Tm kapsul

tm kapsul

Lambang misi Dato’ Dr. Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor Al Masrie bin Sheikh Mustapha ( Jawi: شيخ مظفر شکور المصري بن شيخ مصطفى; lahir 27 Julai 1972) merupakan doktor bedah ortopedik Malaysia dan angkasawan Malaysia yang pertama ke angkasa lepas setelah diumumkan oleh Dato' Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi (kini bergelar "Tun") pada 25 September 2007 (Selasa) tepat jam 12.00 tengah hari. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Isi kandungan • 1 Kehidupan awal • tm kapsul Program angkasawan • 2.1 Misi • 2.2 Agama • 2.3 Pemilihan • 2.4 Terminologi • 3 Angkawasan Islam lain • 4 Kehidupan peribadi • 5 Ikon inspirasi • 6 Kontroversi • 6.1 Penamaan • 6.2 Kritikan • 6.3 Saman oleh Norlina Nordin • 7 Pendaratan • 8 Rujukan • tm kapsul Pautan luar Kehidupan awal [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Dilahirkan di Kuala Lumpur, Sheikh Muszaphar yang merupakan anak ketiga daripada lima beradik yang kesemuanya lelaki, berjaya menamatkan pendidikan sekolah tinggi di Maktab Rendah Sains MARA di Muar, Johor.

Beliau kemudian melanjutkan pelajarannya melalui ijazah perubatan MBBS di Kolej Perubatan Kasturba, Manipal, India. [6] Beliau menjadi doktor ortopedik [7] dan menjadi pensyarah perubatan pelatih di Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM). Sebelum itu, beliau berkhidmat di Hospital Seremban (1998), Hospital Besar Kuala Lumpur (1999) dan Hospital Selayang (2000-2001). Beliau juga merupakan model di kebanyakan iklan komersial.

[8] [9] [10] Program angkasawan [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Misi [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Beliau berlepas ke angkasa pada 10 Oktober 2007 dengan menaiki Soyuz TMA-11 yang dilancarkan tm kapsul Stesen Angkasa Antarabangsa (ISS). Beliau menyertai program ini di bawah perjanjian bersama Russia menerusi program Angkasawan, dan telah kembali ke Bumi bersama ahli-ahli Ekspedisi 15, Fyodor Yurchikhin dan Oleg Kotov selepas sembilan hari berada di stesen berkenaan.

[11] Misi selama 11 hari ini telah berjaya dijalankan dari 10 Oktober 2007 jam 9.21 malam waktu Malaysia dan selamat kembali ke bumi pada 21 Oktober 2007 pada jam 6.44 petang waktu Malaysia.

Beliau merupakan orang Islam pertama yang menjalani ibadah berpuasa dan meraikan Hari Raya Aidilfitri di angkasa lepas. Semasa sidang akhbar NASA dengan ahli-ahli Ekspedisi 16 pada 23 Julai 2007, Muszaphar menyatakan bahawa beliau berharap untuk membawa pelbagai kultur sel hidupan untuk dipelajari semasa penerbangannya. Agama [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Kulit depan dalam majalah Maskulin November 2006 Tm kapsul seorang Muslim, dan berpuasa di akhir bulan Ramadhan semasa di angkasa lepas, Majlis Fatwa Kebangsaan Malaysia telah menerbitkan satu buku panduan untuk Muslim di angkasa lepas.

Buku bertajuk yang Pelaksanaan Ibadah di Stesen Angkasa Antarabangsa dan bermuka surat sebanyak 18 keping ini menerangkan bagaimana untuk mengenal pasti waktu solat, dan masalah yang melibatkan hal berpuasa.

Orbit ISS menghasilkan satu kitaran siang dan malam setiap 90 minit. [12] Masalah mengenai puasa di bulan Ramadhan juga ditujukan. Panduan ini akan dialih bahasa dalam bahasa Rusia, Arab dan Inggeris. [13] [14] Anan C. Mohd daripada Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia (JAKIM) menyatakan, ".berpuasa semasa perjalanan adalah tidak diwajibkan.

Maka, Sheikh Muszaphar dibolehkan untuk melakukannya atau tidak. Sekiranya dilakukan, waktu puasa adalah sama dengan waktu tempatan di Baikonur di mana tempat kapsul dilancarkan". [15] [16] Bagi membolehkan Sheikh Muszaphar meraikan Hari Raya Aidilfitri tm kapsul 13 Oktober 2007 bersamaan hari Sabtu, bekalan seperti kuih, biskut dan sate dibekalkan bagi dimakan bersama angkasawan-angkasawan yang ada di stesen angkasa lepas.

[17] Panduan buku ini juga boleh didapati dalam bentuk PDF Diarkibkan 2008-12-27 di Wayback Machine. Pemilihan [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Kerajaan Malaysia telah mengadakan Program Angkasawan Malaysia bagi memilih calon angkasawan yang sesuai. Seramai 11,275 orang calon telah mendaftarkan diri dengan pelbagai kelayakan akademik, ketahanan fizikal, emosi, dan mental.

Mereka menjalani latihan terakhir di Kosmodrom Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Muszaphar dikatakan ialah calon terakhir daripada yang memohon program ini. [18] Kerajaan Malaysia telah bekerjasama dengan kerajaan Russia. Peluang ini sebahagian daripada pakej pembelian jet pejuang Rusia bernilai AS$1 bilion (RM3.44 bilion). Muszaphar dan tiga calon akhir yang lain dipilih pada awal tahun 2006 daripada Program Angkasawan Malaysia.

Setelah selesai menjalani latihan di Star City, Rusia, Sheikh Muszaphar dan Faiz Khaleed akhirnya dipilih untuk menjalani latihan selama 18 bulan di Rusia. Akhirnya, beliau dipilih sebagai calon utama Angkasawan Pertama Malaysia sementara Faiz Khaleed dijadikan calon simpanan. Terminologi [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Terbang sebagai tetamu kerajaan Rusia, [19] Sheikh Muszaphar berperanan di atas kapal Soyuz dan ISS dirujuk sebagai peserta penerbangan angkasa di Agensi Angkasa Persekutuan Rusia bahasa Rusia dan dokumen-dokumen NASA dan taklimat akhbar.

[5] [20] [21] [22] Bercakap kepada media Malaysia, Alexander Karchava, Duta Rusia ke Malaysia, menyatakan bahawa Sheikh Muszaphar ialah "angkasawan sepenuhnya". [23] Dalam satu wawancara dengan akhbar Malaysia Star, Robert L.

Gibson, seorang angkasawan Pentadbiran Aeronautik dan Angkasa Kebangsaan ( NASA) yang bersara, berkongsi pendapatnya bahawa Sheikh Muszaphar sepenuhnya berkelayakan sebagai angkasawan, dan oleh itu, beliau sepatutnya digelar sedemikian. Gibson juga berkata beliau menganggap Sheikh Muszaphar sebagai rakan sebaya. [24] Angkawasan Islam lain [ sunting - sunting sumber ] • Putera Arab Saudi, Sultan Salman Abdel Aziz Al-Saud merupakan angkasawan pertama negara Islam ke angkasa lepas pada 1985.

Beliau bertindak sebagai pakar muatan dalam kapal angkasa Amerika, Discovery STS-51-G pada 17 hingga 24 Jun 1985. Beliau berbangga dengan misi Malaysia ini dan berharap misi angkasa lepas dari dunia Islam sendiri akan terlaksana. • Angkasawan Islam dari Syria ialah Mohammed Faris yang pergi ke Stesen Mir dengan roket Soyuz TM-3 pada 22 hingga 30 Julai 1987. Beliau pergi bersama Alexander Viktorenko dan Aleksandr Pavlovich Aleksandrov. • Juruterbang tentera Afghanistan, Abdul Ahad Mohamad ke Stesen Mir dengan roket Soyuz TM6 pada 29 Ogos 1988 dengan ditemani 2 angkasawan Russia, Vladimir Lyakhov dan Valery Polyakov dan tiba di bumi pada 6 September 1988 [25] Dengan kejayaan Dr Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor ini, dunia Islam akan berbangga dengan kejayaan angkasawan Malaysia yang akan membuat pemerhatian dari sudut agama ketika berada di orbit.

[26] Kehidupan peribadi [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Sheikh Muszaphar telah berkahwin dengan Dr. Halina Mohd Yunos (lahir 1981 di Kluang), seorang pakar anestesia di Hospital Selayang pada 10 Oktober 2010 di Seremban, Negeri Sembilan.

[27] Sheikh Muszaphar bertemu dengan Dr. Halina sejak 2001 sewaktu beliau merupakan pensyarah di Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, manakala Dr. Halina ialah pelajarnya sewaktu itu. Mereka dikurniakan 2 orang cahaya mata perempuan yang bernama Sophea Isabella yang lahir pada 21 Julai 2011 dan Sophea Natasha yang lahir pada tm kapsul Januari 2013.

Cahaya mata kembar lelaki Sheikh Adam dan Sheikh Noah yang lahir pada 27 Julai 2017. Ikon inspirasi [ sunting - tm kapsul sumber ] Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor dilantik sebagai ikon inspirasi angkasawan sempena Minggu Saham Amanah Malaysia (MSAM) 2010 di Kuching, Sarawak pada 20 April 2010. [28] Kontroversi [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Penamaan [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Perlepasan ke angkasa sebagai tetamu kerajaan Rusia, [29] Sheikh Muszaphar dirujuk sebagai "peserta penerbangan angkasa lepas" ( Inggeris: spaceflight participant) selepas laporan akhbar Agensi Angkasa Lepas Persekutuan Rusia (Russian Federal Tm kapsul Agency) dan NASA [30] [31] [32] menjadi perdebatan.

Alexander Karchava, pegawai diplomatik Rusia ke Malaysia, telah menyatakan bahawa Sheikh Muszaphar ialah Angkasawan Matang. [33] Robert Gibson, seorang angkasawan yang telah bersara, yang ditemu ramah oleh akhbar tempatan Malaysia, The Star, menyatakan bahawa Sheikh Muszaphar layak menjadi seorang angkasawan dan layak menerima panggilan dan pangkat tersebut. [34] Kritikan [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Seorang pengulas dari Australia, Michael Backman, telah menyuarakan komennya dengan mengatakan Malaysia telah membuang duit untuk seorang rakyat Malaysia ke angkasa lepas dengan membazirkan wang sebanyak RM 105 juta (bersamaan dengan AS$ 26 juta).

Pembaziran ini dikatakan oleh Micheal Backman lagi, sebagai satu nafsu kehendak yang tidak berasas dan hanya untuk memenuhi nafsu tersebut. [35] [36] Bagaimanapun, jumlah tersebut dibiayai sepenuhnya oleh Malaysia tanpa meminta bantuan asing dan ramai pihak yang mencemburui fakta ini.

Selain tm kapsul, ia merupakan pakej pembelian sebanyak 18 jet Sukhoi dari Rusia yang bernilai RM3.42 bilion dengan sebagai balasan Rusia akan membeli minyak sawit Malaysia, memindahkan teknologi angkasa dan melatih seorang rakyat Malaysia menjadi angkasawan pertama.

[37] [38] Saman oleh Norlina Nordin [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Norlina Nordin telah memfailkan saman pada 25 Julai 2008 kerana mendakwa Sheikh Muszaphar telah melanggar kontrak pelantikannya sebagai pembantu peribadi dan menuntut ganti rugi melebihi RM90,000. Pada 14 Oktober 2009, Mahkamah Sesyen Kuala Lumpur menetapkan 27 Oktober 2009 untuk keputusannya berhubung permohonan angkasawan negara Datuk Dr.

Sheikh Muszaphar bagi membatalkan saman yang difailkan seorang ahli perniagaan oleh Norlina Nordin. [39] [40] Pihak mahkamah kemudiannya membatalkan permohonan kes tuntutan saman itu setelah pihak plaintif gagal memfailkan beberapa dokumen yang telah diarahkan sebelum ini pada 18 Mei 2010. Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor kemudiannya berjaya membuat tuntutan balas ganti rugi khas RM25,000.

[41] Pendaratan [ sunting - tm kapsul sumber ] Sheikh Muszaphar di dalam kapal angkasa Soyuz TMA-10 Misi selama 10 hari, 21 jam dan 14 minit [42] telah membenarkan Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor selamat tiba di bumi dengan kapsul kapal angkasa Soyuz TMA-10 atau lebih dikenali sebagai Space Drop Zone, mendarat berdekatan bandar Arkylk, Kazakhstan (yang terletak 500 kilometer dari bandar Baikonur), petang 21 Oktober 2007.

Pendaratan berlaku tepat jam 2.37 petang waktu Kazakhstan atau 6.37 petang di Malaysia selepas meninggalkan Stesen Angkasa Antarabangsa (ISS) pada jam 11.15 pagi (3.15 petang, Malaysia) untuk perjalanan selama tiga jam 23 minit ke bumi.

Pendaratan kapsul tersasar kira-kira 420 kilometer dari lokasi sasaran awal. [43] Perjalanan kembali ke bumi telah mengambil masa 3 jam 23 minit. Rujukan [ sunting - sunting sumber ] • ^ "Malaysia's first astronaut to visit space station".

New Scientist Space and Reuters. 9 October 2007. Dicapai pada 16 March 2017. • ^ The Associated Press (20 September 2007). "Malaysian Astronaut Won't Ignore Faith". The Associated Press / USA Tm kapsul. Dicapai pada 4 October 2007. • ^ Andrew Hammond (30 September 2007). "Saudi prince says Islam proud of Malaysia spaceman".

Reuters. Dicapai pada 4 October 2007. • ^ Chris Baldwin (24 September 2007). "First Malaysian in space to observe Ramadan later".

Reuters. Dicapai pada 4 October 2007. • ^ a b NASA (17 July 2007). "NASA Holds Briefing With First Female Station Commander and Crew". NASA. Dicapai pada 23 July 2007. • ^ Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (2007). "Angkasawan lands in UKM". Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

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Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 22 August 2007. Dicapai pada 7 October 2007. • ^ CNN (2007). "First Malaysian in space to observe Ramadan later". CNN. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 12 October 2007. Dicapai pada 10 October 2007. • ^ Nurul Asyikin Yusoff (3 August 2016). "Malaysia's first astronaut turns entrepreneur". TNP. Dicapai pada 16 March 2017. • ^ SpaceDaily (2007). "Part-time model is Malaysia's first astronaut".

SpaceDaily. Dicapai pada 7 October 2007. • ^ AFP (2007). "Malaysians take last tests before blast off into space". AFP. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2007-10-12. Dicapai pada 7 October 2007. • ^ NASA Holds Briefing With First Female Station Commander and Crew • ^ NASA (2004).

"Day in the Life". NASA. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2012-09-11. Dicapai pada October 7, 2004. (Inggeris) • ^ Reuters (2007). "Guidebook issued for Muslims in space".

Reuters. Dicapai pada October 7, 2004. (Inggeris) • tm kapsul Mazwin Nik Anis. "Guidebook tm kapsul Muslims in tm kapsul. Star Publications (Malaysia). Dicapai pada October 7, 2004. (Inggeris) • ^ The Independent Online (2007). "Muslim astronaut to blast off during Ramadan". The Independent Online. Dicapai pada October 7, 2007. (Inggeris) • ^ BBC (2007). "Landmark lift-off for space crew". BBC News.

Dicapai pada October 10, 2007. (Inggeris) • ^ Reuters (2007). "Astronaut plans first Eid party in space". Reuters. Dicapai pada October 10, 2007. (Inggeris) • ^ Metra Syahril Mohamed (2007-10-21). "Misi kita berjaya -- Sheikh Muszaphar dan dua lagi krew mendarat di Kazakhstan pukul 6.37 petang". Utusan Malaysia. Dicapai pada 2007-10-23. Angkasawan pertama negara, Dr.

Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor Sheikh Mustapha selamat kembali ke Bumi selepas 10 hari berada di Stesen Angkasa Antarabangsa (ISS), sekali gus menempa sejarah baru kejayaan Malaysia dalam bidang penerokaan angkasa lepas. • ^ Channel News Asia (2007). "Space fever grips Malaysia as launch nears".

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Channel News Asia. Dicapai pada 13 October 2007. • ^ NASA (2007). "NASA TV Coverage Set for Space Station Crew Exchange". NASA. Dicapai pada 10 October 2007. • ^ MSNBC (2007). "Russian tycoon-explorer may go into space". MSNBC. Dicapai pada 10 October 2007. • ^ Russian Federal Space Agency (2007). "Biography of Dr Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor in Russian Federal Space Agency Website".

Russian Federal Space Agency. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 27 October 2007. Dicapai pada 12 October 2007. • ^ tm kapsul (2007). "Russian envoy confirms that Malaysian is not a 'mere passenger '". TheStar.

Dicapai pada 4 October 2007. • ^ theStar (2007). "Malaysian a full-fledged cosmonaut, says ex-astronaut". TheStar. Dicapai pada 11 October 2007. • ^ http://www.bharian.com.my/Current_News/BH/Wednesday/Rencana/20071003000156/Article/ • ^ "salinan arkib". Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2018-10-11.

Dicapai pada 2007-10-06. • ^ New Straits Times, m.s. 18. 27 Disember 2009 • ^ Tan Sri Muhyiddin Lancar Minggu Saham Amanah Malaysia Di Sarawak 20 April • ^ Channel News Asia (2007).

"Space fever grips Malaysia as launch nears". Channel News Asia. Dicapai pada October 13, 2007. (Inggeris) • ^ NASA (2007). "NASA TV Coverage Set for Space Station Crew Exchange". NASA. Dicapai pada October 10, 2007. (Inggeris) • ^ MSNBC (2007). "Russian tycoon-explorer may go into space". MSNBC. Dicapai pada October 10, 2007. (Inggeris) • ^ Russian Federal Space Agency (2007).

"Biography of Dr Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor in Russian Federal Space Agency Website". Russian Federal Space Agency. Dicapai pada October 12, 2007.

(Inggeris) • ^ theStar (2007). "Russian envoy confirms that Malaysian is not a tm kapsul passenger '". TheStar. Dicapai pada October 4, 2007. (Inggeris) • ^ theStar (2007). "Malaysian a full-fledged cosmonaut, says ex-astronaut". TheStar. Dicapai pada October 11, 2007. (Inggeris) • ^ "While Malaysia fiddles, its opportunities tm kapsul running".

TheAge.com.au. Dicapai pada 2006-12-16. • ^ "Malaysia's first astronaut heads to space". The Straits Times. Dicapai pada 2007-10-18. • ^ Sukhoi Curi Tumpuan Di Pertunjukan Udara LIMA 2007 • ^ Kronologi Angkasawan Malaysia. • ^ "Keputusan batal saman Sheikh Muszaphar pada 27 Okt.", Utusan Online, 14 Oktober 2009.

• ^ "Angkasawan applies to strike out civil suit", The Star, 14 Oktober 2009. • ^ Ahli perniagaan diarah bayar RM25,000 kepada Sheikh Muszaphar. © Utusan Melayu (M) Bhd • ^ "International Flight-No. 252 Soyuz TMA-11 Russia". Cite has empty unknown parameter: -qoute= ( bantuan) • ^ "Muszaphar selamat mendarat". Berita Harian Online. 2007-10-22. Dicapai pada 2007-10-23. Kapsul pendaratan dinaiki angkasawan negara, dua krew tersasar 420 kilometer Pautan luar [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Wikimedia Commons mempunyai media berkaitan Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor • ANGKASA Malaysia Diarkibkan 2007-10-11 di Wayback Machine • Laman rasmi Program Angkasawan Negara Diarkibkan 2007-05-31 di Wayback Machine • (Inggeris) Pengumuman Angkasawan Pertama Malaysia • (Inggeris) Biografi Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor • UKM di angkasa Diarkibkan 2007-10-24 di Wayback Machine • Salam dari angkasa Diarkibkan 2007-10-21 di Wayback Machine • Temu ramah pertama dengan media Malaysia [ pautan mati] • Ucapan tahniah kepada Angkasawan pertama Malaysia Diarkibkan 2007-10-23 di Wayback Machine • Ensiklopedia Malaysia: Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor Diarkibkan 2009-12-28 di Wayback Machine • Ensiklopedia Malaysia: Sheikh Mustapha Sheikh Shukor, Diarkibkan 2010-01-08 di Wayback Machine bapa Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor • Ensiklopedia Malaysia: Sheikh Mustapha Shukor, Diarkibkan 2010-01-09 di Wayback Machine adik Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor • Ensiklopedia Malaysia: Reaching for the Stars Diarkibkan 2010-01-09 di Wayback Machine – sebuah memoir yang ditulis oleh arwah Sheikh Mustapha Shukor (adik Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor) sewaktu abangnya dalam pelayaran ke angkasa lepas Kategori-kategori tersembunyi: • CS1 errors: empty unknown parameters • Rencana yang mempunyai hCard • Pautan wayback templat webarchive • Semua rencana dengan tm kapsul luar mati • Rencana dengan parameter tarikh tak sah dalam templat • Rencana Wikipedia dengan pengenalan GND • Rencana Wikipedia dengan pengenalan ISNI • Rencana Wikipedia dengan pengenalan LCCN • Rencana Wikipedia dengan pengenalan VIAF • Rencana Wikipedia dengan pengenalan WorldCat • العربية • Bahasa Indonesia • Български • Čeština • Deutsch • Eesti • English • Español • فارسی • Français • Galego • हिन्दी • Italiano • Jawa • ქართული • Latviešu • Magyar • Malagasy • Nederlands • 日本語 • پښتو • Polski • Português • Русский • Slovenčina • Suomi • Svenska • ไทย • Tiếng Việt • اردو • 中文 Sunting pautan • Laman ini kali terakhir disunting pada 14:25, 11 Mac 2022.

• Teks disediakan dengan Lesen Creative Commons Pengiktirafan/Perkongsian Serupa; terma tambahan mungkin digunakan. Lihat Terma Penggunaan untuk butiran lanjut. • Dasar privasi • Perihal Wikipedia • Penafian • Paparan mudah alih • Pembangun • Statistik • Kenyataan kuki • • Salam untuk para calon farmasis, Satu hal yang paling penting yang perlu dipahami dengan baik di bidang ilmu ini adalah, mengenai perhitungan dosis dari resep yang diberikan oleh dokter.

Dosis berhubungan dengan hidup dan mati pasien Jika, kamu sebagai apoteker yang bertugas meracik obat untuk seorang pasien, tugas kamu sangatlah berat. Karena tugas kamu menentukan apakah pasien nantinya akan sembuh atau bahkan memperparah penyakit dan menyebabkan komplikasi. Kesahalan perhitungan dosis dalam dunia kefarmasian sangatlah penting. Jangan sampai salah melihat resep, salah meracik, salah menghitung dosis, sehingga memberikan sediaan obat yang salah pula kepada pasien. Jangan sampai, karena kesalahan ini, pasien mengalami Overdosage (OD) karena kesalahan praktik kefarmasian.

Jadi, kamu sebagai calon farmasis perlulah secara maksimal mengetahui dan mengerti ilmu perhitungan dosis, dan juga mengerti mengenai resep yang baik dan benar. Tidak boleh setengah-setengah! Kalau tidak mengerti tentang perhitungan dosis, lebih baik kamu tidak bekerja di bidang kefarmasian dan pelayanan obat, karena hanya akan percuma dan merugikan orang lain.

Untuk belajar contoh soal resep dan solusi penyelesaiannya, klik disini Mendalami mengenai resep dan bagian-bagiannya Sebelum menghitung dosis dari zat yang ada di dalam resep, tentu saja kamu harus mengenal dulu apa itu resep Berdasarkan PERMENKES RI Nomor 35 Tahun 2014 menjelaskan bahwa “Resep adalah permintaan tertulis dari dokter atau dokter gigi, kepada apoteker, baik dalam bentuk paper maupun electronic untuk menyediakan dan menyerahkan obat bagi pasien sesuai peraturan yang berlaku.” Di dalam resep, terbagi menjadi 5 bagian, yang memberikan informasi masing-masing yang berbeda, dan perlu dipahami oleh seorang yang bergelut di praktik kefarmasian.

• Inscriptio; memberikan informasi mengenai informasi dari dokter dan lokasi praktik dokter/apotek, berupa nama apotek atau klinik, alamat lengkap, Nomor Izin Praktek pelaku kesehatan, nomor telepon, nomor resep, tanggal penulisan resep, dan informasi lain. • Invocatio; mengacu pada huruf R/ (Recipe) di sebelah kiri setiap penulisan satu jenis obat, dari bahasa Latin yang berarti Ambillah.

• Presciptio; memberikan informasi mengenai obat dan zat yang ingin diberikan oleh dokter kepada pasien untuk disediakan atau diracik.

Informasi ini harus lengkap menunjukkan jenis zat dan jumlah zat yang akan diberikan. • Signatura; menunjukkan secara lengkap informasi cara penggunaan dan peracikan obat yang diinginkan oleh dokter untuk diberikan kepada pasien. Misalnya dibuat sediaan kapsul, pemakaian 3 kali sehari, dll. • Subscriptio; menunjukkan informasi dari pasien, bagian ini juga merupakan bagian yang sangat penting yang harus ada di dalam resep, karena kesalahan informasi dapat mengarah pada overdosage, karena kesalahan informasi berat badan, umur, jenis kelamin.

Perlu juga dilengkapi nama pasien, alamat, dan informasi lain yang perlu diketahui. • Jenis hewan dan nama serta alamat pemiliknya untuk resep Dokter hewan • Tanda seru dan paraf Dokter untuk resep yang mengandung obat yang jumlahnya melebihi dosis maksimal.

Informasi dalam sebuah resep harus lengkap dan teliti Kesalahan kecil pun seperti kesalahan penulisan informasi pasien dapat berdampak buruk terhadap pasien nantinya.

Begitupula di bagian Prescriptio yang menunjukkan zat yang diinginkan dokter, bisa jadi terjadi kesalahan ataupun pemberia zat yang salah oleh dokter, bisa karena kesalahan penerjemahan resep, persepsi yang berbeda, overdosis, tidak memperhitungkan dosis searah, atau karena memang zat yang salah.

Jika terjadi kesalahan seperti ini, langkah pertama yang perlu kamu lakukan adalah mengecek kembali secara teliti resep tersebut dan berusaha memahami persepsi dari dokter mengenai apa yang diinginkan dokter kepada pasien. Kalau memang informasi di dalam resep tidak jelas dan tidak dapat dipahami, tm kapsul kamu sebagai apoteker, perlulah untuk segera menghubungi dokter yang bersangkutan, itulah gunanya informasi dari dokter pada bagian Inscriptio.

Bisa saja, dokter secara sengaja membuat obat overdosis Ada beberapa kasus dimana berdasarkan pengamatan dari kondisi pasien, dokter sengaja meresepkan obat dengan dosis yang berlebih untuk manusia normal, dan ditandai dengan tanda seru atau paraf dokter pada resep.

bisa jadi karena adanya kerusakan tm kapsul fisiologis tubuh pasien tersebut, makanya kamu sebagai apoteker harus menjalin komunikasi yang baik dengan dokter. Pahami dan mengerti mengenai bahasa Latin Kamu pasti sebagai mahasiswa farmasi pernah dan pasti dituntut untuk memahami mengenai singkatan-singkatan dan bahasa latin yang sering digunakan di dalam resep, dan alasannya mengapa harus digunakan bahasa latin.

Salah satu alasan yang umum dalam penggunaan bahasa latin di dalam kaidah penulisan resep adalah supaya pasien tidak mengetahui mengenai zat apa yang diresepkan dokter. Kedua, sebagai bahasa yang dipahami semua pelaku kesehatan di seluruh dunia, bisa dibilang bahasa latin adalah bahasa universal di dunia kesehatan.

Ketiga, telah digunakan sejak dulu Beberapa kata dalam bahasa latin yang sering digunakan dalam penulisan resep (ada di buku Ilmu Meracik Obat) misce fac (m.f) : Campur dan buatlah da tales doses (d.t.d.) : Berilah tm kapsul takaran – maksudnya adalah jumlah zat yang ditulis pada resep, merupakan jumlah untuk 1 sediaan jadi, jika tidak terdapat d.t.d.

di dalam resep maka, jumlah zat yang ditulis pada resep, merupakan jumlah total untuk seluruh jumlah sediaan yang diminta. de die (d.d.) : sehari cochlear (cochl.) : tm kapsul makan ad usum externum (ad us. ext.) : untuk pemakaian luar (seperti salep, gel, dll.) ad usum internum (ad us. int.) : untuk pemakaian dalam (seperti sirup, suspensi, dll.) adde (add.) : tambahkan fac lege artis (f.l.a.) : buat menurut seni (dalam meracik obat sesuai keahlian peracik obat) guttae (gtt.) : tetes gargarisma (garg.) : obat kumur haustus (haust.) : diminum sekaligus mixtura (mixt.) : campuran post coenam (p.c) : setelah makan ante coenam (a.c.) : sebelum makan mane (m) : pagi-pagi meridiem (merid.) : tengah hari ante meridiem (a.merid.) : sebelum tengah hari vespere (vesp.) : malam omni mane (o.m.) : tiap pagi omni nocte (o.n.) : tiap malam omni hora (o.h.) : tiap jam omni hora cochlear (o.h.c.) : tiap jam 1 sendok makan omni bihorio cochlear (o.b.h.c.) : tiap 2 jam 1 sendok makan periculum in mora (P.I.M.) : berbahaya jika ditunda – obat yang harus disediakan atau diracik segera, harus didahulukan terlebih dahulu.

Penyebabnya bisa karena orang keracunan, dll. potio (pot.) : minuman Recipe (R., Rp., Rcp.) : ambillah signa (s.) : tanda solutio (sol., solut.) : larutan dan masih banyak lagi Bahasa Latin sangat penting untuk dimengerti oleh semua orang yang bergelut di bidang ilmu pengetahuan, karena kebanyakan istilah-istilah sains digunakan dalam bahasan Latin atau Greek.

Tidak terkecuali di bidang kefarmasian, kata-kata diatas adalah sebagian tm kapsul yang sering digunakan di dalam penulisan resep, dan berlaku sampai saat ini.

Jadi, cicil membaca dan mengulang-ulang sedikit demi sedikit agar nantinya bisa kamu gunakan dengan baik dan tidak salah dalam membaca dan menerjemahkan resep. Ukuran cangkang kapsul Dalam membuat kapsul, kamu harus memilih cangkang kapsul yang akan kamu gunakan Cangkan kapsul ini harus disesuaikan dengan jumlah bahan yang ingin kamu masukkan ke dalamnya dimana, No. ukuran Acetosal dalam gram Nat-bikarbonat dalam gram Nbb* dalam gram 000 1 1,4 1,7 00 0,6 0,9 1,2 0 0,5 0,7 0,9 1 0,3 0,5 0,6 2 0,25 0,4 0,5 3 0,2 0,3 0,4 4 0,15 0,25 0,25 tm kapsul 0,1 0,12 0,12 Salinan Resep ( Copie Resep) Copie Resep adalah salinan tertulis dari suatu resep.

Salinan resep ini ditulis sama dengan informasi yang ada di resep asli yang memuat: • Nama dan alamat apotek • Tm kapsul dan nomor S.I.K. Apoteker pengelola apotek • Tanda tangan atau paraf Apoteker pengelola apotek • Tanda det = detur untuk obat yang sudah tm kapsul, atau tanda ne det = ne detur untuk obat yang belum diserahkan • Nomor resep dan tanggal pembuatan • Tanda pro copie conform (p.c.c.) = sesuai dengan aslinya Salinan resep tidak selalu diberikan kepada pasien Salinan resep diberikan untuk memenuhi suatu keadaan tm kapsul • Jika pasien meminta untuk dibuatkan (namun ditulis det jika obat sudah diberikan semua) • Jika, obat belum diberikan semua (kehabisan stok di apotek) untuk bisa membeli di apotek lain • Jika resep merupakan resep untuk pemakaian berulang ( iter) Perhitungan dosis Sekarang saya akan menuliskan mengenai cara perhitungan dosis dan masalah-masalah yang sering terjadi di dalam perhitungan dosis, tulisan ini akan dibagi-bagi dalam sub-sub topik sesuai permasalahan yang terjadi dalam perhitungan dosis.

Dosis maksimum (DM) – 20 tahun ke atas adalah dosis maksimum yang dapat diberikan untuk dewasa untuk pemakainan melalui mulut, injeksi subkutan, dan rektal. DM umumnya dituliskan seperti ini X mg/ Y mg.

• X menunjukkan dosis maksimum untuk sekali pakai • Y menunjukkan dosis maksimum untuk sehari pakai (sebagai akumulasi maksimum dari X) Jadi, untuk orang dewasa, tidak perlu dikonversi dosis untuk pemakaian mulut ( per oral), langsung dimasukkan DM yang tertera pada literatur.

Dosis lazim (DL) yang menunjukkan jumlah minimal zat untuk dapat memberikan efek terapeutik terhadap tubuh. Dosis adalah jumlah zat yang masuk ke dalam tubuh Ada beberapa rumus yang umum digunakan di dalam perhitungan konversi dosis, Rumus Young (untuk Anak umur 2-8 tahun) : n/n+12 x DMdimana “n” menyatakan umur dalam tahun Rumus Dilling (untuk Anak diatas 8 tahun) : n/20 x DM Rumus Fried (untuk Anak atau Bayi di bawah 2 tahun) : m/150 x DMdimana “m” menyatakan umur dalam bulan Rumus Clark (menghitung dosis berdasarkan berat badan pasien – termasuk dewasa) : w/68 x DMdimana “w” menyatakan berat dalam kg Contoh perhitungan konversi dosis : Penulisan resep tidak harus sama persis seperti yang diatas, bisa berbeda, asalkan tetap memenuhi semua persyaratan resep yang berlaku.

Pertama, kamu analisa terlebih dahulu informasi yang ada di dalam resep maupun kesalahan dalam penulisan suatu resep. Dari resep di atas, diketahui beberapa poin penting • Usia pasien : 2 tahun • Parasetamol 100 mg • Aturan pakai (s.p.r.n.t.d.d.pulv.I) = signa pro renata tres de die pulveres I = aturan pakai, bila perlu 3 kali sehari 1 serbuk. • Terdapat tanda d.t.d. para resep, yang menunjukkan setiap satu sediaan mengandung jumlah zat yang sama seperti yang tertulis di resep.

Usia Susi adalah 2 tahun, maka perlu dilakukan konversi dosis terlebih dahulu dari DM. DM parasetamol : -/4.000 mg Maka digunakan rumus Young, sebagai berikut : • 2/2+12 x DM parasetamol • 2/14 x -/4.000 mg • -/571,428 mg Jadi, maksimum pemakaian parasetamol perhari untuk Susi adalah 571.428 mg. Dihitung jumlah parasetamol perhari yang diresepkan Informasi yang dapat digunakan disini adalah 3 kali sehari 1 bungkus Dalam 1 bungkus terdapat 100 mg parasetamol • Se kali pakai = 100 mg parasetamol • Se hari pakai = 100 mg parasetamol x 3 kali sehari = 300 mg perhari (tidak overdosis) Dihitung persentase dari dosis tersebut dengan: • 300 mg/571,428 mg x 100% • 52,5% Perlu dihitung persentase, karena jika mencapai 80% atau lebih maka peracika obat perlu dilakukan satu persatu, tidak boleh bersamaan diracik untuk mencegah kelebihan dosis yang terjadi.

Untuk dosis maksimum dan dosis lazim suatu zat bisa dilihat langsung di Farmakope Indonesia ed. III (ada di halaman belakang), atau literatur lain. Jika, ada pertanyaan mengenai resep kamu, silahkan tinggalkan komentar dibawah. Dosis Searah (Dosis Kombinasi) Apabila dalam suatu resep terdapat dua atau lebih obat yang mempunyai efek tm kapsul sama, maka dosis-dosis tersebut dihitung sebagai dosis searah.

Hal ini perlu diamati dengan baik, karena kedua zat tersebut mungkin tidak overdosis untuk terbagi, tetapi jika tidak dicek secara baik, dapat menimbulkan overdosis karena terhitung dosis searah.

Dosis searah terjadi, karena dua jenis obat yang memiliki efek yang sama kemungkinan besar akan bekerja di lokasi dan reseptor yang sama pula, jadi perlu dipertimbangkan dosis searah jika mendapat 2 atau lebih zat dengan efek yang sama. Cara menghitung dosis searah tm kapsul mudah, dengan menjumlahkan persentase dosis dari zat-zat tersebut. Jika, hasil penjumlahan dosis, lebih dari 100%, maka overdosis. Jika, setelah sudah dikonversi DM, hasil yang kamu dapat adalah overdosis, maka kamu tinjau terlebih dahulu kesalahannya dimana, cari solusi, dan hubungi dokter penulis resep untuk bertanya.

Perhitungan dosis untuk resep sediaan cair Cara menghitung dosis untuk sediaan cair berbeda lagi dari sediaan yang sudah dari awal terbagi-bagi, seperti pulveres. Penggunaan sediaan cair, umumnya menggunakan sendok takar walau ada pula yang langsung dihabiskan sekali minum, seperti potio effervescent yang akan dijelaskan selanjutnya. Yang paling pertama harus dihafal adalah istilah berikut : • C. (Cochlear) = Sendok Makan, dosis 15 ml • c.p. (cochlear pulvis/parfum) = Sendok Bubur, dosis 8 ml • cth.

(cochlear theae) = Sendok Teh, dosis 5 ml • haus. (haustus) : diminum tm kapsul PERLU DIINGAT! Sendok yang dimaksudkan diatas bukan jenis sendok makan atau sendok teh yang digunakan dirumah sehari-hari, namun sendok takar khusus yang dosisnya sesuai.

Contoh 2 : Coba kamu menganalisa informasi-informasi yang terdapat di dalam resep tersebut. hmm. hmm. Sudah mendapatkan semua informasi yang kamu butuhkan? Bandingkan dengan analisa penulis Dari resep diatas dapat digunakan informasi berikut: • Dalam resep tidak terdapat zat aktif, namun sebuah formula sediaan.

• p.r.n. (pro renata) = bila perlu • 4 dd. C. 1 (quadra de die Cochlear unum) = empat kali sehari, satu sendok makan (15 ml) tm kapsul Umur 20 tahun (dewasa) – tidak perlu dilakukan konversi dosis Namun, agar kamu bisa mengerti konversi dosis untuk sediaan cair, anggap saja umur Tono baru 15 tahun. 1. Hal pertama yang terlihat adalah tidak adanya zat aktif Hal ini bisa terjadi, karena sebagai Apoteker Profesional, kamu dituntut untuk mengetahui formula umum yang digunakan untuk peresepan di Indonesia.

Dapat dilihat dalam buku Formularium Nasional dan Formularium Indonesia. Dalam resep, tertulis Potio Nigra Contra Tussim, terdengar sangat asing memang, namun ini cuma obat yang sering ditemukan di kehidupan sehari-hari.

Potio artinya obat minum, Nigra artinya hitam, Contra artinya melawan atau berlawanan, Tussim artinya batuk. Jadi, Tm kapsul Nigra Contra Tussim  berarti obat minum yang berwarna hitam untuk melawan batuk atau Obat Batuk Hitam (OBH), sudah kenal? Komposisi tiap 300 ml mengandung : • Glycirrhizae Succus          10 gr • Ammonii  Chloridum         6 gr • Ammoniae Anisi Spritus      6 gr • Aqua Destilata               ad 300 ml Selanjutnya dihitung dosisnya tm kapsul sekali pakai sesuai resep dan hanya 1 bahan yang memiliki nilai Dosis Maksimum yaitu Amonium Klorida.

DL Amonium Klorida : 0,5-1/2-4 g DM Amonium Klorida : -/8 g Konversi dosis untuk 15 tahun: Konversi DL = 15/20 tahun x 0,5-1/2-4 g = 0,375-0,75/1,5 – 3 g Konversi DM = 15/20 tahun x -/8 g = -/6 g • Dosis sekali pakai (1 sendok makan) = 15/300 ml x 6 g = 0,3 g (tidak berefek) • Dosis sehari pakai (4 kali sehari) = 0,3 g x 4 = 1,3 g (tidak berefek) Dari perhitungan dosis, didapatkan bahwa dosis sekali pakai dan sehari pakai tidak dapat memberikan efek yang diinginkan, dilihat dari DL (Dosis Lazim) yang ada untuk Amonium Klorida Kalau hal ini terjadi, kamu sebagai Apoteker perlu menghubungi dokter mengenai hal ini, untuk dapat menaikkan dosis sampai tercapai dosis lazim.

Untuk obat-obat wajib apotek (OWA), seorang apoteker dapat menentukan sendiri tanpa perlu harus menanyakan kepada dokter Untuk kasus ini, penulis akan menaikkan dosisnya di resep menjadi 8 g Diulangi kembali perhitungan dosisnya, • Dosis sekali pakai (1 sendok makan) = 15/300 ml x 8 g = 0,4 g (berefek) • Dosis sehari pakai (4 kali sehari) = 0,4 g x 4 = 1,6 g (berefek) • % sehari pakai = 1,6/6 g x 100% =26,67% (tidak overdosis) Jadi, dapat disimpulkan bahwa nantinya sediaan OBH yang kamu buat dapat memberikan efek dalam sekali pakai dan untuk pemakaian dalam sehari.

Pasti kamu bertanya-tanya darimana datangnya angka ini, angka itu dalam perhitungan dosis tersebut, maka kita akan menganalisanya kembali. • Dosis sekali pakai (1 sendok makan) = 15/300 ml x 8 g = 0,4 g (berefek) 15/300 ml merupakan berapa besar volume cairan yang diambil dalam sekali sendok (sendok makan) dibandingkan dengan volume sediaan seluruhnya (300 ml) dan 8 g, merupakan dosis keseluruhan yang dilarutkan (tertera dalam resep) • Dosis sehari pakai (4 kali sehari) = 0,4 g x 4 = 1,6 g (berefek) 0,4 g merupakan hasil perhitungan dosis dalam sekali pakai sebelumnya, karena digunakan 4 kali sehari, dikalikan empat.

• % sehari pakai = 1,6/6 g x 100% =26,67% (tidak overdosis) 1,6/6 g merupakan dosis dalam sehari pemakaian dibandingkan dengan DM sehari pakai yang telah dikonversi. Pada sekali pakai tidak dihitung % sekali pakai, karena tidak tercantum DM sekali pakai untuk Amonium Klorida.

OBH merupakan contoh larutan, artinya semua bahannya dapat terlarut sempurna dalam pelarut (air), sehingga mudah untuk menghitung dosisnya, karena bahannya secara merata terbagi ke dalam pelarut. Bila kamu memiliki resep yang kamu bingungkan, tuliskan di kolom komentar, akan langsung dibantu.

tm kapsul

Peran dari pro tm kapsul diatas, adalah menjelaskan bahwa obat yang diresepkan tidak perlu diminum setiap hari sampai habis, Namun hanya bila perlu saja, tm kapsul timbul batuk lagi. Utamakan perhitungan berat badan dan volume tubuh Dalam menghitung dosis yang tetap untuk pasien, yang paling tepat adalah dengan menggunakan berat badan atau volume tubuh, selain usia. Karena obat yang masuk ke dalam tubuh, akan tersebar secara sistemik ke seluruh tubuh, maka perhitungan massa tubuh sangatlah penting, agar jumlah obat yang tersebar bisa sesuai dengan massa atau volume tubuh pasien, dan memberikan efek yang sesuai pula jika diambil usia pasien, hasil bisa berbeda antar pasien, karena bisa saja ada pasien anak yang tubuhnya besar, begitupula sebaliknya untuk usia tua.

Penurunan kondisi fisiologis tubuh pada manula Hal ini juga menjadi salah satu pertimbangan dalam menghitung tm kapsul, melihat kondisi fisiologis tubuh yang sudah menurun, sehingga dapat menyebabkan perbedaan ADME obat yang terjadi di tubuh pasien.

Sehingga untuk manula, DM perlu disesuaikan sekali lagi, • Usia 60-70 tahun, DM = 4/5 x DM dewasa • Usia 70-80 tahun, DM = 3/4 x DM dewasa • Usia 80-90 tahun, DM = 2/3 x DM dewasa Untuk mencegah terjadinya overdosis pada pasien manula.

Kesalahan dalam penulisan resep Sekali lagi saya ingin tekankan bahwa penulisan resep tidak boleh sembarangan, karena hal ini menyangkut obat apa yang akan dikonsumsi oleh pasien apakah nanti obat tersebut dapat menyembuhkan atau bahkan memperparah penyakit yang ada pada pasien jika, ada kesalahan segera hubungi dokter yang bersangkutan, pahami banyak mengenai bahasa latin, dan teliti dalam menghitung dosis Belajar menyelesaikan resep Kali ini kami akan memberikan kamu beberapa contoh resep yang dapat kamu selesaikan kalau kamu sudah menyerah, ada solusi penyelesaiannya kok dibawah Kami akan terus update contoh-contoh resep disini!

Belajar resep 1 : Mixtura Bromstorum Belajar resep 2 : Larutan kalium permanganat Belajar resep 3 : Kapsul Efedrin HCl + GG Belajar resep 4 : kapsul Codein HCl + GG dan lainnya disini Belajar Contoh Resep Langsung Pintar Jas Putih Tulang milik Apoteker! Salam dari saya Demi Jaya Farmasi dan Apoteker! Indonesia Jaya!

• Klik untuk berbagi di Linkedln(Membuka di jendela yang baru) • Klik untuk berbagi pada Reddit(Membuka di jendela yang baru) • • Klik untuk berbagi pada Tumblr(Membuka di jendela yang baru) • Klik untuk berbagi pada Pinterest(Membuka di jendela yang baru) • • Klik untuk berbagi via Pocket(Membuka di jendela yang baru) • Klik untuk berbagi di Telegram(Membuka di jendela yang baru) • • Klik untuk berbagi di WhatsApp(Membuka di jendela yang baru) • Klik untuk berbagi di Skype(Membuka di jendela yang baru) • • Pertama kamu harus mengerti terlebih dahulu, efek farmakologi dari masing-masing bahan diatas Paracetamol – AINS (efek antipiretik paling kuat atau demam) Amoksisilin – antibiotik CTM – antihistamin (alergi) Ambroxol – mukolitik (pengencer dahak) Nahh dari sini sudah jelas, sebuah resep itu harus jelas, jadi bahan yang tidak diinginkan timbul efek farmakologinya mending jangan dicampurkan Kalau CTM bisa saja dicampur, untuk mencegah batuk flu karena alergi yang terjadi Sekian, semoga bermanfaat 🙂 Suka Suka • selamat pagi, untuk resep searah, cara menyelesaikannya adalah, 1.

Dicek bahan-bahan yang memiliki kesamaan (farmakologi, turunan, jenis, efek yang sama) 2. Semuanya dihitung dosisnya 3. Dosis dan persentase dosisnya dijumlahkan 4. Jika lebih tm kapsul 100% tm kapsul Overdosis Tapi, saya tidak bisa lohat resep kamu, kalai bisa ditulis lengkap Suka Suka • Halo Deby, contoh resep parasetamol di atas terdapat “DTD/ da tales doses” sehingga jumlah/dosis yang tm kapsul pada resep ditujukan untuk 1 buah sediaan, bukan secara keseluruhan, lebih lengkapnya bisa dilihat disini 🙂 https://frdoom.wordpress.com/2017/05/29/langsung-pintar-perhitungan-resep-tanpa-dtd/ Suka Suka • assalamualaikum kak … Ini kan aku ada tm kapsul resep dari kakak tingkat saya nah ini udh saya liat di beberapa cobtoh resep dan jurnal eh saya liat ada yg perhitungan bahan ada juga yg tdkada juga yg ada dosis maksimum nya dan ada juga tdk ada ,dan ini ada juga obat tdk tercamour dan ada juga ada yg tdk .dan ituu kenapa seperti itu kak saya jadi bingung Suka Suka Kirimkan karyamu ke editor.frdoom@gmail.com dan untuk yang karyanya bagus akan diterbitkan dan dapat memperoleh hadiah berupa uang Cari untuk: Bergabung di frdoom.

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Top Posts & Halaman • Cara Cepat Menyelesaikan Resep Tanpa "DTD" • Resep Pulveres Aminofilin + Luminal • Kirim Karyamu! • Resep Pulvis Papaverin HCl + Na. Bic + Mg. Karbonat • Resep Pulvis Asam Salisilat + Mentol + ZnO • Resep Tm kapsul Asam Salisilat + Sulfur + Zno + Talk • Resep Overdosis? Ini 3 Langkah Yang Harus Kamu Lakukan
Apotek Online untuk Beli Obat yang Praktis Kata orang untuk menjaga kesehatan itu sangat mahal sekali, kenapa? Jika sudah sakit maka tidak ada lagi artinya hidup karena anda sudah tidak bisa lagi beraktivitas seperti biasa sehingga juga akan memberikan dampak pada semua aspek kehidupan anda.

Apalagi hidup di Indonesia yang masih banyak lingkungan tidak sehat sehingga bisa memberikan penyakit apa saja pada kita. Maka dari itu penting untuk terus menjaga kesehatan. Salah satunya caranya adalah dengan beli obat di apotek online dengan mudah dan praktis agar tubuh tetap sehat dan bugar. Kini sudah banyak apotik terdekat dari lokasi Anda yang bisa diandalkan ketika ingin membeli obat secara online. Jadi tidak perlu lama menunggu untuk pengiriman.

Keuntungan dalam membeli sebuah obat dari apotik online adalah Tm kapsul akan terkoneksi dengan banyak apotik terdekat dari posisi Anda. Misalkan Anda sedang berada di kantor, dengan memesan obat secara online, tentu obat akan langsung dikirim dari apotik paling dekat dengan kantor Anda.

Begitu juga jika Anda sedang berada di luar kota, maka kami juga akan mengirimkan obat yang Anda pesan langsung dari apotik terdekat dari posisi Anda pada kota itu. Maka dari itu, kini untuk mendapatkan obat apa saja akan semakin mudah tm kapsul cara online ini, sebab obat tidak akan dikirim dari satu tempat saja, tapi terkoneksi dengan banyak apotik yang ada di seluruh Tm kapsul.

Cara untuk jaga kesehatan tentu tidak hanya dengan beli obat secara online, bisa dengan menjalani gaya hidup sehat atau kecepatan dalam mengobati penyakit tertentu agar tidak terus menjadi buruk.

Namun memang penyakit datang tidak bisa dikira-kira, banyak yang sudah menjalani hidup sehat tapi penyakit tetap saja ada. Maka dari itu perlu persiapan yang matang untuk dapat menyembuhkan penyakit secara cepat. Bicara masalah kecepatan dan kepraktisan, apotik terdekat serta online selalu siap mendukung hidup sehat Anda. Seiring perkembangan teknologi dan inovasi, kini apapun menjadi sangat mudah dan praktis.

Termasuk dalam beli obat di apotek online. Anda bisa memesan obat apa saja berdasarkan resep dokter hanya dari telepon tm kapsul atau chat aplikasi. Apotik online merupakan inovasi terbesar karena adanya gratis biaya kirim ke tm kapsul Indonesia, maka dari itu pesan obat kini semakin mudah mau dikirim kemana saja dan tentunya murah.

Anda bisa menemukan berbagai macam obat yang bisa dibeli secara online, seperti obat batuk dan flu, alat kontrasepsi dan hormon, obat jantung, obat alergi, vitamin dan suplemen, obat demam, obat kolesterol, obat asma, obat diabetes, obat herbal, dan masih banyak lagi yang lainnya. Pastikan kesehatan Anda tetap terjaga dengan beli obat secara mudah dan praktis melalui apotik online yang ada di HDmall.

Keuntungan Apotik Online untuk Kesehatan Anda Penyakit bisa datang kapan saja, tidak kenal tempat dan waktu. Belum lagi kalau anda sedang di luar kota, terkadang kita tidak tahu dimana toko apotek terdekat berada. Tidak hanya itu, dengan inovasi teknologi, anda juga bisa melakukan konsultasi dokter secara online sehingga diagnosa penyakit dapat diketahui dengan cepat tanpa mesti ke rumah sakit.

Apalagi jika apotik yang terdekat dari lokasi Anda bisa pesan obat secara online, tentu saja hal ini menjadi keuntungan tersendiri. Dengan konsultasi dokter ini, lalu anda akan mendapatkan resep obat yang kemudian akan langsung diantarkan ke rumah anda.

Nah, untuk tahu langsung keuntungan menggunakan apotek online dari toko kesehatan masa kini, yuk kita cek di bawah: • Memudahkan pasien untuk membeli obat, baik itu aplikasi maupun website sehingga penyakit bisa langsung diatasi tanpa perlu makan waktu lama • Kerahasiaan penyakit antara pasien dan dokter lebih terjaga sebab semua konsultasi dilakukan secara online yang kerahasiaannya terjaga dengan baik • Bagi pasien bisa menghemat pengeluaran dan waktu sebab tidak perlu mengunjungi dokter atau beli obat secara langsung ke toko kesehatan • Pasien bisa lebih puas untuk melakukan konsultasi pada dokter tanpa dikejar waktu, begitu juga dokter bisa bebas berkomunikasi tentang penyakit pasien • Keluarga pasien yang sedang dilanda penyakit tidak perlu khawatir, sebab pasien bisa segera tahu langkah apa yang akan diambil untuk mengobati penyakitnya • Obat yang dibeli secara online akan lebih terjamin sebab sudah diverifikasi dengan baik • Anda sebagai pasien juga bisa melihat riwayat penyakit dan obat apa saja yang telah dipesan pada hari lalu sehingga terdokumentasikan dengan baik • Ada juga pengingat minum obat melalui aplikasi setelah anda memesan obat yang telah diresepkan oleh dokter Pengiriman Obat Terjamin dari Hdmall Demi memuaskan Anda dalam belanja online bersama HDmall, kami memberikan banyak pelayanan terbaik, salah satunya adalah pengiriman obat.

HDmall memberikan gratis ongkir seluruh Indonesia dengan maksimal biaya kirim 30.000 rupiah. Lalu apa saja kurir pengiriman yang ada di HDmall? HDmall bisa mengirimkan pesanan obat ke kota apa saja? Serta berapa lama pengiriman akan tiba di alamat rumah Anda? Tentu pertanyaan ini menjadi sangat penting agar Anda bisa tahu betapa bagusnya layanan dari HDmall.

Untuk menjawab pertanyaan Anda, berikut penjelasannya di bawah: Kirim Obat Ke Area Jakarta dan Sekitarnya • Go Send (3 jam) • Westbike messenger (6-8 jam) • JET express (12 jam) • Pos Indonesia (24 jam) • JNE (24 jam) • J&T (3 hari) • Wahana (3 hari) Tm kapsul Obat Ke Area Yogyakarta Kota • Go Send (3 jam) • JET express (12 jam) • Pos Indonesia (24 jam) • JNE (24 jam) • J&T (3 hari) • Wahana (3 hari) Kirim Obat Ke Area Kab. Sleman • Go Send (3 jam) • JET express (12 jam) • Pos Indonesia (24 jam) • JNE (24 jam) • J&T (3 hari) • Wahana (3 hari) Kirim Obat Ke Area Kab.

Bantul • Go Send (3 jam) • JET express (12 jam) • Pos Indonesia (24 jam) • JNE (24 jam) • J&T (3 hari) • Wahana (3 hari) Kirim Obat Ke Area Kota Bogor • Go Send (3 jam) • JET express (12 jam) • Pos Indonesia (24 jam) • JNE (24 jam) • J&T (3 hari) • Wahana (3 hari) Kirim Obat Ke Area Kota Depok • Go Send (3 jam) • JET express (12 jam) • Pos Indonesia (24 jam) • JNE (24 jam) • J&T (3 hari) • Wahana (3 hari) Kirim Obat Ke Area Kota Tangerang • Go Send (3 jam) • JET express (12 jam) • Pos Indonesia (24 jam) • JNE (24 jam) • J&T (3 hari) • Wahana (3 hari) Kirim Obat Ke Area Pulau Jawa • Go Send (*3 jam) • Pos Indonesia (7 hari) • J&T (7 hari) Kirim Obat Ke Area Pulau Sumatera • Go Send (*3 jam) • Pos Indonesia (7-14 hari) • Tm kapsul (7-14 hari) Kirim Obat Ke Area Pulau Kalimantan • Go Send (*3 jam) • Pos Indonesia (7-14 hari) • J&T (7-14 hari) Kirim Obat Ke Area Pulau Bali • Go Send (*3 jam) • Pos Indonesia (7-14 hari) • J&T (7-14 hari) Kirim Obat Ke Area Lombok, NTB, NTT • Pos Indonesia (14-21 hari) • J&T (14-21 hari) Kirim Obat Ke Area Pulau Sulawesi • Go Send (*3 jam) • Pos Indonesia (14-21 hari) • Tm kapsul (14-21 hari) Kirim Obat Ke Area Maluku & Papua • Pos Indonesia (1-2 bulan) • J&T (1-2 bulan) Toko Kesehatan Online di Genggaman Anda Toko kesehatan kini telah banyak menyediakan beli obat secara online, salah satunya adalah HDmall.

Kami tidak hanya memberikan kemudahan pada anda untuk membeli obat atau konsultasi online, tapi kami juga menyediakan berbagai macam informasi penting mengenai kesehatan sehingga anda bisa mencegah berbagai macam penyakit yang mungkin bisa saja terjadi pada masa mendatang. HDmall sebagai apotik online dan terdekat dari lokasi Anda hadir sebagai solusi kesehatan yang bisa diandalkan kapan saja.

Tidak hanya itu, anda juga bisa melihat berbagai macam review rumah sakit terbaik untuk dijadikan perbandingan. Honestdocs hadir di Indonesia untuk tujuan yang mulia, yakni membuat Indonesia sejahtera dengan semakin sadar akan gaya hidup yang sehat.

Dengan begitu, gaya hidup sehat ini akan menular ke tempat-tempat lain. Beberapa obat dari apotek online yang dapat kami kirimkan kepada Anda: • Requip PD 24Hour 8 mg Tab 28S • Polacel Tab 100S • Postinor • Fargoxin 0,25 mg Tab • Fosrenol Tab 90S • Afolat Tab 100S • Vitamin B6 KF 10 mg Tab 1000S • Pyrazinamide Dexa 500 mg Tab 100S • Ricovir 300 mg Tab 30S • Thiamycin 500 mg Cap • Lincophar 500 mg • Mefinal 500 mg Tab • Tetrasanbe 500 mg • Rytmonorm 150 mg Tab • Fresubin Vanilla 200 ml • Dan lainnya Apa Kata Konsumen Tentang Kami?

(Termasuk dari Profil Akun Google Bisnis Kami) • Sangat membantu 👍👍👍👍 • Makasih honestdocs saya sangat terbantu sekali krna obat sy sdh cari2 kmna sangat sulit tapi alhamdulillah dengan adanya honestdocs sy bisa dptkan obtx.sngat amanah dan terpercaya barangx juga cepet smpai kurirx ramah🙏🏻🙏🏻 • Terima kasih honestdocs semoga sukses selalu karena saya terbantu dengan ada nya toko obat online • Pelayanan cepat, ramah, dan sangat membantu utk pencarian obat.

Bahkan bisa request tempat utk pembelian obat nya agar tdk terlalu jauh dari lokasi. • Terbantu banget dengan adanya HonestDocs saat tm kapsul lagi nyari obat yg susah dicari. Obatnya jg cepet sampenya. 😄🙏Makasi banyak ya. Padahal saya cerewet banget, karena masih tm kapsul pake layanan ini. Eh, ternyata adminnya tetep sabar dan ramah. Proses pendataannya juga cepet. Sukses selalu buat HonestDocs • Sangat baik dan ramah,dan pengiriman cepat,produknya baik.pengemasan baik😊😊😊 • Layanan fast response • Sangat membantu, sangat bermanfaat.

pelayanan cepat, responsif, informatif, solutif dan ramah. Terima kasih, tm kapsul dan sehat selalu. N.b : saya pesan obat utk keluarga yg di luar kota, ternyata sangat bisa dan cepat. Salut! • Respon cepat, pengiriman cepat sangat bagus dan sangat membantu sekali. • Proses cepat • Respon cepet, ga ribet ga perlu ke apotek ngantri. makasih honestdocs🥰🥰🥰 • Adminnya fast response, pengiriman jga cepat • Jaga jarak jaga kesehatan pesan saja obat obatan yang ada butuhkan dari sini.

Tak perlu keluar rumah deh. Terimakasih my honey HonestDocs 🙏 • Responsif, memberikan berbagai alternatif dan biaya sebanding dengan pelayanannya • Recommended Seller.!!! • Pertama kali beli obat disini. Simple, tanya-tanya stok trs dibantu pemesanan by WhatsApp kemudian dikonfirmasi pembayarannya.

Satu hari kemudian sudah diterima. Kalian sangat membantu saya. Terimakasih. • Pengalaman pertama membeli via HonestDocs, sangat responsif, harga bersaing dengan yang lain & kebetulan pengiriman jg cepat. Thank you • Senengnya lagi gk bs kemana manaada honestdocs yg membantu mencarikan obat yg saya butuhkan. Terima kasih ya • Mantulll sekali pesen lsg kirim 👍🏻⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️ • Sesuai pesanan dan cepat.

👍😊 • Membantu sekali.dan obat yg tidak ada pun dicarikan • Layanan di prima • Terima kasih HonestDocs, sangat dibantu sekali • Pengiriman cepat • Sangat membantu dan pelayanan sangatlah baik fast respon.sukses selalu • So helpfull n quite fast respond • Respon cepat n ramah, pengiriman cepat, produk lmyn komplit Makasiiiihhh 👃 • Obat yang datang sesuai yang diharapkan.

Keep up the good work! • Sangat membantu saat kita kesulitan mencari obat, pengiriman juga cepat.terima kasih HonestDoc • Pelayanan ramah dan cepat, trima kasi semoga berkah selalu😊 • Super helpful and easy to use • Verry good servise.

• Sesuai • Pelayannan cepet bgt.the best pokoknya.makasih ya honestdocs • Response admin baik, pengiriman baik, packing rapi • Terima kasih.pelayanannya cepat.

• I didn't expect to find this practical application, the ordering process until the payment is very easy. And the shipping is very fast too! thanks. • Recommended seller.👍👍👍 • Pengiriman tepat waktu. • Bagus, terpercaya • Respon sangat cepat. Trims • Bismilah semoga asiku berlimpah amin • Fast respon, saya sudah ngerasainnya, bageur pisan da admin nya juga • Nice support 👍 • Mudah sekali applikasinya dan tdk bertele2.

Respon cepat pula. Buat saya di luar negeri, adanya servis seperti ini di Indonesia, sungguh memuaskan. • Super mantaap👍👍 Respon seller & pengiriman super cepat👍👍 Terima kasih ya kak😊👍 • Sangat bagus hitungan beberapa menit lgsg proses langsung dikirim • Cukup membantu untuk sy yg kebetulan lagi diluar kota perlu obat dadakan.tapi respon nya kurang cepat z (lama balas chat)semoga kedepannya lebih baik pelayanan nya.makasih 🙏 • Pengiriman cepat,kurirnya juga ramah.terimakasih untuk pelayanan nya baik sekali.

• Untuk pelayanan bagus cepat.dan ramah orang nya.seneng belanja disini lagi saat saat butuh bgt obatnya langsung bisa diantar.terima kasih ya sukses selalu • Pesanan dtg tepat waktu. pelayanan oke. • Sangat membantu skali untuk yg sangat sibuk gak sempat ke dokter dan antri 😍😍😍😍 • Terima kasih.pengirimannya cepat. • Alhamdulillah nyampenya cepet😍 • Respon cepat • Heihei helpful,informatif daaaaaan ramah bangetttt tm kapsul Pelayanan bagus, pengantaran juga cepat 👍 • Proses pengiriman nya cepat • Alhamdulillah gak lama,kemarin langsung di kirim,terimakasih • Pesan pagi, siang sampai 👍 • Fast response and excellent service!

Most importantly, legit and high quality products • Fast respons, thanks. • Top bgt. • Terima kasih,honest docs obat yang dibutuhkan cepat terkirim dan bisa bayar ditempat😊 • Respon cepat dan pengirimannya juga cepat. • Pelayanan baik. Obat yg dicaripun ada, bisa free konsultasi hehehe • Tepat dan cepat • Pengiriman sesuai target trims, tidak mengecewakan,pokonya mantul bangeeeeeeeeeeeet😊 • Terima kasih obat sdh diterima • Pengiriman cepat. Obat sesuai pesanan.

Trima kasih HonestDocs • Cepat tanggap dan sangat membantu! Fast respond! • Pelayanan cepat, akomodatif dan pengiriman barang cepat plus gratis ongkir. terima kasih • Sudah 2x beli si Honestdocs di bantu konsultasi juga. Jika obat yang dicari tidak ada, di rekomendasikan obat lain dengan fungsi yang sama.

Terima Kasih none
Volodymyr Oleksandrovych Zelenskyy (lahir 25 Januari 1978) ialah pelakon, pelawak, pengarah filem dan ahli politik dari Ukraine. Beliau ialah Presiden semasa negara tersebut dan yang ke-6.

Zelenskyy merupakan bekas pelawak dan pelakon. Zelenskyy dibesarkan sebagai penutur asli Bahasa Rusia di Kryvyi Rih, bandar tm kapsul Oblast Dnipropetrovsk di tengah Ukraine. Sebelum kerjaya lakonannya, beliau memperoleh ijazah dalam bidang undang-undang dari Universiti Ekonomi Kebangsaan Kyiv. Beliau kemudiannya mengikuti komedi dan mencipta syarikat produksi Studio Kvartal 95, yang menghasilkan filem, kartun dan rancangan TV termasuk siri TV Sluha Narodu, di tm kapsul Zelenskyy memainkan peranan sebagai presiden Ukraine.

Siri ini disiarkan dari 2015 hingga 2019 dan sangat popular. Sebuah parti politik yang mempunyai nama yang tm kapsul dengan rancangan televisyen itu diwujudkan pada Mac 2018 oleh kakitangan Kvartal 95. ( Rencana penuh.) • Dalam badminton, Lee Zii Jia ( gambar) muncul juara perseorangan lelaki Kejohanan Badminton Asia, Wang Zhiyi perseorangan wanita, Kusumawardana/ Rembitan beregu lelaki, Chen/ Jia beregu wanita, dan Zheng/ Huang beregu campuran. • Dritan Abazović dipilih sebagai Perdana Menteri Montenegro yang baharu oleh Parlimen Montenegro.

• Lembaga pengarah Twitter terima tawaran pengambilalihan daripada Elon Musk. • Gerakan Kebebasan, diketuai oleh Robert Golob, meraih kerusi terbanyak dalam pilihan raya parlimen Slovenia.

• . bahawa Gambar rajah Venn dikatakan dicipta oleh Leonhard Euler dan John Venn hanya memperkenalkannya sahaja? • ". bahawa orang Belanda tm kapsul zaman dahulu sekitar sebelum abad ke-13, amat sensitif terhadap bencana banjir sehingga semua kanak-kanak perlu belajar berenang agar dapat menyelamatkan diri apabila berlakunya banjir sebelum Projek Delta disiapkan pada Ogos 2010?" tm kapsul .

bahawa intelektual sering dikaitkan dengan mereka yang berkelulusan universiti, namun hakikatnya tidak semudah itu? • ". bahawa dengan horcrux, seorang ahli sihir dapat hidup dengan sangat lama selagi horcrux itu kekal utuh?" • ". bahawa iklim tidak berubah semasa hayat seseorang insan di suatu lokasi geografi?" • 1429 – Pengepungan Orléans: Askar-askar Perancis pimpinan Jeanne d'Arc mematahkan pengepungan Inggeris dan mengubah nasib Perang Seratus Tahun. • 1541 – Ekspedisi yang diketuai konkuistador Sepanyol Hernando de Soto tiba di Sungai Mississippi.

• 1794 – Pemerintahan Ganas: Ahli kimia dan ekonomi Perancis Antoine Lavoisier (gambar) dibicarakan, disabitkan bersalah dan digilotin pada hari yang sama. • 1902 – Letusan Gunung Pelée memusnahkan bandar Saint-Pierre, Martinique, Antilles Kecil, membunuh lebih 30,000 orang. • 1945 – Kebanyakan angkatan tentera di bawah kuasa Jerman menamatkan operasi aktif pada 23:01 CET, menandakan tamatnya Perang Dunia Kedua di Eropah.

Hari-hari sebelum: 7 Mei – 6 Mei – 5 Mei Syiling dua sen telah dihasilkan oleh Kilang Wang Amerika Syarikat untuk peredaran dari tahun 1864 hingga 1872 dan untuk para pengumpul pada 1873. Direka oleh James B. Longacre, pencetakan duit syiling ini dikurangkan setiap tahun kerana syiling kecil seperti nikel menjadi lebih digemari. Ia kemudiannya dihapuskan oleh Akta Duit Syiling 1873.

Reka bentuk oleh James B. Longacre; gambar diambil oleh Brandon Grossardt • Lebih 1,000,000 rencana: English (Bahasa Inggeris) • svenska (Bahasa Sweden) • Deutsch (Bahasa Jerman) • Nederlands (Bahasa Belanda) • français (Bahasa Perancis) • pyccкий (Bahasa Rusia) • italiano (Bahasa Itali) • español (Bahasa Sepanyol) • polski (Bahasa Poland) • Tiếng Việt (Bahasa Vietnam) • 日本語 (Bahasa Jepun) • Lebih 250,000 rencana: português (Bahasa Portugis) • 中文 (Bahasa Cina) • Українська (Bahasa Ukraine) • Català (Bahasa Catalonia) • فارسی (Bahasa Parsi) • norsk (bokmål) (Bahasa Norway (Bokmål)) • Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски (Bahasa Serbo-Croatia) • العربية (Bahasa Arab) • suomi (Bahasa Finland) • magyar (Bahasa Hungary) • Bahasa Indonesia (Bahasa Indonesia) • română (Bahasa Romania) • čeština (Bahasa Czech) • 한국어 (Bahasa Korea) • српски / srpski (Bahasa Serbia) • Türkçe (Bahasa Turki) • euskara (Bahasa Basque) • Lebih 100,000 rencana: Esperanto (Bahasa Esperanto) • Български (Bahasa Bulgaria) • dansk (Bahasa Denmark) • Bahaso Minangkabau (Bahasa Minangkabau) • Қазақша (Bahasa Kazakh) • slovenčina (Bahasa Slovak) • Հայերեն (Bahasa Armenia) • Bân-lâm-gú / 閩南語 (Bahasa Hokkien) • עברית (Bahasa Ibrani) • lietuvių (Bahasa Lithuania) • hrvatski (Bahasa Croatia) • Нохчийн (Bahasa Chechen) • slovenščina (Bahasa Slovenia) • eesti (Bahasa Estonia) • galego (Bahasa Galicia) • nynorsk (Bahasa Norway (Nynorsk)) • O‘zbek (Bahasa Uzbek) • Latina (Bahasa Latin) • Ελληνικά (Bahasa Yunani) • Беларуская (Bahasa Belarus) • Simple English (Bahasa Inggeris (bentuk mudah)) • Volapük (Bahasa Volapuk) • हिन्द (Bahasa Hindi) • ไทย (Bahasa Thai) • Azərbaycanca (Bahasa Azerbaijan) • ქართული (Bahasa Georgia) • اردو (Bahasa Urdu) • Lebih 50,000 rencana: தமிழ (Bahasa Tamil) • Cymraeg (Bahasa Wales) • Македонски (Bahasa Macedonia) • Occitan (Bahasa Occitan) • Malagasy (Bahasa Malagasy) • latviešu (Bahasa Latvia) • bosanski (Bahasa Bosnia) • नेपाल भाषा (Bahasa Newar) • Tatarça / Татарча (Bahasa Tatar) • Тоҷикӣ (Bahasa Tajik) tm kapsul తెలుగు (Bahasa Telugu) • Tagalog (Bahasa Tagalog) • piemontèis (Bahasa Piedmont) • Shqip (Bahasa Albania) • Brezhoneg (Bahasa Breton) • Кыргызча / قىرعىزچا (Bahasa Kyrgyz) • Беларуская (тарашкевіца) (Bahasa Belarus (Taraškievica)) • Krèyol ayisyen (Bahasa Haiti) • 粵語 (Bahasa Kantonis) • Acèh • Адыгабзэ • Адыгэбзэ • Afrikaans • Akan • Alemannisch • Алтай тил • አማርኛ • Anarâškielâ • Ænglisc • Аԥсшәа • العربية • Aragonés • ܐܪܡܝܐ • Արեւմտահայերէն • Armãneashti • Arpetan • অসমীয়া • Asturianu • Atikamekw • अवधी • Avañe'ẽ • Авар • Aymar aru • Tm kapsul • تۆرکجه • Bahasa Hulontalo • Bahasa Indonesia • Basa Bali • Bamanankan • বাংলা • Banjar • Bân-lâm-gú • Basa Banyumasan • Башҡортса • Беларуская • Беларуская (тарашкевіца) • Madhurâ • भोजपुरी • Bikol Central • Bislama • Boarisch • བོད་ཡིག • Bosanski • Brezhoneg • ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ • Български tm kapsul Буряад • Català • Cebuano • Чӑвашла • Čeština • Chamoru • Chavacano de Zamboanga • Chi-Chewa • ChiShona • ChiTumbuka • Choctaw • Corsu • Cymraeg • Dansk • الدارجة • Davvisámegiella • Deitsch • Deutsch • ދިވެހިބަސް • Diné bizaad • Dolnoserbski • Dorerin Naoero • डोटेली tm kapsul ཇོང་ཁ • Eesti • Ελληνικά • Emiliàn e rumagnòl • English • Эрзянь • Español • Esperanto • Estremeñu • Euskara • Eʋegbe • فارسی • Fiji Hindi • Føroyskt • Français • Frysk • Fulfulde • Furlan • Gaeilge • Gaelg • Gagana Samoa • Gagauz • Gàidhlig • Galego • ГӀалгӀай • 贛語 • Gĩkũyũ • گیلکی • ગુજરાતી • 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺 • गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni • 客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî • Хальмг • 한국어 • Hausa • Hawaiʻi • Հայերեն • हिन्दी • Hiri Motu • Hornjoserbsce • Hrvatski • Ido • Igbo • Ilokano • বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী • Interlingua • Interlingue • tm kapsul • Iñupiak • Ирон • IsiXhosa • IsiZulu • Íslenska • Italiano • עברית • Jawa • Kabɩyɛ • Kalaallisut • ಕನ್ನಡ • Kanuri • Kapampangan • Къарачай-малкъар • ქართული • कॉशुर / کٲشُر • Kaszëbsczi • Tm kapsul • Kernowek • Ikinyarwanda • Кыргызча • Ikirundi • Кырык мары • Kiswahili • Коми • Kongo • Tm kapsul • Kreyòl ayisyen • Kriyòl gwiyannen • Kurdî • Kwanyama • Ladin • Ladino • Лакку • ລາວ • Latina • لۊری شومالی • Latgaļu • Latviešu • Lea faka-Tonga • Lëtzebuergesch • Лезги • Lietuvių • Li Niha • Ligure • Limburgs tm kapsul Lingála • Lingua Franca Nova • Livvinkarjala • Tm kapsul .lojban.

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• Vision loss • eye pain • mid-dilated pupil tm kapsul redness of the eye • nausea [1] [2] Usual onset Gradual, or sudden [2] Risk factors Increased pressure in the eye, family history, high blood pressure [1] Diagnostic method Dilated eye examination [1] Differential diagnosis Uveitis, trauma, keratitis, conjunctivitis [3] Treatment Medication, laser, surgery [1] Frequency 6–67 million [2] [4] Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that result in damage to the optic nerve (or retina [5]) and cause vision loss.

[1] The most common type is open-angle (wide angle, chronic simple) glaucoma, in which the drainage angle for fluid within the eye remains open, with less common types including closed-angle (narrow angle, acute congestive) glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma.

[1] Open-angle glaucoma develops slowly over time and tm kapsul is no pain. [1] Peripheral vision may begin to decrease, followed by central vision, resulting in blindness if not treated. [1] Closed-angle glaucoma can present gradually or suddenly. [2] The sudden presentation may involve severe eye pain, blurred vision, mid-dilated pupil, redness of the eye, and nausea. [1] [2] Vision loss from glaucoma, once it has occurred, is permanent. [1] Eyes affected by glaucoma are referred to as being glaucomatous.

Risk factors for glaucoma include increasing age, high pressure in the eye, a family history of glaucoma, and use of steroid medication. [1] For eye pressures, a value of 21 mmHg or 2.8 kPa above atmospheric pressure (760 mmHg) is often used, with higher pressures leading to a greater risk. [2] [6] However, some may have high eye pressure for years and never develop damage.

[2] Conversely, optic nerve damage may occur with normal pressure, known as normal-tension glaucoma. [7] The mechanism of open-angle tm kapsul is believed to be the slow exit of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork, while in closed-angle glaucoma the iris blocks the trabecular meshwork. [2] Diagnosis is achieved by performing a dilated eye examination. [1] Often, the optic nerve shows an abnormal amount of cupping.

[2] If treated early, it is possible to slow or stop the progression of disease with medication, laser treatment, or surgery. [1] [8] The goal of these treatments is to decrease eye pressure. [2] A number of different classes of glaucoma medication are available. [2] Laser treatments may be effective in both open-angle and closed-angle glaucoma. [2] A tm kapsul of types of glaucoma surgeries may be used in people who do not respond sufficiently to other measures.

[2] Treatment of closed-angle glaucoma is a medical emergency. [1] About 70 million people have glaucoma globally, [2] [4] with about two million patients in the United States. [2] It occurs more commonly among older people, [1] and closed-angle glaucoma is more common in women. [2] Glaucoma has been called the "silent thief of sight", because the loss of vision usually occurs slowly over a long period of time.

[9] Worldwide, glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness after cataracts. [2] [10] Cataracts caused 51% of blindness in 2010, while glaucoma caused 8%. [11] The word "glaucoma" is from the Ancient Greek glaukos, which means "shimmering." [12] In English, the word was used as early as 1587 but did not become commonly used until after 1850, when the development of the ophthalmoscope allowed doctors to see the optic nerve damage.

[13] Contents • 1 Signs and symptoms • 2 Causes • 2.1 Dietary • 2.2 Ethnicity • 2.3 Genetics • 2.4 Other • 3 Pathophysiology • 4 Diagnosis • 4.1 Primary glaucoma and its variants • 4.2 Developmental glaucoma • 4.3 Secondary glaucoma • 4.4 Absolute glaucoma • 4.5 Types • 5 Visual field defects in glaucoma • 6 Screening • 7 Treatment • 7.1 Medication • 7.2 Laser • 7.3 Surgery • 7.3.1 Canaloplasty • 7.3.2 Trabeculectomy • 7.3.3 Glaucoma drainage implants • 7.3.4 Laser-assisted nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy • 7.3.5 Lens extraction • 8 Prognosis • 9 Epidemiology • 10 History • 10.1 Etymology • 11 Research • 11.1 Rho kinase inhibitors • 11.2 Neuroprotective agents • 11.3 Cannabis • 12 References • 13 External links Signs and symptoms [ edit ] Photo showing conjunctival vessels dilated at the corneal edge (ciliary flush, circumcorneal flush) and hazy cornea characteristic of acute angle closure glaucoma As open-angle glaucoma is usually painless with no symptoms early in the disease process, screening through regular eye exams is important.

The only signs are gradually progressive visual field loss and optic nerve changes (increased cup-to-disc ratio on fundoscopic examination). About 10% of people with closed angles present with acute angle closure characterized by sudden ocular pain, seeing halos around lights, red eye, very high intraocular pressure (>30 mmHg (4.0 kPa)), nausea and vomiting, suddenly decreased vision, and a fixed, mid-dilated pupil. It is also associated with an oval pupil in some cases. Acute angle closure is an emergency.

Opaque specks may occur in the lens in glaucoma, known as glaukomflecken. [14] Causes [ edit ] The same view with advanced vision loss from glaucoma Ocular hypertension (increased pressure within the eye) is the most important risk factor for glaucoma, but only about 50% of people with primary open-angle glaucoma actually have elevated ocular pressure. [15] Ocular hypertension—an intraocular pressure above the traditional threshold of 21 tm kapsul (2.8 kPa) or even above 24 mmHg (3.2 kPa)—is not necessarily a pathological condition, but it increases the risk of developing glaucoma.

One study found a conversion rate of 18% within five years, meaning fewer than one in five people with elevated intraocular pressure will develop glaucomatous visual field loss over that period of time.

[16] It is a matter of debate whether every person with an elevated intraocular pressure should receive glaucoma therapy; currently, most ophthalmologists favor treatment of those with additional risk factors. [17] Open-angle glaucoma accounts for 90% of glaucoma cases in the United States. Closed-angle glaucoma accounts for fewer than 10% of glaucoma cases in the United States, but as many as half of glaucoma cases in other nations (particularly East Asian countries).

Dietary [ edit ] No clear evidence indicates tm kapsul vitamin deficiencies cause glaucoma in humans. As such, oral vitamin supplementation is not a recommended treatment. [18] Caffeine increases intraocular pressure in those with glaucoma, but does not appear to affect normal individuals. [19] Ethnicity [ edit ] Many people of East Asian descent are prone to developing angle closure glaucoma because of shallower anterior chamber depths, with the majority of cases of glaucoma in this population consisting of some form of angle closure.

[20] Higher rates of glaucoma have also been reported for Inuit populations, compared to White populations, in Canada and Greenland. [ citation needed] Genetics [ edit ] Positive family history is a risk factor for glaucoma.

The relative risk of having primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is increased tm kapsul two- to four-fold for people who have a sibling with glaucoma. [21] Glaucoma, particularly primary open-angle glaucoma, is associated with mutations in several genes, including MYOC, ASB10, WDR36, NTF4, TBK1, [22] and RPGRIP1, [23] although most cases of glaucoma do not involve these genetic mutations.

Normal-tension glaucoma, which comprises one-third of POAG, is also associated with genetic mutations (including OPA1 and OPTN genes). [24] Various rare congenital/genetic eye malformations are associated with glaucoma. Occasionally, failure of the normal third-trimester gestational atrophy of the hyaloid canal and the tunica vasculosa lentis is associated with other anomalies. Angle closure-induced ocular hypertension and glaucomatous optic neuropathy may also occur with these anomalies [25] [26] [27] and has been modelled in mice.

[28] Other [ edit ] Other factors can cause glaucoma, known as "secondary glaucoma", including prolonged use of steroids (steroid-induced glaucoma); conditions that severely restrict blood flow to the eye, such as severe diabetic retinopathy and central retinal vein occlusion (neovascular glaucoma); ocular trauma (angle-recession glaucoma); and inflammation of the middle layer of the pigmented vascular eye structure ( uveitis), known as uveitic glaucoma.

Human eye cross-sectional view The underlying cause of open-angle glaucoma remains unclear. Several theories exist on its exact etiology. However, the major risk factor for most glaucomas and the focus tm kapsul treatment is increased intraocular pressure. Intraocular pressure is a function of production of liquid aqueous humor by the ciliary processes of the eye, and its drainage through the trabecular meshwork.

Aqueous humor flows from the ciliary processes into the posterior chamber, bounded posteriorly by the lens and the zonules of Zinn, and anteriorly by the iris. It then flows through the pupil of the iris into the anterior chamber, bounded posteriorly by the iris and anteriorly by the cornea. From here, the trabecular meshwork drains aqueous humor via the scleral venous sinus ( Schlemm's canal) into scleral plexuses and general blood circulation.

[30] In open/wide-angle glaucoma, flow is reduced through the trabecular meshwork, due to the degeneration and obstruction of the trabecular meshwork, whose original tm kapsul is to absorb the aqueous humor. Loss of aqueous humor absorption leads to increased resistance and thus a chronic, painless buildup of pressure in the eye.

[31] In close/narrow-angle, the iridocorneal angle is completely closed because of forward displacement of the final roll and root of the iris against the cornea, resulting in the inability of the aqueous fluid to flow from the posterior to the anterior chamber and then out of the trabecular network. This accumulation of aqueous humor causes an acute increase in pressure and pain.

Degeneration of axons of the retinal ganglion cells (the optic nerve) is a hallmark of glaucoma. [32] The inconsistent relationship of glaucomatous optic neuropathy with increased intraocular pressure has provoked hypotheses tm kapsul studies on anatomic structure, eye development, nerve compression trauma, optic nerve blood flow, excitatory neurotransmitter, trophic factor, retinal ganglion cell/axon degeneration, glial support cell, immune system, aging mechanisms of neuron loss, and severing of the nerve fibers at the scleral edge.

[33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] Diagnosis [ edit ] Optic nerve in advanced glaucoma disease Screening for glaucoma is usually performed as part of a standard eye examination performed by optometrists and ophthalmologists. Testing for glaucoma includes measurements of the intraocular pressure using tonometry, [44] anterior chamber angle examination or gonioscopy as well as examination of the optic nerve to discern visible damage, changes in the cup-to-disc ratio, rim appearance and vascular change.

A formal visual field test is performed. The retinal nerve fiber layer can be assessed with imaging techniques such as optical coherence tomography, scanning laser polarimetry or scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg retinal tomogram).

[45] [46] [47] Visual field loss is the most specific sign of the condition, though it occurs later in the course of the disease. [48] As all methods of tonometry are sensitive to corneal thickness, methods such as Goldmann tonometry may be augmented with pachymetry to measure the central corneal tm kapsul (CCT).

A thicker cornea can result in a pressure reading higher than the true pressure but a thinner cornea can produce a pressure reading lower than the true pressure. [49] [ medical citation needed] Because pressure-measurement error can be caused by more than just CCT (such as by corneal hydration or elastic properties), it is impossible to adjust pressure measurements based only on CCT measurements. The frequency-doubling illusion can also be used to detect glaucoma with the use of a frequency-doubling technology perimeter.

[49] Examination for glaucoma is assessed with attention given to gender, race, history of drug use, refraction, inheritance tm kapsul family history. [45] Glaucoma tests [50] [51] What the test examines Eye drops used Physical contact with the eye Procedure Tonometry Inner eye pressure Maybe Maybe Eye drops may be used to numb the eye. The examiner then uses a tonometer to measure the inner pressure of the eye through pressure applied by a puff of warm air or a tiny tool.

Ophthalmoscopy (dilated eye examination) Shape and color of the optic nerve Yes No Eye drops are used to dilate the pupil. Using a small magnification device with a light on the end, the examiner can examine the magnified optic nerve. Perimetry (visual field test) Complete field of vision No Tm kapsul The patient looks straight ahead and is asked to indicate when light passes the patient's peripheral field of vision.

This allows the examiner to map the patient's field of vision. Gonioscopy Angle in the eye where the iris meets the cornea Yes Yes Eye drops are used to numb the eye. A hand-held contact lens with a mirror is placed gently on the eye to allow the examiner to see the angle between the cornea and the iris.

Pachymetry Thickness of tm kapsul cornea No Yes The examiner places a pachymeter gently on the front of the eye to measure its thickness. Nerve fiber analysis Thickness of the nerve fiber layer Maybe Maybe Using one of several techniques, [ clarification needed] the nerve fibers are examined.

Glaucoma has been classified into tm kapsul types: [52] Primary glaucoma and its variants [ edit ] Primary glaucoma (H40.1-H40.2) • Primary open-angle glaucoma, also known as chronic open-angle glaucoma, chronic simple glaucoma, glaucoma simplex • High-tension glaucoma • Low-tension glaucoma • Primary angle closure glaucoma, also known as primary closed-angle glaucoma, narrow-angle glaucoma, pupil-block glaucoma, acute congestive glaucoma • Acute angle closure glaucoma ( aka AACG) [53] • Chronic angle closure glaucoma • Intermittent angle closure glaucoma • Superimposed on chronic open-angle closure glaucoma ("combined mechanism" – uncommon) Variants of primary glaucoma • Pigmentary glaucoma • Exfoliation glaucoma, also known tm kapsul pseudoexfoliative glaucoma or glaucoma capsulare • Primary juvenile glaucoma Primary angle closure glaucoma is caused by contact between the iris and trabecular meshwork, which in turn obstructs outflow of the aqueous humor from the eye.

This contact between iris and trabecular meshwork (TM) may gradually damage the function of the meshwork until it fails to keep pace with aqueous production, and the pressure rises. In over half of all cases, prolonged contact between iris and TM causes the formation of synechiae (effectively "scars"). These cause permanent obstruction of aqueous outflow. In some cases, pressure may rapidly build up in the eye, causing pain and redness (symptomatic, or so-called "acute" angle closure).

In this situation, the vision may become blurred, and halos may be seen around bright lights. Accompanying symptoms may include a headache and vomiting. Diagnosis is made from physical signs and symptoms: pupils mid-dilated and unresponsive to light, cornea edematous tm kapsul, reduced vision, redness, and pain. However, the majority of cases are asymptomatic. Prior to the very severe loss of vision, these cases can only be identified by examination, generally by an eye care professional.

Once any symptoms have been controlled, the first line (and often definitive) treatment is laser iridotomy. This may be performed using either Nd:YAG or argon lasers, or in some cases by conventional incisional surgery. The goal of treatment is to reverse and prevent contact between the iris and trabecular meshwork. In early to moderately advanced cases, iridotomy is successful in opening the angle in around 75% of cases. In the other 25%, laser iridoplasty, medication (pilocarpine) or incisional surgery may be required.

Primary open-angle glaucoma is when optic nerve damage results in a progressive loss of the visual field. [54] This is associated with increased pressure in the eye. Not all people with primary open-angle glaucoma have eye pressure that is elevated beyond normal, but decreasing the eye pressure further has been shown to stop progression even in these cases.

The increased pressure is caused by trabecular meshwork blockage. Because the microscopic passageways are blocked, the pressure builds up in the eye and causes imperceptible very gradual vision loss. Peripheral vision is affected first, but eventually the entire vision will be lost if not treated.

Diagnosis is made by looking for cupping of the optic nerve. Prostaglandin agonists work by opening uveoscleral passageways. Beta-blockers, such as timolol, work by decreasing aqueous formation. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease bicarbonate formation from ciliary processes in the eye, thus decreasing the formation of aqueous humor. Parasympathetic analogs are drugs that work on the trabecular outflow by opening up the passageway and constricting the pupil.

Alpha 2 agonists ( brimonidine, apraclonidine) both decrease fluid production (via inhibition of AC) and increase drainage. Developmental glaucoma [ edit ] Developmental glaucoma tm kapsul • Primary congenital glaucoma • Infantile glaucoma • Glaucoma associated with hereditary or familial diseases Secondary glaucoma [ tm kapsul ] Secondary glaucoma (H40.3-H40.6) • Inflammatory glaucoma • Uveitis of all types • Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis • Phacogenic glaucoma • Angle-closure glaucoma with mature cataract • Phacoanaphylactic glaucoma secondary to rupture of lens capsule • Phacolytic glaucoma due to phacotoxic meshwork blockage • Subluxation of lens • Glaucoma secondary to intraocular hemorrhage • Hyphema • Hemolytic glaucoma, also known as erythroclastic glaucoma • Traumatic glaucoma • Angle recession glaucoma: Traumatic recession on anterior chamber angle • Postsurgical glaucoma • Aphakic pupillary block • Ciliary block glaucoma • Neovascular glaucoma (see below for more details) • Drug-induced glaucoma • Corticosteroid induced glaucoma • Alpha-chymotrypsin glaucoma.

tm kapsul

Postoperative ocular hypertension from use of alpha chymotrypsin. • Glaucoma of miscellaneous origin • Associated with intraocular tumors • Associated with retinal detachments • Secondary to severe chemical burns of the eye • Associated with essential iris atrophy • Toxic glaucoma Neovascular glaucoma, an uncommon type of glaucoma, is difficult or nearly impossible to treat, and is often caused by proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).

It may also be triggered by other conditions that result in ischemia of the retina or ciliary body. Individuals with poor blood flow to the eye are highly at risk for this condition. Neovascular glaucoma results when new, abnormal vessels begin developing in tm kapsul angle of the tm kapsul that begin blocking the drainage.

People with such condition begin to rapidly lose their eyesight. Sometimes, the disease appears very rapidly, especially after cataract surgery procedures. A new treatment for this disease, as first reported by Kahook and colleagues, involves the use of a novel group of medications known as anti-VEGF agents.

tm kapsul

These injectable medications can lead to a dramatic decrease in new vessel formation and, if injected early enough in the disease process, may lead to normalization of intraocular pressure. Currently, there are no high-quality controlled trials demonstrating a beneficial effect of anti-VEGF treatments in lowering IOP in people with neovascular glaucoma. [55] Toxic glaucoma is open-angle glaucoma with an unexplained significant rise of intraocular pressure following unknown pathogenesis.

Intraocular pressure can sometimes reach 80 mmHg (11 kPa). It characteristically manifests as ciliary body inflammation and massive trabecular o edema that sometimes extends to Schlemm's canal. This condition is differentiated from malignant glaucoma by the presence of a deep and clear anterior chamber and a lack of aqueous misdirection.

Also, the corneal appearance is not as hazy. A reduction in visual acuity can occur followed neuroretinal breakdown. Associated factors include inflammation, drugs, trauma and intraocular surgery, including cataract surgery and vitrectomy procedures. Gede Pardianto (2005) reported on four patients who had toxic glaucoma. One of them underwent phacoemulsification with small particle nucleus drops.

Some cases can be resolved with some medication, vitrectomy procedures or trabeculectomy. Valving procedures can give some relief, but further research is required. [56] Absolute glaucoma [ edit ] Absolute glaucoma (H44.5) is the end stage of all types of glaucoma. The eye has no vision, absence of pupillary light reflex and pupillary response, and has a stony appearance.

Severe pain is present in the eye. The treatment of absolute glaucoma is a destructive procedure like cyclocryoapplication, cyclophotocoagulation, or injection of 99% alcohol.

Types [ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

( August 2015) ( Learn how and when to remove tm kapsul template message) Glaucoma is an umbrella term for eye conditions that damage the optic nerve and that can lead to a loss of vision. [57] The main cause of damage to the optic nerve is intraocular pressure (IOP), excessive fluid pressure within the eye, which tm kapsul be caused tm kapsul factors such as blockage of drainage ducts and narrowing or closure of the angle between the iris and cornea.

Glaucoma is primarily categorized as either open-angle or closed-angle (or angle-closure). In open-angle glaucoma, the iris meets the cornea normally, allowing the fluid from inside the eye to drain, thus relieving the internal pressure. When this angle is narrowed or closed, pressure increases over time, causing tm kapsul to the optic nerve and leading to blindness.

Primary open-angle glaucoma (also called primary or chronic glaucoma) involves the slow clogging of drainage canals resulting in increased eye pressure, which causes progressive optic nerve damage. This manifests as a gradual loss of the visual field, starting with a loss of peripheral vision, but eventually all vision will be lost if the condition is not treated. [54] This is the most common type of glaucoma, accounting for 90% of cases in the United States, but is less prevalent in Asian countries.

Onset is slow and painless, and loss of vision is gradual and irreversible. With narrow-angle glaucoma (also called closed-angle glaucoma), the iris bows forward, narrowing the angle that drains the eye, increasing pressure within the eye.

If untreated, it can lead to the medical emergency of angle-closure glaucoma. With angle-closure glaucoma (also called closed-angle, primary angle-closure or acute glaucoma), the iris bows forward and causes physical contact between the iris and trabecular meshwork, which blocks the tm kapsul of aqueous humor from within the eye. This contact may tm kapsul damage the draining function of the meshwork until it fails to keep pace with aqueous production, and the intraocular pressure rises.

The onset of symptoms is sudden and causes pain and other noticeable symptoms, and the condition is treated as a medical emergency. Unlike open-angle glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma is a result of the closing of the angle between the iris and cornea.

This tends to occur in the farsighted, who have smaller anterior chambers, making physical contact between the iris and trabecular meshwork more likely. A variety of tests may be performed to detect those at risk of angle-closure glaucoma. [58] Normal-tension glaucoma (NTG, also called low-tension or normal-pressure glaucoma) tm kapsul a condition in which tm kapsul optic nerve is damaged although intraocular pressure (IOP) is in the normal range (12 to 22 mmHg (1.6 to 2.9 kPa)).

Individuals with a family history of NTG, those of Japanese ancestry, those with a history of systemic heart disease and those with Flammer syndrome are at an elevated risk of developing NTG. The cause of NTG is unknown. Secondary glaucoma refers to any case in which another disease, trauma, drug or procedure causes increased eye pressure, resulting in optic nerve damage and vision loss, which may be mild or severe. This may be the result of an eye injury, inflammation, a tumor or advanced cases of cataracts or diabetes.

It can also be caused by certain drugs such as steroids. Treatment depends on whether the condition is identified as open-angle tm kapsul angle-closure glaucoma. With pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (also known as PEX or exfoliation glaucoma) the pressure results from the accumulation of microscopic granular protein fibers, which can block normal drainage of the aqueous tm kapsul.

PEX is prevalent in Scandinavia, primarily in those over 70, and more commonly in women. Pigmentary glaucoma (also known as pigmentary dispersion syndrome) is caused by pigment cells sloughing off from the back of the iris and floating around in the aqueous humor. Over time, these pigment cells can accumulate in the anterior chamber and begin to clog the trabecular meshwork. It is a rare condition that occurs mostly among white males in their mid-20s to 40s, tm kapsul of whom are nearsighted.

Primary juvenile glaucoma is a neonate or juvenile abnormality in which ocular hypertension is evident at birth or shortly thereafter and is caused by abnormalities in the anterior chamber angle development that blocks the outflow of the aqueous humor. Uveitic glaucoma is caused by uveitis, the swelling and inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye.

The uvea provides most of the blood supply to the retina. Increased eye pressure can result from tm kapsul inflammation itself or from the steroids used to treat it.

[59] Tm kapsul field defects in glaucoma [ edit ] Bjerrums area and types of scotomas on the visual field In glaucoma visual field defects result from damage to the retinal nerve fiber layer. Field defects are seen mainly in primary open angle glaucoma. Because of the unique anatomy of the RNFL, many noticeable patterns are seen in the tm kapsul field. Most of the early glaucomatous changes are seen within the central visual field, mainly in Bjerrum's area, 10-20° from fixation.

[60] Following are the common glaucomatous field defects: • Generalized depression: Generalized depression is seen in early stages of glaucoma and many other conditions. Mild constriction of central and peripheral visual field due to isopter contraction comes under generalized depression. If all the isopters show similar depression to the same point, it is then called a contraction of visual field. Relative paracentral scotomas are the areas where tm kapsul and dimmer targets are not visualized by the patient.

[60] Larger and brighter targets can be seen. Small paracentral depressions, mainly superonasal are seen in normal tension glaucoma (NTG). [61] The generalized depression of the entire field may be seen in cataract also. [62] • Baring of blind spot: "Baring of blind spot" means exclusion of blind spot from the central field due to inward curve of the outer boundary of 30° central field. [63] It is only an early non-specific visual field change, without much diagnostic value in glaucoma.

[63] • Small wing-shaped Paracentral scotoma: Small wing-shaped Paracentral scotoma within Bjerrum's area is the earliest clinically significant field defect seen in glaucoma. It may also be associated with nasal steps. Scotoma tm kapsul be seen above or below the blind spot. [63] • Siedel's sickle-shaped scotoma: Paracentral scotoma joins with the blind spot to form the Seidel sign. • Arcuate or Bjerrum's scotoma: Arcuate scotoma It is formed at later stages of glaucoma by extension of Seidel's scotoma in an area either above or below the fixation point to reach the horizontal line.

Peripheral breakthrough may occur due to damage of nerve fibers. [63] • Ring or Double arcuate scotoma: Two arcuate scotomas join together to form a Ring or Double arcuate scotoma. This defect is seen in advanced stages of glaucoma. • Roenne's central nasal step: It is created when two arcuate scotomas run in different arcs to form a right angled defect.

This is also seen in advanced stages of glaucoma. • Peripheral field defects: Peripheral field defects may occur in early or late stages of glaucoma.

Roenne's peripheral nasal steps occur due to contraction of peripheral isopter. [63] • Tubular vision: Tubular vision Since macular fibers are the most resistant to glaucomatous damage, the central vision remains unaffected until end stages of glaucoma. Tubular vision or Tunnel vision is the loss of peripheral vision with retention of central vision, resulting in a constricted circular tunnel-like field of tm kapsul.

It is seen in the end stages of glaucoma. Retinitis pigmentosa is another disease that causes tubular vision. [64] • Temporal island of vision: It is also seen in end stages of glaucoma.

The temporal islands lie outside of the central 24 to 30° visual field, [65] so it may not be visible with standard central field measurements done in glaucoma.

Screening [ edit ] The United States Preventive Services Task Force stated, as of 2013, that there was insufficient evidence to recommend for or against screening for glaucoma. [66] Therefore, there is no national screening program in the US. Screening, however, is recommended starting at age 40 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. [2] There is a glaucoma screening program in the UK. Those at risk are advised to have a dilated eye examination at least once a year.

[67] Treatment [ edit ] The modern goals of glaucoma management are to avoid glaucomatous damage and nerve damage, and preserve visual field and total quality of life for patients, with minimal side-effects. [68] [69] This requires appropriate diagnostic techniques and follow-up examinations, and judicious selection of treatments for the individual patient. Although intraocular pressure (IOP) is only one of the major risk factors for glaucoma, lowering it via various pharmaceuticals and/or surgical techniques is currently the mainstay of glaucoma treatment.

A review of people with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension concluded that medical IOP-lowering treatment slowed down the progression of visual field loss.

[8] Vascular flow and neurodegenerative theories of glaucomatous optic neuropathy have prompted studies on various neuroprotective therapeutic strategies, including nutritional compounds, some of which may be regarded by clinicians as safe for use now, while others are on trial.

[ citation needed] Mental stress is also considered as consequence and cause of vision loss which means that stress management training, autogenic training and other techniques to cope with stress tm kapsul be helpful. [70] Medication [ edit ] Main article: Glaucoma medication Intraocular pressure can be lowered with medication, usually eye drops. Several classes of medications are used to treat glaucoma, with several medications in each class.

Each of these medicines may have local and systemic side effects. Adherence to medication protocol can be confusing and expensive; if side effects occur, the patient must be willing either to tolerate them or to communicate with the treating physician to improve the drug regimen.

Initially, glaucoma drops may reasonably be started in either one or in both eyes. [71] Wiping the eye with an absorbent pad after the administration of eye drops may result in fewer adverse effects, like the growth of eyelashes and hyperpigmentation in the eyelid. [72] Poor compliance with medications and follow-up visits is a major reason for vision loss in glaucoma patients. A 2003 study of patients in an HMO found half failed to fill their prescriptions the tm kapsul time, and one-quarter failed to refill their prescriptions a second time.

[73] Patient education and communication must be ongoing to sustain successful treatment plans for this lifelong disease with no early symptoms. The possible neuroprotective effects of various topical and systemic medications are also being tm kapsul. [18] [74] [75] [76] • Prostaglandin analogs, such as latanoprost, bimatoprost and travoprost, increase uveoscleral outflow of aqueous humor. Bimatoprost also increases trabecular outflow.

• Topical beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, such as timolol, levobunolol, and betaxolol, decrease aqueous humor production by the epithelium of the ciliary body. • Alpha2-adrenergic agonists, such as brimonidine and apraclonidine, work by a dual mechanism, decreasing aqueous humor production and increasing uveoscleral outflow.

• Less-selective alpha agonists, such as epinephrine, decrease aqueous humor production through vasoconstriction of ciliary body blood vessels, useful only in open-angle glaucoma. Epinephrine's mydriatic effect, however, renders it unsuitable for closed-angle glaucoma due to further narrowing of the uveoscleral outflow (i.e.

further closure of tm kapsul meshwork, which is responsible for absorption of aqueous humor). • Miotic agents ( parasympathomimetics), such as pilocarpine, work by contraction of the ciliary muscle, opening the trabecular meshwork and allowing increased outflow of the aqueous humour. Echothiophate, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is used in chronic glaucoma. • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, such as dorzolamide, brinzolamide, and acetazolamide, lower secretion of aqueous humor by inhibiting carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary body.

Laser [ edit ] Argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) may be used to treat open-angle glaucoma, but this is a temporary solution, not a cure. A 50-μm argon laser spot is aimed at the trabecular meshwork to stimulate the opening of the mesh to allow more outflow of aqueous fluid.

Usually, half of the angle is treated at a time. Traditional laser trabeculoplasty uses a thermal argon laser in an argon laser tm kapsul procedure. Nd:YAG laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) may be used in patients susceptible to or affected by angle closure glaucoma or pigment dispersion syndrome. During laser iridotomy, laser energy is used to make a small, full-thickness opening in the iris to equalize the pressure between the front and back of the iris, thus correcting any abnormal bulging of the iris.

In people with narrow angles, this can uncover the trabecular meshwork. In some cases of intermittent or short-term angle closure, this may lower the eye pressure. Laser iridotomy reduces the risk of developing an attack of acute angle closure. In most cases, it also reduces the risk of developing tm kapsul angle closure or of adhesions of the iris to the trabecular meshwork. Diode laser cycloablation lowers IOP by reducing aqueous secretion by destroying secretory ciliary tm kapsul.

[45] Surgery [ edit ] Main article: Glaucoma surgery Both laser and conventional surgeries are performed to treat glaucoma. Surgery is the primary therapy for those with congenital glaucoma.

[77] Generally, these operations are a temporary solution, as there is not yet a cure for glaucoma. Tm kapsul [ edit ] Canaloplasty is a nonpenetrating procedure using micro catheter technology. To perform a canaloplasty, an incision is made into the eye to gain access to the Schlemm's canal in a similar fashion to tm kapsul viscocanalostomy.

A microcatheter will circumnavigate the canal around the iris, enlarging the main drainage channel and its smaller collector channels through the injection of a sterile, gel-like material called viscoelastic.

The catheter is then removed and a suture is placed within the canal and tm kapsul. By opening the canal, the pressure inside the eye may be relieved, although the reason is unclear, since the canal (of Schlemm) does not have any significant fluid resistance in glaucoma or healthy tm kapsul. Long-term results are not available. [78] [79] Trabeculectomy [ edit ] The most common conventional surgery performed for glaucoma is the trabeculectomy. Here, a partial thickness flap is made in the tm kapsul wall of the eye, and a window opening is made under the flap to remove a portion of the trabecular meshwork.

The scleral flap is then sutured loosely back in place to allow fluid to flow out of the eye through this opening, resulting in lowered intraocular pressure and the formation of a bleb or fluid bubble on the surface of the eye. Scarring can occur around or over the flap opening, causing it to become less effective or lose effectiveness altogether.

Traditionally, chemotherapeutic adjuvants, such as mitomycin C (MMC) or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), are applied with soaked sponges on the wound bed to prevent filtering blebs from scarring by inhibiting fibroblast proliferation.

Contemporary alternatives to prevent the scarring of the meshwork opening include the sole or combinative implementation of nonchemotherapeutic adjuvants such as the Ologen collagen matrix, which has been clinically shown to increase the success rates of surgical treatment. [80] [81] [82] [83] Collagen matrix prevents scarring by randomizing and modulating fibroblast proliferation in addition to mechanically preventing wound contraction and adhesion. Glaucoma drainage implants [ edit ] Main article: Glaucoma valve The first glaucoma drainage implant was developed in 1966.

[84] Since then, several types of implants have followed on from the original: the Baerveldt tube shunt, or the valved implants, such as the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant or the ExPress Mini Shunt and the later generation pressure ridge Molteno implants. These are indicated for glaucoma patients not responding to maximal medical therapy, with previous failed guarded filtering surgery (trabeculectomy). The flow tube is inserted into the anterior chamber of the eye, and the plate is implanted underneath the conjunctiva to allow a flow of aqueous fluid out of the eye into a chamber called a bleb.

• The first-generation Molteno and other nonvalved implants sometimes require the ligation of the tube until the bleb formed is mildly fibrosed and water-tight. [85] This is done to reduce postoperative hypotony—sudden drops in postoperative intraocular pressure. • Valved implants, such as the Ahmed glaucoma valve, attempt to control postoperative hypotony by tm kapsul a mechanical valve.

• Ab interno implants, such as the Xen Gel Stent, are transscleral implants by an ab interno procedure to channel aqueous humor into the non-dissected Tenon's space, creating a subconjunctival drainage area similar to a bleb.

[86] [87] Tm kapsul implants are transscleral and different from other ab interno implants that do not create a transscleral drainage, such as iStent, CyPass, or Hydrus. [88] [89] The ongoing scarring over the conjunctival dissipation segment of the shunt may become too thick for the aqueous humor to filter through.

This may require preventive measures using antifibrotic medications, such as 5-fluorouracil or mitomycin-C (during the procedure), or other nonantifibrotic medication methods, such as collagen matrix implant, [90] [91] or biodegradable spacer, or later on create a necessity for revision surgery with the sole or combinative use of donor patch grafts or collagen matrix implant. [91] And for glaucomatous painful blind eye and some cases of glaucoma, cyclocryotherapy for ciliary body ablation could be considered to be performed.

[45] Laser-assisted nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy [ edit ] The most common surgical approach currently used for the treatment of glaucoma is trabeculectomy, in which the sclera is punctured to alleviate intraocular pressure. Nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS) surgery is a similar, but modified, procedure, in which instead of puncturing the scleral bed and trabecular meshwork under a scleral flap, a second deep scleral flap is created, excised, with further procedures of deroofing the Schlemm's canal, upon which, percolation of liquid from the inner eye is achieved and thus alleviating intraocular pressure, without penetrating the eye.

NPDS is demonstrated to have significantly fewer side effects than trabeculectomy. [92] However, NPDS is performed manually and requires higher level of skills that may be assisted with instruments. [ citation needed] In order to prevent wound adhesion after deep scleral excision and to maintain good filtering results, NPDS as with other non-penetrating procedures is sometimes performed with a variety of biocompatible spacers or devices, such as the Aquaflow collagen wick, [93] ologen Collagen Matrix, [82] [94] [95] or Xenoplast glaucoma implant.

[96] Laser-assisted NPDS is performed with the use of a CO 2 laser system. The laser-based system is self-terminating once the required tm kapsul thickness and adequate drainage of the intraocular fluid have been achieved. This self-regulation effect is achieved as the CO 2 laser essentially stops ablating as soon as it comes in contact with the intraocular percolated liquid, which occurs as soon as the laser reaches the optimal residual intact layer thickness.

Lens extraction [ edit ] For people with chronic closed-angle glaucoma, lens extraction can relieve the block created by the pupil and help regulate the intraocular pressure. [97] Prognosis [ edit ] In open-angle glaucoma, the typical progression from normal vision to complete blindness takes about 25 years to 70 years without treatment, depending on the method tm kapsul estimation used. [98] The intraocular pressure can also have an effect, with higher pressures reducing the time until blindness.

[99] Epidemiology [ edit ] more than 250 As of 2010, there were 44.7 million people in the world with open angle glaucoma. [101] The same year, there were 2.8 million people in the United States with open angle glaucoma. [101] By 2020, the prevalence is projected to increase to 58.6 million worldwide and 3.4 million in the United States.

[101] Both internationally and in the United States, glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness.

[2] Globally, cataracts are a more common cause. Glaucoma is also the leading cause of blindness in African Americans, who have higher rates of primary tm kapsul glaucoma.

[102] [103] Bilateral vision loss can negatively affect mobility and interfere with driving. [104] A meta-analysis tm kapsul in 2009 found that people with primary open angle glaucoma do not have increased mortality rates, or increased risk of cardiovascular death.

[105] History [ edit ] The association of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma was first described by Englishman Richard Bannister in 1622: ".that the Eye be grown more solid and hard, then naturally it should be.". [106] Angle-closure glaucoma was treated with cataract extraction by John Collins Warren in Boston as early as 1806. [107] The invention of the ophthalmoscope by Hermann Helmholtz in 1851 enabled ophthalmologists for the first time to identify the pathological hallmark of glaucoma, the excavation of the optic nerve head due to retinal ganglion cell loss.

The first reliable instrument to measure intraocular pressure was invented by Norwegian ophthalmologist Hjalmar August Schiøtz in 1905. About half a century later, Hans Goldmann in Berne, Switzerland, developed his applanation tonometer which still today - despite numerous tm kapsul innovations in diagnostics - is considered the gold standard of determining this crucial pathogenic factor.

In the late 20th century, further pathomechanisms beyond elevated IOP were discovered and became the subject of research like insufficient blood supply – tm kapsul associated with low or irregular blood pressure – to the retina and optic nerve head. [108] The first drug to reduce IOP, pilocarpine, was introduced in the 1870s; other major innovations in pharmacological glaucoma therapy were the introduction of beta blocker eye drops in the 1970s and of prostaglandin analogues and topical (locally administered) carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in the mid-1990s.

Early surgical techniques like iridectomy and fistulating methods have recently been supplemented by less invasive procedures like small implants, a range of options now widely called MIGS (micro-invasive glaucoma surgery).

Etymology [ edit ] The word "glaucoma" comes from the Ancient Greek γλαύκωμα, [109] a derivative of γλαυκóς, [110] which commonly described the color of eyes which were not dark (i.e. blue, green, light gray). Eyes described as γλαυκóς due to disease might have had a gray cataract in the Hippocratic era, or, in the early Common Era, the greenish pupillary hue sometimes seen in angle-closure glaucoma. [111] [112] Research [ edit ] Scientists track eye movements in glaucoma patients to check vision impairment while driving Rho kinase inhibitors [ edit ] Rho kinase inhibitors, such as ripasudil, work by inhibition tm kapsul the actin cytoskeleton, resulting in the morphological changes in the trabecular meshwork and increased aqueous outflow.

More compounds in this class are being investigated in phase 2 and phase 3 trials. [113] Neuroprotective agents [ edit ] A 2013 Cochrane Systematic Review compared the effect of brimonidine and timolol in slowing the progression of open angle glaucoma in adult participants. [114] The results showed that participants assigned to brimonidine showed less visual field progression than those assigned to timolol, though the results were not significant, given the heavy loss-to-followup and limited evidence.

[114] The mean intraocular pressures for both groups were similar. Participants in the brimonidine group had a higher occurrence of side effects caused by medication than participants in the timolol group. [114] Cannabis [ edit ] Studies in the 1970s reported that the use of cannabis may lower intraocular pressure. [115] [116] In an effort to determine tm kapsul marijuana, or drugs derived from it, might be effective as a glaucoma treatment, the US National Eye Institute supported research studies from 1978 to 1984.

These studies demonstrated some derivatives of marijuana lowered intraocular pressure when administered orally, intravenously, or by smoking, but not when topically applied to the eye.

In 2003, the American Academy of Ophthalmology released a position statement stating that cannabis was not more effective than prescription medications. Furthermore, no scientific evidence has been found that demonstrates increased benefits and/or diminished risks of cannabis use to treat glaucoma compared with the wide variety of pharmaceutical agents now available.

[116] [117] In 2010 the American Glaucoma Society published a position paper discrediting the use of cannabis as a legitimate treatment for elevated intraocular pressure, for reasons including short duration of action and side effects that limit many activities of daily living. [118] References [ edit ] • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Facts About Glaucoma".

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Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • •Crestor, Ezallor, Roszet Generic Name Rosuvastatin DrugBank Accession Number DB01098 Background Rosuvastatin, also known as the brand name product Crestor, is a lipid-lowering drug that belongs to the statin class of medications, which are used to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease and manage elevated lipid levels tm kapsul inhibiting the endogenous production of cholesterol in the liver.

More specifically, statin medications competitively inhibit the enzyme hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) Reductase, 24 which catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic tm kapsul and is the third step in a sequence of metabolic reactions involved in the production of several compounds involved in lipid metabolism and transport including cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (sometimes referred to as "bad cholesterol"), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL).

Prescribing of statin medications is considered standard practice following any cardiovascular events and for people with a moderate to high risk of development of CVD, such as those with Type 2 Diabetes. The clear evidence of the benefit of statin use coupled with very minimal side effects or long term effects has resulted in this class becoming one of the most widely prescribed medications in North America.

15, 21 Rosuvastatin and other drugs from the statin class of medications including atorvastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, and lovastatin are considered first-line options for the treatment of dyslipidemia. 15, 21 This is largely due to the fact that cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes heart attack, atherosclerosis, angina, peripheral artery disease, and stroke, has become a leading cause of death in high-income countries and a major cause of morbidity around the world.

14 Elevated cholesterol levels, and in particular, elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, are an important risk factor for the development of CVD. 15, 38 Use of statins to target and reduce LDL levels has been shown in a number of landmark studies to significantly reduce the risk of development of CVD and all-cause mortality. 16, 17, 18, 26, 31, 42 Statins are considered a cost-effective treatment option for CVD due to their evidence of reducing all-cause mortality including fatal and tm kapsul CVD as well as the need for surgical revascularization or angioplasty following a heart attack.

15, 21 Evidence has shown that even for low-risk individuals (with <10% risk of a major vascular event occurring within 5 years) statins cause a 20%-22% relative reduction in major cardiovascular events (heart attack, stroke, coronary revascularization, and coronary death) for every 1 mmol/L reduction in LDL without any significant side effects or risks.

19, 20 While all statin medications are considered equally effective from a clinical standpoint, rosuvastatin is considered the most potent; doses of 10 to 40mg rosuvastatin per day were found in clinical studies to result in a 45.8% to 54.6% decreases in LDL cholesterol levels, which is tm kapsul three-fold more potent than atorvastatin's effects on LDL cholesterol. 22, 4 However, the results of the SATURN trial 26 concluded that despite this difference in potency, there was no difference in their effect on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis.

Rosuvastatin is also a unique member of the class of statins due to its high hydrophilicity which increases hepatic uptake at the site of action, low bioavailability, and minimal metabolism via the Cytochrome P450 system.

37 This last point results in less risk of drug-drug interactions compared to atorvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin, which are all extensively metabolized by Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, an enzyme involved in the metabolism of many commonly used drugs. 29 Drugs such as ciclosporin, gemfibrozil, and some antiretrovirals tm kapsul more likely to interact with this statin through antagonism of OATP1B1 organic anion transporter protein 1B1-mediated hepatic uptake of rosuvastatin.

44, 45 Type Small Molecule Groups Approved Structure Close Weight Average: 481.538 Monoisotopic: 481.168284538 Chemical Formula C 22H 28FN 3O 6S Synonyms • (3R,5S,6E)-7-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)-6-(1-methylethyl)-2-(ethyl(methylsulfonyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-6-heptenoic acid • (3R,5S,6E)-7-{4-(4-fluorophenyl)-6-isopropyl-2-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino]pyrimidin-5-yl}-3,5-dihydroxyhept-6-enoic acid • Rosuvastatin • Rosuvastatina • ZD-4522 • ZD4522 Pharmacology Indication The FDA monograph states that rosuvastatin is indicated as an adjunct to diet in the treatment of triglyceridemia, Primary Dysbetalipoproteinemia (Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia), and Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

44 The Health Canada monograph for rosuvastatin further specifies that rosuvastatin is indicated for the reduction of elevated total cholesterol (Total-C), LDL-C, ApoB, the Total-C/HDL-C ratio and triglycerides (TG) and for increasing HDL-C in hyperlipidemic and dyslipidemic conditions when response to diet and exercise alone has been inadequate.

It is also indicated for the prevention of major cardiovascular events (including risk of myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and coronary artery revascularization) in adult patients without documented history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events, but with at least two conventional risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

45 Prescribing of statin medications is considered standard practice following any cardiovascular events and for people with a moderate to high risk of development of CVD. Statin-indicated conditions include diabetes mellitus, clinical atherosclerosis (including myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndromes, stable angina, documented coronary artery disease, stroke, trans ischemic attack (TIA), documented carotid disease, tm kapsul artery disease, and claudication), abdominal aortic aneurysm, chronic kidney disease, and severely elevated LDL-C levels.

15, 21 • Atherosclerosis • Atherosclerotic Tm kapsul Diseases • Tm kapsul Disease (CVD) • Cardiovascular Events • Dysbetalipoproteinemia tm kapsul Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) • High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) • High Cholesterol • Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) • Hypertension, Essential Hypertension • Hypertriglyceridemias • Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events • Mixed Dyslipidemias • Postoperative Thromboembolism • Primary Hypercholesterolemia • Primary Hyperlipidemia Associated Therapies Learn more Pharmacodynamics Rosuvastatin is a synthetic, enantiomerically pure antilipemic agent.

It is used to lower total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apoB), non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and trigleride (TG) plasma concentrations while increasing HDL-C concentrations. High LDL-C, low HDL-C and high TG concentrations in the plasma are associated tm kapsul increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

The total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio is a strong tm kapsul of coronary artery disease and high ratios are associated with higher risk of disease. Increased levels of HDL-C are associated with lower cardiovascular risk. By decreasing LDL-C and TG and increasing HDL-C, rosuvastatin reduces the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. 15, 21 Elevated cholesterol levels, and in particular, elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, are an important risk factor for the development of CVD.

15 Use of tm kapsul to target and reduce LDL levels has been shown in a number of landmark studies to significantly reduce the risk of development of CVD and all-cause tm kapsul.

16, 17, 18, 26, 31 Statins are considered a cost-effective treatment option for CVD due to their evidence of reducing all-cause mortality including fatal and non-fatal CVD as well as the need for surgical revascularization or angioplasty following a heart attack. 15, 21 Evidence has shown that even for low-risk individuals (with <10% risk of a major vascular event occurring within 5 years) statins cause a 20%-22% relative reduction in major cardiovascular events (heart attack, stroke, coronary revascularization, and coronary death) for every 1 mmol/L reduction in LDL without any significant side effects or risks.

19, 20 Skeletal Muscle Effects Cases of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including rosuvastatin. These risks can occur at any dose level, but are increased at the highest dose (40 mg).

Rosuvastatin should be prescribed with caution in patients with predisposing factors for myopathy (e.g., age ≥ 65 years, inadequately treated hypothyroidism, renal impairment). The risk of myopathy during treatment with rosuvastatin may be increased with concurrent administration of some other lipid-lowering therapies (such as fenofibrate or niacin), gemfibrozil, cyclosporine, atazanavir/ ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, or simeprevir.

Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including rosuvastatin, coadministered with colchicine, and caution should therefore be exercised when prescribing these two medications together.

44 Real-world data from observational studies has suggested that 10-15% of people taking statins may experience muscle aches at some point during treatment. 41 Liver Enzyme Abnormalities Increases in serum transaminases have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including rosuvastatin. In most cases, the elevations were transient and resolved or improved on continued therapy or after a brief interruption in therapy. There were two cases of jaundice, for which a relationship to rosuvastatin therapy could not be determined, which resolved after discontinuation of therapy.

There were no cases of liver failure or irreversible liver disease in these trials. 44 Endocrine Effects Increases in HbA1c and fasting serum glucose levels have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including rosuvastatin calcium tablets. Based on clinical trial data with rosuvastatin, in some instances these increases may exceed the threshold for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.

44 An in vitro study found that atorvastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and pitavastatin exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on human pancreas islet β cells, with reductions in cell viability of 32, 41, 34 and 29%, respectively, versus control].

Moreover, insulin secretion rates were decreased by 34, 30, 27 and 19%, respectively, relative to control. 40 HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors interfere with cholesterol synthesis and lower cholesterol levels and, as such, might theoretically blunt adrenal or gonadal steroid hormone production.

Rosuvastatin demonstrated no effect upon nonstimulated cortisol levels and no effect on thyroid metabolism as assessed by TSH plasma concentration. In rosuvastatin tm kapsul patients, there was no impairment of adrenocortical reserve and no reduction in plasma cortisol concentrations.

Clinical studies with other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have suggested that tm kapsul agents do not reduce plasma testosterone concentration. The effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on male fertility have not been studied. The effects, if any, on the pituitarygonadal axis in premenopausal women are unknown. 45 Cardiovascular Ubiquinone levels were not measured in rosuvastatin clinical trials, however significant decreases in circulating ubiquinone levels in patients treated with other statins have been observed.

The clinical significance of a potential long-term statin-induced deficiency of ubiquinone has not been established. It has been reported that a decrease in myocardial ubiquinone levels could lead to impaired cardiac function in patients with borderline congestive heart failure. 45 Lipoprotein A In some patients, the beneficial effect of lowered total cholesterol and LDL-C levels may be partly blunted by a concomitant increase in the Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentrations.

Present knowledge suggests the importance of high Lp(a) levels as an emerging risk factor for coronary heart disease. It is thus desirable to maintain and reinforce lifestyle changes in high-risk patients placed on rosuvastatin therapy. 45 Further studies have demonstrated statins affect Lp(a) levels differently in patients with dyslipidemia depending on their apo(a) phenotype; statins increase Lp(a) tm kapsul exclusively in patients with the low molecular weight apo(a) phenotype.

23 Mechanism of action Rosuvastatin is a statin medication and a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase, which catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, an early rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis. 24 Rosuvastatin acts primarily in the liver, where decreased hepatic cholesterol concentrations stimulate the upregulation of hepatic low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors which increases hepatic uptake of LDL. Rosuvastatin also inhibits hepatic synthesis of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL).

44 The overall effect is a decrease in plasma LDL and VLDL. In vitro and in vivo animal studies also demonstrate that rosuvastatin exerts vasculoprotective effects independent of its lipid-lowering properties, also known as the pleiotropic effects of statins.

25 This includes improvement in endothelial function, enhanced stability of atherosclerotic plaques, reduced oxidative stress and inflammation, and tm kapsul of the thrombogenic response.

Statins have also been found tm kapsul bind allosterically to β2 integrin function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which plays an important role in leukocyte trafficking and in T cell activation.

39 Rosuvastatin exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on rat mesenteric microvascular endothelium by attenuating leukocyte rolling, adherence and transmigration. 11 The drug also modulates nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and reduces ischemic-reperfusion injuries in tm kapsul hearts. 1 Rosuvastatin increases the bioavailability of nitric oxide 11, 7, 1 by upregulating NOS 3 and by increasing the stability of NOS through post-transcriptional polyadenylation.

6 It is unclear as to how rosuvastatin brings about these effects though they may be due to decreased concentrations of mevalonic acid. Target Actions Organism A 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitory allosteric modulator Humans Absorption In a study of healthy tm kapsul male volunteers, the absolute oral bioavailability of rosuvastatin was found to be approximately 20% while absorption was estimated to be 50%, which is consistent with a substantial first-pass effect after oral dosing.

27, 28 Another study in healthy volunteers found that the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of rosuvastatin was 6.06ng/mL and was reached at a median of 5 hours following oral dosing. 30 Both Cmax and AUC increased in approximate proportion to dose.

Neither food nor evening versus morning administration was shown to have an effect on the AUC of rosuvastatin. 44, 45 Many statins are known to interact with hepatic uptake transporters and thus reach high concentrations at their site of action in the liver.

Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) is a membrane-bound protein that plays an important role in the absorption of rosuvastatin, particularly as CYP3A4 has minimal involvement in its metabolism. 29 Evidence from pharmacogenetic studies of tm kapsul single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene for BCRP has demonstrated that individuals with the 421AA genotype have reduced functional activity and 2.4-fold higher AUC and Cmax values for rosuvastatin compared to study individuals with the control 421CC genotype.

This has important implications for the variation in response to the drug in terms of efficacy and toxicity, particularly as the BCRP c.421C>A polymorphism occurs more frequently in Asian populations than in Caucasians. 32, 33 Other statin drugs impacted by this polymorphism include fluvastatin and atorvastatin.

32 Genetic differences in the OATP1B1 (organic-anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1) hepatic transporter have also been shown to impact rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics. Evidence from pharmacogenetic studies of the c.521T>C SNP showed that rosuvastatin AUC was increased 1.62-fold for individuals homozygous for 521CC compared to homozygous 521TT individuals.

36 Other statin drugs impacted by this polymorphism include simvastatin, pitavastatin, atorvastatin, and pravastatin. 29 For patients known to have the above-mentioned c.421AA BCRP or c.521CC OATP1B1 genotypes, a maximum daily dose of 20mg of rosuvastatin is recommended to avoid adverse effects from the increased exposure to the drug, such as muscle pain and risk of rhabdomyolysis.

45 Volume of distribution Rosuvastatin undergoes first-pass extraction in the liver, which is the primary site of cholesterol synthesis and LDL-C clearance. The mean volume of distribution at steady-state of rosuvastatin is approximately 134 litres. 44, 45 Protein binding Rosuvastatin is 88% bound to plasma proteins, mostly albumin.

This binding is reversible and independent of plasma concentrations. 44, 45 Metabolism Rosuvastatin is not extensively metabolized, as demonstrated by the small amount of radiolabeled dose that is recovered as a metabolite (~10%). Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 is primarily responsible for the formation of rosuvastatin's major metabolite, N-desmethylrosuvastatin, which has approximately 20-50% of the pharmacological activity of its parent compound in vitro.

44, 45 However, this metabolic pathway isn't deemed to be clinically significant as there were no observable effects found on rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics when rosuvastatin was coadministered with fluconazole, a potent CYP2C9 inhibitor. 34 In vitro and in vivo data indicate that rosuvastatin has no clinically significant cytochrome P450 interactions (as substrate, inhibitor or inducer).

Consequently, there is little potential for drug-drug interactions upon coadministration with agents that are metabolized by cytochrome P450.

45 Hover over products below to view reaction partners • Rosuvastatin • Rosuvastatin 5 S-lactone Route of elimination Rosuvastatin is not extensively metabolized; approximately 10% of a radiolabeled dose is recovered as metabolite. Following oral administration, rosuvastatin and its metabolites are primarily excreted in the feces (90%). After an intravenous dose, approximately 28% of total body clearance was via the renal route, and 72% by the hepatic route.

44, 45, 27 A study in healthy adult male volunteers found that approximately 90% of the rosuvastatin dose was recovered in feces within 72 hours after dose, while the remaining 10% was recovered in urine. The drug was completely excreted from the body after 10 days of dosing. They also found that approximately 76.8% of the excreted dose was unchanged from the parent compound, with the remaining dose recovered as the metabolites n-desmethyl rosuvastatin and rosuvastatin-5S-lactone. 30 Renal tubular secretion is responsible for >90% of total renal clearance, and is believed to be mediated primarily by the uptake transporter OAT3 (Organic anion transporter 1), while OAT1 had minimal involvement.

35 Half-life The elimination half-life (t½) of rosuvastatin is approximately 19 hours and does not increase with increasing doses. 44, 45 Clearance Not Available Adverse Effects Learn more Toxicity Generally well-tolerated. Side effects may include myalgia, constipation, asthenia, abdominal pain, and nausea. Other possible side effects include myotoxicity (myopathy, myositis, rhabdomyolysis) and hepatotoxicity.

tm kapsul

To avoid toxicity in Asian patients, lower doses should be considered. Pharmacokinetic studies show an approximately two-fold increase in peak plasma concentration and AUC in Asian patients (Philippino, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, or Asian-Indian descent) compared to Caucasian patients.

Pathways Pathway Tm kapsul Rosuvastatin Action Pathway Drug action Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Interacting Gene/Enzyme Allele name Genotype(s) Defining Change(s) Type(s) Description Details Kinesin-like protein KIF6 --- (C;C) / (C;T) C Allele Effect Directly Studied Patients with this genotype have a greater reduction in risk of a major cardiovascular event with high dose rosuvastatin.

Details 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase --- (A;T) T Allele Effect Directly Studied Patients with this genotype have a lesser reduction in LDL cholesterol with rosuvastatin. Details ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 --- (A;A) / (A;C) G > T Effect Directly Studied Patients with this genotype have a greater reduction in Tm kapsul cholesterol with rosuvastatin.

Details Interactions Drug Interactions This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare tm kapsul. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist. • Approved • Vet approved • Nutraceutical • Illicit • Withdrawn • Investigational • Experimental • All Drugs Abametapir The serum concentration of Rosuvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Abametapir.

Abatacept The metabolism of Rosuvastatin can be increased when combined with Abatacept. Abemaciclib The metabolism of Abemaciclib can be decreased when combined with Rosuvastatin. Abrocitinib The metabolism of Abrocitinib can be decreased when tm kapsul with Rosuvastatin. Acalabrutinib The metabolism of Acalabrutinib can be decreased when combined with Rosuvastatin. Acamprosate The excretion of Acamprosate can be decreased when combined with Rosuvastatin.

Acarbose Tm kapsul therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be increased when used in combination with Rosuvastatin. Acenocoumarol The metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be decreased when combined with Rosuvastatin. Acetaminophen The metabolism of Rosuvastatin can be increased when combined with Acetaminophen. Acetazolamide The metabolism of Rosuvastatin can be decreased when combined with Acetazolamide.

Previous Next International/Other Brands Astende (Lazar (Argentina)) / Cirantan (AstraZeneca (Netherlands)) / Cresadex (Drugtech (Chile)) / Provisacor (AstraZeneca (Italy, Netherlands) ) / Razel (Glenmark (India)) / Rosedex (Roux-Ocefa (Argentina)) / Rosimol (Sandoz (Argentina)) / Rosumed (Labomed (Chile)) / Rosustatin (Montpellier (Argentina)) / Rosuvas (Ranbaxy (India)) / Rosuvast (Bago (Argentina)) / Rosvel (Laboratorios Chile (Chile)) / Rovartal (Roemmers (Argentina)) / Simestat (Simesa (Italy)) / Sinlip (Gador (Argentina)) / Visacor (AstraZeneca (Portugal)) / Vivacor (AstraZeneca (Brazil)) Brand Name Prescription Products Name Dosage Strength Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End Region Image Act Rosuvastatin Tablet 10 mg Oral Actavis Pharma Company 2012-03-16 2019-07-09 Canada Act Rosuvastatin Tablet 40 mg Oral Actavis Pharma Company 2012-03-16 2019-07-09 Canada Act Rosuvastatin Tablet 5 mg Oral Actavis Pharma Company 2012-03-16 2019-07-09 Canada Act Rosuvastatin Tablet 20 mg Oral Actavis Pharma Company 2012-03-16 2019-07-09 Canada Crestor Tablet, film coated 5 mg/1 Oral Carilion Materials Management 2003-08-18 Not applicable US Crestor Tablet, film coated 10 mg/1 Oral Cardinal Health 2010-12-01 Not applicable US Crestor Tablet, film coated 10 mg/1 Oral REMEDYREPACK INC.

2019-02-25 2020-06-01 US Crestor Tablet, film coated 10 mg/1 Oral Physicians Total Care, Inc. 2003-11-25 Not applicable US Crestor Tablet, film coated 20 mg/1 Oral PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 2003-08-18 2024-04-30 US Crestor Tablet, film coated 10 mg/1 Oral Med Health Pharma LLC. 2011-02-22 2012-04-05 US Generic Prescription Products Name Dosage Strength Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End Region Image Ach-rosuvastatin Tablet 10 mg Oral Accord Healthcare Inc 2019-05-23 Not applicable Canada Ach-rosuvastatin Tablet 40 mg Oral Accord Healthcare Inc 2019-05-23 Not applicable Canada Ach-rosuvastatin Tablet 5 mg Oral Accord Healthcare Inc 2019-05-23 Not applicable Canada Ach-rosuvastatin Tablet 20 mg Oral Accord Healthcare Inc 2019-05-23 Not applicable Canada Ag-rosuvastatin Tablet 10 mg Oral Angita Pharma Inc.

2018-12-28 Not applicable Canada Ag-rosuvastatin Tablet 40 mg Oral Angita Pharma Inc. 2018-12-28 Not applicable Canada Ag-rosuvastatin Tablet 5 mg Oral Angita Pharma Inc.

2018-12-28 Not applicable Canada Ag-rosuvastatin Tablet 20 mg Oral Angita Pharma Inc. 2018-12-28 Not applicable Canada Ag-rosuvastatin Calcium Tablet 10 mg Oral Angita Pharma Inc. 2021-08-31 Not applicable Canada Ag-rosuvastatin Calcium Tablet 40 mg Oral Angita Pharma Inc.

2021-11-19 Not applicable Canada Mixture Products Name Ingredients Dosage Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End Region Image ACIDO FENOFIBRICO / ROSUVASTATINA 135 MG/10 MG Rosuvastatin calcium (10 mg) + Fenofibrate (135 mg) Capsule, coated Oral TECNOQUIMICAS S.A. 2019-03-19 Not applicable Colombia ASELIP 10/100 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 28 ADET Rosuvastatin (10 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg) Tablet, effervescent Oral VİTALİS İLAÇ SAN.

TİC. A.Ş. 2020-08-14 Not applicable Turkey ASELIP 10/100 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 84 ADET Rosuvastatin (10 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg) Tablet, effervescent Oral VİTALİS İLAÇ SAN. TİC. A.Ş. 2020-08-14 Not applicable Turkey ASELIP 10/75 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 28 ADET Tm kapsul (10 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (75 mg) Tablet, effervescent Tm kapsul VİTALİS İLAÇ SAN.

TİC. A.Ş. 2020-08-14 Not applicable Turkey ASELIP 10/75 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 84 ADET Rosuvastatin (10 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (75 mg) Tablet, effervescent Oral VİTALİS İLAÇ SAN. TİC. A.Ş. 2020-08-14 Not applicable Turkey ASELIP 20/100 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 28 ADET Rosuvastatin (20 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg) Tablet, effervescent Oral VİTALİS İLAÇ SAN. TİC. A.Ş. 2020-08-14 Not applicable Turkey ASELIP 20/100 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 84 ADET Rosuvastatin (20 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg) Tablet, effervescent Oral VİTALİS İLAÇ SAN.

TİC. A.Ş. 2020-08-14 Not applicable Turkey ASELIP 20/75 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 28 ADET Rosuvastatin (20 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (75 mg) Tablet, effervescent Oral VİTALİS İLAÇ SAN.

TİC. A.Ş. 2020-08-14 Not applicable Turkey ASELIP 20/75 MG EFERVESAN TABLET, 84 ADET Rosuvastatin (20 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (75 mg) Tablet, effervescent Oral VİTALİS İLAÇ SAN. TİC. A.Ş. 2020-08-14 Not applicable Turkey CARDIOMAX PLUS 10/10 TABLETAS Rosuvastatin calcium (10 mg) + Ezetimibe (10 mg) Tablet, coated Oral LABORATORIO FRANCO COLOMBIANO - LAFRANCOL S.A.S.

2010-04-22 Not applicable Colombia Categories ATC Codes C10BX10 — Rosuvastatin and valsartan • C10BX — HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, other combinations • C10B — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS, COMBINATIONS • C10 — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS • C — CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C10BX05 — Rosuvastatin and acetylsalicylic acid • C10BX — HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, other combinations • C10B — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS, COMBINATIONS • C10 — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS • C — CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C10BX07 — Rosuvastatin, amlodipine and lisinopril • C10BX — HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, other combinations • C10B — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS, COMBINATIONS • C10 — LIPID Tm kapsul AGENTS • C — CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C10AA07 — Rosuvastatin • C10AA — HMG CoA reductase inhibitors • C10A — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS, PLAIN • C10 — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS • C — CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM A10BH52 — Gemigliptin tm kapsul rosuvastatin • A10BH — Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors • A10B — BLOOD GLUCOSE LOWERING DRUGS, EXCL.

INSULINS • A10 — DRUGS USED IN DIABETES • A — ALIMENTARY TRACT AND METABOLISM G01AE10 — Combinations of sulfonamides • G01AE — Sulfonamides • G01A — ANTIINFECTIVES AND ANTISEPTICS, EXCL. COMBINATIONS WITH CORTICOSTEROIDS • G01 — GYNECOLOGICAL ANTIINFECTIVES AND ANTISEPTICS • G — GENITO URINARY SYSTEM AND SEX HORMONES C10BX13 — Rosuvastatin, perindopril and indapamide • C10BX — HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, other combinations • C10B — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS, COMBINATIONS • C10 — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS • C — CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C10BX09 — Rosuvastatin and amlodipine • C10BX — HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, other combinations • C10B — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS, COMBINATIONS • C10 — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS • C — CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C10BA09 — Rosuvastatin and fenofibrate • C10BA — HMG CoA reductase inhibitors in combination with other lipid modifying agents • C10B — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS, COMBINATIONS • C10 — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS • C — CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C10BX16 — Rosuvastatin and fimasartan • C10BX — HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, other combinations • C10B — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS, Tm kapsul • C10 — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS • C — CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C10BX17 — Rosuvastatin and ramipril • C10BX — HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, other combinations • C10B — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS, COMBINATIONS • C10 — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS • C — CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C10BX14 — Rosuvastatin, amlodipine and perindopril • C10BX — HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, other combinations • C10B — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS, COMBINATIONS • C10 — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS • C — CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C10BA06 — Rosuvastatin and ezetimibe • C10BA — HMG CoA reductase inhibitors in combination with other lipid modifying agents • C10B — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS, COMBINATIONS • C10 — LIPID MODIFYING AGENTS • C — CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Drug Categories • Agents Causing Muscle Toxicity • Alimentary Tract and Metabolism • Amides • Anticholesteremic Agents • BCRP/ABCG2 Substrates • BSEP/ABCB11 Substrates • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Substrates • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Substrates • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A4 Substrates • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A4 Substrates (strength unknown) tm kapsul Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A5 Inhibitors • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A5 Substrates • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors • Cytochrome P-450 Substrates • Drugs Used in Diabetes • Enzyme Inhibitors • Fluorobenzenes • Genito Urinary System and Sex Hormones • Gynecological Antiinfectives and Antiseptics • Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated • Hydrocarbons, Halogenated • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors • Hypolipidemic Agents • Hypolipidemic Agents Indicated for Hyperlipidemia • Lipid Modifying Agents • Lipid Modifying Agents, Plain • Lipid Regulating Agents • OAT3/SLC22A8 Inhibitors • OAT3/SLC22A8 Substrates • OATP1B1/SLCO1B1 Inhibitors • OATP1B1/SLCO1B1 Substrates • Pyrimidines • Sulfonamides • Sulfones • Sulfur Compounds Chemical Taxonomy Provided by Classyfire Description This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpyrimidines.

These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a benzene ring linked to a pyrimidine ring tm kapsul a CC or CN bond. Pyrimidine is a 6-membered ring consisting of four carbon atoms and two nitrogen centers at the 1- and 3- ring positions.

Kingdom Organic compounds Super Class Organoheterocyclic compounds Class Diazines Sub Class Pyrimidines and pyrimidine tm kapsul Direct Parent Phenylpyrimidines Alternative Parents Medium-chain hydroxy acids and derivatives / Medium-chain fatty acids / Beta hydroxy acids and derivatives / Fluorobenzenes / Halogenated fatty acids / Heterocyclic fatty acids / Hydroxy tm kapsul acids / Aryl fluorides / Unsaturated fatty acids / Organosulfonamides / Organic sulfonamides / Heteroaromatic compounds / Aminosulfonyl compounds / Secondary alcohols / Azacyclic compounds / Carboxylic acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Organonitrogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Organopnictogen compounds / Carbonyl compounds / Organofluorides / Organic oxides show 13 more Substituents 4-phenylpyrimidine / 5-phenylpyrimidine / Alcohol / Aminosulfonyl compound / Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound / Aryl fluoride / Aryl halide / Azacycle / Benzenoid / Beta-hydroxy acid / Carbonyl group / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Fatty acid / Fatty acyl / Fluorobenzene / Halobenzene tm kapsul Halogenated fatty acid / Heteroaromatic compound / Heterocyclic fatty acid / Hydrocarbon derivative / Hydroxy acid / Hydroxy fatty acid / Medium-chain fatty acid / Medium-chain hydroxy acid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxide / Organic oxygen compound / Organic sulfonic acid amide / Organic tm kapsul acid or derivatives / Organofluoride / Organohalogen compound tm kapsul Organonitrogen compound / Organooxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Organosulfonic acid amide / Organosulfonic acid tm kapsul derivatives / Organosulfur compound / Secondary alcohol / Sulfonyl / Unsaturated fatty acid show 33 more Molecular Framework Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds External Descriptors statin (synthetic), sulfonamide, pyrimidines, dihydroxy monocarboxylic acid, monofluorobenzenes ( CHEBI:38545) Affected organisms • Humans and other mammals Chemical Identifiers UNII 413KH5ZJ73 CAS number 287714-41-4 InChI Key BPRHUIZQVSMCRT-VEUZHWNKSA-N InChI CC(C)C1=NC(=NC(C2=CC=C(F)C=C2)=C1\C=C\[C@@H](O)C[C@@H](O)CC(=O)O)N(C)S(C)(=O)=O References Synthesis Reference Valerie Niddam-Hildesheim, Greta Sterimbaum, "Process for preparation of rosuvastatin calcium." U.S.

Patent US20050080134, issued April 14, 2005. US20050080134 General References • Di Napoli P, Taccardi AA, Grilli A, De Lutiis MA, Barsotti A, Felaco M, De Caterina R: Chronic treatment with rosuvastatin modulates nitric oxide synthase expression and reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat hearts. Cardiovasc Res. 2005 Jun 1;66(3):462-71. Epub 2005 Mar 2. [ Article] • Everett BM, Glynn RJ, MacFadyen JG, Ridker PM: Rosuvastatin in the prevention of stroke among men and women with elevated levels of C-reactive protein: justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER).

Circulation. 2010 Jan 5;121(1):143-50. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.874834. Epub 2009 Dec 21. [ Article] • Jones SP, Tm kapsul MF, Rimmer DM 3rd, Gibson TM, Sharp BR, Lefer DJ: Direct vascular and cardioprotective effects of rosuvastatin, a new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 Sep 18;40(6):1172-8. [ Article] • Jones PH, Davidson MH, Stein EA, Bays HE, McKenney JM, Miller E, Cain VA, Blasetto JW: Comparison of the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin across doses (STELLAR* Trial).

Am J Cardiol. 2003 Jul 15;92(2):152-60. [ Article] • Kilic E, Kilic U, Matter CM, Luscher TF, Bassetti CL, Hermann DM: Aggravation of focal cerebral ischemia by tissue plasminogen activator is reversed by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor but does not depend on endothelial NO synthase.

Stroke. 2005 Feb;36(2):332-6. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [ Article] • Kosmidou I, Moore JP, Weber M, Searles CD: Statin treatment and 3' polyadenylation of eNOS mRNA. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007 Dec;27(12):2642-9. Epub 2007 Oct 4. [ Article] • Laufs U, Gertz Tm kapsul, Dirnagl U, Bohm M, Nickenig G, Endres M: Rosuvastatin, a new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, upregulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase and protects from ischemic stroke in mice.

Brain Res. 2002 Jun tm kapsul. [ Article] • McKillop T: The statin wars. Lancet. 2003 Nov 1;362(9394):1498. [ Article] • McTaggart F, Buckett L, Davidson R, Holdgate G, McCormick A, Schneck D, Smith G, Warwick M: Preclinical and clinical pharmacology of Rosuvastatin, a new 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor. Am J Cardiol. 2001 Mar 8;87(5A):28B-32B. [ Article] • Nissen SE, Nicholls SJ, Sipahi I, Libby P, Raichlen JS, Ballantyne CM, Davignon J, Erbel R, Fruchart JC, Tardif JC, Schoenhagen P, Crowe T, Cain V, Wolski K, Goormastic M, Tuzcu EM: Effect of very high-intensity statin tm kapsul on regression of coronary atherosclerosis: the ASTEROID trial.

JAMA. 2006 Tm kapsul 5;295(13):1556-65. Epub 2006 Mar 13. [ Article] • Stalker TJ, Lefer AM, Scalia R: A tm kapsul HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, rosuvastatin, exerts anti-inflammatory effects on the microvascular endothelium: the role of mevalonic acid. Br J Pharmacol. 2001 Jun;133(3):406-12.

[ Tm kapsul • Authors unspecified: The statin wars: why AstraZeneca must retreat. Lancet. 2003 Oct 25;362(9393):1341. [ Article] • Ho RH, Tirona RG, Leake BF, Glaeser H, Lee W, Lemke CJ, Wang Y, Kim RB: Drug and bile acid transporters in rosuvastatin hepatic uptake: function, expression, and pharmacogenetics.

Gastroenterology. 2006 May;130(6):1793-806. Epub 2006 Mar 6. [ Article] • Kreatsoulas C, Anand SS: The impact of social determinants on cardiovascular disease. Can J Cardiol. 2010 Aug-Sep;26 Suppl C:8C-13C.

doi: 10.1016/s0828-282x(10)71075-8. [ Article] • Anderson TJ, Gregoire J, Pearson GJ, Barry AR, Tm kapsul P, Dawes M, Francis GA, Genest J Jr, Grover S, Gupta M, Hegele RA, Lau DC, Leiter LA, Lonn E, Mancini GB, McPherson R, Ngui D, Poirier P, Sievenpiper JL, Stone JA, Thanassoulis G, Ward R: 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines for the Management of Dyslipidemia for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in the Adult.

Can J Cardiol. 2016 Nov;32(11):1263-1282. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2016.07.510. Epub 2016 Jul 25. [ Article] • Authors unspecified: Prevention of cardiovascular events and death with pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease and a broad range of tm kapsul cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med. 1998 Nov 5;339(19):1349-57. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199811053391902. [ Article] • Cannon CP, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, Rader Tm kapsul, Rouleau JL, Belder R, Joyal SV, Hill KA, Pfeffer MA, Skene AM: Intensive versus moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes.

N Engl J Med. 2004 Apr 8;350(15):1495-504. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa040583. Epub 2004 Mar 8. [ Article] • Ridker PM, Danielson E, Fonseca FA, Genest J, Gotto AM Jr, Kastelein JJ, Koenig W, Libby P, Lorenzatti AJ, MacFadyen JG, Nordestgaard BG, Shepherd J, Willerson JT, Glynn RJ: Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein.

N Engl J Med. 2008 Nov 20;359(21):2195-207. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0807646. Epub 2008 Nov 9. [ Article] • Mihaylova B, Emberson J, Blackwell L, Keech A, Simes J, Barnes EH, Voysey M, Gray A, Collins R, Baigent C: The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with statin therapy in people at low risk of vascular disease: meta-analysis tm kapsul individual data from 27 randomised trials.

Lancet. 2012 Aug 11;380(9841):581-90. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60367-5. Epub 2012 May 17. [ Article] • Taylor F, Huffman MD, Macedo AF, Moore TH, Burke M, Davey Smith G, Ward K, Ebrahim S: Statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jan 31;(1):CD004816. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004816.pub5. [ Article] • Grundy SM, Stone NJ: 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Multisociety Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol: Primary Prevention.

JAMA Cardiol. 2019 Apr 10. pii: 2730287. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2019.0777. [ Article] • Adams SP, Sekhon SS, Wright JM: Lipid-lowering efficacy tm kapsul rosuvastatin. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 21;(11):CD010254. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010254.pub2. [ Article] • Yahya R, Berk K, Verhoeven A, Bos S, van der Zee L, Touw J, Erhart G, Kronenberg F, Timman R, Sijbrands E, Roeters van Lennep J, Mulder M: Statin treatment increases lipoprotein(a) levels in subjects with low molecular weight apolipoprotein(a) phenotype.

Atherosclerosis. 2019 Jul 3. pii: S0021-9150(19)31392-9. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2019.07.001. [ Article] • Tm kapsul MH: Clinical pharmacology of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Life Sci. 1999;65(13):1329-37. doi: 10.1016/s0024-3205(99)00199-x. [ Article] • Liao JK, Laufs U: Pleiotropic tm kapsul of statins.

Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005;45:89-118. doi: 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.45.120403.095748. [ Article] • Nicholls SJ, Ballantyne CM, Barter PJ, Chapman MJ, Erbel RM, Libby P, Raichlen JS, Tm kapsul K, Borgman M, Tm kapsul K, Nissen SE: Effect of two intensive statin regimens on progression of coronary disease.

N Engl J Med. 2011 Dec 1;365(22):2078-87. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1110874. Epub 2011 Nov 15. [ Article] • Martin PD, Warwick MJ, Dane AL, Brindley C, Short T: Absolute oral bioavailability of rosuvastatin in healthy white adult male volunteers. Clin Ther. 2003 Oct;25(10):2553-63. [ Article] • Birmingham BK, Bujac SR, Elsby R, Azumaya CT, Zalikowski J, Chen Y, Kim K, Ambrose HJ: Rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics in Caucasian and Asian subjects residing in the United States.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Mar;71(3):329-40. doi: 10.1007/s00228-014-1800-0. Epub 2015 Jan 30. [ Article] • Elsby R, Hilgendorf C, Fenner K: Understanding the critical disposition pathways of statins to assess drug-drug interaction risk during drug development: it's not just about OATP1B1.

Clin Pharmacol Tm kapsul. 2012 Nov;92(5):584-98. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2012.163. Epub 2012 Oct 10. [ Article] • Martin PD, Warwick MJ, Dane AL, Hill SJ, Giles PB, Phillips PJ, Lenz E: Metabolism, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in healthy adult male volunteers.

Clin Ther. 2003 Nov;25(11):2822-35. [ Article] • Authors unspecified: MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2002 Jul 6;360(9326):7-22. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09327-3. [ Article] • Keskitalo JE, Zolk O, Fromm MF, Kurkinen KJ, Neuvonen PJ, Niemi M: ABCG2 polymorphism markedly affects the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin.

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Aug;86(2):197-203. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2009.79. Epub 2009 May 27. [ Article] • Lee E, Ryan S, Birmingham B, Zalikowski J, March R, Ambrose H, Moore R, Lee C, Chen Y, Schneck D: Rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics in white and Asian subjects residing in the same environment. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Oct;78(4):330-41. doi: 10.1016/j.clpt.2005.06.013. [ Article] • Cooper KJ, Martin PD, Dane AL, Warwick MJ, Schneck DW, Cantarini MV: The effect of fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2002 Nov;58(8):527-31. doi: 10.1007/s00228-002-0508-8. Epub 2002 Oct 3. [ Article] • Windass AS, Lowes S, Wang Y, Brown CD: The contribution of organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3 to the renal uptake of rosuvastatin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Sep;322(3):1221-7. doi: 10.1124/jpet.107.125831. Epub 2007 Jun 21. [ Article] • Pasanen MK, Fredrikson H, Neuvonen PJ, Niemi M: Different effects of SLCO1B1 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin.

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Dec;82(6):726-33. doi: 10.1038/sj.clpt.6100220. Epub 2007 May 2. [ Article] • Kostapanos MS, Milionis HJ, Elisaf MS: Rosuvastatin-associated adverse effects and drug-drug interactions in the clinical setting of dyslipidemia.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2010;10(1):11-28. doi: 10.2165/13168600-000000000-00000. [ Article] • Kannel WB, Castelli WP, Gordon T, McNamara PM: Serum cholesterol, lipoproteins, and the risk of coronary heart disease. The Framingham study. Ann Intern Med. 1971 Jan;74(1):1-12. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-74-1-1. [ Article] • Weitz-Schmidt G, Welzenbach K, Brinkmann V, Kamata T, Kallen J, Bruns C, Cottens S, Takada Y, Hommel U: Statins selectively inhibit leukocyte function antigen-1 by binding to a novel regulatory integrin site.

Nat Med. 2001 Jun;7(6):687-92. doi: 10.1038/89058. [ Article] • Zhao W, Zhao SP: Different effects of statins on induction of diabetes mellitus: an experimental study. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2015 Nov 24;9:6211-23. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S87979. eCollection 2015. [ Article] • Harper CR, Jacobson TA: The broad spectrum of statin myopathy: from myalgia to rhabdomyolysis.

Curr Opin Lipidol. 2007 Aug;18(4):401-8. doi: 10.1097/MOL.0b013e32825a6773. [ Article] • Authors unspecified: Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S) Lancet. 1994 Nov 19;344(8934):1383-9. [ Article] • Crestor (Rosuvastatin Calcium) FDA Label [ Link] • FDA Label - Rosuvastatin [ File] • Health Canada Monograph - Rosuvastatin [ File] External Links Human Metabolome Database HMDB0015230 KEGG Drug D08492 PubChem Compound 446157 PubChem Substance 46509022 ChemSpider 393589 BindingDB 18372 RxNav 301542 ChEBI 38545 ChEMBL CHEMBL1496 ZINC ZINC000001535101 Therapeutic Targets Database DAP000555 PharmGKB PA134308647 PDBe Ligand FBI RxList RxList Drug Page Drugs.com Drugs.com Drug Page Wikipedia Rosuvastatin MSDS Phase Status Purpose Conditions Count 4 Active Not Recruiting Prevention Adverse Side Effects / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cardiovascular Risk 1 4 Active Not Recruiting Treatment Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) 1 4 Active Not Recruiting Treatment Dyslipidemia 1 4 Active Not Recruiting Treatment Hypertension, Hyperlipidemia 1 4 Completed Not Available Tm kapsul Heart Disease (CHD) 1 4 Completed Not Available Healthy Subjects (HS) 1 4 Completed Not Available Sexual Dysfunctions 1 4 Completed Basic Science Drug Drug Interaction (DDI) 1 4 Completed Basic Science High Cholesterol / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 1 4 Completed Diagnostic Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections 1 Pharmacoeconomics Manufacturers • A-S Medication Solutions LLC • AstraZeneca Inc.

• Bryant Ranch Prepack • Cardinal Health • Corden Pharma GmbH • IPR Pharmaceuticals Inc. • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc. • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc. • Tm kapsul Total Care Inc. • Prepak Systems Inc.

• Remedy Repack • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC • Southwood Pharmaceuticals Dosage Forms Form Route Strength Tablet, coated Oral 10 mg Tablet, coated Oral 20 mg Tablet, film coated Oral Tablet, effervescent Oral Tablet, film coated Oral 20.84 mg Tablet Oral; Sublingual 20 mg Tablet, effervescent Tablet, film coated Oral 10 mg/1 Tablet, film coated Oral 20 mg/1 Tablet, film coated Oral 40 mg/1 Tablet, film coated Oral 5 mg/1 Tablet Oral 5 mg Tablet, coated Oral 40 mg Capsule Oral 10 mg/1 Capsule Oral 20 mg/1 Capsule Oral 40 mg/1 Capsule Oral 5 mg/1 Tablet, coated Oral Capsule, liquid filled Oral Tablet, coated Oral 10.42 mg Tablet Oral 10 mg Tablet, delayed release Oral 10 mg Tablet, coated Oral 41.58 mg Tablet, film coated Oral Tablet Oral Tablet, coated Oral 10.4 mg Tablet Oral 20 mg Tablet, coated Oral Tablet Oral 10.0 mg Tablet Oral 20.0 mg Tablet Oral 40.0 mg Tablet Oral 5.0 mg Tablet Oral 10 mg/1 Tablet Oral 20 mg/1 Tablet Oral 40 mg/1 Tablet Oral 5 mg/1 Tablet, coated Oral 10 mg/1 Tablet, coated Oral tm kapsul mg/1 Tablet, coated Oral 40 mg/1 Tablet, coated Oral 5 mg/1 Tablet, film coated Oral 10.4 MG Tablet, film coated Oral 20.8 Mg Tablet, film coated Oral 22.04 MG Tablet, film coated Oral 41.6 Mg Tablet, film coated Oral 44.08 MG Tablet, film coated Oral 10.000 mg Tablet, film coated Oral 20.000 mg Capsule, liquid filled Oral 10 mg Capsule, liquid filled Oral 20 mg Tablet, film coated Oral 15 MG Tablet, film coated Oral 30 MG Tablet, film coated Oral 40 MG Tablet, film coated Oral 5 MG Tablet Oral 41.66 mg Tablet Oral 40 mg Tablet Capsule, liquid filled Oral 5 mg Capsule, liquid filled Oral 40 mg Tablet, coated Oral 20.84 mg Tablet 20 mg Tablet, coated Oral 5 mg Tablet, film coated Oral 11.02 MG Capsule, coated Oral Capsule Oral Tablet 10 mg Tablet Oral Tablet, film coated Oral 10 mg Tablet, tm kapsul coated Oral 20 mg Prices Unit description Cost Unit Crestor 40 mg tablet 4.7USD tablet Crestor 20 mg tablet 4.69USD tablet Crestor 10 mg tablet 4.68USD tablet Crestor 5 mg tablet 4.68USD tablet Crestor 40 mg Tablet 2.24USD tablet Crestor 20 mg Tablet 1.91USD tablet Crestor 10 mg Tablet 1.53USD tablet Crestor 5 mg Tablet 1.45USD tablet DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs.

Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only. Patents Patent Number Pediatric Extension Approved Expires (estimated) Region CA2315141 No 2009-08-18 2020-08-04 Canada CA2072945 No 2001-07-31 2012-07-02 Canada US6858618 Yes 2005-02-22 2022-06-17 US US7030152 Yes 2006-04-18 2018-10-02 US US7964614 Yes 2011-06-21 2018-10-02 US US6316460 Yes 2001-11-13 2021-02-04 US USRE37314 Yes 2001-08-07 2016-07-08 Tm kapsul US10413543 No 2019-09-17 2036-02-12 US US10376470 No 2019-08-13 2033-05-01 US US9763885 No 2017-09-19 2033-05-01 US Properties State Solid Experimental Properties Property Value Source water solubility Sparingly soluble in water FDA label logP 0.13 FDA label Predicted Properties Property Value Source Water Solubility 0.0886 mg/mL ALOGPS logP 1.47 ALOGPS logP 1.92 ChemAxon logS -3.7 ALOGPS pKa (Strongest Acidic) 4 ChemAxon pKa (Strongest Basic) -1.6 ChemAxon Physiological Charge -1 ChemAxon Hydrogen Acceptor Count 8 ChemAxon Hydrogen Donor Count 3 ChemAxon Polar Surface Area 140.92 Å 2 ChemAxon Rotatable Bond Count 9 ChemAxon Refractivity 121.44 m 3·mol -1 ChemAxon Polarizability 48.55 Å 3 ChemAxon Number of Rings 2 ChemAxon Bioavailability 1 ChemAxon Rule of Five Yes ChemAxon Ghose Filter No ChemAxon Veber's Rule No ChemAxon MDDR-like Rule No ChemAxon Predicted ADMET Features Property Value Probability Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9791 Blood Brain Barrier - 0.6815 Caco-2 permeable - 0.5818 P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.6962 P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.5099 P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.8987 Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.9467 CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.5544 CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.8633 CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.584 CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.6896 CYP450 2C9 inhibitor Non-inhibitor 0.5957 CYP450 2D6 inhibitor Non-inhibitor 0.8609 CYP450 2C19 inhibitor Non-inhibitor 0.6414 CYP450 3A4 inhibitor Non-inhibitor 0.8308 CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.6226 Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.662 Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.6578 Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 1.0 Rat acute toxicity 2.5599 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9856 hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.8117 ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties.

( 23092397) Spectra Mass Spec (NIST) Not Available Spectra Spectrum Spectrum Type Splash Key Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS Predicted GC-MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MS Not Available General Function Nadph binding Specific Function Transmembrane glycoprotein that is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis as well as in the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids that are essential for normal cell function including.

Gene Name HMGCR Uniprot ID P04035 Tm kapsul Name 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase Molecular Weight 97475.155 Da References • Carbonell T, Freire E: Binding thermodynamics of statins to HMG-CoA reductase. Biochemistry. 2005 Sep 6;44(35):11741-8. [ Article] • Chapman MJ, Caslake M, Packard C, McTaggart F: New dimension of statin action on ApoB atherogenicity.

Clin Cardiol. 2003 Jan;26(1 Suppl 1):I7-10. [ Article] • Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [ Article] • Davidson MH: Rosuvastatin: a highly efficacious statin for the treatment of dyslipidaemia. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2002 Jan;11(1):125-41. [ Article] • Hanefeld M: Clinical rationale for rosuvastatin, a potent new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. Int J Clin Pract. 2001 Jul-Aug;55(6):399-405. [ Article] • Holdgate GA, Ward WH, McTaggart F: Molecular mechanism for inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase by rosuvastatin.

Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Jun;31(Pt 3):528-31. [ Article] • McTaggart F, Buckett L, Davidson R, Holdgate G, McCormick A, Schneck D, Smith G, Warwick M: Preclinical and clinical pharmacology of Rosuvastatin, a new 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor.

Am J Cardiol. 2001 Mar 8;87(5A):28B-32B. [ Article] • Olsson AG, McTaggart F, Raza A: Rosuvastatin: a highly effective new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. Cardiovasc Drug Rev.

2002 Winter;20(4):303-28. [ Article] General Function Metal ion binding Specific Function Integrin alpha-L/beta-2 is a receptor for ICAM1, ICAM2, ICAM3 and ICAM4.

It is involved in a variety of immune phenomena including leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction, cytotoxic T-cell mediated . Gene Name ITGAL Uniprot ID P20701 Uniprot Name Integrin alpha-L Molecular Weight 128768.495 Da References • Weitz-Schmidt G, Welzenbach K, Brinkmann V, Kamata T, Kallen J, Bruns C, Cottens S, Takada Y, Hommel U: Statins selectively inhibit leukocyte function antigen-1 by binding to a novel regulatory integrin site. Nat Med. 2001 Jun;7(6):687-92.

doi: 10.1038/89058. [ Article] • Katano H, Pesnicak L, Cohen JI: Simvastatin induces apoptosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines and delays development of EBV lymphomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 6;101(14):4960-5. Epub 2004 Mar 23. [ Article] • Liao JK, Laufs U: Pleiotropic effects of statins. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005;45:89-118.

doi: 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.45.120403.095748. [ Article] General Function Steroid hydroxylase activity Specific Function Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un.

Gene Name CYP2C9 Uniprot ID P11712 Uniprot Name Cytochrome P450 2C9 Molecular Weight 55627.365 Da References • Sakaeda T, Fujino H, Komoto C, Kakumoto M, Jin JS, Iwaki K, Nishiguchi K, Nakamura T, Okamura N, Okumura K: Effects of acid and lactone forms of eight HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on CYP-mediated metabolism and MDR1-mediated transport.

Pharm Res. 2006 Mar;23(3):506-12. doi: 10.1007/s11095-005-9371-5. Epub 2006 Jan 1. [ Article] • Cooper KJ, Martin PD, Dane AL, Warwick MJ, Schneck DW, Cantarini MV: The effect of fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics tm kapsul rosuvastatin. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2002 Nov;58(8):527-31. doi: 10.1007/s00228-002-0508-8. Epub 2002 Oct 3. [ Article] • Health Canada Monograph - Rosuvastatin [ File] General Function Toxic substance binding Specific Function Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs.

Its main function is the regulation of the colloid. Gene Name ALB Uniprot ID P02768 Uniprot Name Serum albumin Molecular Weight 69365.94 Da General Function Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity Specific Function Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity).

Selectively inhibit. Gene Name SLCO1A2 Uniprot ID P46721 Uniprot Name Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2 Molecular Weight 74144.105 Da References General Function Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity Specific Function Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland.

Gene Name SLCO1B1 Uniprot ID Q9Y6L6 Uniprot Name Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 Molecular Weight 76447.99 Da References • van de Steeg E, Greupink Tm kapsul, Schreurs M, Nooijen IH, Verhoeckx KC, Hanemaaijer R, Ripken D, Monshouwer M, Vlaming ML, DeGroot J, Verwei M, Russel FG, Huisman MT, Wortelboer HM: Drug-drug interactions between rosuvastatin tm kapsul oral antidiabetic drugs occurring at the level of OATP1B1.

Drug Metab Dispos. 2013 Mar;41(3):592-601. doi: 10.1124/dmd.112.049023. Epub 2012 Dec 17. [ Article] • Karlgren M, Ahlin G, Bergstrom CA, Svensson R, Palm J, Artursson P: In vitro and in silico strategies to identify OATP1B1 inhibitors and predict clinical drug-drug interactions. Pharm Res. 2012 Feb;29(2):411-26. doi: 10.1007/s11095-011-0564-9. Epub 2011 Aug 23. [ Article] • Elsby R, Hilgendorf C, Fenner K: Understanding the critical disposition pathways of statins to assess drug-drug interaction risk during drug development: it's not just about OATP1B1.

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Nov;92(5):584-98. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2012.163. Epub 2012 Oct 10. [ Article] General Function Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity Specific Function Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotre.

Gene Name SLCO1B3 Uniprot ID Q9NPD5 Uniprot Name Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3 Molecular Weight 77402.175 Da References General Function Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity Specific Function Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions tm kapsul as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.

Gene Name SLCO2B1 Uniprot ID O94956 Uniprot Name Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member tm kapsul Molecular Weight 76709.98 Da References General Function Cystine:glutamate antiporter activity Specific Function Sodium-independent, high-affinity exchange of anionic amino acids with high specificity for anionic form of cystine and glutamate.

Gene Name SLC7A11 Uniprot ID Q9UPY5 Uniprot Name Cystine/glutamate transporter Molecular Weight 55422.44 Da References General Function Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity Specific Function High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro. Gene Name ABCG2 Uniprot ID Q9UNQ0 Uniprot Name ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 Molecular Weight 72313.47 Da References • Elsby R, Hilgendorf C, Fenner K: Understanding the critical disposition pathways of statins to assess drug-drug interaction risk during drug development: it's not just about OATP1B1.

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Nov;92(5):584-98. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2012.163. Epub 2012 Oct 10. [ Article] • Keskitalo JE, Zolk O, Fromm MF, Kurkinen KJ, Neuvonen PJ, Niemi M: ABCG2 polymorphism tm kapsul affects the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Aug;86(2):197-203. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2009.79.

Epub 2009 May 27. [ Article] • Lee E, Ryan S, Birmingham B, Zalikowski J, March R, Ambrose H, Moore R, Lee C, Chen Y, Schneck D: Rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics in white and Asian subjects residing in the same environment. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Oct;78(4):330-41.

doi: 10.1016/j.clpt.2005.06.013.

tm kapsul

{INSERTKEYS} [ Article] General Function Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity Specific Function Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter. Gene Name ABCC2 Uniprot ID Q92887 Uniprot Name Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1 Molecular Weight 174205.64 Da References General Function Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity Specific Function Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney.

Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad... Gene Name SLC22A8 Uniprot ID Q8TCC7 Uniprot Name Solute carrier family 22 member 8 Molecular Weight 59855.585 Da References • VanWert AL, Gionfriddo MR, Sweet DH: Organic anion transporters: discovery, pharmacology, regulation and roles in pathophysiology. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2010 Jan;31(1):1-71. doi: 10.1002/bdd.693. [ Article] • Windass AS, Lowes S, Wang Y, Brown CD: The contribution of organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3 to the renal uptake of rosuvastatin.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Sep;322(3):1221-7. doi: 10.1124/jpet.107.125831. Epub 2007 Jun 21. [ Article] General Function Virus receptor activity Specific Function The hepatic sodium/bile acid uptake system exhibits broad substrate specificity and transports various non-bile acid organic compounds as well. It is strictly dependent on the extracellular presenc... Gene Name SLC10A1 Uniprot ID Q14973 Uniprot Name Sodium/bile acid cotransporter Molecular Weight 38118.64 Da References
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Revision of the Soyuz spacecraft Soyuz-TMA Manufacturer Korolev Country of origin Russia Operator Russian Federal Space Agency Applications Carry three cosmonauts to ISS and back Specifications Regime Low Earth orbit Design life Up to six months docked to ISS Production Status Retired (replaced by Soyuz TMA-M) Launched 22 Maiden launch Soyuz TMA-1, 2002 Last launch Soyuz TMA-22, 2012 Related spacecraft Derived from Soyuz-TM Derivatives Soyuz TMA-M Soyuz TMA-M Manufacturer Korolev Country of origin Russia Operator Russian Federal Space Agency Applications Carry three cosmonauts to ISS and back Specifications Regime Low Earth orbit Design life Up to six months docked to Space station Production Status Retired (replaced by Soyuz MS) Launched 20 Maiden launch Soyuz TMA-01M, 2010 Last launch Soyuz TMA-20M, 2016 Related spacecraft Derived from Soyuz-TMA Derivatives Soyuz MS Diagram showing the three elements of the Soyuz-TMA spacecraft.

The Soyuz-TMA is a revision of the Soyuz spacecraft, superseded in 2010 by the Soyuz TMA-M. (T – транспортный – Transportnyi – meaning transport, M – модифицированный – Modifitsirovannyi – meaning modified, A – антропометрический, – Antropometricheskii meaning anthropometric). It is used by the Russian Federal Space Agency for human spaceflight. The spacecraft features several changes to accommodate requirements requested by NASA [ citation needed] in order to service the International Space Station, including more latitude in the height and weight of the crew and improved parachute systems.

It is also the first expendable vehicle to feature a " glass cockpit". Soyuz-TMA looks identical to the earlier Soyuz-TM spacecraft on the outside, but interior differences allow it to accommodate taller occupants with new adjustable crew couches. Contents • 1 Design • 1.1 Orbital Module (BO) • 1.2 Reentry Module (SA) • 1.3 Service Module (PAO) • 1.4 Re-entry procedure • 1.5 Spacecraft systems • 2 Soyuz TMA-M • 3 References • 4 External links Design [ edit ] A Soyuz spacecraft consists of three parts (from front to back): • A spheroid orbital module • A small aerodynamic reentry module • A cylindrical service module with solar panels attached The first two portions are habitable living space.

By moving as much as possible into the orbital module, which does not have to be shielded or decelerated during atmospheric re-entry, the Soyuz three-part craft is both larger and lighter than the two-part Apollo spacecraft's command module. The Apollo command module had six cubic meters of living space and a mass of 5000 kg; the three-part Soyuz provided the same crew with nine cubic meters of living space, an airlock, and a service module for the mass of the Apollo capsule alone.

This does not consider the orbital module, that could be used instead of the Apollo Lunar Module. Soyuz can carry up to three cosmonauts and provide life support for them for about 30 person days. The life support system provides a nitrogen/oxygen atmosphere at sea level partial pressures. The atmosphere is regenerated through KO 2 cylinders, which absorb most of the CO 2 and water produced by the crew and regenerates the oxygen, and LiOH cylinders which absorb leftover CO 2.

The vehicle is protected during launch by a nose fairing, which is jettisoned after passing through the atmosphere. It has an automatic docking system. The ship can be operated automatically, or by a pilot independently of ground control. Orbital Module (BO) [ edit ] Soyuz spacecraft's Orbital Module The forepart of the spacecraft is the orbital module ( (in Russian): бытовой отсек (BO), Bitovoy otsek) also known as Habitation section.

It houses all the equipment that will not be needed for reentry, such as experiments, cameras or cargo. Commonly, it is used as both eating area and lavatory. At its far end, it also contains the docking port. This module also contains a toilet, docking avionics and communications gear. On the latest Soyuz versions, a small window was introduced, providing the crew with a forward view. A hatch between it and the descent module can be closed so as to isolate it to act as an airlock if needed, cosmonauts exiting through its side port (at the bottom of this picture, near the descent module) on the launch pad, they have entered the spacecraft through this port.

This separation also lets the orbital module be customized to the mission with less risk to the life-critical descent module. The convention of orientation in zero gravity differs from that of the descent module, as cosmonauts stand or sit with their heads to the docking port. Reentry Module (SA) [ edit ] Soyuz spacecraft's Descent Module The reentry module ( (in Russian): спускаемый аппарат (СА), Spuskaemiy apparat (SA)) is used for launch and the journey back to Earth.

It is covered by a heat-resistant covering to protect it during re-entry. It is slowed initially by the atmosphere, then by a braking parachute, followed by the main parachute which slows the craft for landing. At one meter above the ground, solid-fuel braking engines mounted behind the heat shield are fired to give a soft landing. One of the design requirements for the reentry module was for it to have the highest possible volumetric efficiency (internal volume divided by hull area).

The best shape for this is a sphere, but such a shape can provide no lift, which results in a purely ballistic reentry. Ballistic reentries are hard on the occupants due to high deceleration and can't be steered beyond their initial deorbit burn. That is why it was decided to go with the "headlight" shape that the Soyuz uses — a hemispherical forward area joined by a barely angled conical section (seven degrees) to a classic spherical section heat shield.

This shape allows a small amount of lift to be generated due to the unequal weight distribution. The nickname was coined at a time when nearly every automobile headlight was a circular paraboloid.

Service Module (PAO) [ edit ] Soyuz spacecraft's Instrumentation/Propulsion Module At the back of the vehicle is the service module ( (in Russian): приборно-агрегатный отсек, Priborno-Agregatniy Otsek (PAO)).

It has an instrumentation compartment ( (in Russian): приборный отсек, Priborniy Otsek (PO)), a pressurized container shaped like a bulging can that contains systems for temperature control, electric power supply, long-range radio communications, radio telemetry, and instruments for orientation and control.

The propulsion compartment ( (in Russian): агрегатный отсек, Agregatniy Otsek (AO)), a non-pressurized part of the service module, contains the main engine and a spare: liquid-fuel propulsion systems for maneuvering in orbit and initiating the descent back to Earth. The ship also has a system of low-thrust engines for orientation, attached to the intermediate compartment ( (in Russian): переходной отсек, Perekhodnoi Otsek (PkhO)).

Outside the service module are the sensors for the orientation system and the solar array, which is oriented towards the sun by rotating the ship. Re-entry procedure [ edit ] Because its modular construction differs from that of previous designs, the Soyuz has an unusual sequence of events prior to re-entry. The spacecraft is turned engine-forward and the main engine is fired for de-orbiting fully 180° ahead of its planned landing site.

This requires the least propellant for re-entry, the spacecraft traveling on an elliptical Hohmann orbit to a point where it will be low enough in the atmosphere to re-enter. Early Soyuz spacecraft would then have the service and orbital modules detach simultaneously.

As they are connected by tubing and electrical cables to the descent module, this would aid in their separation and avoid having the descent module alter its orientation.

Later Soyuz spacecraft detach the orbital module before firing the main engine, which saves even more propellant, enabling the descent module to return more payload. In no case can the orbital module remain in orbit as an addition to a space station, for the hatch enabling it to function as an airlock is part of the descent module. Re-entry firing is typically done on the "dawn" side of the Earth, so that the spacecraft can be seen by recovery helicopters as it descends in the evening twilight, illuminated by the sun when it is above the shadow of the Earth.

Since the beginning of Soyuz missions to the ISS, only five have performed nighttime landings. [1] Spacecraft systems [ edit ] Soyuz-TMA cockpit • Thermal Control System – Sistema Obespecheniya Teplovogo Rezhima, SOTR - Cистема Обеспечения Теплового Режима, COTP • Life support system – Kompleks Sredstv Obespecheniya Zhiznideyatelnosti, KSOZh - Комплекс Средств Обеспечения Жизнедеятельности, KCOЖ • Power Supply System – Sistema Elektropitaniya, SEP - Система Электропитания, CЭП • Communication and Tracking Systems – Rassvet (Dawn) radio communications system, Onboard Measurement System (SBI), Kvant-V spacecraft control, Klyost-M television system, Orbit Radio Tracking (RKO) • Onboard Complex Control System – Sistema Upravleniya Bortovym Kompleksom, SUBK - Система Управления Бортовым Комплексом, СУБК • Combined Propulsion System – Kompleksnaya Dvigatelnaya Ustanovka, KDU - Комплексная Двигательная Установка, КДУ • Chaika-3 Motion Control System – Sistema Upravleniya Dvizheniem, SUD - Cистема Управления Движением, СУД • Optical/Visual Devices (OVP)- VSK-4 (Vizir Spetsialniy Kosmicheskiy-4 - Визир Специальный Космический-4 ),Night Vision Device (VNUK-K, Visir Nochnogo Upravleniya po Kursu - ВНУK-К, Визир Ночного Управления по Курсу), Docking light, Pilot's Sight (VP-1, Vizir Pilota-1 - ВП-1, Визир Пилота-1), Laser Range Finder (LPR-1, Lazerniy Dalnomer-1 - ЛПР-1, Лазерный Дальномер-1) • Kurs rendezvous system • Docking System – Sistema Stykovki i Vnutrennego Perekhoda, SSVP - Система Стыковки и Внутреннего Перехода, ССВП • Teleoperator Control Mode – Teleoperatorniy Rezhim Upravleniya, TORU - Телеоператорный Режим Управления, ТОРУ • Entry Actuators System – Sistema Ispolnitelnikh Organov Spuska, SIO-S - Система Исполнительных Органов Спуска, СИО-С • Landing Aids Kit – Kompleks Sredstv Prizemleniya, KSP - Комплекс Средств Приземления, КСП • Portable Survival Kit – Nosimiy Avariyniy Zapas, NAZ - Носимый Аварийный Запас, НАЗ • Soyuz launch escape system – Sistema Avariynogo Spaseniya, SAS - Система Аварийного Спасения, САС Soyuz TMA-M [ edit ] The Soyuz TMA-01M launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome.

The final planned flight of the baseline Soyuz-TMA design was Soyuz TMA-22, launched November 14, 2011 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome's Gagarin's Start launch pad in Kazakhstan, at 04:14:03 UTC. [2] The new modernized Soyuz TMA-M [ citation needed] series was developed and built by RKK Energia as an upgrade of the baseline Soyuz-TMA. Thirty-six obsolete pieces of equipment have been replaced with 19 new-generation devices and the vehicle's total mass has been reduced by 70 kilograms (154 lbs). [3] In particular, the reliable but heavy (70 kg) Argon digital computer [4] and analogue systems, which had been used on Soyuz ships for more than 30 years, has been replaced with a new digital computer, the TsVM-101, and digital avionics.

[5] [6] Power consumption has been reduced throughout the ship. [6] There are also changes to the spacecraft's structure, such as replacing the magnesium alloy used in the instrument module frame with aluminium alloy, [6] to make the ship easier to manufacture. [3] The modernized Soyuz will also enable engineers to test new equipment which may also be used in Russia's next generation crewed space ship that is currently under development.

[7] NASA astronaut Scott Kelly, part of Soyuz TMA-01M's crew, praised the ship's new displays, saying that they make flying easier and less operator intensive. [8] Two flight development flights were launched: Soyuz TMA-01M on Oct 7, 2010 and Soyuz TMA-02M on Jun 7, 2011.

The third ship, Soyuz TMA-03M, launched on 21 December 2011 and was used for qualification tests. In addition to verifying the nominal operation of the spaceship, the testing included verification of off-nominal modes, such as manual attitude control, issuing of orbital maneuvering pulses using four berthing and attitude thrusters, and flying around the ISS in manual control mode.

[9] The TMA-M variant flew 20 missions at a cadence of four times a year before being replaced in 2016 by the Soyuz MS. For the launch schedule, see List of Russian human spaceflight missions. References [ edit ] • ^ "Soyuz Trio set for rare Nighttime Landing on Friday".

• ^ William Harwood (15 November 2011). "Three men fly Soyuz capsule to space from snowy pad". Spaceflight Now. • ^ a b "Soyuz TMA-M – a new series of the legendary Soyuz spacecrafts [sic]". RIA Novosti. 2010-09-29. Archived from the original on 2010-10-03. • ^ "Argon-16 Computer. Argon Family of Computers". Russian Virtual Computer Museum. 2010. • ^ "Soyuz spacecraft upgrade ups payload by 70 kg". RIA Novosti. 2010-09-21. • ^ a b c "Soyuz TMA-M manned transport vehicle of a new series".

RKK Energia Corporation. 2010. • ^ "Soyuz TMA-M manned transport vehicle of a new series – General Data". RKK Energia. 2010. • ^ "Three men launched into space for half-year voyage". {/INSERTKEYS}

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SpaceflightNow. 2010-10-07. • ^ "Soyuz TMA-M manned transport vehicle of a new series – Flight tests". RKK Energia. 2010. External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Soyuz spacecraft. • New Russian spaceship will be able to fly to Moon – space corp • Mir Hardware Heritage • David S.F. Portree, Mir Hardware Heritage, NASA RP-1357, 1995 • Mir Hardware Heritage (wikisource) • OMWorld's ASTP Docking Trainer Page • NASA – Russian Soyuz TMA Spacecraft Details • Space Adventures circum-lunar mission – details • www.russianspaceweb.com – The Soyuz spacecraft • Soyuz TM-1 (uncrewed) • TM-2 • TM-3 • TM-4 • TM-5 • TM-6 • TM-7 • TM-8 • TM-9 • TM-10 • TM-11 • TM-12 • TM-13 • TM-14 • TM-15 • TM-16 • TM-17 • TM-18 • TM-19 • TM-20 • TM-21 • TM-22 • TM-23 • TM-24 • TM-25 • TM-26 • TM-27 • TM-28 • TM-29 • TM-30 • TM-31 • TM-32 • TM-33 • TM-34 Soyuz-TMA (2002–2012) Hidden categories: • Articles with short description • Short description matches Wikidata • All articles with unsourced statements • Articles with unsourced statements from May 2021 • Articles with Russian-language sources (ru) • Articles with unsourced statements from June 2013 • Commons category link is locally defined Edit links • This page was last edited on 22 Tm kapsul 2022, at 04:11 (UTC).

• Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Tm kapsul is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • •

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