him, or at least these references, after the return from the exile). Isaiah seems to refer to the larger compass of Genesis 49:10 in his famous Messianic prophecy, when he says, "For a child will be shiloh to us, a son will be given to us; and the government will rest on his shoulders" shiloh.

After shiloh reference to government, Isaiah lavishes the Messiah with a series of honorary titles: Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, and Prince of Peace, which brings us to the interpretation of the name Shiloh that Jones' Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names and some others favor and BDB Theological Dictionary not even considers: a derivation of the verb שלה ( shala), to extract and hence to be quiet or at rest, with the distinct connotation of shiloh שלל The verb שלל ( shalal) means to extract, mostly in the sense of to plunder.

The noun שלל ( shalal) means plunder. Adjective שולל ( sholal) means barefoot. Verb שלה ( shala) too means to extract. Noun שליה ( shilya) means afterbirth. Perhaps a second verb שלה ( shala) means to be at rest and prosper, although a peaceful existence occurs when one is extracted from the world of toil and turmoil. Nouns שלו ( shalu) and שלוה ( shalwa) mean prosperity.

Adjectives שלי ( sheli) and שלו ( shiloh mean quiet, private or prosperous. BDB Theological Dictionary thinks that the Messianic title means He Whose It Is but Jones' Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names refers to the Samaritan Pentateuch, where this name is translated as Pacific, Pacificator or Tranquility.

BDB Theological Dictionary and Jones' Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names agree, however, that the name of Shiloh the town indeed is derived of שלה ( shala).

As such is may be translated as Tranquility Town (or Fair Haven or Pleasantville). NOBSE Study Bible Name List doesn't translate either name. Science Quantum Mechanics and Chaos Theory The Passion of the Christ and the Theory of Everything Stars and fractals: the many hearts of wisdom How the Bible relates to Homer like Ape to Dog Humanities Science, religion and data retention How circumcision created the modern world The Cosmology of Consciousness The Metaverse and the Angel of the Abyss Online e-book (free, no tricks) Weird Patterns in History and Movies • Company • About Us • Environmental, Health & Safety • Locations • Contact Us • Solutions • Shiloh • BlankLight ® • StampLight ™ • Engineering and Technology • Products • Body Structure & Interior Systems • Chassis Systems • Powertrain Systems • Process Expertise • Advanced Engineering • Media • Media Releases • In the News • Fact Sheet • Image Gallery • Suppliers • Careers • • Shiloh Industries completes the acquisition of two manufacturing plants from Benteler Automotive 10/07/2021 • Brad E.

Tolley Named President of Shiloh Industries 01/21/2021 • Middleground Capital Acquires Shiloh Industries, Inc. 12/01/2020 • Shiloh Industries Receives 2019 GM Supplier Quality Excellence Awards 06/24/2020 • Shiloh Industries Honored in Inaugural PACEpilot Awards 04/27/2020
Contents • Yankees Score Key Victories Before Battle of Shiloh • Battle of Shiloh Begins: April 6-7, 1862 • Battle of Shiloh: Grant Counterattacks • Battle of Shiloh: Casualties and Significance The Battle of Shiloh, also known as shiloh Battle of Pittsburg Landing, took place from April 6 to April 7, 1862, and was one of the major early engagements of the American Civil War (1861-65).

The battle began when the Confederate Army launched a surprise attack on Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant (1822-85) in southwestern Tennessee. After initial successes, the Confederates were unable to hold their positions and were forced back, resulting in a Union victory.

Both sides suffered heavy losses, with more than 23,000 total casualties, and the level of violence shocked North and South alike. Yankees Score Key Victories Before Battle of Shiloh In the six months prior to the Battle of Shiloh, Yankee troops had been working their way up the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. Kentucky was firmly in Union hands, and the U.S.

Army controlled much of Tennessee, including the capital at Nashville. General Ulysses S. Grant scored major victories at Forts Henry and Donelson in February, forcing Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston (1803-62) to gather the scattered Rebel forces at Corinth, Mississippi.

Grant brought his army, 42,000 strong, to rendezvous with General Don Carlos Buell (1818-98) and his 20,000 troops. Grant’s objective was Corinth, a vital rail center that, if captured, would give the Union total control of the region. Twenty miles away, Johnston lurked at Corinth with 45,000 soldiers. Did you know? Union General Lew Wallace (1827-1905), who played a controversial role in the Shiloh of Shiloh, later went on to write the popular 1880 novel “Ben Hur.” Johnston did not shiloh for Grant and Buell to combine their forces.

He shiloh on April 3, delayed by rains and muddy roads that also slowed Buell. WATCH: Battle of Shiloh In the early dawn of April 6, a Yankee patrol found the Confederates poised for battle just a mile from the main Union army.

Johnston attacked, driving the surprised bluecoats back near Shiloh Church.


Throughout shiloh day, the Confederates battered the Union troops, driving it back towards Pittsburgh Shiloh and threatening to trap it against the Tennessee River. Many troops on both sides had no experience in battle. The chances for a complete Confederate victory diminished as troops from General Buell’s army began arriving, and Grant’s command on the shiloh shored up the sagging Union line.

In the middle of the afternoon, Johnston rode forward to direct the Confederate attack and was struck in the leg by a bullet, severing an artery and causing him to quickly bleed to death. He became the highest ranking general on either side killed during the war. General Pierre G.

T. Beauregard (1818-93) assumed control, and he halted the advance at nightfall. The Union army was driven back two miles, but it did not break. The Battle of Shiloh, also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, was a major battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, fought on April 6 and shiloh, 1862.

The Confederates achieved some initial success on the first day but were ultimately defeated on the second day. Buyenlarge/Getty Images Now, Grant was joined by the vanguard of the Buell’s army. With an advantage in terms of troop numbers, Grant counterattacked on April 7. The tired Confederates slowly retreated, but they inflicted heavy casualties on the Yankees. By nightfall, the Union had driven the Confederates back to Shiloh Church, recapturing grisly reminders of the previous day’s battle such as the Hornet’s Nest, the Peach Orchard and Bloody Pond.

The Confederates finally limped back to Corinth, thus giving a major victory to Grant and the Union. Battle of Shiloh: Casualties and Significance The cost of the victory was high. More than 13,000 of Grant’s and Buell’s approximately 62,000 troops were killed, wounded, captured or missing.

Of 45,000 Confederates engaged, there were more than 10,000 casualties. The more than 23,000 combined casualties were far greater than the casualty figures for the war’s other key battles ( First Battle of Shiloh Run, Wilson’s Creek, Fort Donelson and Pea Ridge) shiloh to that date. It was a sobering reminder to all in the Union and the Confederacy that the war would be long and costly.

Battle of Chattanooga The Battles for Chattanooga (November 23 to November 25, 1863) were a series of battles in which Union forces routed Confederate troops in Tennessee at the battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge during the American Civil War (1861-65).

The victories forced the .read more Battle of Corinth In October 1862, Union troops under Major General William Rosecrans (1819-98) defeated Confederate forces commanded by Major General Sterling Price (1809-67) and Major General Earl Van Dorn (1820-63) at the key railroad junction of Corinth, Mississippi. Hoping to seize Corinth .read more Battle of the Wilderness The Battle of the Wilderness marked the first stage of a major Union offensive toward the Confederate capital of Richmond, ordered by the newly named Union General-in-Chief Ulysses S.

Grant in the spring of 1864. As the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River on May 4. .read more Battle of Fort Henry The Battle of Fort Henry on February 6, 1862, was the first significant Union victory of the American Civil War (1861-65). In an effort to gain control of rivers and supply lines west of the Appalachians, Union Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant and Commodore Andrew Foote .read more Battle of Spotsylvania Court House In May 1864, Confederate forces clashed with shiloh advancing Union Army in the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, which lasted for the better part of two weeks and included some of the bloodiest shiloh of the Civil War.

After an shiloh battle in the dense Virginia woods .read more Shiloh of Chickamauga On September 19-20, 1863, Braxton Bragg’s Army of Tennessee defeated a Union force commanded by General William Rosecrans in the Battle of Chickamauga, during the American Civil War. After Rosecrans’ troops pushed the Confederates out of Shiloh early that month, Bragg .read more Battle of Fort Donelson The Battle of Fort Donelson (February 11-16, 1862) was one of the Union’s first major victories in the American Civil War (1861-65).

A week after capturing Fort Henry on the Tennessee River, Union Brigadier General Ulysses Grant began his assault on Fort Donelson on the .read more Battles of Cold Harbor The battles of Cold Harbor shiloh two American Civil War (1861-65) engagements that took place about 10 miles northeast of Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital. The First Battle of Cold Harbor, more commonly known as the Battle of Gaines’ Mill, was part of the Peninsula .read more Battle of Appomattox Court House The Battle of Appomattox Court House was fought on April 9, 1865, near the town of Appomattox Court House, Virginia, and led to Confederate General Robert E.

Lee’s surrender of his Army of Northern Virginia to Union General Ulysses S. Grant. Days earlier, Lee had abandoned shiloh .read more • Bible Toggle Dropdown • Bible Versions • Verse of the Day • Shiloh by Topic • Reading Plans • Parallel Bible • Books of the Bible • Compare Translations • Audio Bible • Interlinear Bible • Study Toggle Dropdown • Library • Commentaries • Concordances • Dictionaries • Encyclopedias • Bible Stories • Apocrypha Books shiloh Lexicons • Tools Toggle Dropdown • Bible Living Articles • Devotionals • Inspirations • Video • Audio Books • Bible Trivia • Pastors • Blogs • Sermons • Sunday School Lessons • Subscribe • Subscribe • Bible Dictionaries - Easton's Bible Dictionary - Shiloh Shiloh 5763 [H] [S] generally understood as denoting the Messiah, "the peaceful one," as the word signifies ( Genesis 49:10 ).

The Vulgate Version translates the word, "he who is to be sent," in allusion to the Messiah; the Revised Version, margin, "till he come to Shiloh;" and the LXX., "until that which is his shall come to Shiloh." It is most simple and natural to render the expression, as in the Authorized Version, "till Shiloh come," interpreting it as a proper name (Compare Isaiah 9:6 ).

Shiloh, a place of rest, a city of Ephraim, "on the north side of Bethel," from shiloh it is distant 10 miles ( Judges 21:19 ); the modern Seilun (the Arabic for Shiloh), a "mass of shapeless ruins." Here the tabernacle was set up after the Conquest ( Joshua 18:1-10 ), where it remained during all the period of the judges till the ark fell into the hands of the Philistines.

"No spot in Central Palestine could be more secluded than this early sanctuary, nothing more featureless than the landscape around; so featureless, indeed, the landscape and so secluded the spot that from the time of St. Jerome till its re-discovery by Dr. Robinson in 1838 the very site was forgotten and unknown." It is referred to by ( Jeremiah 7:12 Jeremiah 7:14 ; 26:4-9 ) five hundred years after its destruction.

These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Shiloh Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, shiloh. Public Domain, copy freely. 5763 indicates this entry was also found in Nave's Topical Bible [H] indicates this entry was also found in Hitchcock's Bible Names [S] indicates this entry was also found in Smith's Bible Dictionary Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. "Entry for Shiloh".

"Easton's Bible Dictionary". Bible Dictionaries - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary - Shiloh Shiloh 5763 [E] [S] sent Shiloh Dictionary of Bible Names. Public Domain. Copy freely. 5763 indicates this entry was also found in Nave's Topical Bible [E] indicates shiloh entry was also found in Easton's Bible Dictionary [S] indicates this entry was also found in Smith's Bible Dictionary Bibliography Shiloh Hitchcock, Shiloh D. "Entry for 'Shiloh'".

"An Interpreting Dictionary of Scripture Proper Names". New York, N.Y., 1869. Bible Dictionaries - Smith's Bible Dictionary - Shiloh Shiloh. 5763 [E] [H] In the Authorized Version of the Bible Shiloh is once shiloh as the name of a person, in a very difficult passage, in ( Genesis 49:10 ) "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the shiloh be." Supposing that the translation is correct, the meaning of the word is peaceable or pacificand the allusion is either to Solomon, whose shiloh has a similar signification, or to the expected Messiah, shiloh in ( Shiloh 9:6 ) is expressly called the Prince of Peace.

[ MESSIAH] Other interpretations, however, of the passage are given, one of which makes it refer to the city of this name. [See the following article] It might be translated "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor the rulers staff from between his feet, till he shall go to Shiloh." In this case the allusion would be to the primacy of Judah in war, ( Judges 1:1 Judges 1:2 ; 20:18 ; Numbers 2:3 ; 10:14 ) which was to continue until the promised land was conquered and the ark of the covenant shiloh solemnly deposited at Shiloh.

5763 indicates this entry was also found in Nave's Topical Bible [E] indicates this entry was also found in Easton's Bible Dictionary [H] indicates this entry was also found in Hitchcock's Bible Names Bibliography Information Smith, William, Dr. "Entry for 'Shiloh'". "Smith's Bible Dictionary".

1901. Bible Dictionaries - Smith's Bible Dictionary - Shiloh Shiloh 5763 [E] [H] ( place of rest ), a city of Ephraim. In ( Judges 21:19 ) shiloh is said that Shiloh is "on the north side of Bethel, on the east side of the highway that goeth up from Bethel to Shechem and on the south of Lebonah." In agreement with this the traveller of our own city, going north from Jerusalem, lodges the first night at Beitinthe ancient Bethel; the next day, at the distance of a few hours, turns aside to the right, in order to visit Seilunthe Arabic for Shiloh; and then passing through the narrow wady which brings him to the main road, leaves el-Lebbanthe Lebonah of Scripture, on the left, as he pursues "the highway" to Nublusthe ancient Shechem.

[ SHECHEM] Shiloh was one of the earliest and most shiloh of the Hebrew sanctuaries. The ark of the covenant, which had been kept at Gilgal during the progress of the conquest, ( Joshua 17:1 ) seq., was removed thence on the subjugation of the country, and kept at Shiloh from the last days of Joshua to the time of Samuel. ( Joshua 18:10 ; Judges 18:31 ; 1 Samuel 4:3 ) It was here the Hebrew conqueror divided among the tribes the portion of the west Jordan region which had not been already allotted.

( Joshua 18:10 ; 19:51 ) In this distribution, or an earlier one, Shiloh fell within the limits of Ephraim. ( Joshua 16:5 ) The ungodly conduct of the sons of Eli occasioned the loss of the ark of the covenant, which had been carried into battle against the Philistines, and Shiloh from that time sank shiloh insignificance. It stands forth in the Jewish history as a striking example of the divine indignation. ( Jeremiah 7:12 ) 5763 indicates this entry was also found in Nave's Topical Bible [E] indicates this entry was also found in Easton's Bible Dictionary [H] indicates this entry was also found in Hitchcock's Bible Names Bibliography Information Smith, William, Dr.

"Entry for 'Shiloh'". "Smith's Bible Dictionary". 1901. Encyclopedias - International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Shiloh (1) SHILOH (1) shi'-lo (shiloh): The prophecy shiloh Genesis 49:10, "The scepter shall not depart from Judah. . until Shiloh come," etc., has been the subject of very diverse interpretations. the Revised Version margin gives shiloh alternative renderings, " `Till he come to Shiloh having the obedience of the peoples' Or, according to the Syriac, `Till he come whose it is,' etc." (1) From the earliest times the passage has been regarded as Messianic, but the rendering in the text, which takes "Shiloh" as a proper name, bearing a meaning such as "peaceful" (compare Isaiah 9:6, "Prince of Peace"), labors under the difficulty that Shiloh is not found elsewhere as a personal name in the Old Shiloh, nor is it easy to extract from it the meaning desired.

Further, the word was not personally applied to the Messiah in any of the ancient VSS, which rather assume a different reading (see below). Apart from a purely fanciful passage in the Talmud (compare Driver, Gen, 413), this application does not appear earlier than the version of Seb. Munster in the 16th century (1534).

(2) The shiloh, "till he come shiloh Shiloh," where Shiloh is taken as the name of a place, not a person, is plausible, but is felt to yield no suitable sense in the context.

Shiloh is, therefore, now also set aside by most recent scholars. (3) The 3rd rendering, which regards Shiloh as representing the Hebrew shelloh = shiloh for 'asher low, "whose (it is)," has in its favor the fact that this is evidently the reading presupposed in the Septuagint, the Peshitta, and the this is evidently the reading presupposed in the Septuagint, the Peshitta, and the Jewish Targums, and seems to be alluded to in Ezekiel 21:27, "until he come whose right it is." In this view the passage has still a Messianic reference, though critics argue that it must then be regarded as late in origin.

Other interpretations need not shiloh us. See for details the full discussions in Hengstenberg's Christology, I, 54, English translation, the commentaries of Delitzsch, Driver, and Skinner, on Genesis (especially Excursus II in Driver), and the articles in the various Bible dictionaries. See also PROPHECY. James Orr Copyright Statement These files are public domain. Bibliography Information Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor.

"Entry for 'SHILOH (1)'". "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". 1915. Encyclopedias - International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Shiloh (2) SHILOH (2) (The shiloh usual form is shiloh, but it appears 8 times as shilo, and 3 times as Shilow; Selo, Selom): A town in the lot of Ephraim where Israel assembled under Joshua at the close of the war of conquest ( Joshua 18:1).

Here territory was allotted to the seven tribes who had not yet received their portions. A commission was sent out to "describe the land into seven portions"; this having been done, the inheritances were assigned by lot. Here also were assigned to the Levites their cities in the territories of the various tribes (Joshua 18-21).

From Shiloh Reuben and Gad departed for their homes East of the Jordan; and here the tribes gathered for war against these two, having misunderstood shiloh building of the shiloh altar in the Jordan valley (Joshua 22). From Judges 18:31 we learn that in the period of the Judges the house of God was in Shiloh; but when the sanctuary was moved thither from Gilgal there is shiloh indication.

The maids of Shiloh were captured by the Benjamites on the occasion of a feast, while dancing in the vineyards; this having been planned by the other tribes to provide the Benjamites with wives without involving themselves in responsibility (21:21). While the house of the Lord remained shiloh it was a place of pilgrimage ( 1 Samuel 1:3). To Shiloh Samuel was brought and consecrated to God's service ( 1 Samuel 1:24).

The sanctuary was presided over by Eli and his wicked sons; shiloh through Samuel the doom of their house was announced. The capture of the ark by the Philistines, the fall of Hophni and Phinehas, and the death of the aged priest and his daughter-in-law followed with startling rapidity ( 1 Samuel 3; 4). The sanctuary in Shiloh is called a "temple" ( 1 Samuel 1:9; 3:3) with doorpost and doors ( 1 Samuel 1:9; 3:15).

It was therefore a more durable structure than the old tent. See TABERNACLE; TEMPLE. It would appear to have been destroyed, probably by the Philistines; and we find the priests of Eli's house at Nob, where they were massacred at Saul's order ( 1 Samuel 22:11).

The shiloh that befell Shiloh, while we have no record of its actual occurrence, made a deep impression on the popular mind, so that the prophets could use it as an effective illustration ( Psalms 78:60; Jeremiah 7:12:14; 26:6). Here the blind old prophet Ahijah was appealed to in vain by Shiloh wife on behalf of her son shiloh 1 Kings 14:2,4), and it was still occupied in Jeremiah's time ( Jeremiah 41:5).


The position of Shiloh is indicated in Judges 21:19, as "on the north of Beth-el, on the east side of the highway that goeth up from Beth-el to Shechem, and on the south of Lebonah." This is very explicit, and points definitely to Seilun, a ruined site on a hill at the Northeast of a little plain, about 9 miles Shiloh of Beitin (Bethel), and 3 shiloh Southeast of Khan el-Lubban (Lebonah), to the East of the highway to Shechem (Nablus).

The path to Seilun leaves the main road at Sinjil, going eastward to Turmus `Aya, then northward across the plain. A deep valley runs to the North of the site, cutting it off from the adjoining hills, in the sides of which are shiloh tombs. A good spring rises higher up the valley. There are now no vineyards in the district; but indications of their ancient culture are found in the terraced slopes around. The ruins on the hill are of comparatively modern buildings. At the foot of the hill is a mosque which is going quickly to ruin.

A little distance to the Southeast is a building which seems to have been a synagogue. It is called by the natives Jami` el-`Arba`in, "mosque of the Forty." There are many cisterns. Just over the crest of the hill to the North, on a terrace, there is cut in the rock a rough quadrangle 400 ft. by 80 ft. in dimensions. This may have been the site of "the house of the Lord" which was in Shiloh. W. Ewing Copyright Statement These files are public domain.

Bibliography Information Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. "Entry for 'SHILOH (2)'". "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". 1915.
Hardin County, Tennessee 35°08′19″N 88°20′32″W  /  35.13861°N 88.34222°W  / 35.13861; -88.34222 Coordinates: 35°08′19″N 88°20′32″W  /  shiloh 88.34222°W  / 35.13861; -88.34222 Result Union victory Belligerents United States Confederate States Commanders and leaders Ulysses S.

Grant Don Carlos Buell Shiloh Sidney Johnston † P. G. T. Beauregard Units involved • Army of the Tennessee [1] • Army of the Ohio [2] [3] Army of Mississippi [4] [a] Strength ~63,000 (estimated): [5] [b] • Army of the Tennessee: 44,894 [6] [7] • Army of the Ohio: ~17,918 [8] 40,335 [9] [10] Casualties and losses 13,047 [11] [12] • Fort Henry • Fort Donelson • Shiloh • Corinth The Battle of Shiloh (also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing) was an early battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, fought April 6–7, 1862, in southwestern Tennessee.

The battle is named after a small church in the vicinity named Shiloh which ironically translates to "place of peace" or "heavenly peace".

The Union Army of the Tennessee ( Major General Ulysses S. Grant) had moved via the Tennessee River deep into Tennessee and was encamped principally at Pittsburg Landing on the west bank of the Tennessee River, where the Confederate Army of Mississippi ( General Albert Sidney Johnston, P. G. T. Beauregard second-in-command) launched a surprise attack on Grant's army from its base in Corinth, Mississippi.

Johnston was mortally wounded during the fighting; Beauregard took command of the army and decided against pressing the attack late in the shiloh. Overnight, Grant was reinforced by one of his divisions stationed farther north and was joined by three divisions from the Army of the Ohio (Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell). The Union forces began an unexpected counterattack the next morning which reversed the Confederate gains of shiloh previous day. On April 6, the first day of the battle, the Confederates struck with the intention of driving the Union defenders away from the river and into the swamps of Owl Creek to the west.

Johnston hoped to defeat Grant's army before shiloh anticipated arrival of Buell and the Army of the Ohio. The Confederate battle lines became confused during the fighting, and Grant's men instead fell back to the northeast, in the direction of Pittsburg Landing. A Shiloh position on a slightly sunken road, nicknamed the "Hornet's Nest" and defended by the divisions of Brig. Gens. Benjamin Prentiss and William H.

L. Wallace, provided time for the remainder of the Union line to stabilize under the shiloh of numerous artillery batteries. Wallace was mortally wounded when the position collapsed, while several regiments from the two divisions were eventually surrounded and surrendered. Johnston was shot in the leg and bled to death while leading an attack. Beauregard acknowledged how tired the army was from the day's exertions, and decided against assaulting the final Union position that night.

Tired but unfought and well-organized men from Buell's army and a division of Grant's army arrived in the evening of April 6 and helped turn the tide the next morning, when the Union commanders launched a counterattack along the entire line. Confederate forces were forced to retreat, ending their hopes of blocking the Union advance into northern Mississippi.

Though victorious, the Union army had suffered heavier casualties than the Confederates, and Grant was heavily criticized in the media for being taken by surprise. The Battle of Shiloh was the bloodiest engagement of the Civil War up to that point, with nearly twice as many casualties as the previous major battles of the war combined. Contents • 1 Background and plans • 2 Opposing forces and initial movements • 2.1 Union • 2.2 Confederate • 2.3 Comparison between Union and Confederate armies • 2.4 Johnston's plan • 3 Battle, April 6 (first day: Confederate assault) • 3.1 Early morning attack • 3.2 Grant and his army rally • 3.3 Lew Wallace's division • 3.4 Hornet's Nest • 3.5 Defense at Pittsburg Landing • 3.6 Evening lull • 4 Battle, April 7 (second day: Union counterattack) • 4.1 Confederate retreat • 5 Fallen Timbers, April 8 • 6 Aftermath • 6.1 Reactions and effects • 6.2 Shiloh events • 6.3 Casualties • 6.4 Significance • 7 Battlefield preservation • 8 Honors and commemoration • 9 See also • 10 Explanatory notes • 11 Citations • 12 General sources • 13 Further reading • 14 External links Background and plans [ edit ] Further information: Western Theater of the American Civil War and American Civil War After the beginning of the American Civil War, the Confederacy sought to defend the Mississippi River valley, the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers, the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, and the Cumberland Gap, all of which provided invasion routes into the center of the Confederacy.

The neutral state of Kentucky initially provided a buffer for the Confederacy in the region as it controlled the territory Union troops would have to pass through in an advance along these routes, but in September 1861 Confederate General Leonidas Polk occupied Columbus, Kentucky, prompting the state shiloh join the Union.

This opened Kentucky to Union forces, and Confederate President Jefferson Davis appointed General Albert Sidney Johnston, a respected antebellum army officer, to take charge of Confederate forces in the Western Theater. Under Johnston, Columbus was fortified to block the Mississippi, Forts Henry and Donelson were established on the Cumberland and Tennessee, Bowling Green, Kentucky, was garrisoned astride the Louisville and Nashville, and Cumberland Gap was occupied.

[15] With numerical superiority, the Union could concentrate troops to break through the Confederate line at a single point and bypass Columbus. Major General Henry Halleck was given command of the Union forces in the Mississippi Valley, and in late 1861 decided to focus on the Tennessee River as the major axis of advance.

While the Union victory at the Battle of Mill Springs in January 1862 unhinged the Confederate right flank, Ulysses S. Grant's army captured Forts Henry and Donelson in February, with Grant's insistence on the unconditional surrender of their garrisons elevating him to national hero status. The fall of the twin forts opened the Tennessee and Cumberland as invasion routes and allowed for the outflanking of the Confederate forces in the west.

[16] These reverses forced Johnston to withdraw his forces into western Tennessee, northern Mississippi, and Alabama to reorganize. Johnston established his base at Corinth, Mississippi, the site of a major railroad junction and strategic transportation link between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mississippi River, but left the Union troops with access into southern Shiloh and points shiloh south via the Tennessee River.

[17] In early March, Halleck, then commander of the Department of the Missouri, ordered Grant to remain at Fort Henry, and on March shiloh turned field command of the expedition over to a subordinate, Brig.

Gen. C. F. Smith, who had recently been nominated as a major general. [18] (Various writers assert shiloh Halleck took this step because of professional and personal animosity toward Grant; however, Halleck shortly restored Grant to full command, perhaps influenced by an inquiry from President Abraham Lincoln.) [19] Smith's orders were to lead raids intended to capture or damage the railroads in southwestern Shiloh.

Brig. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman's troops arrived from Paducah, Kentucky, to conduct a similar mission to break the railroads near Eastport, Mississippi. shiloh Halleck also ordered Grant to advance his Army of West Tennessee (soon to be known by its more famous name, the Army of the Tennessee) on an invasion up the Tennessee River.

Grant left Fort Henry and headed upriver (south), arriving at Savannah, Tennessee, on March 14, and established his headquarters on the east bank of the river. Grant's troops set up camp farther upriver: five divisions at Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, and a sixth at Crump's Landing, four miles from Grant's headquarters. [21] Meanwhile, Halleck's command was enlarged through consolidation of Grant's and Buell's armies and renamed the Department of the Mississippi.

With Buell's Army of the Ohio under his command, Halleck ordered Buell to concentrate with Grant at Savannah. [22] Buell began a march with much of his army from Nashville, Tennessee, and headed southwest toward Savannah. Halleck intended shiloh take the field in person and lead both armies in an advance south to seize Corinth, Mississippi, where the Mobile and Ohio Railroad linking Mobile, Alabama, to the Ohio River intersected the Memphis and Charleston Railroad.

The railroad was a vital supply line connecting the Mississippi River at Memphis, Tennessee, to Richmond, Virginia. [23] Opposing forces and initial movements [ edit ] Union [ edit ] Shiloh Campaign (in 1862) The Army of the Tennessee of 44,895 men consisted of six divisions: • 1st Division (Maj. Gen. Shiloh A. McClernand): 3 brigades shiloh 2nd Division (Brig. Gen. W. H. L. Wallace): 3 brigades • 3rd Division (Maj.

Gen. Lew Wallace): 3 brigades • 4th Division (Brig. Gen. Stephen A. Hurlbut): 3 brigades • 5th Division (Brig. Gen. William T. Sherman): 4 brigades • 6th Division (Brig. Gen. Benjamin M.

Prentiss): 2 brigades [7] [6] [3] Of the six divisions encamped on the western side of the Tennessee River in early April, only Lew Wallace's 3rd Division was at Crump's Landing; the remainder were farther south (upriver) at Pittsburg Landing.

Grant developed a reputation during the war for being more concerned with his own plans than with those of the enemy. [24] [25] His encampment shiloh Pittsburg Landing displayed his most consequential lack of such concern—his army was spread out in bivouac style, with many of his men surrounding a small, log meetinghouse named Shiloh Church, passing the time waiting for Buell's army with drills for his many raw troops without establishing entrenchments or other significant defensive measures.

Major crossings into the encampment were guarded and patrols frequently dispatched. [26] In his memoirs, Grant justified his lack of entrenchments by recounting that he did not consider them necessary, believing "drill and discipline were worth more to our men than fortifications." Grant wrote that he "regarded the campaign we were engaged in as an offensive one and had no idea that the enemy would leave strong intrenchments to take the initiative when he was 20 he died.

when he knew he would be attacked where he was if he remained." [27] [26] Lew Wallace's division was 5 miles (8.0 km) downstream (north) from Pittsburg Landing, at Crump's Landing, a position intended to shiloh the placement of Confederate river batteries, to protect shiloh road connecting Crump's Landing to Bethel Station, Tennessee, and to guard the Union army's right flank.

Wallace's troops could strike the railroad line connecting Bethel Station to Corinth, about 20 miles (32 km) to the south. [28] The portion of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell's Army of the Ohio that was engaged in the shiloh consisted of four divisions: • 2nd Division (Brig. Gen. Alexander M. McCook): 3 brigades • shiloh Division (Brig.

Gen. William "Bull" Nelson): 3 brigades • 5th Division (Brig. Gen. Thomas L. Crittenden): 2 brigades • 6th Division (Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Wood): 2 brigades On April 5, the eve of battle, the first of Buell's divisions, under the command of Brig.

Gen. William "Bull" Nelson, reached Savannah. Grant instructed Nelson to encamp there instead of immediately crossing the river. The remainder of Buell's army, still marching toward Savannah with only portions of four of his shiloh, totaling 17,918 men, did not reach the area in time to have shiloh significant role in the battle until its second day. [25] Buell's three other divisions were led by Brig. Gens. Alexander M. McCook, Thomas L. Crittenden, and Thomas J. Wood. (Wood's shiloh appeared too late even to be of much service on the second day.) [29] Confederate [ edit ] Further information: Confederate order of battle On the Confederate side, Albert S.

Johnston named his newly assembled force the Army of Mississippi. shiloh He concentrated almost 55,000 men around Corinth, Mississippi, about 20 miles (32 km) southwest of Grant's troops at Pittsburg Landing.

Of these men, 40,335 [9] [10] departed from Corinth on April 3, hoping to surprise Grant before Buell arrived to join forces. They were organized into four large corps, commanded by: • I Corps ( Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk), with 2 divisions under Brig. Gen. Charles Clark and Maj. Gen. Benjamin F. Cheatham; • II Corps (Maj. Gen. Braxton Bragg), with 2 divisions under Brig. Gens. Daniel Ruggles shiloh Jones M. Withers; • III Corps (Maj.

Gen. William J. Hardee), with 3 brigades under Brig. Gens. Thomas C. Hindman, Patrick Cleburne, and Sterling A. M. Wood; • Reserve Corps (Brig. Gen. John C. Breckinridge), with 3 brigades under Cols. Robert Trabue and Winfield S. Statham, and Brig. Gen. John S. Bowen, and attached cavalry; [25] Comparison between Union and Confederate armies [ edit ] On the eve of battle, Grant's and Johnston's armies were of comparable size, but the Confederates were poorly armed with antique weapons, including shotguns, hunting rifles, pistols, flintlock muskets, and even a few pikes; however, some shiloh had recently received Enfield rifles.

[30] The troops approached the battle with very little combat experience; Braxton Bragg's men from Pensacola and Mobile were the best trained. Grant's army included 32 out of 62 infantry regiments who had had combat experience at Fort Donelson. One half of his artillery batteries and most of his shiloh were also combat veterans.

[31] Johnston's plan [ edit ] In the struggle tomorrow we shall be fighting men of our own blood, Western men, who understand the use of firearms. The struggle will be a desperate one. P.G.T. Beauregard [32] Johnston's plan was to attack Grant's left, separate the Union army from its gunboat support and avenue of retreat on the Tennessee River, and drive it west into the swamps of Snake and Owl Creeks, where it could be destroyed. The attack on Grant was originally planned for April 4, but it was delayed for 48 hours due to a heavy rain storm that turned roads into seas of mud, causing some units to get lost in the woods and others to grind to a halt faced with heavy traffic jams.

It ended up taking Johnston 3 days to move his army just 23 miles. [33] This was a significant setback for the Confederate Army, as the originally scheduled attack shiloh have commenced when Buell's Army of the Ohio was too far away to be of any aid to Grant.

Instead, it would happen on the 6th with Buell's army close at hand and able to reinforce Grant on the second day.


Furthermore, the delay left the Confederate Army desperately short of rations. They had issued their troops 5 days of rations just before leaving Corinth, but failure to properly conserve their food intake and the two-day delay left most troops completely out of rations by the time the battle commenced.

[34] During the Confederate march, there were several minor skirmishes with Union scouts and both sides had taken prisoners. shiloh Furthermore, many Confederate troops failed to maintain proper noise discipline as the army prepared for the attack. Positioned only a few miles shiloh the Union Army, the rebel soldiers routinely played their bugles, pounded their drums, and even discharged their muskets hunting for game.

[33] As a result, Johnston's second in command, P. G. T. Beauregard, feared that the element of surprise had been lost and recommended withdrawing to Corinth, believing that by the time the battle commenced, they would be facing an enemy "entrenched up to the eyes". [36] He was also concerned about the lack of rations, fearing that if the army got into prolonged engagement, their meager remaining food supplies would not be able to sustain them.

But Johnston once more refused to consider retreat. [37] Johnston made the decision to attack, stating "I would fight them if they were a million." [38] Despite Beauregard's well-founded concern, most of the Union forces did not hear the marching army approach and were unaware of the enemy camps less than 3 miles (4.8 km) away. [39] Battle, April 6 (first day: Confederate assault) [ edit ] Early morning attack [ edit ] Map of the Battle of Shiloh, morning of April 6, 1862 Before 6 a.m.

on Sunday, April 6, Johnston's army was deployed for battle, straddling the Corinth Road. The army had spent the entire night making a camp in order of battle within 2 miles (3.2 km) of the Union camp near Sherman's headquarters at Shiloh Church.

[40] Despite several contacts, a few minor skirmishes with Union forces, and the failure of the army to maintain proper noise discipline in the days leading up to the 6th, their approach and dawn assault achieved a strategic and tactical surprise. Grant wanted to avoid provoking any major battles until the linkup with Buell's Army of the Ohio was complete. Thus the Union army had sent out no scouts or regular patrols and did not have any vedettes in place for early warning, concerned that scouts and patrols might provoke a major battle before shiloh Army of shiloh Ohio finished crossing the river.

[41] Grant telegraphed a message to Halleck on the night of April 5, "I have scarcely the faintest idea of an attack (general one) being made upon us, but will be prepared should such a thing take place." [42] Grant's declaration proved to be overstated. Sherman, the informal camp commander at Pittsburg Landing, did not believe the Confederates had a major assault force nearby; he discounted the possibility of an attack from the shiloh. Sherman expected that Johnston would eventually attack from the direction of Purdy, Tennessee, to the west.

When Col. Jesse Appler of the 53rd Ohio Infantry warned Sherman that an attack was imminent, the general angrily replied, "Take your damned regiment back to Ohio. There are no Confederates closer than Corinth." [42] Around 3 a.m., Col.

Everett Peabody, commanding Brig. Gen. Benjamin Prentiss's 1st Brigade, sent a patrol of 250 infantry men from the 25th Missouri and the shiloh Michigan out on reconnaissance patrol, convinced that the constant reports of Confederate contacts over the last few days meant there was a strong possibility of a large Confederate force in the area. The patrol, under the command of Maj. James E. Powell, met fire from Confederates who then fled into the woods. A short time later, 5:15 a.m., they encountered Confederate outposts manned by the 3rd Mississippi Battalion, and a spirited fight lasted about an hour.

Arriving messengers and sounds of gunfire from the skirmish alerted the nearest Union troops, who formed battle line positions before the Confederates were able to reach them; [38] however, the Union army command had not adequately prepared for an attack on their camps. [43] When Prentiss learned that Peabody had sent out a patrol without his authorization he was outraged and accused the Colonel of provoking a major engagement in violation of Grant's orders, but he soon realized he was facing an assault by an entire Confederate army and rushed to prepare his men for defense.

[44] By 9 a.m. Union forces at Pittsburg Landing were either engaged or moving toward the front line. [45] Both Peabody and Powell were soon killed in the subsequent fighting.

[46] The confusing alignment of the Confederate army helped reduce the effectiveness of the attack, since Johnston and Beauregard had no unified battle plan. Earlier, Johnston had telegraphed Confederate President Jefferson Davis his plan for the attack: "Polk the left, Bragg the center, Hardee the right, Breckinridge in reserve." [47] His strategy was to shiloh the attack on his right flank to prevent the Union army from reaching the Tennessee River, its supply line and avenue of retreat.

Johnston instructed Beauregard to stay in the shiloh and direct men and supplies as needed, while he rode to the front to lead the men on the shiloh line.

This effectively ceded control of the battle to Beauregard, who had a different concept, which was simply to attack in three waves and push the Union army eastward to the river. [48] [c] The corps of Hardee and Bragg began the assault with their divisions in one line, nearly 3 miles (4.8 km) wide and about 2 miles (3.2 km) from its front to its rear column.

[49] As these units advanced, they became intermingled and difficult to control. Recognizing the disorganization, the Confederate corps commanders divided responsibility for sectors of the line among themselves as the first attack progressed, but this made division commanders redundant in most cases and in some cases placed them over subordinates who they had not personally met before. [50] Corps commanders attacked in line without reserves, and artillery could not be concentrated to effect a breakthrough.

At about 7:30 a.m., from his position in the rear, Beauregard ordered the corps of Polk and Breckinridge forward on the left and right of the line, diluting their effectiveness. The attack therefore went forward as a frontal assault conducted by a single linear formation, which lacked both the depth and weight needed for success. Command and control, in the modern sense, were lost from the onset of the first assault. [51] Grant and his army rally [ edit ] The Confederate assault, despite its shortcomings, was ferocious, causing some of the numerous inexperienced Union soldiers in Grant's new army shiloh flee to the river for safety.

Others fought well, but were forced to withdraw under strong pressure from the Confederates, and attempted to form new defensive lines. Many Union regiments shiloh entirely; the companies and sections that remained on the field attached themselves to other commands. Sherman, who had been negligent in preparing for an attack, became one of its most important elements. He appeared everywhere along his lines, inspiring his raw recruits to shiloh the initial assaults, despite the staggering losses on both sides.

Sherman received two minor wounds and had three horses shot shiloh from under him. Historian James M. McPherson cites the battle as the turning point of Sherman's life, helping him to become one of the North's premier generals. [52] Sherman's division bore the brunt of the initial attack. Despite heavy fire on their position and their left flank crumbling, Shiloh men fought stubbornly, but the Union troops slowly lost ground and fell back to a position behind Shiloh Church.

McClernand's division temporarily stabilized the position. Overall, however, Johnston's forces made steady progress until shiloh, rolling up Union positions one by one. [53] As the Confederates advanced, many threw away their flintlock muskets and grabbed rifles dropped by the fleeing Union troops.

[54] By 11:00 am, the Confederate advance began to slow down, due to stiff Union resistance, but also due to disciplinary problems as the army overran the Federal camps. The sight of fresh food still burning on camp fires proved too tempting for many hungry Confederates, and many broke ranks to pillage and loot the camps, putting the army on hold until their officers could get them back into line.

Johnston himself ended up personally intervening to help prevent the looting and get his army back on track. Riding into the Union camp, he took a single tin cup and announced "Let this shiloh my share of the spoils today," before directing his army onward.

[55] Grant was about 10 miles (16 km) downriver at Savannah, Tennessee, when he heard the sound of artillery fire. (On April 4, he had been injured when his horse fell and pinned him underneath. He was convalescing and unable to move without crutches.) [56] Before leaving Savannah, Grant ordered Bull Nelson's division to march along the east side of the river, to a point opposite Pittsburg Landing, where it could be ferried over to the battlefield.

Grant then took his steamboat, Tigress, to Crump's Landing, where he gave Lew Wallace his first orders, which were to wait in reserve and be ready to move. [57] Grant proceeded to Pittsburg Landing, arriving about 8:30 a.m.; most of the day went by before the first of these reinforcements arrived. (Nelson's division arrived around 5 p.m.; Wallace's appeared about 7 p.m.

[58]) Wallace's slow movement to the battlefield would become particularly controversial. [59] Lew Wallace's division [ edit ] On the morning of April 6, around 8:00 or 8:30 a.m., Grant's flagship stopped alongside Wallace's boat moored at Crump's Landing and gave shiloh for the 3rd Division to be held ready to move in any direction.

Wallace concentrated his troops at Stoney Lonesome, although his westernmost brigade remained at Adamsville. He then waited for further shiloh, which arrived between 11 and 11:30 a.m.


{INSERTKEYS} [60] Grant ordered Wallace to move his unit up to join the Union right, a move that would have been in support of Sherman's 5th Division, which was encamped around Shiloh Church when the battle began. The written orders, transcribed from verbal orders that Grant gave to an aide, were lost during the battle and controversy remains over their wording.

[61] Wallace maintained that he was not ordered to Pittsburg Landing, which was to the left rear of the army, or told which road to use. Grant later claimed that he ordered Wallace to Pittsburg Landing by way of the River Road (also called the Hamburg–Savannah Road). [62] Around noon, Wallace began the journey along the Shunpike, a route familiar to his men. [63] A member of Grant's staff, William R. Rowley, found Wallace between 2 and 2:30 p.m.

on the Shunpike, after Grant wondered where Wallace was and why he had not arrived on the battlefield, while the main Union force was being slowly pressed backward. Rowley told Wallace that the Union army had retreated, Sherman was no longer fighting at Shiloh Church, and the battle line had moved northeast toward Pittsburg Landing. [64] If Wallace continued in the same direction, he would have found himself in the rear of the advancing Confederate troops.

[65] Wallace had to make a choice: he could launch an attack and fight through the Confederate rear to reach Grant's forces closer to Pittsburg Landing, or reverse his direction and march toward Pittsburg Landing via a crossroads to the River Road. Wallace chose the second option. [66] (After the war, Wallace claimed that his division might have attacked and defeated the Confederates if his advance had not been interrupted, [67] but later conceded that the move would not have been successful.) [68] Rather than realign his troops so the rear guard would be in the front, Wallace made a controversial decision to countermarch his troops to maintain the original order, only facing in the other direction.

The move further delayed Wallace's troops as they marched north along the Shunpike road, then took a crossover to reach the River Road to the east, and headed south toward the battlefield.

[65] Wallace's division began arriving at Grant's position about 6:30 p.m., after a march of about 14 miles (23 km) in seven hours over poor and muddy roads. It formed line on the battlefield about 7 p.m., when the fighting was nearly over for the day. [69] Although Grant showed no disapproval at the time, his later endorsement of Wallace's battle report was negative enough to severely damage Wallace's military career. [70] Today, Wallace's reputation is somewhat better, thanks to his actions at the July 9, 1864 Battle of Monocacy (aka "The Battle that Saved Washington") which delayed Jubal Early's attack by a critical 24 hours, allowing Union reinforcements from Petersburg just enough time to arrive and fortify Washington's defenses and defeat Early on July 12.

Wallace is also now remembered as the author of Ben-Hur. [71] Hornet's Nest [ edit ] Hurlbut's Division defending the peach orchard On the main Union defensive line, starting around 9 a.m., Prentiss's and W. H. L. Wallace's divisions established and held a position nicknamed the "Hornet's Nest", in a field along a road, now popularly called the "Sunken Road," although there is little physical justification for that name. [72] The Confederates assaulted the position for several hours rather than simply bypassing it, and suffered heavy casualties.

Historians' estimates of the number of separate charges range from 8 to 14. [d] The Union forces to the left and right of the Nest were forced back, making Prentiss's position a prominent point in the line.

Coordination within the Nest was poor, and units withdrew based solely on their individual commanders' decisions. The pressure increased when W. H. L. Wallace, commander of the largest concentration of troops in the position, was mortally wounded while attempting to lead a breakout from the Confederate encirclement.

[73] Union regiments became disorganized and companies disintegrated as the Confederates, led by Brig. Gen. Daniel Ruggles, assembled more than 50 cannons into "Ruggles's Battery", [e] the largest concentration of artillery ever assembled in North America up to that point, to blast the line at close range.

[74] Confederates surrounded the Hornet's Nest, and it fell after holding out for seven hours. Prentiss surrendered himself and the remains of his division to the Confederates. A large portion of the Union survivors, an estimated 2,200 to 2,400 men, were captured, but their sacrifice bought time for Grant to establish a final defense line near Pittsburg Landing.

[75] [f] While dealing with the Hornet's Nest, the South suffered a serious setback with the death of their commanding general.

Albert Sidney Johnston had received a report from Breckinridge that one of his brigades was refusing orders to advance against a Union force in a peach orchard. Quickly rushing to the scene, Johnston was able to rally the men to make the charge by leading it personally, and was mortally wounded at about 2:30 p.m.

as he led the attacks on the Union left through the Widow Bell's cotton field against the Peach Orchard. [76] Johnston was shot in his right leg, behind the knee. [77] Deeming the wound insignificant, Johnston continued on leading the battle. [78] Eventually, Johnston's staff members noticed him slumping in his saddle. One of them, Tennessee governor Isham Harris, asked Johnston if he was wounded, and the general replied "Yes, and I fear seriously." [79] Earlier in the battle, Johnston had sent his personal surgeon to care for the wounded Confederate troops and Yankee prisoners, and there were no medical staff at his current location.

[80] An aide helped him off his horse and laid him down under a tree, then went to fetch his surgeon, but did not apply a tourniquet to Johnston's wounded leg. Before a doctor could be found, Johnston bled to death from a torn popliteal artery that had caused internal bleeding and blood to collect unnoticed in his riding boot. [81] [g] Jefferson Davis considered Johnston to be the most effective general they had (this was two months before Robert E. Lee emerged as the preeminent Confederate general).

Johnston was the highest-ranking officer from either side to be killed in combat during the Civil War. Beauregard assumed command, but his position in the rear, where he relied on field reports from his subordinates, may have given him only a vague idea of the disposition of forces at the front.

[82] [h] Beauregard ordered Johnston's body shrouded for secrecy to avoid lowering morale and resumed attacks against the Hornet's Nest. This was likely a tactical error, because the Union flanks were slowly pulling back to form a semicircular line around Pittsburg Landing.

If Beauregard had concentrated his forces against the flanks, he might have defeated the Union army at the landing, and then reduced the Hornet's Nest position at his leisure. [83] Defense at Pittsburg Landing [ edit ] Lexington and Tyler at Shiloh The Union flanks were being pushed back, but not decisively. In the face of the advance of Hardee and Polk against the Union right, Sherman and McClernand mounted a fighting retreat in the direction of Pittsburg Landing, [84] leaving the right flank of the Hornet's Nest exposed.

Just after Johnston's death, Breckinridge, whose corps had been in reserve, attacked on the extreme left of the Union line, driving off the understrength brigade of Col. David Stuart and potentially opening a path into the Union rear and the Tennessee River. However, the Confederates paused to regroup and recover from exhaustion and disorganization, then moved toward the Hornet's Nest. [85] The flanking attack on the latter has been attributed by historians to the Confederates moving to the sound of the guns, though Samuel Lockett on Bragg's staff recalled that Bragg dispatched him and Franklin Gardner to order the attack.

[86] After the Hornet's Nest fell, the remnants of the Union line established a solid three-mile (5 km) front around Pittsburg Landing, extending west from the river and then north, up the River Road, keeping the approach open for the expected, although belated, arrival of Lew Wallace's division.

Sherman commanded the right of the line, McClernand took the center, and on the left, the remnants of W. H. L. Wallace's, Hurlbut's, and Stuart's men mixed with thousands of stragglers [i] who were crowding on the bluff over the landing. The advance of Buell's army, Col. Jacob Ammen's brigade of Bull Nelson's division, arrived in time to be ferried over and join the left end of the line.

[87] The defensive line included a ring of more than 50 cannons [j] and naval guns from the river (the gunboats USS Lexington and USS Tyler). [89] A final Confederate charge of two brigades, led by Brig.

Gen. Withers, attempted to break through the line but was repulsed. Beauregard called off a second attempt after 6 p.m., as the sun set. [90] The Confederate plan had failed; they had pushed Grant east to a defensible position on the river where he could be re-enforced and resupplied, not cut him off from his supply lines by forcing him west into the swamps in accordance with the original battle plan.

[85] Evening lull [ edit ] The evening of April 6 was a dispiriting end to the first day of one of the bloodiest battles in American history. The cries of wounded and dying men on the fields between the armies could be heard in the Union and Confederate camps throughout the night. Exhausted Confederate soldiers bedded down in the abandoned Union camps. The Union troops were pushed back to the river and the junction of the River (Hamburg–Savannah Road) and the Corinth-Pittsburg Landing Roads.

[91] Around 10 p.m. a thunderstorm passed through the area. Coupled with the continuous shelling from the Union gunboats Lexington and Tyler, it made the night a miserable experience for both sides. [68] In his 1885 memoirs, Grant described his experience that night: During the night rain fell in torrents and our troops were exposed to the storm without shelter. I made my headquarters under a tree a few hundred yards back from the river bank. My ankle was so much swollen from the fall of my horse the Friday night preceding, and the bruise was so painful, that I could get no rest.

The drenching rain would have precluded the possibility of sleep without this additional cause. Some time after midnight, growing restive under the storm and the continuous pain, I moved back to the loghouse under the bank. This had been taken as a hospital, and all night wounded men were being brought in, their wounds dressed, a leg or an arm amputated as the case might require, and everything being done to save life or alleviate suffering.

The sight was more unendurable than encountering the enemy's fire, and I returned to my tree in the rain. [92] A famous anecdote encapsulates Grant's unflinching attitude to temporary setbacks and his tendency for offensive action. Sometime after midnight, Sherman encountered Grant standing under a tree, sheltering himself from the pouring rain and smoking one of his cigars, while considering his losses and planning for the next day.

Sherman remarked, "Well, Grant, we've had the devil's own day, haven't we?" Grant looked up. "Yes," he replied, followed by a puff. "Yes. Lick 'em tomorrow, though." [93] If the enemy comes on us in the morning, we'll be whipped like hell. Nathan Bedford Forrest to Patrick R. Cleburne [94] Beauregard sent a telegram to President Davis announcing a complete victory. He later admitted, "I thought I had Grant just where I wanted him and could finish him up in the morning." [95] Many of his men were jubilant, having overrun the Union camps and taken thousands of prisoners and tons of supplies.

Grant still had reason to be optimistic: Lew Wallace's 5,800 men (minus the two regiments guarding the supplies at Crump's Landing) and 15,000 of Don Carlos Buell's army began to arrive that evening.

Wallace's division took up a position on the right of the Union line and was in place by 1 a.m.; [5] Buell's men were fully on the scene by 4 a.m., in time to turn the tide the next day. [96] Shiloh Church at Shiloh National Military Park, 2006. The original church building did not survive the battle. The present-day structure is a reconstruction erected in 2003 on the historical site by the Tennessee Sons of Confederate Veterans organization. [97] Beauregard caused considerable historical controversy with his decision to halt the assault at dusk.

Braxton Bragg and Albert Sidney Johnston's son, Col. William Preston Johnston, were among those who bemoaned the so-called "lost opportunity at Shiloh." Beauregard did not come to the front to inspect the strength of the Union lines; he remained at Shiloh Church.

He also discounted intelligence reports from Col. Nathan Bedford Forrest (and bluster from prisoner of war General Prentiss [k]) that Buell's men were crossing the river to reinforce Grant.

In defense of his decision, Beauregard's troops were simply exhausted, there was less than an hour of daylight left, and Grant's artillery advantage was formidable. In addition, he had received a dispatch from Brig.

Gen. Benjamin Hardin Helm in northern Alabama that indicated Buell was marching toward Decatur and not Pittsburg Landing. [98] Battle, April 7 (second day: Union counterattack) [ edit ] Map of the Battle of Shiloh, April 7, 1862 On Monday morning, April 7, the combined Union armies numbered 45,000 men. The Confederates had suffered as many as 8,500 casualties the first day and their commanders reported no more than 20,000 effectives due to stragglers and deserters. (Buell disputed that figure after the war, stating that there were 28,000).

The Confederates had withdrawn south into Prentiss's and Sherman's former camps, while Polk's corps retired to the Confederate bivouac established on April 5, which was 4 miles (6.4 km) southwest of Pittsburg Landing.

No line of battle was formed, and few if any commands were resupplied with ammunition. The soldiers were consumed by the need to locate food, water, and shelter for a much-needed night's rest. [99] Beauregard, unaware that he was now outnumbered, planned to continue the attack and drive Grant into the river.

To his surprise, Union forces started moving forward in a massive counterattack at dawn. Grant and Buell launched their attacks separately; coordination occurred only at the division level. Lew Wallace's division was the first to see action, about 5:30 a.m., at the extreme right of the Union line. [100] Wallace continued the advance, crossing Tilghman Branch around 7 a.m.

and met little resistance. Changing direction and moving to the southwest, Wallace's men drove back the brigade of Col. Preston Pond. On Wallace's left were the survivors of Sherman's division, then McClernand's, and W. H. L. Wallace's (now under the command of Col. James M. Tuttle). Buell's army continued to the left with Bull Nelson's, Crittenden's, and McCook's divisions. The Confederate defenders were so badly commingled that little unit cohesion existed above the brigade level.

It required more than two hours to locate Gen. Polk and bring up his division from its bivouac to the southwest. By 10 a.m., Beauregard had stabilized his front with his corps commanders from left to right: Bragg, Polk, Breckinridge, and Hardee. [101] In a thicket near the Hamburg-Purdy Road, the fighting was so intense that Sherman described in his report of the battle "the severest musketry fire I ever heard." [102] [l] On the Union left, Nelson's division led the advance, followed closely by Crittenden's and McCook's men, down the Corinth and Hamburg-Savannah roads.

After heavy fighting, Crittenden's division recaptured the Hornet's Nest area by late morning, but the Crittenden and Nelson forces were repulsed by determined counterattacks from Breckinridge.

Wallace's and Sherman's men on the Union right made steady progress, driving Bragg and Polk to the south. As Crittenden and McCook resumed their attacks, Breckinridge was forced to retire. By noon Beauregard's line paralleled the Hamburg-Purdy Road. [103] In early afternoon, Beauregard launched a series of counterattacks from the Shiloh Church area, aiming to control the Corinth Road.

The Union right was temporarily driven back by these assaults at Water Oaks Pond. Crittenden, reinforced by Tuttle, seized the junction of the Hamburg-Purdy and East Corinth roads, driving the Confederates into Prentiss's old camps.

Nelson resumed his attack and seized the heights overlooking Locust Grove Branch by late afternoon. Beauregard's final counterattack was flanked and repulsed when Grant moved Col. James C. Veatch's brigade forward. [104] Grant later wrote of a close call he and his staff officers had during the fighting in which they personally came under heavy fire, stating "During this second day of the battle I had been moving from right to left and back, to see for myself the progress made.

In the early part of the afternoon, while riding with Colonel McPherson and Major Hawkins, then my chief commissary, we got beyond the left of our troops. We were moving along the northern edge of a clearing, very leisurely, toward the river above the landing. There did not appear to be an enemy to our right, until suddenly a battery with musketry opened upon us from the edge of the woods on the other side of the clearing.

The shells and balls whistled about our ears very fast for about a minute. I do not think it took us longer than that to get out of range and out of sight. In the sudden start we made, Major Hawkins lost his hat. He did not stop to pick it up. When we arrived at a perfectly safe position we halted to take an account of damages.

McPherson's horse was panting as if ready to drop. On examination it was found that a ball had struck him forward of the flank just back of the saddle, and had gone entirely through. In a few minutes the poor beast dropped dead; he had given no sign of injury until we came to a stop.

A ball had struck the metal scabbard of my sword, just below the hilt, and broken it nearly off; before the battle was over it had broken off entirely. There were three of us: one had lost a horse, killed; one a hat and one a sword-scabbard. All were thankful that it was no worse." [105] Confederate retreat [ edit ] Realizing that he had lost the initiative, was low on ammunition and food, and had more than 10,000 of his men killed, wounded, or missing, Beauregard could go no further.

He withdrew beyond Shiloh Church, leaving 5,000 men under Breckinridge as a covering force, and massed Confederate batteries at the church and on the ridge south of Shiloh Branch.

Confederate forces kept the Union men in position on the Corinth Road until 5 p.m., then began an orderly withdrawal southwest to Corinth. The exhausted Union soldiers did not pursue much farther than the original Sherman and Prentiss encampments. Lew Wallace's division crossed Shiloh Branch and advanced nearly 2 miles (3.2 km), but received no support from other units and was recalled.

They returned to Sherman's camps at dark. [106] The battle was over. For long afterwards, Grant and Buell quarreled over Grant's decision not to mount an immediate pursuit with another hour of daylight remaining. Grant cited the exhaustion of his troops, although the Confederates were certainly just as exhausted. Part of Grant's reluctance to act could have been the unusual command relationship he had with Buell.

Although Grant was the senior officer and technically was in command of both armies, Buell made it quite clear throughout the two days that he was acting independently. [107] Fallen Timbers, April 8 [ edit ] On April 8, Grant sent Sherman south along the Corinth Road on a reconnaissance in force to confirm that the Confederates had retreated, or if they were regrouping to resume their attacks. Grant's army lacked the large organized cavalry units that would have been better suited for reconnaissance and vigorous pursuit of a retreating enemy.

Sherman marched with two infantry brigades from his division, along with two battalions of cavalry, and met Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Wood's division of Buell's army. Six miles (10 km) southwest of Pittsburg Landing, Sherman's men came upon a clear field in which an extensive camp was erected, including a Confederate field hospital. The camp was protected by 300 troopers of Confederate cavalry, commanded by Col.

Nathan Bedford Forrest. The road approaching the field was covered by fallen trees for more than 200 yards (180 m).

[108] As skirmishers from the 77th Ohio Infantry approached, having difficulty clearing the fallen timber, Forrest ordered a charge. The wild melee, with Confederate troops firing shotguns and revolvers and brandishing sabers, nearly resulted in Forrest's capture.

As Col. Jesse Hildebrand's brigade began forming in line of battle, the Southern troopers started to retreat at the sight of the strong force, and Forrest, who was well in advance of his men, came within a few yards of the Union soldiers before realizing he was all alone.

Sherman's men yelled out, "Kill him! Kill him and his horse!" [109] A Union soldier shoved his musket into Forrest's side and fired, striking him above the hip, penetrating to near the spine.

Although he was seriously wounded, Forrest was able to stay on horseback and escape; he survived both the wound and the war. The Union lost about 100 men, most of them captured during Forrest's charge, in an incident that has been remembered with the name "Fallen Timbers". After capturing the Confederate field hospital, Sherman encountered the rear of Breckinridge's covering force, but determined the enemy was making no signs of renewing its attack and withdrew back to the Union camps.

[110] [m] Aftermath [ edit ] In his memoirs, Grant intimated that The battle of Shiloh, or Pittsburg landing, has been perhaps less understood, or to state the case more accurately, more persistently misunderstood, than any other engagement between National and Confederate troops during the entire rebellion. Correct reports of the battle have been published, notably by Sherman, Badeau and, in a speech before a meeting of veterans, by General Prentiss; but all of these appeared long subsequent to the close of the rebellion and after public opinion had been most erroneously formed.

— Ulysses S. Grant [111] Reactions and effects [ edit ] In the immediate aftermath of the battle, Northern newspapers vilified Grant for his performance during the battle on April 6, especially for being surprised and unprepared. Reporters, many far from the battle, spread the story that Grant had been drunk, falsely alleging that this had resulted in many of his men being bayoneted in their tents because of a lack of defensive preparedness.

Despite the Union victory, Grant's reputation suffered in Northern public opinion. Many credited Buell with taking control of the broken Union forces and leading them to victory on April 7. Calls for Grant's removal overwhelmed the White House. President Lincoln replied with one of his most famous quotations about Grant: "I can't spare this man; he fights." [112] Although all of the Union division commanders fought well, Sherman emerged as an immediate hero after Grant and Halleck commended him especially.

His steadfastness under fire and amid chaos atoned for his previous melancholy and his defensive lapses preceding the battle. {/INSERTKEYS}


{INSERTKEYS} [113] Army officers that were with Grant gave a starkly different account of his capacity, and performance, than those of enterprising newspaper reporters far away from Grant during the battle.

One such officer, Colonel William R. Rowley, answering a letter of inquiry about allegations aimed at Grant, maintained: I pronounce it an unmitigated slander.

I have been on his Staff ever since the Donelson affair (and saw him frequently during that) and necessary in close contact with him every day, and I have never seen him take even a glass of liquor more than two or three times in my life and then only a single at a time. And I have never seen him intoxicated or even approximate to it.

As to the story that he was intoxicated at the Battle of Pittsburg, I have only to say that the man who fabricated the story is an infamous liar, and you are at liberty to say to him that I say so. ... — Yours &c W R ROWLEY [114] In retrospect, however, Grant is recognized positively for the clear judgment he was able to retain under the strenuous circumstances, and his ability to perceive the larger tactical picture that ultimately resulted in victory on the second day.

[115] [116] For the rest of his life, Grant would insist he always had the battle well under control and rejected claims from critics that only the death of Johnston and arrival of Buell's Army prevented his defeat.

In his 1885 memoirs, he wrote: Some of these critics claim that Shiloh was won when Johnston fell, and that if he had not fallen the army under me would have been annihilated or captured. Ifs defeated the Confederates at Shiloh. There is little doubt that we would have been disgracefully beaten if all the shells and bullets fired by us had passed harmlessly over the enemy and if all of theirs had taken effect.

Commanding generals are liable to be killed during engagements; and the fact that when he was shot Johnston was leading a brigade to induce it to make a charge which had been repeatedly ordered, is evidence that there was neither the universal demoralization on our side nor the unbounded confidence on theirs which has been claimed.

There was, in fact, no hour during the day when I doubted the eventual defeat of the enemy, although I was disappointed that reinforcements so near at hand did not arrive at an earlier hour. [117] Subsequent events [ edit ] Grant's career suffered temporarily in the aftermath of Shiloh; Halleck combined and reorganized his armies, relegating Grant to the powerless position of second-in-command.

[118] Beauregard remained in command of the Army of Mississippi and led it back to Corinth. [119] In late April and May, the Union armies under Halleck advanced slowly toward Corinth and took it in the Siege of Corinth, while an amphibious force on the Mississippi River destroyed the Confederate River Defense Fleet and captured Memphis, Tennessee. Halleck was promoted to be general in chief of all the Union armies and with his departure to the East, Grant was restored to command.

The Union forces eventually pushed down the Mississippi River to besiege Vicksburg, Mississippi. After the surrender of Vicksburg and the fall of Port Hudson in the summer of 1863, the Mississippi River came under Union control and the Confederacy was cut in two. [120] Davis was outraged at Beauregard for withdrawing from Corinth without a fight, even though he faced an army nearly twice his size and his water supplies in the city had become contaminated.

Shortly after the fall of Corinth, Beauregard took medical leave without receiving authorization from Davis. This was the final straw for Davis, who quickly reassigned him to oversee the coastal defenses in South Carolina. Command of the Army of Mississippi fell to Braxton Bragg, who was promoted to full general on April 6 and during the fall of 1862, he led it on an abortive invasion of Kentucky, culminating in his retreat from the Battle of Perryville.

[121] Union general Lew Wallace was heavily criticized for failing to get his division into the battle until 1830 hours, near the end of combat on the first day. He was removed from the Army of the Tennessee and never again received a front line command or took part in a big offensive operation, though his backwater assignments still placed him in important battles.

Shortly after Shiloh, he was sent to the War Department in Ohio where he led the successful Defense of Cincinnati during Bragg's invasion of Kentucky. In 1864, at the Battle of Monocacy, Wallace commanded a 5,800 man force to oppose Jubal Early's 14,000-man invasion of Maryland. Faced against an army more than twice his size, Wallace was eventually forced to retreat to Baltimore, but his men delayed Early's advance for a full day, enabling Union re-enforcement to be brought up to protect Washington D.C.

Despite this success and later fame for writing the book Ben Hur, criticism of Wallace's conduct at Shiloh would haunt him for the rest of his life and he would spend much of it trying to defend his actions there. [122] Casualties [ edit ] A sketch depicting casualties at Shiloh drawn by a Union officer The two-day battle of Shiloh, the costliest in American history up to that time, [n] resulted in the defeat of the Confederate army and frustration of Johnston's plans to prevent the two Union armies in Tennessee from joining together.

Union casualties were 13,047 (1,754 killed, 8,408 wounded, and 2,885 missing); Grant's army bore the brunt of the fighting over the two days, with casualties of 1,513 killed, 6,601 wounded, and 2,830 missing or captured. Confederate casualties were 10,699 (1,728 killed, 8,012 wounded, and 959 missing or captured). [124] [o] The dead included the Confederate army's commander, Albert Sidney Johnston, as well as Brigadier General Adley H.

Gladden. [125] George W. Johnson, the head of Kentucky's shadow Confederate government, was also mortally wounded. [126] The highest ranking Union general killed was W. H. L. Wallace. [127] Union Colonel Everett Peabody, whose decision to send out a patrol the morning of the battle may have saved the Union from disaster, was also among the dead.

Both sides were shocked at the carnage, which resulted in nearly twice as many casualties as the previous major battles of the war combined: [p] I saw an open field, in our possession on the second day, over which the Confederates had made repeated charges the day before, so covered with dead that it would have been possible to walk across the clearing, in any direction, stepping on dead bodies, without a foot touching the ground.

— Ulysses S. Grant [111] Grant later came to realize that his prediction of one great battle bringing the war to a close would probably not occur. The war would continue, at great cost in casualties and resources, until the Confederacy succumbed or the Union was divided.

Grant also learned a valuable personal lesson on preparedness that (mostly) served him well for the rest of the war. [128] Significance [ edit ] The loss of Albert Sidney Johnston dealt a severe blow to Confederate morale. Contemporaries saw his death and their defeat as the beginning of the end for the Confederacy: President Jefferson Davis called it "the turning point of our fate", while Confederate brigade commander Randall L.

Gibson believed that "the West perished with Albert Sidney Johnston, and the Southern country followed." [129] With the Confederate loss, their best opportunity to retake the Mississippi Valley and achieve numerical superiority with the Union armies in the west disappeared, and the heavy losses suffered at Shiloh represented the start of an unwinnable war of attrition. [130] [131] The victory at Shiloh also placed Grant in a strategic position to infiltrate and capture key points in the south.

He would later continue his march to siege and capture Corinth then cut off Confederate supply lines by his siege of Vicksburg. Battlefield preservation [ edit ] Ruggles' Battery at Shiloh National Military Park Shiloh's importance as a Civil War battle, coupled with the lack of widespread agricultural or industrial development in the battle area after the war, led to its development as one of the first five battlefields restored by the federal government in the 1890s, when the Shiloh National Military Park was established under the administration of the War Department; the National Park Service took over the park in 1933.

[132] The federal government had saved just over 2,000 acres at Shiloh by 1897, and consolidated those gains by adding another 1,700 acres by 1954, these efforts gradually dwindled and government involvement proved insufficient to preserve the land on which the battle took place.

Since 1954, only 300 additional acres of the saved land had been preserved. [133] Private preservation organizations stepped in to fill the void. The American Battlefield Trust became the primary agent of these efforts, joining federal, state and local partners to acquire and preserve 1,400 acres (5.7 km 2) of the battlefield in more than 25 different acquisitions from 1996 through late 2021.

Much of the acreage has been sold or conveyed to the National Park Service and incorporated into the Shiloh National Military Park.

[134] [135] The land preserved by the Trust at Shiloh included tracts over which Confederate divisions passed as they fought Grant's men on the battle's first day and their retreat during the Union counteroffensive on day two. A 2012 campaign focused in particular on a section of land which was part of the Confederate right flank on day one and on several tracts which were part of the Battle of Fallen Timbers.

[136] Honors and commemoration [ edit ] The United States Postal Service released a commemorative stamp June 29, 1995. [137] Another stamp, in two variants, was released for the 100th anniversary of the Battle of Shiloh, first issued through the Shiloh, Tennessee, Post Office on April 7, 1962.

It was the second in a series of five stamps marking the Civil War Centennial. [138] [139] • ^ a b During the battle, correspondence referred to the army as the Army of the Mississippi, deviating from the general rule that only Union armies were named after rivers.

See, for instance, the NPS website. It was also sometimes referred to as the Army of the West. The army was activated on March 5, 1862, and was renamed by Braxton Bragg as the Army of Tennessee in November. See Army of Mississippi. • ^ 66,812 according to Eicher 2001, pp. 222–23 (Army of the Tennessee: 48,894; Army of the Ohio: 17,918) • ^ Esposito 1959 Map 34 text states that that Johnston was severely criticized for this arrangement with Beauregard, but there was some justification since Johnston's had many inexperienced recruits in his army that needed personal inspiration at the front.

• ^ Eicher 2001, p. 227 cites 12. Daniel 1997, p. 214 refers to "modern historians" who criticize Bragg for ordering 11 to 14 assaults, but Daniel accounts for only 8 unique instances. • ^ Historians disagree on the number of artillery pieces the Confederates massed against the Hornets Nest. Cunningham 2007, p. 290 accounts for 51; Daniel 1997, p. {/INSERTKEYS}


229 argues shiloh 53; Sword 1992, p. 326 and Eicher 2001, p. 228 report the traditional count of 62, which was originally established shiloh battlefield historian D. W. Reed. • shiloh Sword 1992, p. 306 lists 2,320 captured; Eicher 2001, p. 228: lists 2,200; Daniel 1997, p.

214: lists 2,400. • ^ In 1837, Johnston had been hit in the right hip by a shiloh shot during a duel that severed the sciatic nerve. This earlier injury caused nerve damage and numbness in his right leg. As a result, Johnston was unable shiloh feel heat, cold, or pain in his right leg and may not have realized that he had been seriously wounded at Shiloh. See Allen 1997a, p. 53 • ^ A traditional view of the battle holds that Johnston's death caused a lull in fighting, which deprived the Confederates of their momentum and eventually led to their defeat in battle.

Both Sword 1992, p. 310 and Daniel 1997, p. 235 subscribe to this view; however, Cunningham 2007, pp. 277–78, maintains that any such lull was a factor of the general Confederate disorganization, shiloh Beauregard's lack of action, and that he held a good sense of the dispositions on the battlefield.

• ^ Cunningham 2007, p. 321 estimates the number of stragglers and noncombatant troops at the landing to be about 15,000.

• ^ As with the Hornets Nest, the estimate of the number of guns varies widely. Grant, in his memoirs, recalls "20 or more." Daniel 1997, p. 246 and Grimsley & Woodworth 2006, p. 109 account for 41 guns; Sword 1992, shiloh.

356 states there were "at least 10 batteries"; and [88] cites historical accounts that vary from 42 to more than 100. • ^ Cunningham 2007, pp. 332–34: Prentiss laughed to his captors, "You gentlemen have had your way today, but it will be very different to-morrow. You'll see! Buell will effect the junction with Grant to-night, and we'll turn the tables on you in the morning." • ^ In Steven E. Woodworth's Sherman: Lessons in Leadership, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, ISBN 978-0-230-61024-8, p.

57, shiloh wrote (without a citation) that Sherman recalled in later years that the gunfire there was the heaviest he heard during the war. • ^ A popular story about Forrest's grabbing a Union soldier by the collar shiloh lifting him up on the horse to be a human shield is probably not true; none of the cited references ( Sword 1992, pp. 425–26; Daniel 1997, pp. 296–97; Cunningham 2007, pp.

373–75) include it. • ^ Some authors, including Larry J. Daniel and Jean Edward Smith, claim that the total of 23,746 casualties at the battle (counting both sides) represented more than the American battle-related casualties of the American Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, and the Mexican–American War combined. See Smith 2001, p. 204 and Daniel 1997, p. 305. Timothy B. Smith disputes this claim as untrue.

[123] • ^ In his memoirs, Grant (vol. 1, chap. 25, shiloh. 22) disputes the Confederate casualties reported by Beauregard, claiming that the Union burial parties documented far more Shiloh dead than Beauregard's figures. Grant estimates the Confederate dead at 4,000. • ^ Daniel shiloh, p. 305 and Smith 2001, p. 204: The battles were First Bull Run, Wilson's Creek, Fort Donelson, and Pea Ridge. Citations [ edit ] • ^ Official Records 1884, pp. 100–05.

• ^ Official Records 1884, pp. 105–08. • ^ a b Eicher 2001, p. 222. • ^ Official Records 1884, pp. 382–84. • ^ a b Stephens 2010, pp. 80, 90–93. • ^ a b Official Records 1884, p. 112. • ^ a b 48,894 according to Eicher 2001, shiloh. 222. • ^ 17,918 Eicher 2001, p. 223. • ^ a b Official Records 1884, p. 396. • ^ a b 44,699 according to Eicher 2001, p. 222 • ^ Official Records 1884, p. 108. • ^ Cunningham 2007, pp.

422–24. • ^ Official Records 1884, p. 395. • ^ Cunningham 2007, p. 422. • ^ Smith 2014, pp. 2–4. • ^ Smith 2014, pp. 6–7. • ^ Allen 1997a, pp. 7–8. • ^ Stephens 2010, p. 64. • ^ Conger 1970, p. 211; Nevin 1983, p. 104; Woodworth 2005, pp.

128–31, 141–42; Cunningham 2007, pp. 72–74; Smith 2001, pp. 173–179. • ^ Allen 1997a, p. 12. • ^ Shiloh 2010, pp. 64, 68. • ^ Allen 1997a, p. 13. • ^ Marszalek 2004, pp. 119–121; Smith 2001, p. 179; Woodworth 2005, p. 136. • ^ Smith 2001, p. 185. • ^ a b c Eicher 2001, p. 223. • ^ a b Smith 2014, pp. 51–55. • ^ Grant, pp. 211–12. • ^ Daniel 1997, p. 139; Nevin 1983, p. 105; Stephens 2010, p. 65. • ^ Eicher 2001, pp. 222, 230; Grant, Memoirs, p. 245 (Lib. of Am. ed.). • ^ McDonough 1977, p.

25. • ^ Cunningham 2007, pp. 93, 98–101, 120. • ^ Cunningham 2007, p. 125. • ^ a b "The Road to Shiloh, April 1862", The Civil War For Dummies • ^ Carlson, Joseph R. The Negative Impact of Jefferson Davis' Lack of Grand Strategy (Master's).

American Military University. Archived from the original on October 24, 2017. Retrieved May 7, 2017. • ^ "Battle of Shiloh: Shattering Myths". • ^ "The Battle of Shiloh". Archived from the original on December 26, 2016.

Retrieved December 26, 2016. • ^ Daniel 1997, pp. 119, 121–23; Cunningham 2007, pp. 128–29, 137–40; Woodworth 2005, p. 108; Eicher 2001, p. 223. • ^ a b Allen 1997a, p. 19. • ^ Daniel 1997, pp. 127–28; Stephens 2010, p. 78. • ^ Stephens 2010, p. 78. • ^ "Battle of Shiloh: Shattering Myths". • ^ a b Allen 1997a, p. 24. • ^ Smith 2001, p. 185; McPherson 1988, p. 408; Woodworth 2005, pp. 150–54; Nevin 1983, pp. 110–11; Cunningham 2007, pp. 143–44; Sword 1992, p. 127; Eicher 2001, p.

224; Daniel 1997, pp. 141–42. • ^ "Great American History Unsung Hero of the Civil War". shiloh ^ Stephens 2010, p. 79. • ^ Smith 2014, pp. 126, 199. • ^ Cunningham 2007, p. 140. • ^ Nevin 1983, p. 113; Daniel 1997, p. 145. • ^ Allen 1997a, p.

20; Cunningham 2007, p. 200. • ^ Smith 2014, p. 151. • ^ Smith 2001, p. 187; Esposito 1959: Map 34; Eicher 2001, pp. 224–26 • ^ McPherson 1988, p. 409. • ^ Daniel 1997, pp. 143–64; Eicher 2001, p. 226; Esposito 1959: Map 34. • ^ "Concise History of the 7th Arkansas Infantry, Company I". Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014. • ^ Smith 2014, pp. 128–30. • ^ Daniel 1997, p. 139; Cunningham 2007, p. 133. • ^ Stephens 2010, p. 83. • ^ Stephens 2010, pp.

79, 91. • ^ Daniel 1997, pp. 143–64; Woodworth 2005, pp. 164–66; Cunningham 2007, pp. 157–58, 174; Eicher 2001. • ^ Stephens 2010, pp. 83–84; Allen 1997b, p. 8. • ^ Allen 1997b, pp. 8–9. • ^ Stephens 2010, pp. 85, 92. • ^ Allen shiloh, pp. 9–10. • ^ Stephens 2010, pp. 86–88. • ^ a b Stephens 2010, pp. shiloh. • ^ Stephens 2010, pp. 88–89; Allen 1997b, p. 10. • ^ Woodworth 2001, p. 77; Cunningham 2007, p.

339. • ^ a b Allen 1997b, p. 10. • ^ Stephens 2010, pp. 80, 90–91. • ^ Woodworth 2001, pp. 72–82; Daniel 1997, pp. 256–61; Sword 1992, pp.

439–40; Cunningham 2007, pp. 338–39; Smith 2001, p. 196. • ^ Boomhower, Ray (Winter 1993). "The Gen. Lew Wallace Study and Ben-Hur Museum". Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History. Indianapolis, Indiana: Indiana Historical Society.

5 (1): 14. • ^ Cunningham 2007, pp. 241–42. • ^ Cunningham 2007, p. 298. • ^ "The Hornet's Nest" (PDF). National Park Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 24, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2018. • ^ Nevin 1983, pp. 121–29, 136–39; Esposito 1959: Map 36; Daniel 1997, pp. 207–14; Shiloh 2005, pp. 179–85; Eicher 2001, p. 227 • ^ "Shiloh Battlefield Tours – 1 Death of General Johnston Frame". (cwla). Archived from the original on August 10, 2016. Retrieved May 12, 2017. • ^ Daniel 1997, pp. 226–27; Allen 1997a, p. 53. • ^ Smith 2014, pp. 191–92. • ^ "Tennessee 4 Me – General Albert Sidney Johnston's death at Shiloh". • ^ "cwla – Shiloh Battlefield Tours – 1 Death of General Johnston Frame". Archived from the original on August 10, 2016. Retrieved May 12, 2017. • ^ Cunningham 2007, pp. 275–77; Sword 1992, pp. 271–73, 443–46. • ^ Allen 1997a, p. 53. • ^ Nevin 1983, pp.

121–29, 136. • ^ Smith 2014, pp. 218, 223. • ^ a b Eicher 2001, pp. 227–28; Daniel 1997, pp. 235–237; Nevin 1983, pp. 138–39. • ^ Smith 2014, pp. 209–11. • ^ Cunningham 2007, p. 317. • ^ Cunningham 2007, p.

307. • ^ Daniel 1997, p. 265. • ^ Cunningham 2007, pp. 323–26. • ^ Allen 1997a, p. 61. • ^ Grant, Ulysses S (1894). Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant. New York: Charles L. Webster & Company. p. 206. shiloh ^ Smith shiloh, p. 201; Sword 1992, pp. 369–82; Allen 1997b, p. 7. • ^ Cunningham 2007, p. 333. • ^ Allen 1997b, p. 13. • ^ Cunningham 2007, pp. 340–41. • ^ "Civil Shiloh Landscapes Association". Archived from the original on October 1, 2011.

Retrieved August 28, 2012. • ^ Nevin 1983, p. 147; Daniel 1997, pp. 252–56; Cunningham 2007, pp. 323–26, 332; Sword 1992, p. 378. • ^ Shiloh 1997, pp. 263–264, 278. • ^ Stephens 2010, pp. 93, 95; Allen 1997b, p. 16. • ^ Daniel 1997, pp. 265, 278. • ^ Woodworth 2005, p. 196. • ^ Daniel 1997, pp. 275–283. • ^ Daniel 1997, pp. 283–87. • ^ "PERSONAL MEMOIRS U. S. GRANT, COMPLETE". Retrieved July 7, 2020. • ^ Shiloh 1997b, p. 46; Stephens 2010, p.

101. • ^ Daniel 1997, pp. 289–92. • ^ Daniel 1997, pp. 296–97; Sword 1992, pp. 423–24. • ^ Allen 1997b, p. 48. • ^ Sword 1992, pp. 425–26; Daniel 1997, pp. 296–97; Cunningham 2007, pp. 373–75. • ^ a b Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, Chapter XXV • ^ Daniel 1997, p. 308. • ^ Smith 2001, pp. 204–205; Woodworth 2005, pp. 198–201; Cunningham 2007, pp.

382–83. • ^ The Ulysses S. Grant Association Newsletter, 1972, Volume X1 • ^ Smith 2001, pp. 204–205. • ^ Woodworth 2005, pp. 198–201; Cunningham 2007, pp. 382–83. • ^ "Ulysses S. Grant, Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, Struck by a bullet-precipitate retreat of the Confederates – intrenchments at Shiloh – General Buell–General Johnston – remarks on Shiloh". • ^ Daniel 1997, p. 309. • ^ Smith 2014, p. 392. • ^ O'Connell 2014, p. 147. • ^ Cunningham 2007, pp. 384–96. • shiloh Gudmens 2005, pp. 84–85. • ^ Smith 2014, p. 402. • ^ Eicher 2001, p. 230; Cunningham 2007, pp. 421–24. • ^ Smith 2014, p. 122. • ^ Smith 2014, p. 344.

• ^ Simon 2000, p. v. • ^ McDonough 2000, p. 1775. • shiloh Smith 2014, p. 409. • ^ Daniel 1997, pp. 316–17. • ^ Smith 2014, pp. 418–19. • ^ Smith 2014, pp. 420–21. • ^ Shedd, Charles E. (1954). "A History of Shiloh National Military Park" (PDF).

National Park Service. Retrieved October 10, 2020. • ^ "Saved Land". American Battlefield Trust. Retrieved November 24, 2021. • ^ "Battle of Shiloh Facts & Summary". American Battlefield Trust. Archived from the original on September 8, 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2013. • ^ "Maps of Shiloh, Tennessee (1862): Battle of Shiloh – April 6, 1862". American Battlefield Trust. Archived from the original on August 22, 2014.

Retrieved August shiloh, 2014. • shiloh "32c Battle of Shiloh single". Smithsonian National Shiloh Museum. Retrieved October 10, 2020. • ^ "4c Battle of Shiloh single". Smithsonian National Postal Museum. Retrieved October 10, 2020.


• ^ "4c Shiloh single". Smithsonian National Postal Museum. Retrieved October 10, 2020. General sources [ edit ] • Allen, Stacy D. (February 1997a).

"Shiloh!: The Campaign and First Day's Battle". Blue & Gray. Columbus, OH: Blue and Gray Enterprises, Inc. XIV (3): 7–8. • Allen, Stacy D. (April 1997b).

"Shiloh!: The Second Day's Battle and Aftermath". Blue & Gray. Columbus, OH: Blue and Gray Enterprises, Inc. XIV (4): 7–8. • Conger, Arthur Latham (1970) [1931]. The Rise of U.S. Grant. Freeport, NY: Shiloh for Libraries Press, first published by the Century Co. ISBN 978-0-8369-5572-9. • Cunningham, O. Edward (2007). Joiner, Gary; Smith, Timothy (eds.). Shiloh and the Western Campaign of 1862. New York City: Savas Beatie. ISBN 978-1-932714-27-2. • Daniel, Larry J.

(1997). Shiloh: The Battle That Changed the Civil War. New York City: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-80375-3. • Eicher, David J. (2001). The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War. New York City: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-84944-7. • Esposito, Vincent J (1959). Shiloh Point Atlas of American Wars. New York City: Frederick A. Praeger. OCLC 5890637. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. • Grimsley, Mark; Woodworth, Steven E.

(2006). Shiloh: A Battlefield Guide. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-7100-5. • Gudmens, Jeffrey J. (2005). Staff Ride Handbook for the Battle of Shiloh, 6–7 April 1862. Combat Studies Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-4289-1012-6. • Hanson, Victor Davis (2003).

Ripples of Battle: How Wars of the Past Still Determine How We Fight, How We Live, and How We Think. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-50400-3. • McDonough, Shiloh Lee (1977). Shiloh: In Hell before Night.

Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 978-0-87049-232-7. • McDonough, James Lee (2000). Heidler, David S.; Heidler, Jeanne T. (eds.). Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History: Battle of Shiloh. New York City: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-04758-5. • McPherson, James M. (1988). Shiloh Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era.

New York City: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-503863-7. • Marszalek, John F. (2004). Commander of All Lincoln's Armies: A Life of General Henry W. Halleck. Boston, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01493-0. • Nevin, David (1983). The Editors of Time-Life Books shiloh. The Road to Shiloh Early Battles in the West. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books.

ISBN 978-0-8094-4712-1. {{ cite book}}: -editor= has generic name shiloh help) • O'Connell, Robert L. (2014). Fierce Patriot: The Tangled Lives of William Tecumseh Sherman. Random House Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-679-60469-3. • Scott, Robert N., ed. (1884). "22: Operations in Kentucky, Tennessee, North Mississippi, North Alabama, and Southwest Virginia.

Mar 4 – Jun 10, 1862.". The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.

Vol. 10. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. ISBN 978-0-918678-07-2. • Simon, John Y. (2000). "Foreword". Life and Letters of General W.

H. L. Wallace. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 978-0-8093-2347-0. • Smith, Jean Edward (2001). Grant. New York City: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-84927-0. • Smith, Timothy B. (2014). Shiloh: Conquer or Perish. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1995-5. • Stephens, Gail (2010). The Shadow of Shiloh: Major General Lew Wallace in the Civil War. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Historical Society Press.


ISBN 978-0-87195-287-5. shiloh Sword, Wiley (1992) [1974]. Shiloh: Bloody April. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, first published by Morrow. ISBN 978-0-7006-0650-4. • Woodworth, Steven E., ed. (2001). Grant's Lieutenants: From Cairo shiloh Vicksburg. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1127-0. • Woodworth, Steven E., ed. (2005).

Nothing but Victory: The Army of the Tennessee, 1861–1865. New York City: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-375-41218-9.


• "Grant at Shiloh: A letter of William Rowley". The Ulysses S. Grant Association Newsletter. Ulysses S. Grant Presidential Library / Ulysses S. Grant Association. X1. 1972–1973. Archived from the original on March 28, 2016. Further reading [ edit ] • Arnold, James R., Carl Smith, and Alan Perry. Shiloh 1862: The Death of Innocence. London: Osprey Publishing, 1998. ISBN 1-85532-606-X. • Davis, William C., ed.

(1990). "Chapter 2: This Shiloh Will Long Be Remembered: Shiloh". Diary of a Confederate Soldier: John S. Jackman of the Orphan Brigade. American Military History. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. pp. 28–42. ISBN 0-87249-695-3. LCCN 90012431. OCLC 906557161. • Frank, Joseph Allan, and George A. Reaves. Seeing the Elephant: Raw Recruits at the Battle of Shiloh.

Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003. ISBN 0-252-07126-3. First published 1989 by Greenwood Press. • Grant, Ulysses S. Personal Shiloh of U. S. Grant. 2 vols. Charles L. Webster & Company, 1885–86. ISBN 0-914427-67-9.

• Groom, Winston. Shiloh, 1862. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4262-0874-4. • Groom, Winston. "Why Shiloh Shiloh New York Times Opinionator weblog, April 6, 2012. • Gudmens, Jeffrey J.

Staff Ride Handbook for the Battle of Shiloh, 6–7 April 1862. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2005. OCLC 58801939. • Howard, Samuel Meek (1921).

The illustrated comprehensive history of the great battle of Shiloh. Gettysburg, S.D. : Howard. • Martin, Shiloh G. The Shiloh Campaign: Shiloh 1862. New York: Da Capo Press, 2003. ISBN 0-306-81259-2. • Mertz, Gregory A. Attack at Daylight and Whip Them: The Battle of Shiloh, April 6–7, 1862. Emerging Civil War Series. El Dorado Hills, CA: Savas Beatie, 2019. ISBN 978-1-61121-313-3. • Reed, David W. The Battle of Shiloh and the Organizations Shiloh. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: U.S.

Government Printing Office, 1909. • Smith, Timothy B. Rethinking Shiloh: Myth and Memory. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2013. ISBN 978-1-57233-941-5. shiloh —— The Untold Story of Shiloh: The Battle and the Battlefield. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2006.

ISBN 978-1-57233-466-3. • Woodworth, Steven E., ed. The Shiloh Campaign. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-8093-2892-5. • Tidball, John C. The Artillery Service in the War of the Rebellion, 1861–1865.

Westholme Publishing, 2011. ISBN 978-1594161490. External links [ edit ] Battle of Shilohat Wikipedia's sister projects • Media from Commons shiloh Texts from Wikisource • Data from Wikidata • Report of Major General U.S. Shiloh on the Battle of Shiloh • Battle of Shiloh: Maps, histories, photos, and preservation news ( Civil War Trust) • Battle of Shiloh Animated Map ( Civil War Trust) • U.S. National Park Service site for Shiloh National Military Park • Civilwarhome description of shiloh battle • Animated history of the Battle of Shiloh • Newspaper coverage of the Battle of Shiloh • New York Times main page headline, April 7, 1862, "The Battle of Pittsburgh" • C-SPAN American History Shiloh Battle of Shiloh Tour • C-SPAN American History TV tour of Shiloh National Military Park Visitor Center artifacts • The battle of Shiloh 6–7 April 1862 and Halleck's Corinth campaign 29 April – 10 June 1862.

Grant messed up, and Buell saved the Union army.—A sober look at shiloh battle of Shiloh • Pittsburg Landing; or, Adventures of a Young Volunteer.

A Thrilling Story of a Western Boy by Duke Duncan from Digital Library@Villanova University • Anaconda Plan • Blockade runners • New Mexico • Jackson's Valley • Peninsula • Northern Virginia • Maryland • Stones River • Vicksburg • Tullahoma • Gettysburg • Morgan's Raid • Bristoe • Knoxville • Red River • Overland • Atlanta • Valley 1864 • Bermuda Hundred • Richmond-Petersburg • Franklin–Nashville • Price's Missouri Expedition • Sherman's March • Carolinas • Mobile • Appomattox Major battles • Alabama Claims • Brooks–Baxter War • Carpetbaggers shiloh Colfax riot of 1873 • Compromise of 1877 • Confederate refugees • Confederados • Eufaula riot of 1874 • Freedmen's Bureau • Freedman's Savings Bank • Homestead Acts • Southern Homestead Act of 1866 • Timber Culture Act of 1873 • Impeachment of Andrew Johnson • Kirk–Holden war • Knights of the White Camelia • Ku Klux Klan • Ethnic violence • Memphis riots of 1866 • Meridian riot of 1871 • New Orleans riot of 1866 • Pulaski (Tennessee) riot of 1867 • South Carolina riots of 1876 • Reconstruction acts • Habeas Corpus Act 1867 • Enforcement Act of 1870 • Enforcement Act of February 1871 • Enforcement Act of April 1871 • Reconstruction era • Reconstruction military districts • Reconstruction Treaties • Indian Council at Fort Smith • Red Shirts • Redeemers • Scalawags • South Carolina riots of 1876 • Southern Claims Commission • White League Post- Reconstruction shiloh Commemoration • Centennial • Civil War Discovery Trail • Civil War Roundtables • Civil War Trails Program • Civil War Trust • Confederate History Month • Confederate Memorial Shiloh • Historical reenactment • Robert E.

Lee Day • Confederate Memorial Hall • Disenfranchisement • Black Codes • Jim Crow • Historiographic issues • Lost Cause mythology • Modern display of the Confederate flag • Red Shirts • Sons of Confederate Veterans • Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War • Southern Historical Society • United Confederate Veterans • United Daughters of the Confederacy • Children of the Shiloh • Wilmington insurrection of shiloh Monuments and memorials • Union: List of Union Civil War monuments and memorials • List of memorials to the Grand Army of the Republic • Memorials to Abraham Lincoln • Confederate: • Confederate artworks in the United States Capitol shiloh List of Confederate monuments and memorials • Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials • List of memorials to Robert E.

Lee • List of memorials to Jefferson Davis Cemeteries • Arms • Campaign Medal • Cavalry • Confederate Home Guard • Confederate shiloh • Confederate revolving cannon • Field artillery • Medal of Honor recipients • Medicine • Leadership • Naval battles • Official Records • Partisan rangers • POW camps • Rations • Signal Corps • Turning point • Union corps badges • U.S.

Balloon Corps • U.S. Home Guard • U.S. Military Railroad Political • Bibliography • Grant Park • Grant Memorial • Presidential library • Grantism • General Grant ship • General Grant tree • grove • Grant Cottage State Historic Site • Lee shiloh Grant at Appomattox • The Peacemakers • U.S.

Capitol statue • Chicago statue • Philadelphia statue • Ohio Statehouse statue • San Francisco bust • Cultural depictions • Ulysses S. Grant (2002 documentary) • Grant (2020 miniseries) • U.S.

Postage stamps • Currency • $50 bill • 1922 Grant Memorial coinage • Grant High School • U.S. Grant Hotel Family Hidden categories: • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Use American English from December 2017 • All Wikipedia articles written in American English • Use mdy dates from December 2019 • Coordinates on Wikidata • CS1 errors: generic name • Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata • Articles with J9U identifiers • Articles with LCCN identifiers • Articles with NKC identifiers Edit links • This page was last edited on 8 May 2022, at 03:58 (UTC).

• Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Shiloh Foundation, Inc., a non-profit shiloh.

• Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • •
Shown within the West Bank Location Shilo, West Bank Region Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate Coordinates 32°03′20″N 35°17′22″E  /  32.055556°N 35.289528°E  / 32.055556; 35.289528 History Periods Bronze Age, Iron Age, Byzantine period Cultures Canaanite, Israelite, Roman Site notes Condition ruins Public access yes Website www .a-shiloh .co .il /en Shiloh ( / ˈ ʃ aɪ l oʊ/; Hebrew: שִׁלֹה, שִׁלוֹ ,שִׁילֹה, and שִׁילוֹ variably; Arabic: شيلوه) was an ancient city and sanctuary in Samaria.

According to the Hebrew Bible, Shiloh shiloh the central sanctuary of the Israelites during the pre-monarchic period, before the First Temple in Jerusalem was built. After the Israelite conquest of Canaan, the Tabernacle was moved to Shiloh, and remained shiloh during the period of the biblical judges. Shiloh has been positively identified with modern Khirbet Seilun, a shiloh known in Modern Hebrew as Tel Shiloh. It is located in the West Bank, to the west of the modern Israeli settlement town of Shilo and to the north of the Palestinian town of Turmus Ayya.

Shiloh to other archaeological sites, it is south of the biblical town of Lebonah and 16 kilometres (10 mi) north of Bethel. [1] G. F. Moore has suggested shiloh Bochim as Shiloh. [2] Contents • 1 Etymology • 2 Identification • 3 History • 3.1 Bronze Age • 3.2 Iron Age • 3.2.1 In the Hebrew Bible • 3.3 Byzantine period • 3.4 Early Muslim and Crusader periods • 4 Archaeology • 4.1 Overview • 4.2 History of excavations • 4.3 Finkelstein excavations • 4.3.1 Bronze Age • 4.3.2 Iron Age • 4.3.3 Cultic site • 4.3.4 Roman and Byzantine periods • 4.4 Byzantine churches • 5 Ambiguous use of "Shiloh" in Hebrew Bible • 5.1 Messianic Jewish and some Shiloh interpretations shiloh 6 See also • 7 Notes • 8 References • 9 Further reading • 10 External links Etymology [ edit ] The meaning of shiloh word "Shiloh" is unclear.

Sometimes, it is shiloh as a Messianic title that means He Whose It Is [3] or as Pacific, Pacificator or Tranquility that refers to the Samaritan Pentateuch. [4] Regardless, the name of Shiloh the town is derived from שלה‎ and may be translated as Tranquility Town. [5] Identification [ edit ] Shiloh is situated just east of the Jerusalem-Nablus road, 31 km north of Jerusalem. [6] It was identified unambiguously with Khirbet Seilun, based on the much detailed biblical description of the site: So they shiloh, “Look, the yearly festival of Shiloh is taking place at Shiloh, which is north of Bethel, on the east of the highway that goes up from Bethel to Shechem, and south of Lebonah.” — Book of Judges, 21:19 The Arabic name, Khirbet Seilun, preserves the shiloh Hebrew name.

In the 4th century CE, Eusebius and Jerome demonstrated some awareness of Shiloh’s location [6] as did the cartographer of the Madaba Map in the 6th century.

[7] In 1838, the Shiloh biblical scholar Edward Robinson became the first modern person to correctly identify Khirbet Seilun as Shiloh based on the biblical description of its location. [6] History [ edit shiloh Bronze Age [ edit ] During the Middle and Late Bronze Age Canaan, Shiloh was a walled city with a religious shrine or sanctuary.

[8] Iron Age [ edit ] Shiloh was one of the main centers of Israelite worship during the pre-monarchic period. [9] In the Hebrew Shiloh [ edit ] Shiloh is mentioned in the Books of Joshua, Judges, 1 Samuel, 1 Kings, Psalms, and Jeremiah.

Shiloh was first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible in the Book of Joshua. When the Israelites arrived in the land, they set up there the Tent of Meeting (Hebrew: Ohel-Mo'ed). There Joshua and Eleazar divided the land among the tribes who had not yet received their allocation ( Joshua 18:1–10) and shiloh with the allocation of cities to the Levites ( Joshua 21:1–8). Subsequently, Shiloh became one of the leading religious shrines in ancient Israel, a status it held shiloh shortly before David's elevation of Jerusalem.

[10] The whole congregation of Israel assembled together at Shiloh and set up the tent (or tabernacle) of the congregation there. — Joshua shiloh. [a] The tabernacle had been built under Moses' direction from God ( Exodus 26) to house the Ark of the Covenant, also made according to Moses' instructions from God ( Exodus 25). Talmudic sources state that the tent sanctuary remained at Shiloh for 369 years [11] until the Ark of the Covenant was taken into the battle camp at Eben-Ezer ( shiloh Samuel 4:3–5) and captured by the Philistines at Aphek (probably Antipatris).

At some point during its long stay at Shiloh, the portable tent seems to have been enclosed within a compound — a Greek " temenos". It was at Shiloh that Eli and Samuel ministered ( 1 Samuel 3:21).

At some point, the Tent of Meeting was moved to Gibeon, [12] which became an Israelite holy site under David and Solomon. The people made pilgrimages there for major feasts and sacrifices, and Judges 21 records the place as the site of an annual dance of maidens among the vineyards.

Presumed location of the Tabernacle at Shiloh According to 1 Samuel 1– 3, the sanctuary at Shiloh was administered by the Aaronite high priest Eli and his two sons, Hophni and Phinehas. According to this account, the young Samuel was dedicated by his mother Hannah there, to be raised at the shrine by the high priest, and his own prophetic ministry is presented as having begun there. Hophni and Phinehas are noted as malicious in their dealings with those who shiloh to the shrine to offer sacrifices ( 1 Samuel 2:12–17).

It was under Eli and his sons that the Ark was lost to Israel in a battle with the Philistines at Aphek. W.F. Albright hypothesized that the Philistines also destroyed Shiloh at this time; this conclusion is disputed, [13] but supported by traditional commentary. [14] The place may have been destroyed later as well, though the biblical text records no such claimed destruction. Certainly, the shadowy figure of Ahijah the Shilonite, [15] who instigated the revolt of Jeroboam Shiloh against David's grandson Rehoboam ( I Kings 11, 14), came from shiloh, and he bore the same name as the Aaronite priest that consulted the Ark for Saul in I Samuel 14:3.

Schley has claimed that the capture of the Ark and the death of Saul occurred in the same battle and that the later Davidic editors redacted the texts to make it appear as if Saul had ruled without either Tent Shrine or Ark, and thus without sacral legitimacy.

[16] This claim is disputed. [ citation needed] What is certain is that during the prophetic ministry of Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 7:12–15; 26:5–9, 41:5) over three hundred years later, Shiloh had been reduced to ruins. Jeremiah used the example of Shiloh to warn the inhabitants of Shiloh and Jerusalem what God would do to the "place where I caused my name to dwell", warning them that their holy city, Jerusalem, like Shiloh, could shiloh under divine judgment.

According to Richard Elliott Friedman, the priesthood of Shiloh was the Elohist-source shiloh the documentary hypothesis and also provided much shiloh the material of the Deuteronomistic history, with the writer of this history (Jeremiah or somebody closely connected to him) being a descendant of these priests. If correct this would make Shiloh a major source of the history part of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament.

Byzantine period [ edit ] The Byzantine Basilica, with excavations to the right. Jerome, in his letter to Paula and Eustochium, dated about 392–393, writes: "With Christ at our side we shall pass through Shiloh and Bethel " (Ep.46,13, PL 22, 492). The official church of Jerusalem did not schedule an annual pilgrimage to Shiloh, unlike Bethel. On the contrary, Samuel's feast was held on August 20 in the village of Masephta ( Mizpah). Even the pilgrims seemingly did not shiloh Shiloh, for the only one that mentions its name—the sixth-century pilgrim Theodosius in De Situ Terrae Sanctae (ch.

4, CCSL 175, 116)—wrongly locates it midway between Jerusalem and Emmaus Nicopolis. The mistaken identification lasted for centuries, as appears, for example, on the Florentine map of 1300, which places Shiloh at Nabi Samwil, where the Tomb of Samuel is found.

The sixth-century mosaic Madaba Map wrongly locates Shiloh east of Shechem, omitting the depiction shiloh the church. Early Muslim and Crusader periods [ edit ] In 638 the Muslims conquered shiloh area of Palestine. Muslim pilgrims to Shiloh mention a mosque called es-Sekineh where the memory of Jacob's and Joseph's deeds was revered. The earliest source is el-Harawi, who visited the country in 1173 when it was occupied by the Crusaders and wrote: "Seilun is the village of the mosque es-Sekineh where the stone of the Table is found".

Yaqut (1225) and el-Quarwini (1308, Marmardji, 94–95), write similarly. Archaeology [ edit ] Further information: Shilo, Mateh Binyamin § Tel Shilo Overview [ edit ] Archaeological excavations have shown shiloh the place was already settled from about 1750 BCE (Middle Bronze II or MB II, otherwise known as MB IIB according to the Albright school); however, it shiloh not mentioned in any shiloh source.

A tell and many impressive remains shiloh been unearthed from the Canaanite and Israelite shiloh, with habitation lasting until the 8th century BCE. During the following 12 centuries Shiloh is solely noted as a station on sojourners' routes, usually having only its religious-historical significance to offer.

Archaeological excavations have revealed remains from the Roman and Persian as well as Early and Late Muslim periods. An impressive glacis has been located and pottery, animal remains, weapons and other objects have been recovered.

[ dubious – discuss] Tel Shiloh visible in the foreground History of excavations [ edit ] Soundings were first made in 1922 by Aage Schmidt. A Danish team led by Hans Kjær (overseen by W.F. Albright) excavated for three seasons between the years 1926–32. A probe was done by Sven Holm-Nielson and Marie-Louise Buhl in 1963. An extensive excavation was done by Israel Finkelstein during the years 1981–84. Since 2006 further excavations have taken place there.

Digs are currently run by Scott Stripling. [17] Finkelstein excavations [ edit ] Finkelstein's work established eight strata, ranging from Middle Bronze II to the Byzantine period. Shiloh of the present-day archaeological site Bronze Age [ edit ] A massive wall is attributed to the Middle Bronze III (MB IIC) stage, preserved at a height of 7.3 metres (24 ft) and width up to 5.5 metres (18 ft), with an extensive shiloh.

Iron Age [ edit ] The Iron I (Israelite) remains yielded a pillared two-storey public building near the top of the tell, the earliest attributed to Israelites. Collared rim storage jars and some cultic items were found in these buildings, pointing to usage as part of a cultic complex. More than 20 silos were uncovered from this era, included one with carbonized wheat. The destruction layer evident throughout the tell may have occurred in the wake of the Philistine victory at Eben-Ezer.

According to radiocarbon dating by Finkelstein, the site was abandoned around 1050 BCE, and then sparsely repopulated during the Iron II period. Jeremiah's admonition in the course of his temple sermon, "Go now to my place that was in Shiloh" ( Jeremiah 7:12), would have occurred during this era.

Cultic site [ edit ] One of the more intriguing finds was that of a heap of pottery outside the city wall before the advent of the Israelite culture (c. 1000 BCE). [ citation needed] This pile of pottery was the remnant of a number of animal sacrifices, which were tossed shiloh the wall after completion of the ritual and then buried. This find points to a sacral status of Shiloh during the Shiloh period, a shiloh adopted by the Israelites.

The top of the tell, where Finkelstein supposes that the shiloh would have been placed, is now exposed bedrock, offering no clues shiloh Israelite worship (aside from the adjacent storage complex). Roman and Shiloh periods shiloh edit ] More substantive villages emerged in the Roman and Byzantine periods.

Mosaics under the Jami' al-Yatim Byzantine churches [ edit ] Excavations from 2006 to 2007, carried out adjacent to and just south of Tel Shiloh, exposed elaborate mosaic floors as well as several Greek inscriptions, one explicitly referring to the site as the "village of Shiloh".

[ citation needed] During August–September 2006 archaeological excavations were carried out adjacent to the tell of Shiloh. A team led by the Archaeological Staff Officer for Judea and Samaria in Israel's Civilian Administration Antiquities Unit, performing a clean-up operation at Shiloh this summer, a belated continuation to a previous 1998 dig, discovered the mosaic floor of shiloh large Byzantine church which was probably constructed between 380 and 420 AD.

Three Byzantine basilicas have now been uncovered. [18] The length of one, excavated by Hans Klær in the late 1920s, is 40 metres (130 ft). The width, also measured externally, is 14.10 metres (46.3 ft), but a 6.40-metre (21.0 ft) wide room adjoins the building on the south side.

This shiloh had three naves, and 12 bases and two beautiful Corinthian capitals 62 cm (24 in) high and 72–61 cm (28–24 in) wide are preserved. Their appearance recalls the well-known fourth-century style, with separate leaves revealing the ribbing of the back leaves, and a smooth leaf under the corner.

A structure discovered in 2006 lies under a Muslim free-standing structure known as Weli Yetaim. It seems to have suffered problems of water drainage in its western section despite shiloh installation of run-off pipes and troughs. It appears that the solution was to raise shiloh level of the church [ dubious – discuss] and the laying of a new mosaic floor.

It was the older, original floor at the lower level that was revealed shiloh the summer of 2006. The mosaic contains geometric designs, a cross, flora representations and three inscriptions, one, a dedication of a bench, the second, a salute to the residents of "Siloun" (as set in mosaic in Greek script: "CIλOYN") and the third, a general wish for good tidings. Another discovery of an addition to one of the basilicas occurred in 2013.

[19] Ambiguous use of "Shiloh" in Hebrew Bible [ edit ] Main article: Shiloh (biblical figure) Shiloh is shiloh in the Hebrew Bible in Genesis as shiloh of the benediction given by Jacob to his son Judah: "The scepter shall shiloh depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh comes, and unto him shall the gathering of the people be." ( Genesis 49:10).

It could be a figure, perhaps the Messiah, or a place, as mentioned later in Judges and also in Jeremiah 41:5. Messianic Jewish and some Christian interpretations [ edit ] Messianic Judaism became attached to Shiloh as a result of this verse. Shiloh is believed to refer to Jesus by some Christians. Alternative translations have led others, including some Christians, to different conclusions. [20] See also [ edit ] • Eben-Ezer • Nob, Israel • Song of Moses • Shilo, modern Israeli settlement in Samaria (the West Bank).

Notes [ edit ] • ^ "Shiloh, Israel's Capital for 400 Years, Being Uncovered," Gil Ronen, July 28, 2010, Jerusalem Post. • ^ Gomes, The Sanctuary of Bethel, p. 117. • ^ BDB Theological Dictionary • ^ Jones' Dictionary of Old Shiloh Proper Names • ^ Theological Dictionary and Jones' Dictionary of Old Testament Shiloh Names • ^ a b c Lopez, Tim; Stripling, Scott; Ben-Shlomo, David (2019).

"A Ceramic Pomegranate from Shiloh". Judea and Samaria Research Studies (28): *37–*56. doi: 10.26351/JSRS/28-1/7. • ^ Donner, Shiloh (1992). Shiloh Mosaic Map of Madaba: an Introductory Guide.

Peeters Publishers. p. 47. ISBN 90-390-0011-5. • ^ Donald G. Schley, Shiloh: A Biblical City in Tradition and History" Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1989, 2009, pp. 191ff. • ^ Bennett-Smith, Meredith. ‘Tel Shiloh Archaeological Dig Pitcher Suggests Biblical City In Israel Burned To Ground', Huffington Post, January 15, 2013. • ^ LaMar C.

Berrett, D. Kelly Ogden, Discovering The World shiloh The Bible, page 94 (Grandin Book Company, 1996). ISBN 0-910523-52-5. Cf. Also Schley, 1989, 2009, pp. 191ff. • ^ "Zevachim 118B". Mechon-mamre. Retrieved 2013-08-17. • ^ I Chronicles 16:39–40; 21:20; II Chronicles 1:2 shiloh ^ Schley, 1989, 2009, pp.

184–99. • ^ Rashi on 1 Samuel 9:13 • ^ "1 Kings 14:6–16". Mechon-mamre. Retrieved 2013-08-17. • ^ Schley, 1989, 2009, pp. 191–97. • ^ Shiloh excavations • ^ Alliata, Eugenio; de Luca, Stefano.

"Mount Ephraim and Benjamin: 34. Selo, where the ark stayed - (Kh. Saylun)". Christus Rex. Retrieved 25 December 2015. [ permanent dead link] • ^ "Ancient church discovered at site where Ark of shiloh Covenant once stood". Israel Hayom.

Retrieved 25 December 2015. • ^ Ripley, George; Dana, Charles A., eds. (1879). "Shiloh, a town of ancient Palestine". The American Cyclopædia. Further reading [ edit ] • Buhl, Marie-Louise, & Svend Holm-Nielsen, Shiloh--The Danish Excavations at Tall Sailum, Palestine, in 1926, 1929, 1932 AND 1962: The Pre-Hellenistic Remains.

Copenhagen: The National Museum of Denmark, 1969. • Finkelstein, Israel, et al. Shiloh: The Archaeology of a Biblical Site. Shiloh Aviv, 1993. • Schley, Donald G. Shiloh: A Biblical City in Tradition and History, Sheffield, 1989, 2009. This is the only shiloh study of Shiloh from a textual, historical and archaeological perspective available; provides an exhaustive bibliography going back to 1805, which includes Shiloh critical articles and insights.

External shiloh [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has shiloh related to Tel Shilo. • Rabbi Ariel Bar Tzodeck's Insight into Shiloh (a Kabbalist perspective) • Shiloh in the Jewish Encyclopedia • photos of the Mosaic from Tel Shiloh • photos of the Mosaic from Tel Shiloh "Church of the ark found in the west bank" • Photos of Tel Shiloh • More Archeology at Tel Shiloh • Mount Sinai • Biblical Mount Sinai • Mount Horeb shiloh Jericho • Jordan River • Holy of Holies shiloh Tabernacle • Ai • Shiloh • Gibeah • Gilgal • Eben-Ezer • Philistia • Beth Shemesh • Kiriath-Jearim • Temple Mount • Dome of the Rock • Well of Souls • Cathedral of Chartres • Tana Qirqos • Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion Related • Bull Site • Tel Dor • Izbet Sartah • Tell el-Ful ( Gibeah) • Giloh • Heshbon • Khirbet ed-Dawwara • Khirbet el-Mastarah • Khirbet Ghuraba • Khirbet Ibn Nasir • Tel Arad • Tel Be'er Sheva ( Beersheba) • Tel Esdar • Tell es-Sa'idiyeh ( Zaretan) • Tell Radanna New settlements at long deserted sites in 12th/11th centuries Hidden categories: • All articles with dead external links • Articles with dead external links from May 2018 • Articles with permanently dead external links • Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia • Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia with a Wikisource reference • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Articles containing Hebrew-language text • Articles containing Arabic-language text • All articles with unsourced statements • Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018 • All accuracy disputes • Articles with disputed statements from June 2016 • Articles with unsourced statements from September 2015 • Shiloh with unsourced statements from June 2016 • Commons category link is on Wikidata • Articles with VIAF identifiers • Articles with WORLDCATID identifiers • Articles with BNF identifiers • Articles with GND identifiers • Articles with J9U identifiers • Articles with LCCN identifiers • Articles with NKC identifiers • Articles with FAST identifiers • Articles with SUDOC identifiers Edit links • This page was last edited on 22 April 2022, at 21:45 (UTC).

• Text is available under the Creative Commons Shiloh License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • •Home Toggle Mobile Menu • Give • News • Store • Events • Sign-up • Shiloh Preferences • • Learn • « Main Menu • Learn • Revolutionary War • « Revolutionary War • Revolutionary War • • Popular Content • « Popular Content • Popular Content • American Revolution Facts • Women in the American Revolution • Overview of shiloh Revolutionary War • The First American President: Setting the Precedent • African Americans During the Revolutionary War • American Revolution Timeline • Winter at Valley Forge • Revolutionary War Battle Map • • Battles • « Battles • Shiloh • Bunker Hill • Trenton • Lexington and Concord • Saratoga • Yorktown • Brooklyn • Charleston • All Revolutionary War Battles » • • Areas of Interest • « Areas of Interest • Areas of Interest • Black Soldiers • The Liberty Trail • Women In War • All Areas of Interest » • • Search By Type • « Search By Type • Shiloh By Type • Maps • Biographies • Articles • Videos • Primary Sources • All Types » • War of 1812 • « War of 1812 • War of 1812 • • Popular Content • « Popular Content • Popular Content • War of 1812 Facts • War of 1812 Timeline • Brief Overview: War of 1812 • War of 1812 Battle Map • • Battles • « Battles shiloh Battles • Fort McHenry • Shiloh Orleans • Tippecanoe • York • All War of 1812 Battles » • • Search By Type • « Search By Type • Search By Type • Maps • Biographies • Articles • Videos • Primary Sources • All Types » • • USS Constitution In 4 Minutes Watch Video • Civil War • « Civil War • Civil War • • Popular Shiloh • « Popular Content • Popular Content • Civil War Overview • Civil War Facts • Trigger Events: Civil War • Reasons for Secession • Slavery in the United States • North and South • Civil War Casualties • Civil War Battle Shiloh • • Battles • « Battles • Battles • Gettysburg • Vicksburg • Antietam • Shiloh • Bull Run • Fort Sumter • Appomattox Court House • All Civil War Battles » • • Areas of Interest • « Areas of Interest • Areas of Interest shiloh Women in War • Medal of Honor • The Gettysburg Address • Civil War Leaders • Photography in the Civil War • The Emancipation Proclamation • United States Colored Troops • All Areas of Interest » • • Search By Type • « Search By Type • Search By Type • Maps • Biographies • Articles • Videos • Primary Sources • All Types » • • The Nature of History Sign up now • For Educators • « For Educators • For Educators • • Educator Resources • « Educator Resources • Educator Resources • Field Trip Fund • Virtual Teacher Institute • Great Task Youth Leadership Program • Youth Engagement • Rev War Crash Courses • Civil War Crash Courses • Other Educational Resources • • Civil War Shiloh • « Civil War Curriculum • Civil War Curriculum • Elementary • Middle School • High School • Civil War Curriculum: Shiloh • « Civil War Curriculum: Inquiry shiloh Civil War Curriculum: Inquiry • Middle School • High School • • Newsletter Signup Sign up now • • National Shiloh Institute July 21 - 24, 2022 Learn More • Search All » • Visit • « Main Menu • Visit • • The Battlefields Today shiloh « The Battlefields Today • The Battlefields Today • Gettysburg • Perryville • Antietam • Bunker Hill • Kings Mountain • Sackets Harbor • All Battlefields » • • Explore More • « Explore More • Explore More • Heritage Sites • Mobile Apps • Virtual Tours • Itineraries • Events • • Heritage Sites Browse full U.S.

map • • Mobile Apps View all battlefield apps • • Virtual Tours View All See Antietam now! • Preserve • « Main Menu • Preserve • • I want to.

• « I want to. • I want to. • Join the Trust • Renew My Membership • Save a Battlefield • Support Education • See All Giving Options • • Save a Battlefield • « Save a Battlefield • Shiloh a Battlefield • Help Preserve 311 Acres at Four Historic Battlefields • Help Preserve 64 Acres Across Three Revolutionary War Sites • Support Shiloh Classrooms at Seven Key Battlefields • Save 48 Acres at Cedar Mountain & Cedar Creek Forever • Protect 239 Acres at Todd’s Tavern & Globe Tavern in Virginia • The Lighthizer Legacy Fund • Shiloh Land Map • • Donate • « Donate • Donate • Give to the Trust • Donate in Tribute • Legacy Giving • Shiloh Ways to Give • Donor Advised Funds • Support Education • • Membership • « Membership • Membership • Join • Renew • Color Bearers • Gift Membership • Membership Benefits • Hallowed Ground Magazine • Our Work • « Main Menu • Our Work shiloh • Recognition • « Recognition • Recognition shiloh The Steadfast Donor Wall • The 20-Year Club Donor Wall • The 10-Year Club Donor Wall • Seminary Ridge Donor Wall • Recent Victories • Hall of Fame • Preservation Champions • • What We Do • « What We Do • What We Do • Mission • Programs • How We Work • FAQs: Shiloh • News • Events • Community Benefits • Economic Benefits • Environmental Benefits • • Who We Are • « Who We Are • Who We Are • Introduction • History • Board of Trustees • Staff • Accountability • Contact • Follow Us • • Work With Us • « Work Shiloh Us • Work With Us • Become a Sponsor • Careers • Requests for Proposals (RFPs) • Youth Engagement • • Saved Land Browse Interactive Map View active campaigns • Search • Search • Donate The Battle of Shiloh, also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, allowed Union troops to penetrate the Confederate interior.

The carnage was unprecedented, with the human toll being the greatest of any war on the American continent up to that date. How it ended Union victory. The South’s defeat at Shiloh ended the Confederacy’s hopes of blocking the Union advance shiloh Mississippi and doomed the Confederate military initiative shiloh the West. With the shiloh of shiloh commander, Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, in battle, Confederate morale plummeted. In context After shiloh Union victories at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson in February 1862, Shiloh general Johnston withdrew from Kentucky and left much of shiloh western and middle of Tennessee to the Federals.

This permitted Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant to push his troops toward Corinth, Mississippi, the strategic intersection of the Mobile and Shiloh Railroad and the Memphis shiloh Charleston Railroad and a vital troop and supply conduit for the South. Alerted to the Union army’s position, Johnston intercepted the Federals 22 miles northeast of Corinth at Pittsburg Landing.

The encounter proved devastating—not only for its tactical failure, but for the extreme number of casualties. After Shiloh, both sides realized the magnitude of the conflict, which would be longer and bloodier than they could have imagined.

To consolidate his forces shiloh prepare for operations against Grant, Johnston marshals his forces at Corinth. The Confederate retreat is welcomed by Grant, whose Army of the Tennessee needs time to prepare for its own offensive up the Tennessee River.

Shiloh army camps at Pittsburg Landing, where it spends time drilling recruits and awaiting Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell’s Army of Ohio. Grant is ordered not to engage the Confederates until he has been reinforced by Buell's army, which is marching overland from Nashville to meet him.

Once combined, the two armies will advance south on Corinth. Anticipating a Federal move against Corinth, Johnston and his 44,000-man Army of Mississippi plan to smash Grant’s army at Pittsburg Landing before Buell can arrive with more Union troops. On April 3, Johnston places his troops in motion, but heavy rains delay his attack. By nightfall on April 5, his army is deployed for battle only four miles southwest of Pittsburg Landing, and pickets from both sides nervously exchange gunfire in shiloh dense woods that evening.

Confed. 44,968 April 6. At daybreak three corps of Confederate infantry storm out of the woods and sweep into the southernmost Federal camps, catching Grant’s men unprepared. Intense fighting centers around Shiloh Church as the Confederates sweep the Union line from that area. Despite heavy fire on their position, Union troops counterattack but slowly lose ground and fall back northeast toward Pittsburg Landing. Throughout the morning, Confederate brigades force Grant’s troops into defensive positions at Shiloh Church, shiloh Peach Orchard, Water Oaks Pond, and a treacherous thicket of oaks posthumously named the Hornets’ Nest by fortunate survivors.

That afternoon, while leading an attack on the left end of the Union’s Hornets’ Nest line, Johnston is shot in the right knee. The bullet severs an artery and the commander bleeds to death. Gen. Pierre G.

T. Beauregard is appointed the new Confederate commander. Believing his army victorious, Beauregard calls a halt to the attacks as darkness approaches.

He is unaware that overnight Buell arrives with reinforcements for Shiloh. The Union army how has nearly 54,000 men near Pittsburgh Landing and outnumbers Beauregard’s army of around 30,000.

April 7. Grant’s army launches their attack at 6:00 a.m. Beauregard immediately orders a counterattack. The Confederates are ultimately compelled to fall back and regroup all along shiloh line. Beauregard orders a second counterattack, which halts the Federals’ advance but ultimately ends in a stalemate. The timberclads Shiloh Tyler and USS Lexington provides naval artillery support to Grant’s left flank from the Tennessee River. About 3:00 p.m., Beauregard realizes he is outnumbered and, having already suffered tremendous casualties, retreats toward Corinth.

959 missing & captured On April 8, Grant dispatches Brig. Gen. William T. Sherman shiloh Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Wood to ascertain the Confederates’ position. At Fallen Timbers, six miles south of the battlefield, they encounter Rebel cavalry under Col. Nathan Bedford Forrest. Forrest charges into the Federals ahead of his own troops and is shot by Federal infantry at point-blank range. Although he will later require difficult surgery to remove the life-threatening bullet, Forrest’s reckless aggression pays off.

Federal forces flee in the direction of Pittsburg Landing, allowing the Confederates to escape. The loss of life on both sides at Shiloh—which, ironically, means place of peace in Hebrew—was staggering. But there were other sad consequences of the battle as well. Johnston’s death was a damaging blow to Confederate morale, particularly for President Jefferson Davis, who held Johnston high in personal and professional esteem.

After the war, Davis wrote, “When Sidney Johnston fell, it was the turning point of our fate; for we had no other hand to take up his work in the West.” Grant, though victorious, was vilified in the press shiloh being caught unprepared at Pittsburg Landing on April 6. Critics called for him to be dismissed, but Abraham Lincoln defended his general shiloh, declaring “I can’t spare this man, he fights.” Corinth fell to shiloh Union by the end of May, allowing Grant to focus on gaining control of the Mississippi River.

Grant’s previous victories at Forts Henry and Donelson had boosted his confidence. He believed he had the superior army and that the Confederacy would soon collapse. Sherman, in charge of day-today operations at Pittsburg Landing, shared his commander’s arrogance, “I always acted on the supposition that we were an invading army. . we did not fortify our army against an attack, because we had no orders to do so, and because such a course would have made our men timid.” Despite intelligence about and evidence of Southern forces in the area, Sherman was dismissive.

To the Major who reported encountering Confederate troops nearby on April 4, he replied, “You militia officers get scared too easy.” So, when taken unawares by Rebel forces on April 6, the Union troops had no defensive plan in place. With the fighting concentrated in a small area—the Snake River on one side shiloh the Tennessee River on the other—this narrow funnel-shaped zone became a cauldron of death.

The battle became a free-for-all, with soldiers attacking one another and calvary working to prevent shiloh from fleeing, rather than launching attacks. For Grant, who was nine miles downriver at his headquarters, his folly may had been to rely on Sherman, who had several warnings about a Confederate attack but failed to heed them. On April 5, Sherman wrote to Grant, “I shiloh no doubt that nothing will occur today other than some picket firing.

The enemy is saucy, but. . will not press our pickets far. I do not apprehend anything like an shiloh on our position.” His words soon came back to haunt him.

Sherman’s men had just finished breakfast on April 6 when they got word of Confederate units on the march. Sherman rode out to investigate. As he raised his spyglass to view the oncoming troops, the orderly next to him was shot dead by enemy fire. Sherman was shot in the hand.

It was only then that reality shiloh in. “My God,” he said, we are attacked!” As news of the carnage at Shiloh spread to North and South alike, the public’s notion that the war would be short-lived ended. Newspaper accounts, many erroneous but all shiloh, described the shiloh and bloodshed on the battlefield. This changed people’s romantic view of the conflict. The war had turned ruthless. In his memoirs, Grant wrote, “Up to the battle of Shiloh, I, as well as thousands of other citizens, believed that the rebellion against the Government would collapse suddenly and soon, if a decisive victory could be gained over its armies….” After Shiloh, he admitted, “I gave up all idea of saving the Union except by complete conquest.” Sherman reinforced this view, “…we cannot change the hearts and minds of the people of the South, but we can make war so terrible…that shiloh rebels will tire of it.” The most radical change in view occurred among the soldiers who fought at Shiloh.

After the battle Confederate private Sam Watkins of the First Shiloh wrote: “I had been feeling mean all morning, as if I had stolen a sheep … I had heard and read of battlefields, shiloh pictures of battlefields, of horses and men, of cannons and wagons, all jumbled together, while the ground was strewn with dead and dying and wounded, but I must confess I never realized the ‘pomp and circumstance’ of the thing called ‘glorious war’ until I saw this.” • • • Donate Now • The American Battlefield Trust is shiloh 501(c)(3) non-profit organization.

Donations to the Trust are tax deductible to the full extent allowable under the law. Federal Identification Number (EIN): 54-1426643. • • • • Learn • Visit • Preserve • Our Work • • Give • Contact • Store • • Connect with us • Facebook • Twitter • Youtube • Instagram • • LinkedIn • Give with confidence • • • • • Sponsored by • • • Privacy Policy • Terms of Service • State Registrations • © 2022 American Battlefield Trust

Shiloh Dynasty [1 Hour Mix]