Less ice artinya

less ice artinya

• Summer ( DST) UTC+1 ( British Summer Time) Date format dd/mm/yyyy ( AD) Driving side left Calling code +44 ISO 3166 code GB-ENG England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. [6] [7] [8] It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north.

The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

The area now called England was first inhabited less ice artinya modern humans during the Upper Paleolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century and has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century.

[9] The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law—the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world—developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. [10] The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation.

[11] England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the north (for example, the Lake District and Pennines) and in the west (for example, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills). The capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom. England's population of 56.3 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, [4] largely concentrated around London, the South East, and conurbations in less ice artinya Midlands, the North West, the North East, and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century.

[12] The Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain.

[13] [14] In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland (through another Act less ice artinya Union) to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. [15] Contents • 1 Toponymy • 2 History • 2.1 Prehistory and antiquity • 2.2 Middle Ages • 2.3 Early modern • 2.4 Late modern and contemporary • 3 Governance • 3.1 Politics • 3.2 Law • 3.3 Regions, counties, and districts • 4 Geography • 4.1 Landscape and rivers • 4.2 Climate • 4.3 Nature and wildlife • 4.4 Major conurbations • 5 Economy • 5.1 Science and technology • 5.2 Transport • 5.3 Energy • 5.4 Tourism • 6 Healthcare • 7 Demography • 7.1 Population • 7.2 Language • 7.3 Religion • 8 Education • 9 Culture • 9.1 Architecture • 9.2 Gardens • 9.3 Folklore • 9.4 Cuisine • 9.5 Visual arts • 9.6 Literature, poetry, and philosophy • 9.7 Performing arts • 9.8 Cinema • 9.9 Museums, libraries, and galleries • 10 Media • 11 Sport • 12 National symbols • 13 See also • 14 Notes • 15 References • 15.1 Bibliography • 16 External links Toponymy See also: Toponymy of England The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles".

[16] The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area (present-day German state of Schleswig–Holstein) of the Baltic Sea. [17] The earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People.

The term was then used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", and it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was then part of the English kingdom of Northumbria.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years later the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense. [18] The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used. [19] The etymology of the less ice artinya name itself is disputed by scholars; it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape.

[20] How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe that was less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons (Eald-Seaxe) of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. [21] In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England ( Sasunn); [22] less ice artinya, the Welsh name for the English language is " Saesneg".

A romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend. Albion is also applied to England in a more poetic capacity, [23] though its less ice artinya meaning is the island of Britain as a whole. History View of the ramparts of the developed hillfort of Maiden Castle, Dorset, as they look today The earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years less ice artinya.

The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago. [24] Modern humans are known to less ice artinya inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years. [25] [26] After the last ice age only large mammals such as mammoths, bison and woolly rhinoceros remained.

Roughly 11,000 years ago, when the ice sheets began to recede, humans repopulated the area; genetic research suggests they came from the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. [27] The sea level was lower than now and Britain was connected by land bridge to Ireland and Eurasia.

[28] As the seas rose, it was separated from Ireland 10,000 years ago and from Eurasia two millennia later. The Beaker culture arrived around 2,500 BC, introducing drinking and food vessels constructed from less ice artinya, as well as vessels used as reduction pots to smelt copper ores. [29] It was during this time that major Neolithic monuments such as Stonehenge and Avebury were constructed. By heating together tin and copper, which were in abundance less ice artinya the area, the Beaker culture people made bronze, and later iron from iron ores.

The development of iron smelting allowed the construction of better ploughs, advancing agriculture (for instance, with Celtic fields), as well as the production of more effective weapons. [30] During the Iron Age, Celtic culture, deriving from the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, arrived from Central Europe.

Brythonic was the spoken language during this time. Society was tribal; according to Ptolemy's Geographia there were around 20 tribes in the area. Earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons were not literate. Like other regions on the edge of the Empire, Britain had long enjoyed trading links with the Romans. Julius Caesar of the Roman Republic attempted to invade twice in 55 BC; although largely unsuccessful, he managed to set up a client king from the Trinovantes. Boudica led an uprising against the Roman Empire.

The Romans invaded Britain in 43 AD during the reign of Emperor Claudius, subsequently conquering much of Britain, and the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as Britannia province. [31] The best-known of the native tribes who attempted to resist were the Catuvellauni led by Caratacus. Later, an uprising led by Boudica, Queen of the Iceni, ended with Boudica's suicide following her defeat at the Battle of Watling Street.

[32] The author of one study of Roman Britain suggested that from 43 AD to 84 AD, the Roman invaders killed somewhere between 100,000 and 250,000 people from a population of perhaps 2,000,000. [33] This era saw a Greco-Roman culture prevail with the introduction of Roman law, Roman architecture, aqueducts, less ice artinya, many agricultural items and silk.

[34] [35] [36] In the 3rd century, Emperor Septimius Severus died at Eboracum (now York), where Constantine was subsequently proclaimed emperor a century later.

[37] There is debate about when Christianity was first introduced; it was no later than the 4th century, probably much earlier. According to Bede, missionaries were sent from Rome by Eleutherius at the request of the chieftain Lucius of Britain in 180 AD, to settle differences as to Eastern and Western ceremonials, which were disturbing the church.

There are traditions linked to Glastonbury claiming an introduction through Joseph of Arimathea, while others claim through Lucius of Britain. [38] By 410, during the Decline of the Roman Empire, Britain was left exposed by the end of Roman rule in Britain and the withdrawal of Roman army units, to defend the frontiers in continental Europe and partake in civil wars.

[39] Celtic Christian monastic and missionary movements flourished: Patrick (5th-century Ireland) and in the 6th century Brendan (Clonfert), Comgall (Bangor), David (Wales), Aiden (Lindisfarne) and Columba (Iona).

This period of Christianity was influenced by ancient Celtic culture in its sensibilities, polity, practices and theology. Local "congregations" were centred in the monastic community and monastic leaders were more like chieftains, as peers, rather than in the more hierarchical system of the Roman-dominated church.

[40] Replica of the 7th-century ceremonial Sutton Hoo helmet from the Kingdom of East Anglia Roman military withdrawals left Britain open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors from north-western continental Europe, chiefly the Saxons, Angles, Jutes and Frisians who had long raided the coasts of the Roman province. These groups then began to settle in increasing numbers over the course of the fifth and sixth centuries, initially in the eastern part of the country.

[39] Their advance was contained for some decades after the Britons' victory at the Battle of Mount Badon, but subsequently resumed, overrunning the fertile lowlands of Britain and reducing the area under Brittonic control to a series of separate enclaves in the more rugged country to the west by the end of the 6th century. Contemporary texts describing this period are extremely scarce, giving rise to its description as a Dark Age.

The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement; the emerging consensus is that it occurred on a large scale in the south and east but was less substantial to the north and west, where Celtic languages continued to be spoken even in areas under Anglo-Saxon control.

[41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] Roman-dominated Christianity had, in general, been replaced in the conquered territories by Anglo-Saxon paganism, but was reintroduced by missionaries from Rome led by Augustine from 597 onwards. [47] Disputes between the Roman- and Celtic-dominated forms of Christianity ended in victory for the Roman tradition at the Council of Whitby (664), which was ostensibly about tonsures (clerical haircuts) and the date of Easter, but more significantly, about the differences in Roman and Celtic forms of authority, theology, and practice.

[40] During the settlement period the lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous tribal territories, but by the 7th century, when substantial evidence of the situation again becomes available, these had coalesced into roughly a dozen kingdoms including Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex, East Anglia, Essex, Kent and Sussex.

Less ice artinya the following centuries, this process of political consolidation continued. [48] The 7th century saw a struggle for hegemony between Northumbria and Mercia, which in the 8th century gave way to Mercian preeminence. [49] In the early 9th century Mercia was displaced as the foremost kingdom by Wessex.

Later in that century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia. Wessex under Alfred the Great was left as the only surviving English kingdom, and under his successors, it steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the Danelaw.

This brought about the political unification of England, first accomplished under Æthelstan in 927 and definitively established after further conflicts by Eadred in 953. A less ice artinya wave of Scandinavian attacks from the late 10th century ended with the conquest of this united kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in 1013 and again by his son Cnut in 1016, turning it into the centre of a short-lived North Sea Empire that also included Denmark and Norway.

However, the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor in 1042. King Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt, fought on Saint Crispin's Day and concluded with an English victory against a larger French army in the Hundred Years' War A dispute over the succession to Edward led to the Norman Conquest in 1066, accomplished by an army led by Duke William of Normandy.

[50] The Normans themselves originated from Scandinavia and had settled in Normandy in the late 9th and early 10th centuries. [51] This conquest led to the almost total dispossession of the English elite and its replacement by a new French-speaking aristocracy, whose speech had a profound and permanent effect on the English language. [52] Subsequently, the House of Plantagenet from Anjou inherited the English throne under Henry II, adding England to the budding Angevin Empire of fiefs the family had inherited in France including Aquitaine.

[53] They reigned for three centuries, some noted monarchs being Richard I, Edward I, Edward III and Henry V. [53] The period saw changes in trade and legislation, including the signing of the Magna Carta, an English legal charter used to limit the sovereign's powers by law and protect the privileges of freemen.

Catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage. The Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during the 13th century [54] and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope. During the 14th century, the Plantagenets and the House of Valois both claimed to be legitimate claimants to the House of Capet and with it France; the two powers clashed in the Hundred Years' War.

[55] The Black Death epidemic hit England; starting in 1348, it eventually killed up to half of England's inhabitants. [56] [57] From 1453 to 1487 civil war occurred between two branches of the royal family – the Yorkists and Lancastrians – known as the Wars of the Roses.

[58] Eventually it led to the Yorkists losing the throne entirely to a Welsh noble family the Tudors, a branch of the Lancastrians headed by Henry Tudor who invaded with Welsh and Breton mercenaries, gaining victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field where the Yorkist king Richard III was killed.

[59] Early modern Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603) During the Tudor period, the Renaissance reached England through Italian courtiers, who reintroduced artistic, educational and scholarly debate from classical antiquity. [60] England began to develop naval skills, and exploration to the West intensified. [61] [62] Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in 1534 which proclaimed the monarch head of the Church of England.

In contrast with much of European Less ice artinya, the roots of the split were more political than theological. [nb 1] He also legally incorporated his ancestral land Wales into the Kingdom of England with the 1535–1542 acts.

There were internal religious conflicts during the reigns of Henry's daughters, Less ice artinya I and Elizabeth I. The former took the country back to Catholicism while the latter broke from it again, forcefully asserting the supremacy of Anglicanism.

The Elizabethan era is the epoch in less ice artinya Tudor age of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I ("the Virgin Queen"). Historians often depict it as the golden age in English history. Elizabethan England represented the apogee of the English Renaissance and saw the flowering of art, poetry, less ice artinya and literature.

[64] The era is most famous for its drama, theatre and playwrights. England during this period had a centralised, well-organised, and effective government as a result of vast Tudor reforms. [65] Competing with Spain, the first English colony in the Americas was founded in 1585 by explorer Less ice artinya Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke.

The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the lost colony after it was found abandoned on the return of the late-arriving supply ship. [66] With the East India Company, England also competed with the Dutch and French in the East. During the Elizabethan period, England was at war with Spain. An armada sailed from Spain in 1588 as part of a wider plan to invade England and re-establish a Catholic monarchy.

The plan was thwarted by bad coordination, stormy weather and successful harrying attacks by an English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham. This failure did not end the threat: Spain launched two further armadas, in 1596 and 1597, but both were driven back by storms. The political structure of the island changed in 1603, when the King of Scots, James VI, a kingdom which had been a long-time rival to English interests, inherited the throne of England as James I, thereby creating a personal union.

[67] [68] He styled himself King of Great Britain, although this had no basis in English law. [69] Under the auspices of King James VI and I the Authorised King James Version of the Holy Bible was published in 1611. It was the standard version of the Bible read by less ice artinya Protestant Christians for four hundred years until modern revisions were produced in the 20th century.

The English Restoration restored the monarchy under King Charles II and peace after the English Civil War. Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, the English Civil War was fought between the supporters of Parliament and those of King Charles I, known colloquially as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively. This was an interwoven part of the wider multifaceted Wars of the Three Kingdoms, involving Scotland and Ireland.

The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth. Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in 1653; a period of personal rule followed. [70] After Cromwell's death and the resignation of his son Richard as Lord Protector, Charles II was invited to return as monarch in 1660, in a less ice artinya called the Restoration.

With the reopening of theatres, fine arts, literature and performing arts flourished throughout the Restoration of ''the Merry Monarch'' Charles II. [71] After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, it was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real power. Less ice artinya was established with the Bill of Rights in 1689.

Among the statutes set down were that the law could only be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, also that the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without the prior approval of Parliament.

[72] Also since that time, no British monarch has entered the House of Commons when it is sitting, which is annually commemorated at the State Opening of Parliament by the British monarch when the doors of the House of Commons are slammed in the face of the monarch's messenger, symbolising the rights of Parliament and its independence from the monarch. [73] [74] With less ice artinya founding of the Royal Society in 1660, science was greatly encouraged.

In 1666 the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards [75] with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren. In Parliament two factions had emerged – the Tories and Whigs. Less ice artinya the Tories initially supported Catholic king James II, some of them, along with the Whigs, during the Revolution of 1688 invited Dutch prince William of Orange to defeat James and ultimately to become William III of England. Some English people, especially in the north, were Jacobites and continued to support James and his sons.

Under the Stuart dynasty England expanded in trade, finance and prosperity. Britain developed Europe's largest merchant fleet. [76] After the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed, [77] the two countries joined in political union, to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707.

[67] To accommodate the union, institutions such as the law and national churches of each remained separate. [78] Late modern and contemporary The River Thames during the Georgian period from the Terrace of Somerset House looking towards St.

Paul's, c.1750 Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other English initiatives combined with the Scottish Enlightenment to create innovations in science and engineering, while the enormous growth in British overseas trade protected by the Royal Navy paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire. Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution, a period of profound change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development.

[79] The opening of Northwest England's Bridgewater Canal in 1761 ushered in the canal age in Britain. [80] [81] In 1825 the world's first permanent steam locomotive-hauled passenger railway – the Stockton and Darlington Railway – opened to the public.

[80] The Battle of Trafalgar was a naval engagement between the British Royal Navy and the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies during the Napoleonic Wars. [82] During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved from England's countryside to new and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories, for instance at Birmingham and Manchester, dubbed "Workshop of the World" and "Warehouse City" respectively.

[83] [84] Manchester was the world's first industrial city. [85] England maintained relative stability throughout the French Revolution; William Pitt the Younger was British Prime Minister for the reign of George III. The Regency of George IV is noted for its elegance and achievements in the fine arts and architecture. [86] During the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon planned to invade from the south-east. However this failed to manifest and the Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British: at sea by Lord Nelson, and on land by the Duke of Wellington.

The major victory at the Battle of Trafalgar confirmed the naval supremacy Britain had established during the course of the eighteenth century. [87] The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a united national British people, shared with the English, Scots and Less ice artinya.

[88] The Victorian era is often cited as a Golden Age. London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world during the Victorian era, and trade within the British Empire – as well as the standing of the British military and navy – was prestigious. [89] Technologically, this era saw many innovations that proved key to the United Kingdom's power and prosperity.

[90] Political agitation at home from radicals such as the Chartists and the suffragettes enabled legislative reform and universal suffrage. [91] Samuel Hynes described the Edwardian era as a "leisurely time when women wore picture hats and did not vote, when the rich were not ashamed to live conspicuously, and the sun really never set on the British flag." [92] Power shifts in east-central Europe led to World War I; hundreds of thousands of English soldiers died fighting for the United Kingdom as part of the Allies.

[nb 2] Two decades later, in World War II, the United Kingdom was again one of the Allies. At the end of the Phoney War, Winston Churchill became the wartime Prime Minister. Developments in warfare technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz. Following the war, the British Empire experienced rapid decolonisation, and there was a speeding-up of technological innovations; automobiles became the primary means of transport and Frank Whittle's development of the jet engine led to wider air travel.

[94] Residential patterns were altered in England by private motoring, and by the creation of the National Health Service (NHS) in 1948. The UK's NHS provided publicly funded health care to all UK permanent residents free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation.

Combined, these prompted the reform of local government in England in the mid-20th century. [95] [96] Since the 20th century there has been significant population movement to England, mostly from other parts of the British Isles, but also from the Commonwealth, particularly the Indian subcontinent. [97] Since the 1970s there has been a large move away from manufacturing and an increasing emphasis on the service industry. [98] As part of the United Kingdom, the area joined a common market initiative called the European Economic Community which became the European Union.

Since the late 20th century the administration of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. [99] England and Less ice artinya continues to exist as a jurisdiction within the United Kingdom.

[100] Devolution has stimulated a greater emphasis on a more Less ice artinya identity and patriotism. less ice artinya [102] There is no devolved English government, but an attempt to create a similar system on a sub-regional basis was rejected by referendum.

[103] Governance Politics The Palace of Westminster, the seat of the Parliament of the United Kingdom England is part of the United Kingdom, a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. [104] There has not been a government of England since 1707, when the Acts of Union 1707, putting into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union, joined England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. [77] Before the union England was ruled by its monarch and the Parliament of England.

Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments. [105] In the House of Commons which is the lower house of the British Parliament based at the Palace of Westminster, there are 532 Members of Parliament (MPs) for constituencies in England, out of the 650 total. [106] As of the 2019 United Kingdom general election, England is represented by 345 MPs from the Conservative Party, 179 from the Labour Party, seven from the Liberal Democrats, one from the Green Party, and the Speaker of the House, Lindsay Hoyle.

Since devolution, in which other countries of the United Kingdom – Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland – each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England.

Originally it was planned that various regions of England would be devolved, but following the proposal's rejection by the North East in a 2004 referendum, this has not been carried out.

[103] One major issue is the West Lothian question, in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters.

[107] This when placed in the context of England being the only country of the United Kingdom not to have free cancer treatment, prescriptions, residential care for the elderly and free top-up university fees, [108] has led to a steady rise in English nationalism. [109] Some have suggested the creation of a devolved English parliament, [110] while others have proposed simply limiting voting on legislation which only affects England to English MPs.

[111] The Royal Courts of Justice The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the basis of common law [112] legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries [113] and the United States (except Louisiana). Despite now being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Union, as a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland. The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge less ice artinya legal precedent – stare decisis – to the facts before them.

[114] The court system is headed by less ice artinya Senior Courts of England and Wales, consisting of the Court of Appeal, the High Court of Justice for civil cases, and the Crown Court for criminal cases. [115] The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the highest court for criminal and civil cases in England and Wales.

It was created in 2009 after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords. [116] A decision of the Supreme Court is binding on every other court in the hierarchy, which must follow its directions. [117] The Secretary of State for Justice is the minister responsible to Parliament for the judiciary, the court system and prisons and probation in England. [118] Crime increased between 1981 and 1995 but fell by 42% in the period 1995–2006.

[119] The prison population doubled over the same period, giving it one of highest incarceration rate in Western Europe at 147 per 100,000. [120] Her Majesty's Prison Service, reporting to the Ministry of Justice, manages most prisons, housing over 85,000 convicts. [121] Regions, counties, and districts Ceremonial counties of England The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government.

The highest tier of local government were the nine regions of England: North East, North West, Yorkshire and the Humber, East Midlands, West Midlands, East, South East, South West, and London. These were created in 1994 as Government Offices, used by the UK government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in 2011 the regional government offices were abolished.

[122] After devolution began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight. London accepted in 1998: the London Assembly was created two years later.

However, when the proposal was rejected by the 2004 North East England devolution referendum in the North East, further referendums were cancelled. [103] The regional assemblies outside London were abolished in 2010, and their less ice artinya transferred to respective Regional Development Agencies and a new system of Local authority leaders' boards. [123] Below the regional level, all of England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties. [124] These are used primarily as a geographical frame of reference and have developed gradually since the Middle Ages, with some established as recently as 1974.

[125] Each has a Less ice artinya Lieutenant and High Sheriff; these posts are used to represent the British monarch locally. [124] Outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly, England is also divided into 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties; these correspond to areas used for the purposes of local government [126] and may consist of a single district or be divided into several.

There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanised areas, which do not have county councils. [126] In these areas the principal authorities are the councils of the subdivisions, the metropolitan boroughs.

Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council. They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas. The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and usually correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; they are known as unitary authorities. Greater London has a different system for local government, with 32 London boroughs, plus the City of London covering a small area at the core governed by the City of London Corporation.

[127] At the most localised level, much of England is divided into civil parishes with councils; in Greater London only one, Queen's Park, exists as of 2014 [update] after they were abolished in 1965 until legislation allowed their recreation in 2007. Geography Skiddaw massif, seen from Walla Crag in the Lake District Geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly.

It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom: to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. England is closer than any other part of mainland Britain to the European continent. It is separated from France ( Hauts-de-France) by a 21-mile (34 km) [128] sea gap, though the two countries are connected by the Channel Tunnel near Folkestone.

[129] England also has shores on the Irish Sea, North Sea and Atlantic Ocean. The ports of London, Liverpool, and Newcastle lie on the tidal rivers Thames, Mersey and Tyne respectively. At 220 miles (350 km), the Severn is the longest river flowing through England. [130] It empties into the Bristol Channel and is notable for its Severn Bore (a tidal bore), which can reach 2 metres (6.6 ft) in height.

[131] However, the longest river entirely in England is the Thames, which is 215 miles (346 km) in length. [132] The Malvern Hills located in the English counties of Worcestershire and Herefordshire. The hills have been designated by the Countryside Agency as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. There are many lakes in England; the largest is Windermere, within the aptly named Lake District.

[133] Most of England's landscape consists of low hills and plains, with upland and mountainous terrain in the north and west of the country. The northern uplands include the Pennines, a chain of uplands dividing east and west, the Lake District mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills, straddling the border between England and Scotland.

The highest point in England, at 978 metres (3,209 ft), is Scafell Pike in the Lake District. [133] The Shropshire Hills are near Wales while Dartmoor and Exmoor are two upland areas in the south-west of the country. The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Less ice artinya line.

[134] In geological terms, the Pennines, known as the "backbone of England", are the oldest less ice artinya of mountains in the country, originating from the end of the Paleozoic Era around 300 million years ago. [135] Their geological composition includes, among others, sandstone and limestone, and also coal. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire. The Pennine landscape is high moorland in upland areas, indented by fertile valleys of the region's rivers.

They contain two national parks, the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District. In the West Country, Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include upland moorland supported by granite, and enjoy a mild climate; both are national parks.

[136] The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills, Chiltern Hills, North and South Downs; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover.

This also includes relatively flat plains such as the Salisbury Plain, Somerset Levels, South Coast Plain and The Fens. Climate Main article: Climate of England England has a temperate maritime climate: it is mild with temperatures not much lower than 0 °C (32 °F) in winter and not much higher than 32 °C (90 °F) in summer.

[137] The weather is damp relatively frequently and is changeable. The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast, while July is normally the warmest month.

Months less ice artinya mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. [137] Rainfall is spread fairly evenly less ice artinya the year. Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream.

[137] Rainfall is higher in the west, and parts of the Lake District receive more rain than anywhere else in the country. [137] Since weather records began, the highest temperature recorded was 38.7 °C (101.7 °F) on 25 July 2019 at the Botanic Garden in Cambridge, [138] while the lowest was −26.1 °C (−15.0 °F) on 10 January 1982 in Edgmond, Shropshire.

[139] Nature and wildlife Deer in Richmond Park. The park was created by Charles I in the 17th century as a deer park. [140] The fauna of England is similar to that of other areas in the British Isles with a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate life in a diverse range of habitats.

[141] National nature reserves in England are designated by Natural England as key places for wildlife and natural features in England. They were established to protect the most significant areas of habitat and of geological formations.

NNRs are managed on behalf of the nation, many by Natural England themselves, but also by non-governmental organisations, including the members of The Wildlife Trusts partnership, the National Trust, and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. There are 229 NNRs in England covering 939 square kilometres (363 square miles).

Often they contain rare species or nationally important species of plants and animals. [142] The Environment Agency is a non-departmental public body, established in 1995 and sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs with responsibilities relating to the protection and enhancement of the environment in England.

[143] The Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs is the minister responsible for environmental protection, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities in England.

[144] England has a temperate oceanic climate in most areas, lacking extremes of cold or heat, but does have a few small areas of subarctic and warmer areas in the South West. Towards the North of England the climate becomes colder and most of England's mountains and high hills are located here and have a major impact on the climate and thus the local fauna of the areas.

Deciduous woodlands are common across all of England and provide a great habitat for much of England's wildlife, but these give way in northern and upland areas of England to coniferous forests (mainly plantations) which also benefit certain forms of wildlife. Some species have adapted to the expanded urban environment, particularly the red fox, which is the most successful urban mammal after the brown rat, and other animals such as common wood pigeon, both of which thrive in urban and suburban areas.

[145] Grey squirrels introduced from eastern America have forced the decline of the native red squirrel due to competition. Red squirrels are now confined to upland and coniferous-forested areas of England, mainly in the north, south west and Isle of Wight.

England's climate is very suitable for lagomorphs and the country has rabbits and brown hares which were introduced in Roman times. [146] [147] Mountain hares which are indigenous have now been re-introduced in Derbyshire. The fauna of England has to cope with varying temperatures and conditions, although not extreme they do pose potential challenges and adaptational measures.

English fauna has however had to cope with industrialisation, human population densities amongst the highest in Europe and intensive farming, but as England is a developed nation, wildlife and the countryside have entered the English less ice artinya more and the country is very conscientious about preserving its wildlife, environment and countryside.

[148] Major conurbations See also: List of places in England The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England [149] and one of the busiest cities in the world. It is considered a global city and has a population larger than any other less ice artinya in the United Kingdom besides England itself. [149] Other urban areas of considerable size and influence tend to be in northern England or the English Midlands. [149] There are 50 settlements which have designated city status in England, while the wider United Kingdom has 66.

While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Newcastle, Bradford, Nottingham, population size is not a prerequisite for city status.

[150] Traditionally the status was given to towns with diocesan cathedrals, so there are smaller cities like Wells, Ely, Ripon, Truro and Chichester. Rank Conurbation Pop. Principal settlement 1 Greater London 9,787,426 London 2 Greater Manchester 2,553,379 Manchester 3 West Midlands 2,440,986 Birmingham 4 West Yorkshire 1,777,934 Leeds 5 Liverpool 864,122 Liverpool 6 South Hampshire 855,569 Southampton 7 Tyneside 774,891 Newcastle upon Tyne 8 Nottingham 729,977 Nottingham 9 Sheffield 685,368 Sheffield 10 Bristol 617,280 Bristol Economy The Less ice artinya Mulsanne.

Bentley is a well-known English car company. England's economy is one of the largest and most dynamic in the world, with an average GDP per capita of £28,100. Her Majesty's Treasury, led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, is responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.

[153] Usually regarded as a mixed market economy, it has adopted many free market principles, yet maintains an advanced social welfare infrastructure. [154] The official currency in England is the pound sterling, whose ISO 4217 code is GBP. Taxation in England is quite competitive when compared to much of the rest of Europe – as of less ice artinya [update] the basic rate of personal tax is 20% on taxable income up to £31,865 above the personal tax-free allowance (normally £10,000), and 40% on any additional earnings above that amount.

[155] The economy of England is the largest part of the UK's economy, [156] which has the 18th highest GDP PPP per capita in the world. England is a leader in the chemical [157] and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace, the arms industry, and the manufacturing side of the software industry. London, home to the London Stock Exchange, the United Kingdom's main stock exchange and the largest in Europe, is England's financial centre, with 100 of Europe's 500 largest corporations being based there.

[158] London is the largest financial centre in Europe, and as of 2014 [update] is the second largest in the world. [159] Manchester is the largest financial and professional services sector outside London and is the mid tier private equity capital of Europe as well as one of the growing technology hubs of Europe.

[160] The Bank of England, founded in 1694 by Scottish banker William Paterson, is the United Kingdom's central bank. Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since 1946 it has been a state-owned institution.

[161] The bank has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales, although not in other parts of the United Kingdom. The government has devolved responsibility to the bank's Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates. [162] England is highly industrialised, but since the 1970s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy.

[98] Tourism has become a significant industry, attracting millions of visitors to England each year. The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals, cars (although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover, Less ice artinya, Jaguar and Bentley), crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm, aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.

[163] The creative industries accounted for 7 per cent GVA in 2005 and grew at an average of 6 per cent per annum between 1997 and 2005.

[164] Most of the UK's £30 billion [165] aerospace industry is primarily based in England. The global market opportunity for UK aerospace manufacturers over the next two decades is estimated at £3.5 trillion.

[166] GKN Aerospace – an expert in metallic and composite aerostructures is involved in almost every civil and military fixed and rotary wing aircraft in production is based in Redditch. [167] BAE Systems makes large sections of the Typhoon Eurofighter at its sub-assembly less ice artinya in Samlesbury and assembles the aircraft for the RAF at its Warton plant, near Preston. It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter – the world's largest single defence project – for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system.

It also manufactures the Hawk, the world's most successful jet training aircraft. [167] Rolls-Royce PLC is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer. Its engines power more than 30 types less ice artinya commercial aircraft, and it has more 30,000 engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors.

With a workforce of over 12,000 people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK. Rolls-Royce also produces low-emission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore less ice artinya and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry. [167] [168] The pharmaceutical industry plays an important role in the economy, and the UK has the third-highest share of global pharmaceutical R&D expenditures.

[169] [170] Much of the UK's space industry is centred on EADS Astrium, based in Stevenage and Portsmouth. The company builds the buses – the underlying structure onto which the payload and propulsion systems are built – for most of the European Space Agency's spacecraft, as well as commercial satellites.

The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellite Technology, is also part of Astrium. [167] Reaction Engines Limited, the company planning to build Skylon, a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane using their SABRE rocket engine, a combined-cycle, air-breathing rocket propulsion system is based Culham. The UK space industry was less ice artinya £9.1bn in 2011 and employed 29,000 people.

It is growing at a rate of 7.5 per cent annually, according to its umbrella organisation, the UK Space Agency. In 2013, the British Government pledged £60 million to the Skylon project: this investment will provide support at a "crucial stage" to allow a full-scale prototype of the SABRE engine to be built. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanised and efficient by European standards, producing 60% of food needs with only 2% of the labour force. [171] Two-thirds of production is devoted to livestock, the other to arable crops.

[172] The main crops that are grown are wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, sugar beets. England retains a significant, though much reduced fishing industry. Its fleets bring home fish of every kind, ranging from sole to herring.

It is also rich in natural resources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, and silica.

[173] Science and technology Sir Isaac Newton is one of the most influential figures in the history of science.

Prominent English figures from the field of science and mathematics include Sir Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday, Charles Darwin, Robert Hooke, James Prescott Joule, John Dalton, Lord Rayleigh, J. J. Thomson, Less ice artinya Chadwick, Charles Babbage, George Boole, Alan Turing, Tim Berners-Lee, Paul Dirac, Stephen Hawking, Peter Higgs, Roger Penrose, John Horton Conway, Thomas Bayes, Arthur Cayley, G.

H. Hardy, Oliver Heaviside, Andrew Wiles, Edward Jenner, Francis Crick, Joseph Lister, Joseph Priestley, Thomas Young, Christopher Wren and Richard Dawkins. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins, the first secretary of the Royal Society, in 1668. [174] England was a leading centre of the Scientific Revolution from the 17th century.

[175] As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel, best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway, a series of famous steamships, and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering. [176] Thomas Newcomen's steam engine helped spawn the Industrial Revolution. [177] The Father of Railways, George Stephenson, built the first public inter-city railway line in the world, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, which opened in 1830.

With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton (business partner of James Watt) is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history. [178] The physician Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine is said to have "saved more lives . than were lost in all the wars of mankind since the beginning of recorded history." [179] [180] [181] King Charles II, a patron of the arts and sciences, supported the Royal Society, a scientific group whose early members included Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle and Sir Less ice artinya Newton.

[182] Inventions and discoveries of the English include: the jet engine, the first industrial spinning machine, the first computer and the first modern computer, the World Wide Web along with HTML, the first successful human blood transfusion, the motorised vacuum cleaner, [183] the lawn mower, the seat belt, the hovercraft, the electric motor, steam engines, and theories such as the Darwinian theory of evolution and atomic theory. Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation, Newtonian mechanics, and calculus, and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity.

Other inventions include the iron plate railway, the thermosiphon, tarmac, the rubber band, the mousetrap, "cat's eye" road marker, joint development of the light bulb, steam locomotives, the modern seed drill and many modern techniques and technologies used in precision engineering. [184] The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, [185] is a learned society and the United Kingdom's national academy of sciences. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society".

[185] It is the oldest national scientific institution in the world. [186] The society fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation, education and public engagement. [187] The Royal Society started from groups of physicians and natural philosophers, meeting at a variety of locations, including Gresham College in London.

They were influenced by the " new science", as promoted by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis, from approximately 1645 onwards. [188] A group known less ice artinya "The Philosophical Society of Oxford" was run under a less ice artinya of rules still retained by the Bodleian Library. [189] After the English Restoration, there were regular meetings at Gresham Less ice artinya. [190] It is widely held that these groups were the inspiration for the foundation of the Royal Society.

[189] Scientific research and development remains important in the universities of England, with many establishing science parks to facilitate production and co-operation with industry. [191] Between 2004 and 2008 the United Kingdom produced 7 per cent of the world's scientific research papers and had an 8 per cent share of scientific citations, the third and second-highest in the world (after the United States and China, respectively).

[192] Scientific journals produced in the United Kingdom include Nature, the British Medical Journal and The Lancet. [193] London St Pancras International is the UK's 13th busiest railway terminus. The station is one of London's main domestic and international transport hubs providing both commuter rail and high-speed rail services across the UK and to Paris, Lille and Brussels.

The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. The department is run by the Secretary of State for Transport. England has a dense and modern transportation infrastructure. There are many motorways in England, and many other trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road, which runs through eastern England from London to Newcastle [194] (much of this section is motorway) and onward to the Scottish border.

The longest motorway in England is the M6, from Rugby through the North West up to the Anglo-Scottish border, a distance of 232 miles (373 km). [194] Other major routes include: the M1 from London to Leeds, the M25 which encircles London, the M60 which encircles Manchester, the M4 from London to South Wales, the M62 from Liverpool via Manchester to East Yorkshire, and the M5 from Birmingham to Bristol and the South West.

[194] Bus transport across the country is widespread; major companies include Arriva, FirstGroup, Go-Ahead Group, National Express, Less ice artinya and Stagecoach Group. The red double-decker buses in London have become a symbol of England. National Cycle Route offers cycling routes nationally. There is a rapid transit network in two English cities: the London Underground; and the Tyne and Wear Metro in Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead and Sunderland.

[195] There are several tram networks, such as the Blackpool tramway, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram and West Midlands Metro, and the Tramlink system centred on Croydon in South London. [195] Hitachi AT300 at London Paddington Station. Great British Railways is a planned state-owned public body that will oversee rail transport in Great Britain from 2023.

The Office of Rail and Road is responsible for the economic and safety regulation of England's railways. [196] Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: passenger railways originated in England in 1825. [197] Much of Britain's 10,000 miles (16,000 km) of rail network lies in England, covering the country fairly extensively, although a high proportion of railway lines were closed in the second half of the 20th century.

There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge. These lines are mostly standard gauge ( single, double or quadruple track) though there are also a few narrow gauge lines. There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel, which was completed in 1994. Crossrail, under construction in London, is Europe's largest construction project with a £15 billion projected cost. [198] High Speed 2, a new high-speed north–south less ice artinya line, projected in 2015 to cost £56 billion is to start being built in 2020.

[199] England has extensive domestic and international aviation links. The largest airport is Heathrow, which is the world's busiest airport measured by number of international passengers. [200] Other large airports include Gatwick, Manchester, Stansted, Luton and Birmingham. [201] By sea there is ferry transport, both local and international, including from Liverpool to Ireland and the Isle of Man, and Hull to the Netherlands less ice artinya Belgium. [202] There are around 4,400 miles (7,100 km) less ice artinya navigable waterways in England, half of which is owned by the Canal & River Trust, [202] however, water transport is very limited.

The River Thames is the major waterway in England, with imports and exports focused at the Port of Tilbury in the Thames Estuary, one of the United Kingdom's three major ports. [202] Energy Wind turbines at Den Brook, Devon.

The UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energy, and wind power production is its fastest growing supply. [203] [204] Energy use in the United Kingdom stood at 2,249 TWh (193.4 million tonnes of oil equivalent) in 2014. [205] This equates to energy consumption per capita of 34.82 MWh (3.00 tonnes of oil equivalent) compared to a 2010 world average of 21.54 MWh (1.85 tonnes of oil equivalent).

[206] Demand for electricity in 2014 was 34.42 GW on average [207] (301.7TWh over the year) coming from a total electricity generation of 335.0 TWh. [208] Successive UK governments have outlined numerous commitments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

Notably, the UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energy, and wind power production is its fastest growing supply. [204] [209] Wind power contributed 15% of UK electricity less ice artinya in 2017.

[210] [211] The Climate Change Act 2008 was passed in Parliament with an overwhelming majority across political parties. It sets out emission reduction targets that the UK must comply with legally. It represents the first global legally binding climate change mitigation target set by a country. [212] UK government energy policy aims to play a key role in limiting greenhouse gas emissions, whilst meeting energy demand. Shifting availabilities of resources and development of technologies also change the country's energy mix through changes in costs.

[213] The current energy policy is the responsibility of the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy and Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. [214] The Minister of State for Business, Energy and Clean Growth is responsible for green finance, climate science and innovation, and low carbon generation.

[215] United Kingdom is ranked 4 out of 180 countries in the Environmental Performance Index. [216] A law has been passed that UK greenhouse gas emissions will be net zero by 2050.

[217] Tourism The timber-framed street of The Shambles in York English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is currently sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.

[218] The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty is a charity which also maintains multiple sites. Of the 25 United Kingdom UNESCO Less ice artinya Heritage Sites, 17 are in England.

[219] Some of the best known of these include Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, Tower of London, Jurassic Coast, Palace of Westminster, Roman Baths, City of Bath, Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge, Studley Royal Park and more recently the English Lake District. The northernmost point of the Roman Empire, Hadrian's Wall, is the largest Roman artefact anywhere: it runs for a total of 73 miles (117 kilometres) in northern England.

[220] The Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport has overall responsibility for tourism, arts and culture, cultural property, heritage and less ice artinya environments, libraries, and museums and galleries.

[221] The Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Arts, Heritage and Tourism is the minister with responsibility over tourism in England. [222] A blue plaque, the oldest historical marker scheme in the world, is a permanent sign installed in a public place in England to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person or event. The scheme was the brainchild of politician William Ewart in 1863 and was initiated in 1866.

It was formally established by the Royal Society of Arts in 1867, and since 1986 has been run by English Heritage. In 2011 there were around 1,600 museums in England. [223] Entry to most state-supported museums and galleries is free unlike in other countries. [224] London is one of the world's most visited cities, regularly less ice artinya the top five most visited cities in Europe. [225] [226] It is largely considered a global centre of finance, arts and culture.

[227] William Beveridge's 1942 report Social Insurance and Allied Services (known as the Beveridge Report) served as the basis for the post- World War II welfare state The National Health Service (NHS), is the publicly funded healthcare system responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country. The NHS began on 5 July 1948, putting into effect the provisions of the National Health Service Act 1946. It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report, prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge.

[228] The NHS is largely funded from general taxation including National Insurance payments, [229] and it provides most of its services free at the point of use, although there are charges for some people for eye tests, dental care, prescriptions and aspects of personal care. [230] The government department responsible for the NHS is the Department of Health, headed by the Secretary of State for Health, who sits in the British Cabinet.

Most of the expenditure of the Department of Health is spent on the NHS—£98.6 billion was spent in 2008–2009. [231] In recent years the private sector has been increasingly used to provide more NHS services despite opposition by doctors and trade unions. [232] When purchasing drugs, the NHS has significant market power that, based on its own assessment of the fair value of the drugs, influences the global price, typically keeping prices lower. [233] Several other countries either copy the UK's model or directly rely on Britain's assessments for their own decisions on state-financed drug reimbursements.

[234] Regulatory bodies such as the General Medical Council and the Nursing and Midwifery Council are organised on a UK-wide basis, as are non-governmental bodies such as the Royal Colleges.

The average life expectancy of people in England is less ice artinya years for males and 81.7 years for females, the highest of the four countries of the United Kingdom. [235] The South of England has a higher life expectancy than the North; however, regional differences do seem to be slowly narrowing: between 1991–1993 and 2012–2014, life expectancy in less ice artinya North East increased by 6.0 years and in the North West by 5.8 years, the fastest increase in any region outside London, and the gap between life expectancy in the North East and South East is now 2.5 years, down from 2.9 in 1993.

[235] Demography Population of England and Wales by administrative areas. Their size shows their population, with some approximation. Each group of squares in the map key is 20 % of total number of districts. With over 53 million inhabitants, England is by far the most populous country of the United Kingdom, accounting for 84% of the combined total. [12] : 12 [236] England taken as a unit and measured against international states would be the 25th largest country by population in the world.

[237] The English people are British people. [238] Some genetic evidence suggests that 75–95% descend in the paternal line from prehistoric settlers who originally came from the Iberian Peninsula, as well as a 5% less ice artinya from Angles and Saxons, and a significant Scandinavian ( Viking) element. [239] [240] [241] However, other geneticists place the Less ice artinya estimate up to half.

[242] [243] Over time, various cultures have been influential: Prehistoric, Brythonic, [244] Roman, Anglo-Saxon, [245] Viking (North Germanic), [246] Gaelic cultures, as well as a large influence from Normans. There is an English diaspora in former parts of the British Empire; especially the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand.

[nb 3] Since the late 1990s, many English people have migrated to Spain. [251] [252] In 1086, when the Domesday Book was compiled, England had a population of two million. About 10% lived in urban areas. [253] By 1801, the population was 8.3 million, and by 1901 30.5 million. [254] Due in particular to the economic prosperity of South East England, it has received many economic migrants from the other parts of the United Kingdom. [238] There has been significant Irish migration.

[255] The proportion of ethnically European residents totals at 87.50%, including Germans [256] and Poles. [238] Other people from much further afield in the former British colonies have arrived since the 1950s: in particular, 6% of people living in England have family origins in the Indian subcontinent, mostly India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

[238] [256] About 0.7% of people are Chinese. [238] [256] 2.90% of the population are black, from Africa and the Caribbean, especially former British colonies. [238] [256] In 2007, 22% of primary school children in England were from ethnic minority families, [257] and in 2011 that figure was 26.5%.

[258] About half of the population increase between 1991 and 2001 was due to immigration. [259] Debate over immigration is politically prominent; [260] 80% of respondents in a 2009 Home Office poll wanted to cap it.

[261] The ONS has projected that the population will grow by nine million between 2014 and 2039. [262] England contains one indigenous national minority, the Cornish people, recognised by the UK government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in 2014.

[263] Language Further information: Languages of the United Kingdom and English language in England Language Native speakers (thousands) [264] English 46,937 Polish 529 Punjabi 272 Urdu 266 Bengali 216 Gujarati 212 Arabic 152 French 145 Portuguese 131 Welsh 8 Cornish 0.6 Other 2,267 Population 51,006 As its name suggests, the English language, today spoken by hundreds of millions of people around the world, originated as the language of England, where it remains the principal tongue spoken by 98% of the population.

[265] It is an Less ice artinya language in the Anglo-Frisian branch of the Germanic family. [266] After the Norman conquest, the Old English language, brought to Britain by the Anglo-Saxon settlers, was confined to the lower social classes as Norman French and Latin were used by the aristocracy. By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling.

During the English Renaissance, many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. [267] Modern English has extended this custom of flexibility when it comes to incorporating words from different languages. Thanks in large part to the British Empire, the English language is the less ice artinya unofficial lingua franca. [268] English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity, and includes language schooling, tourism spending, and publishing.

There is no legislation mandating an official language for England, [269] but English is the only language used for official business. Despite the country's relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents, and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country.

As well as English, England has two other indigenous languages, Cornish and Welsh. Cornish died out as a community language in the 18th century but is being revived, [270] [271] and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Less ice artinya Languages.

[272] It is spoken by 0.1% of people in Cornwall, [273] and is taught to some degree in several primary and secondary schools. [274] [275] When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border. Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth century, [276] and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth century if not later.

[277] State schools teach students a second language or less ice artinya language from the ages of seven, most commonly French, Spanish or German. [278] It was reported in 2007 that around 800,000 school students spoke a foreign language at home as a result of immigration among their family, [257] the most common languages being Punjabi and Urdu. However, following the 2011 census data released by the Office for National Statistics, figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England after English.

[279] Religion Canterbury Cathedral, seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury In the 2011 census, 59.4% of the population of England specified their religion as Christian, 24.7% answered that they had no religion, 5% specified that they were Muslim, while 3.7% of the population belongs to other religions and 7.2% did not give an answer.

[280] Christianity is the most widely practised religion in England, as it has been since the Early Less ice artinya Ages, although it was first introduced much earlier in Gaelic and Roman times.

This Celtic Church was gradually joined to the Catholic hierarchy following the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by St Augustine. The established church of England is the Church of England, [281] which left communion less ice artinya Rome in the 1530s when Henry VIII was unable to annul his marriage to the aunt of the king of Spain.

The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant. [282] There are High Church and Low Church traditions and some Anglicans regard themselves as Anglo-Catholics, following the Tractarian movement. The monarch of the United Kingdom is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England, which has around 26 million baptised members (of whom the vast majority are not regular churchgoers). It forms part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as its symbolic worldwide head.

[283] Many cathedrals and parish churches are historic buildings of significant architectural importance, such as Westminster Abbey, York Minster, Durham Cathedral, and Salisbury Cathedral. Westminster Abbey is a notable example of English Gothic architecture. The coronation of the British monarch traditionally takes place at the Abbey. The 2nd-largest Christian practice is the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church.

Since its reintroduction after the Less ice artinya Emancipation, the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.5 million members (most of whom are English). [284] There has been one Pope from England to date, Adrian IV; while saints Bede and Anselm are regarded as Doctors of the Church. A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Less ice artinya through John Wesley.

[285] It gained popularity in the mill towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire, and amongst tin miners in Cornwall. [286] There are other non-conformist minorities, such as Baptists, Quakers, Congregationalists, Unitarians and The Salvation Army. [287] The patron saint of England is Saint George; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination. [288] There are many other English and associated saints; some of the best-known are: Cuthbert, Edmund, Alban, Wilfrid, Aidan, Edward the Confessor, John Fisher, Thomas More, Petroc, Piran, Margaret Clitherow and Thomas Becket.

There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since 1070. [289] They were expelled from Less ice artinya in less ice artinya following the Edict of Expulsion, only to be allowed back in 1656. [289] Less ice artinya since the 1950s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration. Islam is the most common of these, now accounting for around 5% of the population in England.

[290] Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism are next in number, adding up to 2.8% combined, [290] introduced from India and South East Asia. [290] A small minority of the population practise ancient Pagan religions.

Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions, Druidry, and Heathenry. According to the 2011 UK Census, there are roughly 53,172 people who identify as Pagan in England, [nb 4] and 3,448 in Wales, [nb 4] including 11,026 Wiccans in England and 740 in Wales. [nb 5] 24.7% of people in England declared no religion in 2011, compared with 14.6% in 2001.

These figures are slightly lower than the combined figures for England and Wales as Wales has a higher level of irreligion than England. [291] Norwich had the highest such proportion at 42.5%, followed closely by Brighton and Hove at 42.4%.

Education Bridge of Sighs, St John's College, University of Cambridge. The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in Less ice artinya up to the age of 19, including education. [292] State-run and state-funded schools are attended by approximately 93% of English schoolchildren. [293] Education is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Education.

[294] Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school.

Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and 16. State-funded schools are obliged by law to teach the National Curriculum; basic areas of learning include English literature, English language, mathematics, science, art & design, citizenship, history, geography, religious education, design & technology, computing, ancient & modern languages, music, and physical education.

[295] More than 90% of English schools require students to wear uniforms. [296] School uniforms are defined by individual schools, within the constraint that uniform regulations must not discriminate on the grounds of sex, race, disability, sexual orientation, gender reassignment, religion or belief.

Schools may choose to permit trousers for girls or religious dress. [297] The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OECD currently ranks the overall knowledge and skills of British 15-year-olds as 13th in the world in reading literacy, mathematics, and science with the average British student scoring 503.7, compared with the OECD average of 493, ahead of the United States and most of Europe. [298] Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive, there are selective intake grammar schools to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus exam.

Around 7.2 per cent of English schoolchildren attend private schools, which are funded by private sources.

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{INSERTKEYS} [299] Standards in state schools are monitored by the Office for Standards in Education, and in private schools by the Independent Schools Inspectorate. [300] After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations. Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years. Further education colleges (particularly sixth form colleges) often form part of a secondary school site. A-level examinations are sat by a large number of further education students, and often form the basis of an application to university.

Further education (FE) covers a wide curriculum of study and apprenticeships, including T-levels, BTEC, NVQ and others. Tertiary colleges provide both academic and vocational courses.

[301] Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree. There are over 90 universities in England, all but one of which are public institutions. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England.

[302] Students are generally entitled to student loans to cover the cost of tuition fees and living costs. [nb 6] The first degree offered to undergraduates is the bachelor's degree, which usually takes three years to complete. Students are then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes three or more years.

[303] England's universities include some of the highest-ranked universities in the world; University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Imperial College London, University College London and King's College London are all ranked in the global top 30 in the 2018 QS World University Rankings. [304] The London School of Economics has been described as the world's leading social science institution for both teaching and research.

[305] The London Business School is considered one of the world's leading business schools and in 2010 its MBA programme was ranked best in the world by the Financial Times. [306] Academic degrees in England are usually split into classes: first class (1st), upper second class (2:1), lower second class (2:2), third (3rd), and unclassified. [303] The King's School, Canterbury and King's School, Rochester are the oldest schools in the English-speaking world.

[307] Many of England's most well-known schools, such as Winchester College, Eton, St Paul's School, Harrow School and Rugby School are fee-paying institutions.

[308] Culture A red telephone box in front of St Paul's Cathedral, one of the most important buildings of the English Baroque period Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period; amongst the best known are Stonehenge, Devil's Arrows, Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg.

[309] With the introduction of Ancient Roman architecture there was a development of basilicas, baths, amphitheaters, triumphal arches, villas, Roman temples, Roman roads, Roman forts, stockades and aqueducts. [310] It was the Romans who founded the first cities and towns such as London, Bath, York, Chester and St Albans. Perhaps the best-known example is Hadrian's Wall stretching right across northern England.

[310] Another well-preserved example is the Roman Baths at Bath, Somerset. [310] Early Medieval architecture's secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing. Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno– Saxon monasticism, [311] [312] to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings.

After the Norman conquest in 1066 various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion. Some of the best-known medieval castles are the Tower of London, Warwick Castle, Durham Castle and Windsor Castle. [313] Bodiam Castle is a 14th-century moated castle near Robertsbridge in East Sussex.

Throughout the Plantagenet era, an English Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral, Westminster Abbey and York Minster. [313] Expanding on the Norman base there was also castles, palaces, great houses, universities and parish churches.

Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch, was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically. In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity synthesised with Christianity appeared, the English Baroque style of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed.

[314] Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this. With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched. In addition to this, around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace.

Since the 1930s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places. [nb 7] The landscape garden at Stourhead. Inspired by the great landscape artists of the seventeenth century, the landscape garden was described as a 'living work of art' when first opened in 1750s.

[316] Landscape gardening, as developed by Capability Brown, set an international trend for the English garden. Gardening, and visiting gardens, are regarded as typically English pursuits. The English garden presented an idealized view of nature. At large country houses, the English garden usually included lakes, sweeps of gently rolling lawns set against groves of trees, and recreations of classical temples, Gothic ruins, bridges, and other picturesque architecture, designed to recreate an idyllic pastoral landscape.

[317] By the end of the 18th century, the English garden was being imitated by the French landscape garden, and as far away as St. Petersburg, Russia, in Pavlovsk, the gardens of the future Emperor Paul. It also had a major influence on the form of the public parks and gardens which appeared around the world in the 19th century. [318] The English landscape garden was centred on the English country house and manor houses.

[317] English Heritage and the National Trust preserve great gardens and landscape parks throughout the country. [319] The RHS Chelsea Flower Show is held every year by the Royal Horticultural Society and is said to be the largest gardening show in the world. [320] Folklore Robin Hood and Maid Marian. English folklore developed over many centuries.

Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions. Common folkloric beings include pixies, giants, elves, bogeymen, trolls, goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, such as the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith, [321] others date from after the Norman invasion.

The legends featuring Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood, and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham, are among the best-known of these. [322] During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the Arthurian myth. [323] [324] [325] These were derived from Anglo-Norman, Welsh and French sources, [324] featuring King Arthur, Camelot, Excalibur, Merlin and the Knights of the Round Table such as Lancelot.

These stories are most centrally brought together within Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae ( History of the Kings of Britain). [nb 8] Another early figure from British tradition, King Cole, may have been based on a real figure from Sub-Roman Britain.

Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain, a collection of shared British folklore.

Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry, Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.

[327] On 5 November people make bonfires, set off fireworks and eat toffee apples in commemoration of the foiling of the Gunpowder Plot centred on Guy Fawkes.

The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin, is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. There are various national and regional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing, Maypole dancing, Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays, bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper's Hill. [328] There is no official national costume, but a few are well established such as the Pearly Kings and Queens associated with cockneys, the Royal Guard, the Morris costume and Beefeaters.

[329] Cuisine Fish and chips is a traditionally popular dish in England Since the early modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce. [330] During the Middle Ages and through the Renaissance period, English cuisine enjoyed an excellent reputation, though a decline began during the Industrial Revolution with the move away from the land and increasing urbanisation of the populace.

The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant 's best restaurant in the world charts. [331] An early book of English recipes is the Forme of Cury from the royal court of Richard II.

[332] Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast, featuring a roasted joint (usually beef, lamb, chicken or pork) served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy. [333] Other prominent meals include fish and chips and the full English breakfast (generally consisting of bacon, sausages, grilled tomatoes, fried bread, black pudding, baked beans, mushrooms and eggs).

[334] Various meat pies are consumed, such as steak and kidney pie, steak and ale pie, cottage pie, pork pie (usually eaten cold) [333] and the Cornish pasty. Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well-known stew originating in the northwest. Some of the more popular cheeses are Cheddar, Red Leicester, Wensleydale, Double Gloucester and Blue Stilton.

Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries, have been created, such as chicken tikka masala and balti. Traditional English dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick – all generally served with custard; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding. Sweet pastries include scones (either plain or containing dried fruit) served with jam or cream, dried fruit loaves, Eccles cakes and mince pies as well as a wide range of sweet or spiced biscuits.

Common non-alcoholic drinks include tea, the popularity of which was increased by Catherine of Braganza, [335] and coffee; frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wine, ciders and English beers, such as bitter, mild, stout and brown ale. [336] Visual arts The Lady of Shalott by John William Waterhouse, 1888, in the Pre-Raphaelite style The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire, Northumberland and Cumbria, but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags.

[337] With the arrival of Roman culture in the 1st century, various forms of art such as statues, busts, glasswork and mosaics were the norm. There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. [338] During the Early Middle Ages the style favoured sculpted crosses and ivories, manuscript painting, gold and enamel jewellery, demonstrating a love of intricate, interwoven designs such as in the Staffordshire Hoard discovered in 2009.

Some of these blended Gaelic and Anglian styles, such as the Lindisfarne Gospels and Vespasian Psalter. [339] Later Gothic art was popular at Winchester and Canterbury, examples survive such as Benedictional of St. Æthelwold and Luttrell Psalter. [340] The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein, natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this.

[340] Under the Stuarts, Continental artists were influential especially the Flemish, examples from the period include Anthony van Dyck, Peter Lely, Godfrey Kneller and William Dobson. [340] The 18th century was a time of significance with the founding of the Royal Academy, a classicism based on the High Renaissance prevailed, with Thomas Gainsborough and Joshua Reynolds becoming two of England's most treasured artists. [340] In the 19th century, Constable and Turner were major landscape artists.

The Norwich School continued the landscape tradition, while the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, led by artists such as Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and John Everett Millais, revived the Early Renaissance style with their vivid and detailed style.

[340] Prominent amongst 20th-century artists was Henry Moore, regarded as the voice of British sculpture, and of British modernism in general.

[341] More recent painters include Lucian Freud, whose work Benefits Supervisor Sleeping in 2008 set a world record for sale value of a painting by a then-living artist. [342] The Royal Society of Arts is an organisation committed to the arts and culture. [343] Geoffrey Chaucer was an English author, poet and philosopher, best remembered for his unfinished frame narrative The Canterbury Tales. Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. [344] The period of Old English literature provided the epic poem Beowulf and the secular prose of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, [345] along with Christian writings such as Judith, Cædmon's Hymn and hagiographies.

[344] Following the Norman conquest Latin continued amongst the educated classes, as well as an Anglo-Norman literature.

Middle English literature emerged with Geoffrey Chaucer, author of The Canterbury Tales, along with Gower, the Pearl Poet and Langland.

William of Ockham and Roger Bacon, who were Franciscans, were major philosophers of the Middle Ages. Julian of Norwich, who wrote Revelations of Divine Love, was a prominent Christian mystic. With the English Renaissance literature in the Early Modern English style appeared.

William Shakespeare, whose works include Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, and A Midsummer Night's Dream, remains one of the most championed authors in English literature. [346] Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, Philip Sydney, Thomas Kyd, John Donne, and Ben Jonson are other established authors of the Elizabethan age.

[347] Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes wrote on empiricism and materialism, including scientific method and social contract.

[347] Filmer wrote on the Divine Right of Kings. Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth, [348] while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration. This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, built by nature for herself.

This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England. William Shakespeare. [349] Some of the most prominent philosophers of the Enlightenment were John Locke, Thomas Paine, Samuel Johnson and Jeremy Bentham.

More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism. [350] The poet Alexander Pope with his satirical verse became well regarded. The English played a significant role in romanticism: Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, John Keats, Mary Shelley, Percy Bysshe Shelley, William Blake and William Wordsworth were major figures. [351] In response to the Industrial Revolution, agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett, G.

K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism, Arthur Penty, and cooperative movement advocate G. D. H. Cole are somewhat related. [352] Empiricism continued through John Stuart Mill and Bertrand Russell, while Bernard Williams was involved in analytics. Authors from around the Victorian era include Charles Dickens, the Brontë sisters, Jane Austen, George Eliot, Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Hardy, H.

G. Wells and Lewis Carroll. [353] Since then England has continued to produce novelists such as George Orwell, D. H. Lawrence, Virginia Woolf, C. S. Lewis, Enid Blyton, Aldous Huxley, Agatha Christie, Terry Pratchett, J. R. R. Tolkien, and J. K. Rowling. [354] Problems playing these files? See media help. The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties, jigs, hornpipes and dance music.

It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. Ballads featuring Robin Hood, printed by Wynkyn de Worde in the 16th century, are an important artefact, as are John Playford's The Dancing Master and Robert Harley's Roxburghe Ballads collections. [355] Some of the best-known songs are Greensleeves, Pastime with Good Company, Maggie May and Spanish Ladies amongst others. Many nursery rhymes are of English origin such as Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary, Roses Are Red, Jack and Jill, London Bridge Is Falling Down, The Grand Old Duke of York, Hey Diddle Diddle and Humpty Dumpty.

[356] Traditional English Christmas carols include " We Wish You a Merry Christmas", " The First Noel", “ I Saw Three Ships” and " God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen". [357] Early English composers in classical music include Renaissance artists Thomas Tallis and William Byrd, followed up by Henry Purcell from the Baroque period.

German-born George Frideric Handel spent most of his composing life in London and became a national icon in Britain, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, especially his English oratorios, The Messiah, Solomon, Water Music, and Music for the Royal Fireworks. {/INSERTKEYS}

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{INSERTKEYS} [358] One of his four Coronation Anthems, Zadok the Priest, composed for the coronation of George II, has been performed at every subsequent British coronation, traditionally during the sovereign's anointing.

Classical music attracted much attention from 1784 with the formation of the Birmingham Triennial Music Festival, which was the longest running classical music festival of its kind until the final concerts in 1912. The English Musical Renaissance was a hypothetical development in the late 19th and early 20th century, when English composers, often those lecturing or trained at the Royal College of Music, were said to have freed themselves from foreign musical influences.

There was a revival in the profile of composers from England in the 20th century led by Edward Elgar, Benjamin Britten, Frederick Delius, Gustav Holst, Ralph Vaughan Williams and others.

[359] Present-day composers from England include Michael Nyman, best known for The Piano, and Andrew Lloyd Webber, whose musicals have achieved enormous success in the West End and worldwide. [360] The Beatles are the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed band in popular music.

[361] In popular music, many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time. Acts such as The Beatles, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, Elton John, Queen, Rod Stewart, David Bowie, The Rolling Stones and Def Leppard are among the highest-selling recording artists in the world.

[362] Many musical genres have origins in (or strong associations with) England, such as British invasion, progressive rock, hard rock, Mod, glam rock, heavy metal, Britpop, indie rock, gothic rock, shoegazing, acid house, garage, trip hop, drum and bass and dubstep. [363] Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury, V Festival, and the Reading and Leeds Festivals. England was at the forefront of the illegal, free rave movement from the late 1980s, which led to pan-European culture of teknivals mirrored on the UK free festival movement and associated travelling lifestyle.

[364] The Boishakhi Mela is a Bengali New Year festival celebrated by the British Bangladeshi community. It is the largest open-air Asian festival in Europe. After the Notting Hill Carnival, it is the second-largest street festival in the United Kingdom attracting over 80,000 visitors from across the country.

[365] The most prominent opera house in England is the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. [366] The Proms – a season of orchestral classical concerts held primarily at the Royal Albert Hall in London – is a major cultural event in the English calendar, and takes place yearly.

[366] The Royal Ballet is one of the world's foremost classical ballet companies, its reputation built on two prominent figures of 20th-century dance, prima ballerina Margot Fonteyn and choreographer Frederick Ashton. The Royal Academy of Music is the oldest conservatoire in England, founded in 1822. It received its royal charter in 1830 from King George IV.

[367] England is home to numerous major orchestras such as the BBC Symphony Orchestra, the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, the Philharmonia Orchestra, and the London Symphony Orchestra. [368] The circus is a traditional form of entertainment in England. Chipperfield's Circus dates back more than 300 years, making it one of the oldest family circus dynasties. [369] Philip Astley is regarded as the father of the modern circus.

[370] Following his invention of the circus ring in 1768, Astley's Amphitheatre opened in London in 1773. [370] [371] As an equestrian master Astley had a skill for trick horse-riding, and when he added tumblers, tightrope-walkers, jugglers, performing dogs, and a clown to fill time between his own demonstrations – the modern circus was born.

[372] [373] Pantomime is a British musical comedy stage production, designed for family entertainment. It is performed in theatres throughout the England during the Christmas and New Year season. The art originated in the 18th century with John Weaver, a dance master and choreographer. [374] In 19th century England it acquired its present form, which includes songs, slapstick comedy and dancing, employing gender-crossing actors, combining topical humour with a story loosely based on a well-known fairy tale.

[374] Cinema Ridley Scott was among a group of English filmmakers, including Tony Scott, Alan Parker, Hugh Hudson and Adrian Lyne, who emerged from making 1970s UK television commercials. [375] England (and the UK as a whole) has had a considerable influence on the history of the cinema, producing some of the greatest actors, directors and motion pictures of all time, including Alfred Hitchcock, Charlie Chaplin, David Lean, Laurence Olivier, Vivien Leigh, John Gielgud, Peter Sellers, Julie Andrews, Michael Caine, Gary Oldman, Helen Mirren, Kate Winslet and Daniel Day-Lewis.

Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically acclaimed filmmakers. [376] Hitchcock's first thriller, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog (1926), helped shape the thriller genre in film, while his 1929 film, Blackmail, is often regarded as the first British sound feature film.

[377] Major film studios in England include Pinewood, Elstree and Shepperton. Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises ( Harry Potter and James Bond). [378] Ealing Studios in London has a claim to being the oldest continuously working film studio in the world. [379] Famous for recording many motion picture film scores, the London Symphony Orchestra first performed film music in 1935.

[380] The Hammer Horror films starring Christopher Lee saw the production of the first gory horror films showing blood and guts in colour. [381] The BFI Top 100 British films includes Monty Python's Life of Brian (1979), a film regularly voted the funniest of all time by the UK public. [382] English producers are also active in international co-productions and English actors, directors and crew feature regularly in American films.

The UK film council ranked David Yates, Christopher Nolan, Mike Newell, Ridley Scott and Paul Greengrass the five most commercially successful English directors since 2001. [383] Other contemporary English directors include Sam Mendes, Guy Ritchie and Richard Curtis. Current actors include Tom Hardy, Daniel Craig, Benedict Cumberbatch, Lena Headey, Felicity Jones, Emilia Clarke, Lashana Lynch, and Emma Watson.

Acclaimed for his motion capture work, Andy Serkis opened The Imaginarium Studios in London in 2011. [384] The visual effects company Framestore in London has produced some of the most critically acclaimed special effects in modern film. [385] Many successful Hollywood films have been based on English people, stories or events. The 'English Cycle' of Disney animated films include Alice in Wonderland, The Jungle Book and Winnie the Pooh. [386] Museums, libraries, and galleries The Natural History Museum in London English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England.

It is currently sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. The charity National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty holds a contrasting role. 17 of the 25 United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites fall within England.

[387] Some of the best-known of these are: Hadrian's Wall, Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, Tower of London, Jurassic Coast, Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge, Studley Royal Park and various others. [388] There are many museums in England, but perhaps the most notable is London's British Museum.

Its collection of more than seven million objects [389] is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, [390] sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present. The British Library in London is the national library and is one of the world's largest research libraries, holding over 150 million items in almost all known languages and formats; including around 25 million books.

[391] [392] The most senior art gallery is the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square, which houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900. [393] The Tate galleries house the national collections of British and international modern art; they also host the famously controversial Turner Prize.

[394] Media Main article: Media in the United Kingdom The BBC, founded in 1922, is the UK's publicly funded radio, television and Internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world. [395] [396] It operates numerous television and radio stations in the UK and abroad and its domestic services are funded by the television licence.

[397] [398] The BBC World Service is an international broadcaster owned and operated by the BBC. It is the world's largest of any kind. [399] It broadcasts radio news, speech and discussions in more than 40 languages.

[400] [401] London dominates the media sector in England: national newspapers and television and radio are largely based there, although Manchester is also a significant national media centre. The UK publishing sector, including books, directories and databases, journals, magazines and business media, newspapers and news agencies, has a combined turnover of around £20 billion and employs around 167,000 people.

[402] National newspapers produced in England include The Times, The Guardian and the Financial Times. [403] Magazines and journals published in England that have achieved worldwide circulation include Nature, New Scientist, The Spectator, Prospect, NME and The Economist.

The Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport has overall responsibility over media and broadcasting in England. [404] Sport Queen Elizabeth II presenting the World Cup trophy to 1966 World Cup winning England captain Bobby Moore England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world.

Sports originating in England include association football, [405] cricket, rugby union, rugby league, tennis, boxing, badminton, squash, [406] rounders, [407] hockey, snooker, billiards, darts, table tennis, bowls, netball, thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting. It has helped the development of golf, sailing and Formula One.

Football is the most popular of these sports. The England national football team, whose home venue is Wembley Stadium, played Scotland in the first ever international football match in 1872. [408] Referred to as the "home of football" by FIFA, England hosted the 1966 FIFA World Cup, and won the tournament by defeating West Germany 4–2 in the final, with Geoff Hurst scoring a hat-trick.

[409] With a British television audience peak of 32.30 million viewers, the final is the most watched television event ever in the UK. [410] Wembley Stadium, home of the England football team, has a 90,000 capacity.

It is the biggest stadium in the UK. At club level, England is recognised by FIFA as the birthplace of club football, due to Sheffield F.C.

founded in 1857 being the world's oldest club. [405] The Football Association is the oldest governing body in the sport, with the rules of football first drafted in 1863 by Ebenezer Cobb Morley. [411] The FA Cup and The Football League were the first cup and league competitions respectively. {/INSERTKEYS}

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In the modern day, the Premier League is the world's most-watched football league, [412] most lucrative, [413] and amongst the elite. [414] As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants. [415] The most successful English football team in the European Cup/UEFA Champions League is Liverpool F.C.

who have won the competition on six occasions. [416] Other English success has come from Manchester United F.C., winning the competition on 3 occasions; Nottingham Forest F.C. and Chelsea F.C. on 2 occasions, Aston Villa F.C. have only won the trophy once. [417] Centre Court at Wimbledon. First played in 1877, the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world. [432] Tennis was created in Birmingham in the late 19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious.

[433] [434] Wimbledon is a tournament that has a major place in the British cultural calendar. Fred Perry was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in 1936. He was the first player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles [435] and helped lead the Great Britain team to four Davis Cup wins. English women who have won Wimbledon include: Ann Haydon Jones in 1969 and Virginia Wade in 1977.

In boxing, under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules, England has produced many world champions less ice artinya the weight divisions internationally recognised by the governing bodies. World champions include Bob Fitzsimmons, Ted "Kid" Lewis, Randolph Turpin, Nigel Benn, Chris Eubank, Frank Bruno, Lennox Lewis, Ricky Hatton, Naseem Hamed, Amir Khan, Carl Froch, and David Haye.

[436] In women's boxing, Nicola Adams became the world's first woman to win an Olympic boxing gold medal at the 2012 Summer Olympics. Originating in 17th and 18th-century England, the thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. The National Hunt horse race the Grand National, is held annually at Aintree Racecourse in early April.

It is the most watched horse race in the UK, attracting casual observers, and three-time winner Red Rum is the most successful racehorse in the event's history. [437] Red Rum is also the best-known racehorse in the country. [438] Former Formula One world champion Nigel Mansell driving at Silverstone in 1990.

The circuit hosted the first ever Formula One race in 1950. The 1950 British Grand Prix at Silverstone was the first race in the newly created Formula One World Championship.

[439] Since then, England has produced some of the greatest drivers in the sport, including; John Surtees, Stirling Moss, Graham Hill (only driver to have won the Triple Crown), Nigel Mansell (only man to hold F1 and IndyCar titles at the same time), Damon Hill, Lewis Hamilton and Jenson Button. [440] It has manufactured some of the most technically advanced racing cars, and many of today's racing companies choose England as their base of operations for its engineering knowledge and organisation.

McLaren Automotive, Williams F1, Team Lotus, Honda, Brawn GP, Benetton, Renault, and Red Bull Racing are all, or have been, located in the south of England.

England also has less ice artinya rich heritage in Grand Prix motorcycle racing, the premier championship of motorcycle road racing, and produced several World Champions across all the various class of motorcycle: Mike Hailwood, John Surtees, Phil Read, Geoff Duke, and Barry Sheene. Mo Farah is the most successful British track athlete in modern Olympic Games history, winning the 5000 m and 10,000 m events at two Olympic Games.

Darts is a widely popular sport in England; a professional competitive sport, darts is a traditional pub game. The sport is governed by the World Darts Federation, one of its member organisations is the British Darts Organisation (BDO), which annually stages the BDO World Darts Championship, the other being the Professional Darts Corporation (PDC), which runs its own world championship at Alexandra Palace in London.

Phil Taylor is widely regarded as the best darts player of all time, having won 187 professional tournaments, and a record 16 World Championships. [441] [442] Trina Gulliver is the ten-time Women's World Professional Darts Champion of the British Darts Organisation.

Another popular sport commonly associated with pub games is Snooker, and England has produced several world champions, including Steve Davis and Ronnie O'Sullivan. The English are keen sailors and enjoy competitive sailing; founding and winning some of the world's most famous and respected international competitive tournaments across the various race formats, including the match race, a regatta, and the America's Cup.

England has produced some of the world's greatest sailors, including Francis Chichester, Herbert Hasler, John Ridgway, Robin Knox-Johnston, Ellen MacArthur, Mike Golding, Paul Goodison, and the most successful Olympic sailor ever Ben Ainslie. [443] National symbols The Royal Arms of England The St George's Cross has been the national flag of England since the 13th century. Originally the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa.

The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from 1190 onwards so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean. A red cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries.

It became associated with Saint George, along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner. [444] Since 1606 the St George's Cross has formed part of the design of the Union Flag, a Pan-British flag designed by King James I.

[288] During the English Civil War and Interregnum, the New Model Army's standards and the Commonwealth's Great Seal both incorporated the flag of Saint George. [445] [446] The Tudor rose, England's national floral emblem There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the Tudor rose, the nation's floral emblem, and the Three Lions featured on the Royal Arms of England.

The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace. [447] It is a syncretic symbol in that it merged the white rose of the Yorkists and the red rose of the Lancastrians—cadet branches of the Plantagenets who went to war over control of the nation. It is also known as the Rose of England. [448] The oak tree is a symbol of England, representing strength and endurance.

The Royal Oak symbol and Oak Apple Day commemorate the escape of King Charles II from the grasp of the parliamentarians after his father's execution: he hid in an oak tree to avoid detection before safely reaching exile. The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in 1198. It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy.

England does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has Less ice artinya Save the Queen. However, the following are often considered unofficial English national anthems: Jerusalem, Land of Hope and Glory (used for England during the 2002 Commonwealth Games), [449] and I Vow to Thee, My Country. England's National Day is 23 April which is Saint George's Day: Saint George is the patron saint of England. [450] See also • ^ As Roger Scruton explains, "The Reformation must not be confused with the changes introduced into the Church of England during the 'Reformation Parliament' of 1529–36, which were of a political rather than a religious nature, designed to unite the secular and religious sources of authority within a single sovereign power: the Anglican Church did not make substantial change in doctrine until later." [63] • ^ Figure of 550,000 military deaths is for England and Wales [93] • ^ Less ice artinya instance, in 1980 around 50 million Americans claimed English ancestry.

[247] In Canada there are around 6.5 million Canadians who claim English ancestry. [248] Around 70% of Australians in 1999 denoted their origins as Anglo-Celtic, a category which includes all peoples from Great Britain and Ireland.

[249] Chileans of English descent are somewhat of an anomaly in that Chile itself was never less ice artinya of the British Empire, but today there are around 420,000 people less ice artinya English origins living there. [250] • ^ a b People who strictly identified as "Pagan". Other Pagan paths, such as Wicca or Druidism, have not been included in this number.

[291] • ^ People who strictly identified as "Wiccan". Other Pagan paths, such as Druidism, and general "Pagan" have not been included in this number. [291] • ^ Students attending English universities now have to pay tuition fees towards the cost of their education, as do English students who choose to attend university in Scotland. Scottish students attending Scottish universities have their fees paid by the devolved Scottish Parliament.

[108] • ^ While people such as Norman Foster and Richard Rogers represent the modernist movement, Prince Less ice artinya since the 1980s has voiced strong views against it in favour of traditional architecture and put his ideas into practice at his Poundbury development in Dorset. [315] Architects like Raymond Erith, Francis Johnson and Quinlan Terry continued to practise in the classical style. • ^ These tales may have come to prominence, at least in part, as an attempt by the Norman ruling elite to legitimise their rule of the British Isles, finding Anglo-Saxon history ill-suited to the task during an era when members of the deposed House of Wessex, especially Edgar the Ætheling and his nephews of the Scottish House of Dunkeld, were still active in less ice artinya isles.

[324] [326] Also Michael Wood explains; "Over the centuries the figure of Arthur became a symbol of British history – a way of explaining the matter of Britain, the relationship between the Saxons and the Celts, and a way of exorcising ghosts and healing the wounds of the past." [323] References • ^ Region and Country Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October 2013, ONS. Retrieved 9 August 2015. • ^ "Population estimates for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland – Office for National Statistics".

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Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • • An artist's impression of ice age Earth at glacial maximum. An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.

Earth's climate alternates between ice ages and greenhouse periods, during which there are no glaciers on the planet.

Earth is currently in the Quaternary glaciation. [1] Individual pulses of cold climate within an ice age are termed glacial periods (or, alternatively, glacials, glaciations, glacial stages, stadials, stades, or colloquially, ice ages), and intermittent warm periods within an ice age are called interglacials or interstadials.

[2] In glaciology, ice age implies the presence of extensive ice sheets in both northern and southern hemispheres. [3] By this definition, Earth is currently in an interglacial period—the Holocene. The amount of anthropogenic greenhouse gases emitted into Earth's oceans and atmosphere is predicted to prevent the next glacial period for the next 500,000 years, which otherwise would begin in around 50,000 years, and likely more glacial cycles after.

[4] [5] [6] Contents • 1 History of research • 2 Evidence • 3 Major ice ages • 4 Glacials and interglacials • 5 Feedback processes • 5.1 Positive • 5.2 Negative • 6 Causes • 6.1 Changes in Earth's atmosphere • 6.2 Position of the continents • 6.3 Fluctuations in ocean currents • 6.4 Uplift of the Tibetan plateau • 6.5 Variations in Earth's orbit • 6.6 Variations in the Sun's energy output • 6.7 Volcanism • 7 Recent glacial and interglacial phases • 7.1 Glacial stages in North America • 7.2 Last Glacial Period in the semiarid Andes around Aconcagua and Tupungato • 8 Effects of glaciation • 9 See also • 10 References • 11 External links History of research See also: History of climate less ice artinya science In 1742, Pierre Martel (1706–1767), an engineer and geographer living in Geneva, visited the valley of Chamonix in the Alps of Savoy.

[7] [8] Two years later he published an account of his journey. He reported that the inhabitants of that valley attributed the dispersal of erratic boulders to the glaciers, saying that they had once extended much farther. [9] [10] Later similar explanations were reported from other regions of the Alps. In 1815 the carpenter and chamois hunter Jean-Pierre Perraudin (1767–1858) explained erratic boulders in the Val de Bagnes in the Swiss canton of Valais as being due to glaciers previously extending further.

[11] An unknown woodcutter from Meiringen in the Bernese Oberland advocated a similar idea in a discussion with the Swiss-German geologist Jean de Charpentier (1786–1855) in 1834. [12] Comparable explanations are also known from the Val de Ferret in the Valais and the Seeland in western Switzerland [13] and in Goethe's scientific work.

[14] Such explanations could also be found in other parts of the world. When the Bavarian naturalist Ernst von Bibra (1806–1878) visited the Less ice artinya Andes in 1849–1850, the natives attributed fossil moraines to the former action of glaciers. [15] Meanwhile, European scholars had begun to wonder what had caused the dispersal of erratic material.

From the middle of the 18th century, some discussed ice as a means of transport. The Swedish mining expert Daniel Tilas (1712–1772) was, in 1742, the first person to suggest drifting sea ice was a cause of the presence of erratic boulders in the Scandinavian and Baltic regions.

[16] In 1795, the Scottish philosopher and gentleman naturalist, James Hutton (1726–1797), explained erratic boulders in the Alps by the action of glaciers. [17] Two decades later, in 1818, the Swedish botanist Göran Wahlenberg (1780–1851) published his theory of a glaciation of the Scandinavian peninsula. He regarded glaciation as a regional phenomenon.

[18] Haukalivatnet lake (50 meters above sea level) where Jens Esmark in 1823 discovered similarities to moraines near existing glaciers in the high mountains. Only a few years later, the Danish-Norwegian geologist Jens Esmark (1762–1839) argued for a sequence of worldwide ice ages.

In a paper published in 1824, Esmark proposed changes in climate as the cause of those glaciations. He attempted to show that they originated from changes in Earth's orbit. [19] Esmark discovered the similarity between moraines near Haukalivatnet lake near sea level in Rogaland and moraines less ice artinya branches of Jostedalsbreen.

Esmark's discovery were later attributed to or appropriated by Theodor Kjerulf and Louis Agassiz. [20] [21] [22] During the following years, Esmark's ideas were discussed and taken over in parts by Swedish, Scottish and German scientists. At the University of Edinburgh Robert Jameson (1774–1854) seemed to be relatively open to Esmark's ideas, as reviewed by Norwegian professor of glaciology Bjørn G. Andersen (1992). [23] Jameson's remarks about ancient glaciers in Scotland were most probably prompted by Esmark.

[24] In Germany, Albrecht Reinhard Bernhardi (1797–1849), a geologist and professor of forestry at an academy in Dreissigacker (since incorporated in the southern Thuringian city of Meiningen), adopted Esmark's theory. In a paper published in 1832, Bernhardi speculated about the polar ice caps once less ice artinya as far as the temperate zones of the globe. [25] In 1829, independently of these debates, the Swiss civil engineer Ignaz Venetz (1788–1859) explained the dispersal of erratic less ice artinya in the Alps, the nearby Jura Mountains, and the North German Plain as being due to huge glaciers.

When he read his paper before the Swiss Society for Natural Research, most scientists remained sceptical. [26] Finally, Venetz convinced his friend Jean de Charpentier. Charpentier transformed Venetz's idea into a theory with a glaciation limited to the Alps. His thoughts resembled Wahlenberg's theory.

In fact, both men shared the same volcanistic, or in Charpentier's case rather plutonistic assumptions, about Earth's history. In 1834, Charpentier presented his paper before the Swiss Society for Natural Research.

[27] In the meantime, the German botanist Karl Friedrich Schimper (1803–1867) was studying mosses which were growing on erratic boulders in the alpine upland of Bavaria. He began to wonder where such masses of stone had come from. During the summer of 1835 he made some excursions to the Bavarian Alps. Schimper came to the conclusion that ice must have been the means of transport for the boulders in the alpine upland.

In the winter of 1835 to 1836 he held some lectures in Munich. Schimper then assumed that there must have been global times of obliteration ("Verödungszeiten") with a cold climate and frozen water.

[28] Schimper spent the summer months of 1836 at Devens, near Bex, in the Swiss Alps with his former university friend Louis Agassiz (1801–1873) and Jean de Charpentier. Schimper, Charpentier and possibly Venetz convinced Agassiz that there had been a time of glaciation.

During the winter of 1836/37, Agassiz and Schimper developed the theory of a sequence of glaciations. They mainly drew upon the preceding works of Venetz, Charpentier and on their own fieldwork. Agassiz appears to have been already familiar with Bernhardi's paper at that time.

[29] At the beginning of 1837, Schimper coined the term "ice age" ( "Eiszeit") for the period of the glaciers. [30] In July 1837 Agassiz presented their synthesis before less ice artinya annual meeting of the Swiss Society for Natural Research at Neuchâtel. The audience was very critical, and some were opposed to the new theory because it contradicted the established opinions on climatic history. Most contemporary scientists thought that Earth had been gradually cooling down since its birth as a molten globe.

[31] In order to persuade the skeptics, Agassiz embarked on geological fieldwork. He published his book Study on Glaciers ("Études sur les glaciers") in 1840. [32] Charpentier was put out by this, as he had also been preparing a book about the glaciation of the Alps. Charpentier felt that Agassiz should have given him precedence as it was he who had introduced Agassiz to in-depth glacial research.

[33] As a result of personal quarrels, Agassiz had also omitted any mention of Schimper in his book. [34] It took several decades before the ice age theory was fully accepted by scientists. This happened on an international scale in the second half of the 1870s, following the work of James Croll, including the publication of Climate and Time, in Their Geological Relations in 1875, which provided a credible explanation for the causes of ice ages.

[35] Evidence There are three main types of evidence for ice ages: geological, chemical, and paleontological. Geological evidence for ice ages comes in various forms, including rock scouring and scratching, glacial moraines, drumlins, valley cutting, and the deposition of till or tillites and glacial erratics.

Successive glaciations tend to distort and erase the geological evidence for earlier glaciations, making it difficult to interpret. Furthermore, this evidence was difficult to date exactly; early theories assumed that the glacials were short compared to the long interglacials. The advent of sediment and less ice artinya cores revealed the true situation: glacials are long, interglacials short.

It took some time for the current theory to be worked out. The less ice artinya evidence mainly consists of variations in the ratios of isotopes in fossils present in sediments and sedimentary rocks and ocean sediment cores. For the most recent glacial periods, ice cores provide climate proxies, both from the ice itself and from atmospheric samples provided by included bubbles of air.

Because water containing lighter isotopes has a lower heat of evaporation, its proportion decreases with warmer conditions.

[36] This allows a temperature record to be constructed. This evidence can be confounded, however, by other factors recorded by isotope ratios. The paleontological evidence consists of changes in the geographical distribution of fossils. During a glacial period, cold-adapted organisms spread into lower latitudes, and organisms that prefer warmer conditions become extinct or retreat into lower latitudes. This evidence is also difficult to interpret because it requires (1) sequences of sediments covering a long period of time, over a wide range of latitudes and which are easily correlated; (2) ancient organisms which survive for several million years without change and whose temperature preferences are easily diagnosed; and (3) the finding of the relevant fossils.

Despite the difficulties, analysis of ice core and ocean sediment cores [37] has provided a credible record of glacials and interglacials over the past few million years.

These also confirm the linkage between ice ages and continental crust phenomena such as glacial moraines, drumlins, and glacial erratics. Hence the continental crust phenomena are accepted as good evidence of earlier ice ages when they are found in layers created much earlier than the time range for which ice cores and ocean sediment cores are available.

Major ice ages Timeline of glaciations, shown in blue. There have been at least five major ice ages in Earth's history (the Huronian, Cryogenian, Andean-Saharan, late Paleozoic, and the latest Quaternary Ice Age). Outside these ages, Earth seems to have been ice-free even in high latitudes; [38] [39] such periods are known as greenhouse periods.

[40] Ice age map of northern Germany and its northern neighbours. Red: maximum limit of Weichselian glacial; yellow: Saale glacial at maximum (Drenthe stage); blue: Elster glacial maximum glaciation. Rocks from the earliest well-established ice age, called the Huronian, have been dated to around 2.4 to 2.1 Ga ( billion years) ago during the early Proterozoic Eon.

Several hundreds of kilometers of the Huronian Supergroup are exposed 10 to 100 kilometers (6.2 to 62.1 mi) north of the north shore of Lake Huron, extending from near Sault Ste. Marie to Sudbury, northeast of Lake Huron, with giant layers of now-lithified till beds, dropstones, varves, outwash, and scoured basement rocks.

Correlative Huronian deposits have been found near Marquette, Michigan, and correlation has been made with Paleoproterozoic glacial deposits from Western Australia.

The Huronian ice age was caused by the elimination of atmospheric methane, a greenhouse gas, during the Great Oxygenation Event. [41] The next well-documented ice age, and probably the most severe of the last billion years, occurred from 720 to 630 million years ago (the Cryogenian period) and may have produced a Snowball Earth in which glacial ice sheets reached the equator, [42] possibly being ended by the accumulation of greenhouse gases such as CO 2 produced by volcanoes.

"The presence of ice on the continents and pack ice on the oceans would inhibit both silicate weathering and photosynthesis, which are the two major sinks for CO 2 at present." [43] It has been suggested that the end of this ice age was responsible for the subsequent Ediacaran and Cambrian explosion, though this model is recent and controversial. The Andean-Saharan occurred from 460 to 420 million years ago, during the Late Ordovician and the Silurian period.

Sediment records showing the fluctuating sequences of glacials and interglacials during the last several million years. The evolution of land plants at the onset of the Devonian period caused a long term increase in planetary oxygen levels and reduction of CO 2 levels, which resulted in the late Paleozoic icehouse. Its former name, the Karoo glaciation, was named after the glacial tills found in the Karoo region of South Africa. There were extensive polar ice caps at intervals from 360 to 260 million years ago in South Africa during the Carboniferous and early Permian Periods.

Correlatives are known from Argentina, also in the center of the ancient supercontinent Gondwanaland. The Quaternary Glaciation / Quaternary Ice Age started about 2.58 million years ago at the beginning of the Quaternary Period when the spread of ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere began.

Since then, the world has seen cycles of glaciation with ice sheets advancing and retreating on 40,000- and 100,000-year time scales called glacial periods, glacials or glacial advances, and interglacial periods, interglacials or glacial retreats. Earth is currently in an interglacial, and the last glacial period ended about 11,700 years ago.

All that remains of the continental ice sheets are the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets and smaller glaciers such as on Baffin Island. The definition of the Quaternary as beginning 2.58 Ma is based on the formation of the Arctic ice cap.

The Antarctic ice sheet began to form earlier, at about 34 Ma, in the mid- Cenozoic ( Eocene-Oligocene Boundary). The term Late Cenozoic Ice Age is used to include this early phase. [44] Ice ages can be further divided by location and time; for example, the names Riss (180,000–130,000 years bp) and Würm (70,000–10,000 years bp) refer specifically to glaciation in the Alpine region.

The maximum extent of the ice is not maintained for the full interval. The scouring action of each glaciation tends to remove most of the evidence of prior ice sheets almost completely, except in regions where the later sheet does not achieve full coverage. Glacials and interglacials Minimum (interglacial, black) and maximum (glacial, grey) glaciation of the southern hemisphere Within the current glaciation, more temperate and more severe periods have occurred.

The colder periods are called glacial periods, the warmer periods interglacials, such as the Eemian Stage. [1] There is evidence that similar glacial cycles occurred in previous glaciations, including the Andean-Saharan [45] and the late Paleozoic ice house. The glacial cycles of the late Paleozoic ice house are likely responsible for the deposition of cyclothems.

[46] Glacials are characterized by cooler and drier climates over most of Earth and large land and sea ice masses extending outward from the poles. Mountain glaciers in otherwise unglaciated areas extend to lower elevations due to a lower snow line. Sea levels drop due to the removal of large volumes of water above sea level in the icecaps. There is evidence that ocean circulation patterns are disrupted by glaciations.

The glacials and interglacials coincide with changes in orbital forcing of climate due to Milankovitch cycles, which are periodic changes in Earth's orbit and the tilt of Less ice artinya rotational axis. Earth has been in an interglacial period known as the Holocene for around 11,700 years, [47] and an article in Nature in 2004 argues that it might be most analogous to a previous interglacial that lasted 28,000 years.

[48] Predicted changes in orbital forcing suggest that the next glacial period would begin at least 50,000 years from now. Moreover, anthropogenic forcing from increased greenhouse gases is estimated to potentially outweigh the orbital forcing of the Milankovitch cycles for hundreds of thousands of years. [49] [5] [4] Feedback processes Each glacial period is subject to positive feedback which makes it more severe, and negative feedback which mitigates and (in all cases so far) eventually ends it.

Positive An important form of feedback is provided by Earth's albedo, which is how much of the sun's energy is reflected rather than absorbed by Earth. Ice and snow increase Earth's albedo, while forests reduce its albedo. When the air temperature decreases, ice and snow fields grow, and they reduce forest cover.

This continues until competition with a negative feedback mechanism forces the system to an equilibrium. In 1956, Ewing and Donn [50] hypothesized that an ice-free Arctic Ocean leads to increased snowfall at high latitudes. When low-temperature ice covers the Arctic Ocean there is little evaporation or sublimation and the polar regions are quite dry in terms of precipitation, comparable to the amount found in mid-latitude deserts.

This low precipitation allows high-latitude snowfalls to melt during the summer. An ice-free Arctic Ocean absorbs solar radiation during the long summer days, and evaporates more water into the Arctic atmosphere. With higher precipitation, portions of this snow may not melt during the summer and so glacial ice can form at lower altitudes and more southerly latitudes, reducing the temperatures over land by increased albedo as noted above.

Furthermore, under this hypothesis the lack of oceanic pack ice allows increased exchange of waters between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, warming the Arctic and cooling the North Atlantic.

(Current projected consequences of global warming include a largely ice-free Arctic Ocean within 5–20 years.) [ citation needed] Additional fresh water flowing into the North Atlantic during a warming cycle may also reduce the global ocean water circulation.

Such a reduction (by reducing the effects of the Gulf Stream) would have a cooling effect on northern Europe, which in turn would lead to increased low-latitude snow retention during the summer. [51] [52] [53] It has also been suggested [ by whom?] that during an extensive glacial, glaciers may move through the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, extending into the North Atlantic Ocean far enough to block the Gulf Stream. Negative Ice sheets that form during glaciations erode the land beneath them.

This can reduce the land area above sea level and thus diminish the amount of space on which ice sheets can form. This mitigates the albedo feedback, as does the rise in sea level that accompanies the reduced area of ice sheets, since open ocean has a lower albedo than land. [54] Another negative feedback mechanism is the increased aridity occurring with glacial maxima, which reduces the precipitation available to maintain glaciation. The glacial retreat induced by this or any other process can be amplified by similar inverse positive feedbacks as for glacial advances.

[55] According to research published in Nature Geoscience, human emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2) will defer the next ice age. Researchers used data on Earth's orbit to find the historical warm interglacial period that looks most like the current one and from this have predicted that the next ice age would usually begin within 1,500 years.

They go on to predict that emissions have been so high that it will not. [56] Causes The causes of ice ages are not fully understood for either the large-scale ice age periods or the smaller ebb and flow of glacial–interglacial periods within an ice age.

The consensus is that several factors are important: atmospheric composition, such as the concentrations of carbon less ice artinya and methane (the specific levels of the previously mentioned gases are now able to be seen with the new ice core samples from EPICA Dome C in Antarctica over the past 800,000 years); changes in Earth's orbit around the Sun known as Milankovitch cycles; the motion of tectonic plates resulting in changes in the relative location and amount of continental and oceanic crust on Earth's surface, which affect wind and ocean currents; variations in solar output; the orbital dynamics of the Earth–Moon system; the impact of relatively large meteorites and volcanism including eruptions of supervolcanoes.

[57] [ citation needed] Some of these factors influence each other. For example, changes in Earth's atmospheric composition (especially the concentrations of greenhouse gases) may alter the climate, while climate change less ice artinya can change the atmospheric composition (for example by changing the rate at which weathering removes CO 2).

Maureen Less ice artinya, William Ruddiman and others propose that the Tibetan and Colorado Plateaus are immense CO 2 "scrubbers" with a capacity to remove enough CO 2 from the global atmosphere to be a significant causal factor of the 40 million year Cenozoic Cooling trend.

They further claim that approximately half of their uplift (and CO 2 "scrubbing" capacity) occurred in the past 10 million years. [58] [59] Changes in Earth's atmosphere There is evidence that greenhouse gas levels fell at the start of ice ages and rose during the retreat of the ice sheets, but it is difficult to establish cause and effect (see the notes above on the role of weathering). Greenhouse gas levels may also have been affected by other factors which have been proposed as causes of ice ages, such as the movement of continents and volcanism.

The Snowball Earth hypothesis maintains that the severe freezing in the late Proterozoic was ended by an increase in CO 2 levels in the atmosphere, mainly from volcanoes, and some supporters of Snowball Earth argue that it was caused in the first place by a reduction in atmospheric CO 2. The hypothesis also warns of future Snowball Earths. In 2009, further evidence was provided that changes in solar insolation provide the initial trigger for Earth to warm after an Ice Age, with secondary factors like increases in greenhouse gases accounting for the magnitude of the change.

[60] Position of the continents The geological record appears to show that ice ages start when the continents are in positions which block or reduce the flow of warm water from the equator to the poles and thus allow ice sheets to form. The ice sheets increase Earth's reflectivity less ice artinya thus reduce the absorption of solar radiation.

With less radiation absorbed the atmosphere cools; the cooling allows the ice sheets to grow, which further increases reflectivity in a positive feedback loop. The ice age continues until the reduction in weathering causes an increase in the greenhouse effect. There are three main contributors from the layout of the continents that obstruct the movement of warm water to the poles: [61] • A continent sits on top of a pole, as Antarctica does today.

• A polar sea is almost land-locked, as the Arctic Ocean is today. • A supercontinent covers most of the equator, as Rodinia did during the Cryogenian period. Since today's Earth has a continent over the South Pole and an almost land-locked ocean over the North Pole, geologists believe that Earth will continue to experience glacial periods in the geologically near future.

Some scientists believe that the Himalayas are a major factor in the current ice age, because these mountains have increased Earth's total rainfall and therefore the rate at which carbon dioxide is washed out of the atmosphere, decreasing the greenhouse effect. [59] The Himalayas' formation started about 70 million years ago when the Indo-Australian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate, and the Himalayas are still rising by about 5 mm less ice artinya year because the Indo-Australian plate is still moving at 67 mm/year.

The history of the Himalayas broadly fits the long-term decrease in Earth's average temperature since the mid-Eocene, 40 million years ago.

Fluctuations in ocean currents Another important contribution to ancient climate regimes is the variation of ocean currents, which are modified by continent position, sea levels and salinity, as well as other factors. They have the ability to cool (e.g. aiding the creation of Antarctic ice) and the ability to warm (e.g. giving the British Isles a temperate as opposed to a boreal climate).

The closing of the Isthmus of Panama about 3 million years ago may have ushered in the present period of strong glaciation over North America by ending the exchange of water between the tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

[62] Analyses suggest that ocean current fluctuations can adequately account for recent glacial oscillations. During the last glacial period the sea-level has fluctuated 20–30 m as water was sequestered, primarily in the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. When ice collected and the sea level dropped sufficiently, flow through the Bering Strait (the narrow strait between Siberia and Alaska is about 50 m deep today) was reduced, resulting in increased flow from the North Atlantic.

This realigned the thermohaline circulation in the Atlantic, increasing heat transport into the Arctic, which melted the polar ice accumulation and reduced other continental ice sheets. The release of water raised sea levels again, restoring the ingress of colder less ice artinya from the Pacific with an accompanying shift to northern hemisphere ice accumulation. [63] According to a study published in Nature in 2021, all glacial periods of ice ages over the last 1.5 million years were associated with northward shifts of melting Antarctic icebergs which changed ocean circulation patterns, leading to more CO 2 being pulled out of the atmosphere.

The authors suggest that this process may be disrupted in the future as the Southern Ocean will become too warm for the icebergs to travel far enough to trigger these changes. [64] [65] Uplift of the Tibetan plateau Matthias Kuhle's geological theory of Ice Age development was suggested by the existence of an ice sheet covering the Tibetan Plateau during the Ice Ages ( Last Glacial Maximum?).

According to Kuhle, the plate-tectonic uplift of Tibet past the snow-line has led to a surface of c. 2,400,000 square kilometres (930,000 sq mi) changing from bare land to ice with a 70% greater less ice artinya.

The reflection of energy into space resulted in a global cooling, triggering the Pleistocene Ice Age. Because this highland is at a subtropical latitude, with 4 to 5 times the insolation of high-latitude areas, what would be Earth's strongest heating surface has turned into a cooling surface.

Kuhle explains the interglacial periods by the 100,000-year cycle of radiation changes due to variations in Earth's orbit. This comparatively insignificant warming, when combined with the lowering of the Nordic inland ice areas and Tibet due to the weight of the superimposed ice-load, has led to the repeated complete thawing of the inland ice areas. [66] [67] [68] [69] Variations in Earth's orbit The Milankovitch cycles are a set of cyclic variations in characteristics of Earth's orbit around the Sun.

Each cycle has a different length, so at some times their effects reinforce each other and at other times they (partially) cancel each other. Past and future of daily average insolation at top of the atmosphere on the day of the summer solstice, at 65 N latitude. There is strong evidence that the Milankovitch cycles affect the occurrence of glacial and interglacial periods within an ice age. The present ice age is the most studied and best understood, particularly the last 400,000 years, since this is the period covered by ice cores that record atmospheric composition and proxies for temperature and ice volume.

Within this less ice artinya, the match of glacial/interglacial frequencies to the Milanković orbital forcing periods is so close that orbital forcing is generally accepted.

The combined effects of the changing distance to the Sun, the precession of Earth's axis, and the changing tilt of Earth's axis redistribute the sunlight received by Earth. Of particular importance are changes in the tilt of Earth's axis, which affect the intensity of seasons. For example, the amount of solar influx in July at 65 degrees north latitude varies by as much as 22% (from 450 W/m 2 to 550 W/m 2). It is widely believed that ice sheets advance when summers become too cool to melt all of the accumulated snowfall from the previous winter.

Some believe that the strength of the orbital less ice artinya is too small to trigger glaciations, but feedback mechanisms like CO 2 may explain this mismatch. While Milankovitch forcing predicts that cyclic changes in Earth's orbital elements can be expressed in the glaciation record, additional explanations are necessary to explain which cycles are observed to be most important in less ice artinya timing of glacial–interglacial periods. In particular, during the last 800,000 years, the dominant period of glacial–interglacial oscillation has been 100,000 years, which corresponds to changes in Earth's orbital eccentricity and orbital inclination.

Yet this is by far the weakest of the three frequencies predicted by Milankovitch. During the period 3.0–0.8 million years ago, the dominant pattern of glaciation corresponded to the 41,000-year period of changes in Earth's obliquity (tilt of the axis).

The reasons for dominance of one frequency versus another are poorly understood and an active area of current research, but the answer probably relates to some form of resonance in Earth's climate system. Recent work suggests that the 100K year cycle dominates due to increased southern-pole sea-ice increasing total solar reflectivity. [70] [71] The "traditional" Milankovitch explanation struggles to explain the dominance of the 100,000-year cycle over the last 8 cycles.

Richard A. Muller, Gordon J. F. MacDonald, [72] [73] [74] and others have pointed out that those calculations are for a two-dimensional orbit of Earth but the three-dimensional orbit also has a 100,000-year cycle of orbital inclination. They proposed that these variations in orbital inclination lead to variations in insolation, as Earth moves in and out of known dust bands in the solar system.

Although this is a different mechanism to the traditional view, the "predicted" periods over the last 400,000 years are nearly the same. The Muller and MacDonald theory, in turn, has been challenged by Jose Antonio Rial.

[75] Another worker, William Ruddiman, has suggested a model that explains the 100,000-year cycle by the modulating effect of eccentricity (weak 100,000-year cycle) on precession (26,000-year cycle) combined with greenhouse gas feedbacks in the 41,000- and 26,000-year cycles. Yet another theory has been advanced by Peter Huybers who argued that the 41,000-year cycle has always been dominant, but that Earth has entered a mode of climate behavior where only less ice artinya second or third cycle triggers an ice age.

This would imply that the 100,000-year periodicity is really an illusion created by averaging together cycles lasting 80,000 and 120,000 years. [76] This theory is consistent with a simple empirical multi-state model proposed by Didier Paillard.

[77] Paillard suggests that the late Pleistocene glacial cycles can be seen as jumps between three quasi-stable climate states. The jumps are induced by the orbital forcing, while in the early Pleistocene the 41,000-year glacial cycles resulted from jumps between only two climate states. A dynamical model explaining this behavior was proposed by Peter Ditlevsen. [78] This is in support of the suggestion that the late Pleistocene glacial cycles are not due to the weak 100,000-year eccentricity cycle, but a non-linear response to mainly the 41,000-year obliquity cycle.

Variations in the Sun's energy output There are at least two types of variation in the Sun's energy output: [79] • In the very long term, astrophysicists believe that the Sun's output increases by about 7% every one billion (10 9) years. • Shorter-term variations such as sunspot cycles, and longer episodes such as the Maunder Minimum, which occurred during the coldest part of the Little Ice Age.

The long-term increase in the Sun's output cannot be a cause of ice ages. Volcanism Volcanic eruptions may have contributed to the inception and/or the end of ice age periods. At times during the paleoclimate, carbon dioxide levels were two or three times greater than today. Volcanoes and movements in continental plates contributed to high amounts of CO 2 in the atmosphere.

Carbon dioxide from volcanoes probably contributed to periods with highest overall temperatures. [80] One suggested explanation of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum is that undersea volcanoes released methane from clathrates and thus caused a large and rapid increase in the greenhouse effect. [81] There appears to be no geological evidence for such eruptions at the right time, but this does not prove they did not happen.

Recent glacial and interglacial phases Northern hemisphere glaciation during the last ice ages. The setup of 3 to 4 kilometer thick ice sheets caused a sea level lowering of about 120 m.

The current geological period, the Quaternary, which began about 2.6 million years ago and extends into the present, [2] is marked by warm and cold episodes, cold phases called glacials ( Quaternary ice age) lasting about 100,000 years, and which are then interrupted by the warmer interglacials which lasted about 10,000–15,000 years. The last cold episode of the last glacial period ended about 10,000 years ago.

[82] Earth is currently in an interglacial period of the Quaternary, called the Holocene. Glacial stages in North America The major glacial stages of the current ice age in North America are the Illinoian, Eemian and Wisconsin glaciation. The use of the Nebraskan, Afton, Kansan, and Yarmouthian stages to subdivide the ice age in North America has been discontinued by Quaternary geologists and geomorphologists.

These stages have all been merged into the Pre-Illinoian in the 1980s. [83] [84] [85] During the most recent North American glaciation, during the latter part of the Last Glacial Maximum (26,000 to 13,300 years ago), ice sheets extended to about 45th parallel north. These sheets were 3 to 4 kilometres (1.9 to 2.5 mi) thick.

[84] Stages of proglacial lake development in the region of the current North American Great Lakes. This Wisconsin glaciation left widespread impacts on the North American landscape. The Great Lakes and the Finger Lakes were carved by ice deepening old valleys. Most of the lakes in Minnesota and Wisconsin were gouged out by glaciers and later filled with glacial meltwaters.

The old Teays River drainage system was radically altered and largely reshaped into the Ohio River drainage system. Other rivers were dammed and diverted to new channels, such as Niagara Falls, which formed a dramatic waterfall and gorge, when the waterflow encountered a limestone escarpment. Another similar waterfall, at the present Clark Reservation State Park near Syracuse, New York, is now dry.

The area from Long Island to Nantucket, Massachusetts was formed from glacial till, and the plethora of lakes on the Canadian Shield in less ice artinya Canada can be almost entirely attributed to the action of the ice. As the ice retreated and the rock dust dried, winds carried the material hundreds of miles, forming beds of loess many less ice artinya of feet thick in the Missouri Valley.

Post-glacial rebound continues to reshape the Great Lakes and other areas formerly under the weight of the ice sheets. The Driftless Area, a portion of western and southwestern Wisconsin along with parts of adjacent Minnesota, Iowa, and Illinois, was not covered by glaciers. See also: Glacial history of Minnesota Last Glacial Period in the semiarid Andes around Aconcagua and Tupungato A specially interesting climatic change during glacial times has less ice artinya place in the semi-arid Andes.

Beside the expected cooling down in comparison with the current climate, a significant precipitation change happened here. So, researches in the presently semiarid subtropic Aconcagua-massif (6,962 m) have shown an unexpectedly extensive glacial glaciation of the type "ice stream network". [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] The connected valley glaciers exceeding 100 km in length, flowed down on the East-side of this section of the Andes less ice artinya 32–34°S and 69–71°W as far as a height of 2,060 m and on the western luff-side still clearly deeper.

[90] [91] Where current glaciers scarcely reach 10 km in length, the snowline (ELA) runs at a height of 4,600 m and at that time was lowered to 3,200 m asl, i.e. about 1,400 m. From this follows that—beside of an annual depression of temperature about c. 8.4 °C— here less ice artinya an increase in precipitation. Accordingly, at glacial times the humid climatic belt that today is situated several latitude degrees further to the S, was shifted much further to the N.

[89] [90] Effects of glaciation See also: Glacial landform Although the last glacial period ended more than 8,000 years ago, its effects can still be felt today. For example, the moving ice carved out the landscape in Canada (See Canadian Arctic Archipelago), Greenland, northern Eurasia and Antarctica. The erratic boulders, till, drumlins, eskers, fjords, kettle lakes, moraines, cirques, horns, etc., are typical features left behind by the glaciers.

The weight of the ice sheets was so great that they deformed Earth's crust and mantle. After the ice sheets melted, the ice-covered land rebounded. Due to the high viscosity of Earth's mantle, the flow of mantle rocks which controls the rebound process is very slow—at a rate of about 1 cm/year near the center of rebound area today. During glaciation, water was taken from the oceans to form the ice at high latitudes, thus global sea level dropped by about 110 meters, exposing the continental shelves and forming land-bridges between land-masses for animals to migrate.

During deglaciation, the melted ice-water returned to the oceans, causing sea level to rise. This process can cause sudden shifts in coastlines and hydration systems resulting in newly submerged lands, emerging lands, collapsed ice dams resulting in salination of lakes, new ice dams creating vast areas of freshwater, and a general alteration in regional weather patterns on a large but temporary scale.

It can even cause temporary reglaciation. This type of chaotic pattern of rapidly changing land, ice, saltwater and freshwater has been proposed as the likely model for the Baltic and Scandinavian regions, as well as much of central North America at the end of the last glacial maximum, with the present-day coastlines only being achieved in the last few millennia of prehistory.

Also, the effect of elevation on Scandinavia submerged a vast continental plain that had existed under much of what is now the North Sea, connecting the British Isles to Continental Europe. [92] The redistribution of ice-water on the surface of Less ice artinya and the flow of mantle rocks causes changes in the gravitational field as well as changes to the distribution of the moment of inertia of Earth.

These changes to the less ice artinya of inertia result in a change in the angular velocity, axis, and wobble of Earth's rotation. The weight of the redistributed surface mass loaded the lithosphere, caused it to flex and less ice artinya induced stress within Earth. The presence of the glaciers generally suppressed the movement of faults below. [93] [94] [95] During deglaciation, the faults experience accelerated slip triggering earthquakes.

Earthquakes triggered near the ice margin may in turn accelerate ice calving and may account for the Heinrich events.

less ice artinya As more ice is removed near the ice margin, more intraplate earthquakes are induced and this positive feedback may explain the fast collapse of ice sheets.

In Europe, glacial erosion and isostatic sinking from weight of ice made the Baltic Sea, which before the Ice Age was all land drained by the Eridanos River.

See also • Global cooling – Discredited 1970s hypothesis of imminent cooling of the Earth • International Union for Quaternary Research • Irish Sea Glacier – Huge glacier during the Pleistocene Ice Age • Late Glacial Maximum • Little Ice Age – Climatic cooling after the Medieval Warm Period (16th – 19th century) • Post-glacial rebound – Rise of land masses that were depressed by the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period • Timeline of glaciation – Chronology of the major ice ages of the Earth • Geologic temperature record – Changes in Earth's environment as determined from geologic evidence on multi-million to billion year time scales References • ^ a b Ehlers, Jürgen; Gibbard, Philip (2011).

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J. L. van der; Knorr, Gregor; Berke, Melissa A.; Bigg, Grant R.; Cartagena-Sierra, Alejandra; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Gong, Xun; Gruetzner, Jens; Lathika, Nambiyathodi; LeVay, Leah J.; Robinson, Rebecca S.; Ziegler, Martin (January 2021). "Antarctic icebergs reorganize ocean circulation during Pleistocene glacials".

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(1989). "The effect of large ice sheets on earthquake genesis". In Gregersen, S.; Basham, P. (eds.). Earthquakes at North-Atlantic passive margins: Neotectonics and postglacial rebound. Dordrecht: Kluwer. pp. 581–599. ISBN 978-0-7923-0150-9.

• ^ Wu, Patrick; Hasegawa, Henry S. (October 1996). "Induced stresses and fault potential in eastern Canada due to a realistic load: a preliminary analysis". Geophysical Journal International. 127 (1): 215–229. Bibcode: 1996GeoJI.127.215W. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1996.tb01546.x. • ^ Turpeinen, H.; Hampel, A.; Karow, T.; Maniatis, G. (2008). "Effect of ice sheet growth and melting on the slip evolution of thrust faults". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 269 (1–2): 230–241. Bibcode: 2008E&PSL.269.230T.

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doi: 10.1038/30218. ISSN 0028-0836. S2CID 4393858. External links The Wikibook Historical Geology has a page on the topic of: Ice ages Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ice ages. Wikisource has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article about " Ice age".

• Cracking the Ice Age from PBS • Rina Torchinsky (9 Aug 2021). "Scientists unveil 'best-preserved Ice Age animal ever found' ". AccuWeather. • Montgomery, Keith (2010). "Development of the glacial theory, 1800–1870". Historical Simulation • Raymo, M. (July 2011).

"Overview of the Uplift-Weathering Hypothesis". Archived from the original on 2008-10-22. • Eduard Y. Osipov, Oleg M. Khlystov. Glaciers and meltwater flux to Lake Baikal during the Last Glacial Maximum. • Black, R. (9 January 2012). "Carbon emissions 'will defer Ice Age' ". BBC News: Science and Environment. • Antarctica • Greenland • Penultimate Glacial Period • Last Glacial Period ( Last Glacial Maximum) • 1st: Würm, Wisconsin, Weichselian, Devensian/ Midlandian, Pinedale/ Fraser, Merida, Llanquihue • 2nd: Riss, Illinoian, Saale, Wolstonian, Santa María • 3rd–6th: Mindel, Pre-Illinoian, Elster, Anglian, Rio Llico • 7th–8th: Günz, Pre-Illinoian, Elbe or Menapian, Beestonian, Caracol (2.5 to 0 Less ice artinya Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Hothouse Earth Hypothetical runaway greenhouse state Greenhouse Earth Tropical temperatures may reach poles Icehouse Earth Global climate during an ice age Snowball Earth Earth's surface entirely or nearly frozen over Uninhabitably hot Warm period Interglacials Interstadials and Stadials Glacials Cold period • Arrowhead Provincial Park, Ontario • Big Rock (glacial erratic), Alberta • Cypress Hills (Canada), Saskatchewan • Eramosa River, Ontario • Eskers Provincial Park, British Columbia • Foothills Erratics Train, Alberta • Lion's Head Provincial Park, Ontario • Origin of the Oak Ridges Moraine, Ontario • Ovayok Territorial Park, Nunavut United States Hidden categories: • CS1 French-language sources (fr) • CS1 Norwegian Bokmål-language sources (nb) • Harv and Sfn no-target errors • CS1: long volume value • Articles with short description • Short description matches Wikidata • Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages • Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages • All articles with unsourced statements • Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020 • Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November 2020 • Articles with unsourced statements from April 2010 • Commons category link is on Wikidata • Articles with BNF identifiers • Articles with EMU identifiers • Articles with J9U identifiers • Articles with LCCN identifiers • Articles with NDL identifiers • Articles with HDS identifiers • Afrikaans • Alemannisch • العربية • Asturianu • Bân-lâm-gú • Беларуская • Български • Bosanski • Català • Čeština • Cymraeg • Dansk • Deutsch • Eesti • Ελληνικά • Español • Esperanto • Euskara • فارسی • Français • Frysk • Gaeilge • Gàidhlig • Galego • 한국어 • Հայերեն • हिन्दी • Hrvatski • Bahasa Indonesia • Íslenska • Italiano • עברית • Jawa • ಕನ್ನಡ • ქართული • Қазақша • Kiswahili • Kreyòl ayisyen • Latgaļu • Latina • Latviešu • Lietuvių • Limburgs • Lingua Franca Nova • Lombard • Magyar • Македонски • മലയാളം • Bahasa Melayu • မြန်မာဘာသာ • Less ice artinya • Nedersaksies • 日本語 • Norsk bokmål • Norsk nynorsk • Occitan • Oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча • ਪੰਜਾਬੀ • Polski • Português • Română • Runa Simi • Русский • Seeltersk • Shqip • Sicilianu • Simple English • سنڌي • Slovenčina • Slovenščina • کوردی • Српски / srpski • Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски • Suomi • Svenska • தமிழ் • తెలుగు • ไทย • Türkçe • Українська • اردو • Tiếng Việt • West-Vlams • 吴语 • 粵語 • Zeêuws • 中文 Edit links • This page was last edited on 5 March 2022, at 20:57 (UTC).

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(Vanilla Ice, Earthquake, M.

Smooth) (Es Vanilla, Gempa, M. Smooth) All right stop, collaborate and listen Semua berhenti, berkolaborasi dan mendengarkan Ice is back I got a brand new invention Es sudah kembali aku punya penemuan baru Something grabs a hold of me tightly Sesuatu meraihku erat-erat Flow like a harpoon daily and nightly Arus seperti harpun setiap hari dan malam Will it ever stop?

Yo-I don't know Apakah akan berhenti? Yo-aku tidak tahu Now turn off the lights (huh) and I'll glow Sekarang matikan lampu (ya) dan saya akan bersinar And to the extreme I rock a mic like a vandal Dan yang paling ekstrem saya membuat mic seperti perusak Light up a stage and wax a chump like a candle Teranglah sebuah panggung dan lilinlah seekor ayam jantan seperti lilin Too cold, too cold Terlalu dingin, terlalu dingin Too cold, too cold Terlalu dingin, terlalu dingin Too cold, too cold Terlalu dingin, terlalu dingin Too cold Terlalu dingin but you be talkin' that shi*(repeating until next verse) tapi kamu harus bicara yang shi * (berulang sampai ayat berikutnya) Dance, bum rush the speaker that booms Tarian, gelandangan mendatangkan pembicara yang booming I'm killing your brain like a poisonous mushroom Aku membunuh otakmu seperti jamur beracun Deadly, now as I play a dope melody Mematikan, sekarang saat aku memainkan melodi obat bius Anything less than the best is a felony Apa pun yang kurang dari yang terbaik adalah sebuah tindak kejahatan Love it or leave it, you better gain way Less ice artinya atau tinggalkan, lebih baik Anda bisa jalan You better hit the bull's eye, the kid don't play Anda lebih baik memukul mata banteng, anak itu tidak bermain And if there was a problem, yo, I'll solve it Dan jika ada masalah, ya, saya akan menyelesaikannya Check out the hook while my DJ revolves it Check out the hook sementara DJ saya mengulanginya Ice Ice Baby, Ice Ice Baby Es Es Bayi, Es Es Bayi Ice Ice Baby, Ice Ice Baby Es Es Bayi, Es Es Bayi Take heed, 'cause I'm a lyrical poet Perhatikan, karena saya penyair liris Miami's on the scene just in case you didn't know it Miami di tempat kejadian kalau-kalau Anda tidak mengetahuinya My town, that created all the bass sound Kota saya, yang menciptakan semua suara bass Enough to shake and kick holes in the ground Cukup mengguncang dan menendang lubang di tanah 'Cause my style is like a chemical spill Karena gayaku seperti tumpahan bahan kimia Feasible rhymes you can vision and feel Sajak yang layak bisa Anda penglihatan dan rasakan Conducted and formed, this is a hell of a concept Dilakukan dan terbentuk, ini adalah sebuah konsep yang mengerikan We make it hype and know you wanna step with this Kami membuatnya hype dan tahu Anda ingin langkah dengan ini Swamp plays on the fade, slice like a ninja Rawa bermain di memudar, iris seperti ninja Cut like a razor blade so fast, Other DJ's say “damn” Potong seperti silet begitu cepat, DJ lain bilang “sialan” If rhyme was a drug, you know I'd sell it by the gram Jika sajak adalah obat, Anda tahu saya akan menjualnya dengan gramnya Keep my composure when it's time to get loose Pertahankan ketenangan saat harus lepas Magnetized by the mic and when I kick my juice Magnetized oleh mic dan ketika saya menendang jus saya And if there was a problem, you know that I would solve it Dan jika ada masalah, Anda tahu bahwa saya akan menyelesaikannya Check out the hook while my DJ revolves it.

Check out the hook sementara DJ saya mengulanginya. Ice Ice Baby (throw your hands in the air, let me know you're out there) Ice Ice Baby (lemparkan tangan ke udara, beritahu saya di luar sana) Ice Ice Baby, Ice Ice Baby (throw your hands in the air, let me know you're out there) Ice Ice Baby, Ice Ice Baby (lemparkan tangan less ice artinya udara, beritahu saya di luar sana) Ice Ice Baby, too fuc*in' cold Ice Ice Baby, terlalu fuc * dalam ‘dingin Too cold, too cold, too cold, too cold Terlalu dingin, terlalu dingin, terlalu dingin, terlalu dingin Ice Ice Baby Es es bayi To Untuk Lirik Lagu Terbaru Adele - Lagu Send My Love (To Your New Lover) Lirik Terjemahan Terjemahan Lirik Weird Genius feat.

Sara Fajira - Lathi Pistol Annies - Arti Lirik This Too Shall Pass Arti Lirik Pistol Annies - Interstate Gospel Terjemahan Lirik Pistol Annies - Lagu Masterpiece Pistol Annies - LaguCommissary Lirik Terjemahan lagu Pistol Annies - Terjemahan Lirik Milkman Terjemahan Lirik Lagu Pistol Annies - Leavers Lullaby Pistol Annies - Sugar Daddy Lirik Terjemahan Terjemahan Lirik Pistol Annies - Got My Name Changed Back Search: Lighthouse Family - Lagu End Of The Sky Lirik Terjemahan Terjemahan Lirik Willie Nelson - Lagu That's The Way Love Goes Terjemahan dan Arti Lirik Garbage - Cherry Lips Hayes Carll - Naked Checkers Lirik Terjemahan Arti Lirik Mr BIG - Mama D Terjemahan Lirik The Vamps - Lagu Same To You Oingo Boingo - Arti Lirik Everybody Needs lagu Youth Asylum - Terjemahan Lirik Color Everywhere Stevie Wonder - Lagu Girl Blue Lirik Terjemahan Airplay - Lagu Stressed Out (close To The Edge) Lirik Terjemahan Bentuk yang lebih umum pada conversation untuk less adalah “not as much” [3], sedangkan untuk fewer adalah “not as many” [4].

Less and fewer yang sama-sama memiliki negative meaning ini dapat pula digunakan sebagai pronoun jika dapat dipahami kata benda apa yang dimaksudkannya [5]&[6].

Lihat juga: • Some and Any • Many and Much • All and All of • A Lot, a Lot of, and Lots of • Less ice artinya Contoh Kalimat Less dan Fewer 1 I save energy and money by using less heat and air conditioning. (Saya menghemat energi dan uang dengan menggunakan lebih sedikit pemanas dan pendingin ruangan.) 2 You should encourage him to have fewer things to worry about.

(Kamu seharusnya menganjurkannya untuk memiliki lebih sedikit hal untuk dikhawatirkan.) 3 He still eats less food than 1,200 calories per day. (Dia masih makan kurang dari 1,200 kalori per hari.) Bandingkan: He still does n’t eat as much food as 1,200 calories per day.

(Dia masih tidak makan sebanyak 1,200 kalori per hari.) 4 Carbohydrates have fewer calories than fats. (Karbohidrat mempunyai lebih sedikit kalori daripada lemak.) Bandingkan: Carbohydrates do n’t have as many calories as fats. (Karbohidrat tidak punya kalori sebanyak lemak.) 5 More people invest in gold; Fewer prefer real estate. (Lebih banyak orang berinvestasi pada emas; Lebih sedikit yang memilih real estate.) 6 Did you add too much sugar to your cake mix?

It needed less. (Apa kamu menambahkan terlalu banyak gula ke adonan kue? Itu perlu lebih sedikit.) Less and Fewer with of Less and few dapat pula diikuti preposition “of” ketika kata tersebut diikuti article (a, an, the), demonstrative (this, that) possessive (our, his, its), atau pronoun (them, his, us).

Less of dan fewer of digunakan berturut-turut dengan singular dan plural noun. Contoh Kalimat Less/Fewer of: 1 The articles are less of a personal view and more of a professional view. (Artikel-artikel tersebut lebih sedikit pandangan pribadi dan lebih banyak pandangan profesional.) 2 More customers choose organic foods. Fewer of them are unable to distinguish between organic and conventionally grown food labels.

(Lebih banyak pelanggan memilih makanan organik. Lebih sedikit dari mereka yang tidak dapat membedakan antara makanan organik dan yang ditumbuhkan secara konvensional.) Pages: page 1 page 2 page 3 page 3 Table of Contents: • (a) Few/Little • Less and Fewer • Least and Fewest • At Least Exercises: • Soal Few vs.

Little References: • Less of Fewer? http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/less-or-fewer. Accessed on August 3, 2014. • Less. http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/less. Accessed on August 3, 2014. • too much/many, fewer/less, little, as much as. http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/learnit/learnitv203.shtml.

Accessed on August 3, 2014. • Fewer or less; a little or a few? http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/learnit/learnitv260.shtml. Accessed on August 3, 2014. Selamat malam kak, mau tanya tentang contoh diatas Apakah artinya sama jika kata “More customers choose organic foods.

Fewer of them are unable to distinguish between organic and conventionally grown food labels” diganti dengan “More customers choose organic foods. Few of them are unable to distinguish between organic and conventionally grown food labels.” saya hanya mengganti Fewer dengan Few … Terima kasihwebsitenya sangat benar-benar membantu saya :):):) •

Максим Ачкасов - Сравнительные конструкции с “less” и “least” в английском языке




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