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Third colours Current season Newcastle United Football Club is an English professional football club based in Newcastle upon Tyne, that plays in the Premier League – the top flight of English football.

The club was founded in 1892 by the merger of Newcastle East End and Newcastle West End. The team plays its home matches at St James' Park in the centre of Newcastle.

Following the Taylor Report's requirement that all Premier League clubs have all-seater stadiums, the ground was modified in the mid-1990s and currently has a capacity of 52,305. The club has been a member of the Premier League for all but three years of the competition's history, spending 89 seasons in the top flight as of May 2021, and have never dropped below English football's second tier since joining the Football League in 1893.

Newcastle have won four League titles, six FA Cups and a FA Charity Shield, as well as the 1968–69 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup and newcastle 2006 UEFA Intertoto Cup, the ninth highest total of trophies won by an English club. [3] The club's most successful period was between 1904 and 1910, when they won an FA Cup and three of their League titles.

Their last major domestic trophy was in 1955 [4] (though their last major trophy was in 1969) and more recently the club have been League or FA cup runners-up on four occasions in the 1990s.

[5] Newcastle were relegated in 2009, and again in 2016. The club won newcastle at the first time of asking each time, returning to the Premier League, as Championship winners, in 2010 and 2017. Newcastle have a long-standing rivalry with nearby club Sunderland, with whom they have contested the Tyne–Wear derby since 1898.

The club's traditional kit colours are black and white striped shirts, black shorts and black socks. Their crest has elements of the city coat of arms, which features two grey hippocamps. Before each home game, the team enters the field to " Local Hero", and " Blaydon Races" is also sung during games. [6] In 2005, Goal! The Dream Begins, a rags-to-riches British sports drama, was released, with Newcastle United as the highlighted club throughout the plot, with many crediting the film with raising the club's overall popularity among players and fans alike.

[7] The club was owned by Mike Ashley from 2007 until 2021, who succeeded long-term chairman Sir John Hall. The club is the 17th-highest revenue producing club in the world in terms of annual revenue, generating €169.3 million in 2015. Newcastle's highest placing was in 1999, when they were the fifth-highest revenue producing football club in the world, and second in England only behind Manchester United.

[8] On 7 October 2021, the club was bought for £300 million by a consortium led by the Saudi Arabian government's sovereign wealth fund. [9] Contents • 1 History • 1.1 1881–1903: Formation and early history • 1.2 1903–1937: First glory years and war years • 1.3 1937–1969: Post-war success • 1.4 1969–1992: Bouncing between divisions • 1.5 1992–2007: Into the Premier League • 1.6 2007–2021: Mike Ashley era • 1.7 2021–present: Saudi-led era • 2 Club identity • 3 Stadium • 4 Ownership • 4.1 Saudi-led takeover • 5 Social responsibility • 6 Supporters and rivalries • 7 Records and statistics • 8 Players • 8.1 Current squad • 8.2 Other players under contract • 8.3 Out on loan • 8.4 Reserves and Academy • 8.5 Notable players • 8.6 Player of the Year • 9 Club officials • 9.1 Current backroom staff • newcastle First Team • 9.1.2 Under-23 and Under-18 • 10 Honours • 10.1 Domestic • 10.2 European • 10.3 Other honours • 11 See also • 12 References • 13 Sources • 14 External links History [ edit ] A chart showing the progress of Newcastle United Football Club from its entry into the League in 1894 to the present.

Newcastle have won the league on four occasions. The first record of football being played on Tyneside dates from newcastle March 1877 at Elswick Rugby Club. Later that year, Newcastle's first football club, Tyne Association, was formed. The origins of Newcastle United Football Club itself can be traced back to the formation of a football club by the Stanley Cricket Club of Byker in November 1881. This team was renamed Newcastle East End F.C.

in October 1882, to avoid confusion with the cricket club in Stanley, County Durham. Rosewood F.C. of Byker merged with Newcastle East End a short time later. In 1886, Newcastle East End moved from Byker to Heaton. In August 1882, Newcastle West End F.C. formed from West End Cricket Club, and in May 1886, the club moved into St James' Park.

[10] The two clubs became rivals in the Northern League. In 1889, Newcastle East End became a professional team, before becoming a limited company the newcastle March. [11] Newcastle West End, on the other hand, was in serious financial trouble and approached East End with a view to a takeover.

Newcastle West End was eventually dissolved, and a number of its players and backroom staff joined Newcastle East End, effectively merging the two clubs, with Newcastle East End taking over the lease on St James' Park in May 1892. [10] With only one senior club in the city for fans to support, development of the club was much more rapid.

Despite being refused newcastle to the Football League's First Division at the start of the 1892–93 season, they were invited to play in their new Second Division. However, with no big names playing in the Second Division, they turned down the offer and remained in the Northern League, stating "gates would not newcastle the heavy expenses incurred for travelling". [10] [11] In a bid to start drawing larger crowds, Newcastle East End decided to adopt a new name in recognition of the merger.

[10] Suggested names included Newcastle F.C., Newcastle Rangers, Newcastle City and City of Newcastle, but Newcastle United was decided upon on 9 December 1892, to signify the unification of the two teams. [10] [12] The name newcastle was accepted by the Football Association on 22 December, but the club was not legally constituted as Newcastle United Football Club Co.

Ltd. until 6 September 1895. [11] At the start of the 1893–94 season, Newcastle United were once again refused entry to the Newcastle Division and so joined the Second Division, along with Liverpool and Woolwich Arsenal.

[10] They played their first competitive match in the division that September against Woolwich Arsenal, with a score of 2–2. [11] Turnstile numbers were still low, and the incensed club published a statement stating, "The Newcastle public do not deserve to be catered for as far as professional football is concerned". However, eventually figures picked up by 1895–96, when 14,000 fans watched the team play Bury.

That season Frank Watt became secretary of the club, and he was instrumental in promotion to the First Division for the 1898–99 season. However, they lost their first game 4–2 at home to Wolverhampton Wanderers and finished their first season in 13th place. [11] 1903–1937: First glory years and war years [ edit ] Harry Hampton of Aston Villa scores one of his two goals in the 1905 FA Cup final In 1903–04, the club built up a promising squad of players, and went on to dominate English football for almost a decade, the team known for their "artistic play, combining team-work and quick, short passing".

Long after his retirement, Peter McWilliam, the team's defender at the time, said, "The Newcastle team of the 1900s would give any modern side a two goal start and beat them, and further more, beat them at a trot." Newcastle United went on to win the League on three occasions during the 1900s; 1904–05, 1906–07 and 1908–09. newcastle [13] In 1904–05, they nearly did the double, losing to Newcastle Villa in the 1905 FA Cup Final.

They were beaten again the following year by Everton in the 1906 FA Cup Final. They reached the final again in 1908 where they lost to Wolverhampton Wanderers. They finally won the FA Cup in 1910 when they beat Barnsley in the final. They lost again the following year in the final against Bradford City. [11] Newcastle team returned to the FA Cup final in 1924, in the second final held at the then new Wembley Stadium.

They defeated Aston Villa, winning the club's second FA Cup. [11] Three years later, they won the First Division championship a fourth time in 1926–27, with Hughie Gallacher, one of the most prolific goal scorers in the club's history, captaining the team. Other key players in this period were Neil Harris, Stan Seymour and Frank Hudspeth.

In 1930, Newcastle United came close to relegation, and at the end of the season Gallacher left the club for Chelsea, and at the same time Andy Cunningham became the club's first team manager.

In 1931–32, the club won the FA Cup a third time. However, a couple of years later, at the end of the 1933–34 season, the team were relegated to the Second Division after 35 seasons in the top. Cunningham left as manager newcastle Tom Mather took over.

[11] 1937–1969: Post-war success [ edit ] Newcastle United in 1960. L-r, standing: James "Jimmy" Scoular, Richard Matthewson "Dick" Keith, Bryan Harvey ( goalkeeper), Bob Stokoe, Alf McMichael and George Eastham; front: "Terry" W. L. Marshall, Ivor Allchurch, Len White, John McGuigan and Liam Tuohy. The club found it difficult to adjust to the Second Division and were nearly further relegated in the 1937–38 season, when they were spared on goal average.

However, when World War II broke out in 1939, Newcastle had a chance to regroup, and in the War period, they brought in Jackie Milburn, Tommy Walker and Bobby Cowell. They were finally promoted back to the First Division at the end of the 1947–48 season. [11] During the 1950s, Newcastle won the FA Cup three times in newcastle years, beating Blackpool in 1951, Arsenal in 1952 and Manchester City in 1955. However, after this last FA Cup victory the club fell back into decline and were relegated to the Second Division once again at newcastle end of the 1960–61 season under the management of Charlie Mitten.

Mitten left after one season in the Second Division and was replaced by former player Joe Harvey. Newcastle returned to the First Division at the end of the 1964–65 season after winning the Second Division title. [11] Under Harvey, the club qualified for European competition for the first time after a good run in the 1967–68 season and the following year newcastle the 1969 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup Final, triumphing 6–2 over two legs against Hungary's Újpest in the final.

[11] 1969–1992: Bouncing between divisions [ edit ] Harvey bought striker Malcolm Macdonald in the summer of 1971, for a club record transfer fee of £180,000 (equivalent to £2,265,000 in 2021). [11] [14] He was an impressive goal scorer, who led United's attack to Wembley in their 1974 FA Cup Final defeat at the hands of Liverpool. [11] The club also had back to back triumphs in the Texaco Cup in 1974 and 1975. [15] Harvey left the club in 1975, with Gordon Lee brought in to replace him.

Lee took the team to the 1976 Football League Cup Final against Manchester City, but failed to bring the trophy back to Tyneside. However, he sold Macdonald to Arsenal at the end of the season, a decision of which Macdonald later said "I loved Newcastle, until Gordon Lee took over". Lee left for Everton in 1977, and was replaced by Richard Dinnis. [11] United dropped once again to the Newcastle Division at newcastle end of the 1977–78 season.

Dinnis was replaced by Bill McGarry, and then he was replaced by Arthur Cox. Cox steered Newcastle back to the First Division at the end of the 1983–84 season, with players such as Peter Beardsley, Chris Waddle and ex- England captain Kevin Keegan the fulcrum of the team.

However, with a lack of funds, Cox left for Derby County and Keegan retired. With managers such as Jack Charlton and then Willie McFaul, Newcastle remained in the top-flight, until key players such as Waddle, Beardsley and Paul Gascoigne were sold, and the team was relegated once more in 1989.

McFaul left the managerial post, and was replaced by Jim Smith. Smith left at the start of the 1991–92 season and the board appointed Osvaldo Ardiles his replacement. [11] John Hall became the club's newcastle in 1992, and replaced Ardiles with Keegan, who managed to save the team from relegation to the Third Division.

Keegan was given more money for players, buying Rob Lee, Paul Bracewell and Barry Venison. The club won the First Division championship at the end of the 1992–93 season, earning promotion to the then new Premier League. [ citation needed] 1992–2007: Into the Premier League [ edit ] Kevin Keegan (pictured in his newcastle spell in 2008) guided Newcastle to promotion and Champions League football from 1992 to 1997, turning United into one of the biggest clubs in England despite not winning the league At the end of their first year, 1993–94 season, back in the top flight they finished in third, their highest league finish since 1927.

[11] The attacking philosophy of Keegan led to the team being labelled "The Entertainers" by Sky Sports. [16] Keegan took Newcastle to two consecutive runners-up finishes in the league in 1995–96 and 1996–97, coming very close to winning the title in the former season which included newcastle 4–3 game against Liverpool at Anfield – often considered newcastle greatest game in Premier League history – which ended with a defining image of the Premier League with Keegan slumped over the advertising hoarding.

[17] The success of the team was in part due to the attacking talent of players like David Ginola, Les Ferdinand and Alan Shearer, who was signed on 30 July 1996 for a then world record fee of £15 million. [18] [19] Keegan left Newcastle in January 1997 and was replaced by Kenny Dalglish, however the club endured a largely unsuccessful season with a 13th-place finish in the 1997–98 FA Newcastle League, failure to progress beyond the group stages of the 1997–98 UEFA Champions League despite beating Barcelona and group winners Dynamo Kyiv newcastle St James' Park as well as coming from 2–0 down to draw 2–2 with Valery Lobanovsky's team in Ukraine and defeat in the 1998 FA Cup Final.

Dalglish was replaced as manager early in the following season by Ruud Gullit. [20] [21] The club once again finished 13th in the league and lost the 1999 FA Cup Final. Gullit fell into disagreements with the squad and chairman Freddy Shepherd, and quit the club four games into the 1999–2000 season with the team bottom of the table to be replaced by Bobby Robson. [21] [22] Bobby Robson managed the club for five years, departing in 2004 A title challenge emerged during the 2001–02 season, and Newcastle's fourth-place finish saw them qualify for the UEFA Champions League.

The following season, Robson guided newcastle team to another title challenge and finished third in the League, and the second group stage of the Champions League, [23] after being the first team to have progressed past the first group stage after losing their first three games. newcastle Newcastle finished fifth in the league at the end of the 2003–04 season, and exited the Champions League in the qualifying rounds, but despite this Robson was sacked in August 2004 following a series of disagreements with the club.

[25] [26] Alan Shearer mosaic during his testimonial match in May 2006. The club's record goalscorer retired that month. Graeme Souness was brought in to manage by the start of the 2004–05 season. In his time at the helm, he broke the club's transfer record by signing Michael Owen for £16.8 million. Souness also took Newcastle to the quarter-finals of the 2004–05 UEFA Cup with Alan Shearer winning the tournament's golden boot as well.

[27] [28] [29] However, he was sacked in February 2006 after a bad start to the newcastle 2005–06 season. [30] Glenn Roeder took over, initially on a temporary basis, before being newcastle full-time manager at the end of the season. [31] Shearer retired at the end of the 2005–06 season as the club's all-time record goal scorer, with 206 goals.

[32] Despite finishing the 2005–06 season in seventh, Roeder's fortunes changed in the 2006–07 season, with a terrible injury run to the senior squad, and he left the club by mutual consent on 6 May 2007. [33] After the 2006–07 season, and inside the Premier League era, Newcastle United were now the fifth most successful Premiership club in terms of points gained. [34] Sam Allardyce was appointed Roeder's replacement as manager on 15 May 2007.

[35] 2007–2021: Mike Ashley era [ edit ] On 7 June, Freddy Shepherd's final shares newcastle the club were sold to Mike Ashley and Shepherd was replaced as chairman by Chris Mort on 25 July. [36] [37] Ashley then announced he would be delisting the club from the London Stock Exchange upon completion of the takeover. [38] The club officially ceased trading on the Stock Exchange as of 8 am on 18 July 2007 at 5p a share. [39] Allardyce departed the club on in January 2008 by mutual consent newcastle a bad start to the 2007–08 season, [40] and Kevin Keegan was reappointed as Newcastle manager.

[41] Mort stepped down as chairman in June and was replaced by Derek Llambias, a long-term associate of Ashley. [42] Newcastle finished the 2007–08 season in 12th place, but as the season drew to a close, Keegan publicly criticised the board, stating they were not providing the team enough financial support.

[43] In September 2008, Keegan resigned as manager, stating: "It's my opinion that a manager must have the right to manage and that clubs should not impose upon any manager any player that he does not want". [44] Former Wimbledon manager Joe Kinnear was appointed as his replacement, [45] but newcastle February 2009, due to his heart surgery, Alan Shearer was appointed interim manager in his absence. [46] Under Shearer, the club were relegated to the Football League Championship at the end of the 2008–09 season, the first time the club had left the Premier League since joining it in 1993.

[47] Following their relegation, the club was put up for sale in June 2009, with an asking newcastle of £100 million. [48] Chris Hughton was given the manager job on a caretaker basis before taking over full-time on 27 October 2009.

[49] On the same day, Ashley announced that the club was no longer for sale. [50] Newcastle made an immediate return to the top-flight in 2010 after their relegation the year prior.

Hughton led Newcastle to win the 2009–10 Football League Championship, securing automatic promotion on 5 April 2010 with five games remaining, and securing the title on 19 April; Newcastle were promoted back to the Premier League after just one season away. [51] [52] [53] Under Hughton, Newcastle enjoyed a strong start to the 2010–11 season, but he was sacked on 6 December 2010.

The club's board stated that they felt "an individual with more managerial experience [was] needed to take the club forward." [54] Three days later, Alan Newcastle was appointed as manager with a five-and-a-half-year contract. [55] Despite some turbulence, Newcastle were able to finish 12th at the end of the season, with one particular highlight being a 4–4 home draw against Arsenal that saw Newcastle come back from four goals down newcastle claim a point.

[56] The start of the 2011–12 season was very successful as they went on to enjoy one of their strongest openings to a season, playing 11 consecutive games unbeaten. [57] Newcastle eventually secured a place in the 2012–13 Europa League with a fifth-place finish, their highest league position since the Bobby Robson days. Further honours were to come as Pardew won both the Premier League Manager of the Season [58] and the LMA Manager of the Year awards.

[ citation needed] In the following season Newcastle made few acquisitions in the summer and suffered injuries over the season. As a result, the first half of the season was marred by a run of 10 losses in 13 games, which saw the club sink near the newcastle zone. The Europa League campaign was largely successful with the team making the quarter-finals before newcastle out to eventual finalists Newcastle.

[59] Domestically, Newcastle struggled, and stayed up after a 2–1 victory over already-relegated Queens Park Rangers on the penultimate game of the season. [60] Rafael Benítez managed the club from March 2016 – June 2019 The 2014–15 season saw Newcastle fail to win any of their first seven games, prompting fans to start a campaign to get Pardew sacked as manager before an upturn in form saw them climb to fifth in the table.

Pardew left for Crystal Palace in December. [61] On 26 January 2015, his assistant John Carver was put in charge for the remainder of the season but came close to relegation, staying up on the final day with a 2–0 home win against West Ham, with Jonás Gutiérrez, who beat testicular cancer earlier in the season, scoring the team's second goal.

[62] On 9 June 2015, Carver was sacked and replaced by Steve McClaren the following day. [63] On 11 March 2016, McClaren newcastle sacked after nine months as manager, with Newcastle in 19th place in the Premier League and the club having won just six of 28 Premier League games during his time at the club.

[64] He was replaced by Spaniard Rafael Benítez on the same day, who signed a three-year deal, [64] but was not able to prevent the club from being relegated for the second time under Ashley's ownership.

[65] Newcastle returned to the Premier League at the first attempt, winning the Championship title on 7 May 2017 with a 3–0 win against Barnsley.

[66] On 16 October 2017, Mike Ashley put Newcastle United up for sale for a second time. [67] The team finished the season with a 3–0 win over the previous year's champions Chelsea, finishing tenth in the league, their highest finish in four years. [68] [69] The following season saw a 13th-place finish, despite being in the relegation zone in January.

As such Ashley came under newcastle scrutiny for his lack of investment in the squad and apparent focus on other business ventures. [70] Benitez left his position on 30 June 2019 after rejecting a new contract.

[71] On 17 July 2019, former Newcastle manager Steve Bruce was appointed as manager on a three-year contract. [72] Bruce oversaw 13th and 12th-placed finishes during his first two seasons in charge, both of which being affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. 2021–present: Saudi-led era [ edit ] On 7 October 2021, after 14 years as owner, Ashley sold the club to a new consortium for a reported £305 million, making them the richest football club in the world.

[73] The consortium was made up of Saudi Arabia's Public Investment Fund, RB Sports & Media and PCP Capital Partners. [74] On 20 October 2021, Bruce left his position by mutual consent, after receiving a reported £8 million payout. [75] [76] Eddie Howe was appointed as Bruce's replacement a few weeks later on 8 November 2021. [77] Club identity [ edit ] Newcastle United's original colours, worn until 1894 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Newcastle United F.C.

kits. The club's home colours are a black and white striped shirt. Shorts and socks are usually black with white trim, though white socks are sometimes worn under some managers who consider them "lucky".

[78] Newcastle's colours at the outset was generally the home kit of Newcastle East End F.C., comprising plain red shirts with white shorts and red newcastle. In 1894, the club adopted the black newcastle white striped shirts, which had been used as the reserve team's colours. These colours were chosen for the senior team because they were newcastle associated with either of the two teams United were merged from.

They played in grey shorts until 1897, and between 1897 and 1921, they played in blue shorts before adopting the black shorts they play in newcastle. [10] [79] United's away colours have changed a number of times over the years. They played in white shirts and black shorts from 1914 until 1961, and then white shorts until 1966. They then played in yellow shirts and blue shorts for the 1967–68 season, but from 1969 to 1974 played in all red with an all blue third kit.

In 1974, they returned to a yellow shirt, which they played with various coloured shorts until 1983. They played in all grey from 1983 to 1988, before once again returning to the yellow kit until 1993. Since 1995, the away kit has changed frequently and has not been the same for more than a single season. [80] [81] Through former owner Mike Ashley, the club also had a relationship with the Sports Direct retail chain which he founded.

newcastle

{INSERTKEYS} [82] On 4 January 2012, Virgin Money, which had just bought Northern Rock, signed a two-year deal to sponsor Newcastle United. [83] In January 2010, Puma became the official supplier and licensee of replica merchandise for Newcastle.

The deal meant Puma supplied the team kit, replica kit and training equipment for the 2010–11 and 2011–12 seasons.

[84] Newcastle United crest: 1983–1988 The current club crest was first used in the 1988–89 season. The crest includes elements from the coat of arms of the city of Newcastle upon Tyne – the two sea horses representing Tyneside's strong connections with the sea, the castle representing the city's keep.

[85] The city's coat of arms were first embroidered on the team's shirts in 1969 and worn as standard until 1976. [79] A scroll at the bottom featured the city's motto in Latin; fortiter defendit triumphans which translates into English as "triumphing by brave defence." [86] From 1976 until 1983, the club wore a specific badge which was developed to wear in place of the city's coat of arms.

The design was of a circular shape, which featured the club's name in full, it contained a magpie standing in front of the River Tyne with the historic keep of Newcastle in the background.

[87] A more simplistic design followed in 1983, featuring the initials of the club's name, NUFC with the small magpie used in the previous crest within the horizontally laid "C," this logo was relatively short lived and was discontinued after 1988. [87] Newcastle United home shirt for the 2017–18 season On 16 May 2013, Newcastle released the away shirt for the 2013–14 season which for the first time featured the Wonga.com logo, which attracted criticism from many Newcastle supporters; the shirt was navy blue with light blue bands.

The shirt received mixed reviews from Newcastle supporters, who described the shirt as both "awesome" and "bland", as quoted in the Newcastle daily Evening Chronicle.

[88] In July 2013, Newcastle striker and practising Muslim Papiss Cissé refused to wear any official kit or training wear with reference to Wonga.com, subsequently failing to travel to the team's 2013 pre-season tour of Portugal. [ citation needed] The matter was later resolved. [89] Wonga collapsed in administration in 2018. [90] On 15 May 2017, the home shirt for the 2017–18 season was revealed, featuring the logo of new sponsors Fun88.

The shirt was shown to include a gold and silver commemorative crest to mark the club's 125th football season, based on the city's coat of arms. It was also announced that the kit would feature red numbers for the first time since the 1992–93 season. [91] Previous kit sponsors include Newcastle Breweries (1980–86), Greenall's Beers (1986–90), McEwan's Lager and Newcastle Brown Ale (1990–2000), NTL (2000–03), Northern Rock (2003–12), Virgin Money (2012–13) and Wonga.com (2013–17).

[92] Newcastle United's current kit manufacturers are Castore, in a deal that started in 2021. [93] Previous kit manufacturers include Bukta (1974–75, 1976–80), Umbro (1975–76, 1980–93), Asics (1993–95), Adidas (1995–2010) and Puma (2010–21).

Other current team sponsors include Fun88, Bet365, Carling, eToro, BoyleSports, AstroPay, TOMKET, Pulman, Perfect Image and Energy Impact Limited. [94] [95] [96] Newcastle United's current sleeve sponsor is Kayak, in a deal that started in 2021. [97] Previous sleeve sponsors include MRF Tyres (2017–18), StormGain (2019–20) and ICM.com (2020–21). [ citation needed] Stadium [ edit ] Newcastle finished as the Football League's best supported club on ten occasions.

NUFC were the first club in the world to attract over one million for league games (1946–47) and average over 50,000 for league games (1947–48; 56,283).

Throughout Newcastle United's history, their home venue has been St James' Park, the oldest and largest football stadium in North East England, as well as the sixth-largest football stadium in the United Kingdom.

[98] It has hosted 10 international football matches at senior level, the first in 1901 and the most recent in 2005. [99] [100] It was used as a venue for both the 2012 Summer Olympics and the 2015 Rugby World Cup. [98] [101] Football had been played at St James' Park as early as 1880, the ground being occupied by Newcastle Rangers, before becoming the home of Newcastle West End F.C. in 1886. Its lease was then bought by Newcastle East End F.C. in 1892, before they changed their name to Newcastle United.

At the turn of the 20th century, the ground's capacity was given as 30,000 before being redeveloped between 1900 and 1905, increasing the capacity to 60,000 and making it the biggest stadium in England for a time.

For most of the 20th century, the stadium changed very little, despite various plans for development of the ground. The old West Stand was replaced with the Milburn Stand in 1987, the Sir John Hall Stand replacing the Leazes End in 1993, and the rest of the ground renovated making the ground a 37,000 capacity all-seater stadium. Between 1998 and 2000, double tiers were added to the Milburn and Sir John Hall stands to bring the venue up to its current capacity of 52,354.

There were plans to build a new 90,000 seater stadium in Leazes park, just behind St James' with Newcastle Falcons taking over St James' Park, but due to protests the plans were dropped. St James' Park currently seats 52,354 people, but former club owner Mike Ashley had said he would consider taking the roof off The Gallowgate end and adding another 6,000 seats, taking the total capacity to 58,420, but only if the team managed to finish in the top six places of the Premier League.

[10] [102] In October 2009, Ashley announced that he planned to lease the name of the ground in a bid to increase revenue, and in November the stadium was temporarily renamed sportsdirect.com @ St James' Park Stadium.

[50] [103] This name was only supposed to be used until the end of the 2009–10 season, but lasted until November 2011. [103] [104] On 10 November 2011, the club officially changed the name of the stadium to the Sports Direct Arena, although this was an interim name to showcase the sponsorship capabilities of the stadium. The company, owned by Ashley, was not paying anything for the deal.

[105] [106] On 9 October 2012, payday loan company Wonga.com became Newcastle United's main commercial sponsor and purchased the stadium naming rights but restored the St James' Park name. [107] Since 1982, the stadium is served by St James Metro station on the Tyne and Wear Metro. The station is decorated in a black and white colour scheme, with archive photographs of the club's players. [108] The club's current training ground is located at Darsley Park, which is north of the city at Benton.

The facility was opened in July 2003 and is also used by the Newcastle Falcons rugby team. [109] A panorama of St James' Park from the Milburn Stand, showing from left to right the Sir John Hall Stand, the East Stand and the Gallowgate End Ownership [ edit ] Newcastle United was set up as a private company limited by shares on 6 September 1895. [11] The club traded in this way for much of the 20th century, dominated by McKeag, Westwood and Seymour family ownership, [110] until April 1997, when John Hall, who bought 72.9% of the club for £3 million in 1991, floated the club on the stock exchange as a public limited company, with less than half the shares sold to the Hall family and the majority holding going to his business partner Freddy Shepherd.

Later that year, Hall stepped down as chairman and was replaced by Shepherd, with the Hall family represented on the board by John's son Douglas. [111] In December 1998, after buying a 6.3% stake in the club for £10 million, the media group NTL had considered a full takeover of the club. This was later dropped after the Competition Commission, established in April 1999, expressed concerns about football clubs being owned by media companies.

[112] Newcastle fans show "Mike Ashley Out" cards away to QPR, May 2015 In 2007, businessman Mike Ashley purchased the combined stakes of both Douglas and John Hall, 41% share in the club, through a holding company St James Holdings, with a view to buy the rest. [113] Upon purchasing this share, he appointed Chris Mort as chairman, while gaining more shares, owning 93.19% of the club by 29 June 2007. [114] This figure reached 95% on 11 July 2007, forcing the remaining shareholders to sell their shares.

[115] Since completing the purchase of the club, Ashley has announced that he planned to sell the club on three occasions. The first occurred after fan protests over the resignation of Kevin Keegan on 14 September 2008, when Ashley stated, "I have listened to you.

You want me out. That is what I am now trying to do." [116] However, he took it off the market on 28 December 2008 after being unable to find a buyer. [117] On 31 May 2009, it was reported that Ashley was attempting to sell the club again. [118] [119] On 8 June 2009, Ashley confirmed that the club was up for sale at an asking price of £100 million. [120] By the end of August 2009, the club was back off the market. [121] On 16 October 2017, Newcastle United announced that Ashley had once again put the club up for sale, reporting that he hoped that a deal could be concluded by Christmas 2017.

[122] Saudi-led takeover [ edit ] Main article: 2021 takeover of Newcastle United F.C. In April 2020, it was widely reported that a consortium consisting of Public Investment Fund, PCP Capital Partners and RB Sports & Media, was finalising an offer to acquire Newcastle United. The proposed sale prompted concerns and criticism, such as arguments considering it sportwashing of the country's human rights record, as well as ongoing piracy of sports broadcasts in the region.

[123] In May 2020, two Conservative MPs called upon the government to scrutinise aspects of the deal, with Karl McCartney calling for the sale to be blocked, and Giles Watling calling upon the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport to hold an oral evidence session regarding sports piracy in Saudi Arabia.

[124] In May 2020, The Guardian reported that the Premier League had obtained a report from the World Trade Organization (published publicly the following month), which contained evidence that Saudi nationals had backed beoutQ – a pirate broadcaster carrying the beIN Sports networks in the region since the Qatar diplomatic crisis. [125] [126] [127] In June 2020, The Guardian reported that Richard Masters, who appeared in front of the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport, had hinted possible takeover of Newcastle United.

However, the MPs warned it would be "humiliating" to allow a Saudi Arabian consortium to take charge given the country's record on piracy and human rights. [128] Image from Newcastle Fans TV, showing thousands of NUFC fans celebrating the completed takeover outside St James' Park on 7 October 2021 [129] In July 2020, The Guardian reported that Saudi Arabia's decision to ban beIN Sports broadcast from operating in the nation, had further complicated the takeover of Newcastle United.

[130] On 30 July 2020, Saudi Arabia announced its withdrawal from the Newcastle deal, stating "with a deep appreciation for the Newcastle community and the significance of its football club, we have come to the decision to withdraw our interest in acquiring Newcastle United Football Club". The group also stated that the "prolonged process" was a major factor in them pulling out. [131] The collapse of the takeover was met with widespread criticism from Newcastle fans, with Newcastle MP Chi Onwurah accusing the Premier League of treating fans of the club with "contempt" and subsequently wrote to Masters for an explanation.

[132] Despite the consortium's withdrawal, disputes over the takeover continued. On 9 September 2020, Newcastle United released a statement claiming that the Premier League had officially rejected the takeover by the consortium and accused Masters and the Premier League board of "[not] acting appropriately in relation to [the takeover]", while stating that the club would be considering any relevant legal action.

[133] The Premier League strongly denied this in a statement released the next day, expressing "surprise" and "disappointment" at Newcastle's statement. [134] On 7 October 2021, the Public Investment Fund, PCP Capital Partners and RB Sports & Media confirmed that they had officially completed the acquisition of Newcastle United. [74] Social responsibility [ edit ] Newcastle United established the Newcastle United Foundation in summer 2008, which seeks to encourage learning and promote healthy living amongst disadvantaged children, young people and families in the North East region, as well as promoting equality and diversity.

[135] [136] The Foundation's manager Kate Bradley told charity news website The Third Sector, "Children look up to players as their heroes, and anything they say is instantly taken on board. If Newcastle defender Steven Taylor tells them not to eat a Mars bar for breakfast, they'll listen." [137] In 2010, the charity taught over 5,000 children about healthy living.

[135] The Foundation's commitment, along with a similar foundation run by West Bromwich Albion, the unique relationship that Aston Villa has with Acorns Children's Hospice and Tottenham Hotspur has with SOS Children's Villages UK, are some leading examples of commitment in the highest level of football to responsibility and change in the communities in which they work and who enrich them through their support and ticket sales.

The work of these clubs, and others, is changing the way professional sport interacts with their communities and supporters. [138] [139] In December 2012, the club announced that it had become the world's first carbon positive football club. [140] Supporters and rivalries [ edit ] See also: Tyne–Wear derby and Tyne–Tees derby The Newcastle United Independent Supporters Association is the official supporter's group for the club.

Through its chairman Frank Gilmore, a local pub manager, [141] [142] the group has been quoted in the press with regard to events at Newcastle United since 2002. Supporters of Newcastle United are drawn from all over the North East and beyond, with supporters' clubs in some countries across the world.

[143] The club's nickname is The Magpies, while the club's supporters are also known as the Geordies or the Toon Army. The name Toon originates from the Geordie pronunciation of town. [144] [145] In a 2004 survey by Co-operative Financial Services, it was found that Newcastle United topped the league table for the cost incurred and distance travelled by Newcastle-based fans wishing to travel to every Premier League away game.

The total distance travelled for a fan to attend every away game from Newcastle was found to be equivalent to a round-the-world trip.

[146] In the 2009–10 season, when the club were playing in English football's second tier, the Football League Championship, the average attendance at St James' Park was 43,388, the fourth-highest for an English club that season. [147] At the end of the 2011–12 Premier league season, Newcastle United held the third-highest average attendance for the season, at 49,935.

[148] This figure was only surpassed by Arsenal and Manchester United, the only two clubs in the Premier League with larger stadiums at the time. [148] The club's supporters publish a number of fanzines including True Faith and The Mag, along with NUFC.com, which was established in 1996. They set up Newcastle United Supporters Trust in September 2008, aiming to "represent the broad church of Newcastle United's support." [149] In addition to the usual English football chants, Newcastle's supporters sing the traditional Tyneside song " Blaydon Races." [150] [151] Prior to each home game the team enters the field to " Local Hero", written by Newcastle native and supporter Mark Knopfler, founder of Dire Straits.

[6] Traditionally, Newcastle's main rivals are Sunderland, against whom the Tyne–Wear derby is competed, along with Middlesbrough F.C, with whom they compete in the Tyne-Tees derby.

[152] In 1998, The Police founder and Newcastle fan Sting wrote a song in support of Newcastle, called “Black and White Army (Bringing The Pride Back Home)”. [153] In 2015, some Newcastle fans boycotted games in protest of club management by Mike Ashley, and they were supported by famous club fans like Sting and Jimmy Nail. [153] [154] Records and statistics [ edit ] Statue of the club's record goalscorer Alan Shearer, outside St James' Park As of the 2019–20 season, Newcastle United have spent 88 seasons in the top-flight.

They are eighth in the all-time Premier League table and have the ninth-highest total of major honours won by an English club with 11 wins.

[155] The holder of the record for the most appearances is Jimmy Lawrence, having made 496 first team appearances between 1904 and 1921. [156] The club's top goal scorer is Alan Shearer, who scored 206 goals in all competitions between 1996 and 2006. [157] Andy Cole holds the record for the most goals scored in a season: 41 in the 1993–94 season in the Premier League.

[156] Shay Given is the most capped international for the club, with 134 appearances for Republic of Ireland. [156] The club's widest victory margin in the league was in the 13–0 win against Newport County in the Second Division in 1946.

Their heaviest defeat in the league was 9–0 against Burton Wanderers in the Second Division in 1895. [156] The club's longest number of consecutive seasons in the top flight of English football was 32 from 1898–99 until 1933–34. Newcastle's record home attendance is 68,386 for a First Division match against Chelsea on 3 September 1930. [156] The club's highest attendance in the Premier League is 52,389, in a match against Manchester City on 6 May 2012.

Newcastle lost the game 2–0. [158] The highest transfer fee received for a Newcastle player is £35 million, from Liverpool for Andy Carroll in January 2011, [159] while the most spent by the club on a player was £21 million, for Miguel Almirón from Atlanta United in January 2019, [160] until the figure was exceeded by the transfer of Joelinton from TSG 1899 Hoffenheim in July 2019, believed to be in the region of £40 million.

[161] Players [ edit ] Current squad [ edit ] As of 3 February 2022 [162] [163] Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. No. Pos. Nation Player 1 GK SVK Martin Dúbravka 2 DF IRL Ciaran Clark 3 DF WAL Paul Dummett 5 DF SUI Fabian Schär 6 DF ENG Jamaal Lascelles ( captain) 7 MF BRA Joelinton 8 MF ENG Jonjo Shelvey 9 FW ENG Callum Wilson 10 FW FRA Allan Saint-Maximin 11 MF SCO Matt Ritchie 12 DF NIR Jamal Lewis 13 DF ENG Matt Targett (on loan from Aston Villa) 14 MF ENG Isaac Hayden 15 DF ENG Kieran Trippier No.

Pos. Nation Player 17 DF SWE Emil Krafth 18 DF ARG Federico Fernández 19 DF ESP Javier Manquillo 20 FW NZL Chris Wood 21 MF SCO Ryan Fraser 23 MF ENG Jacob Murphy 24 MF PAR Miguel Almirón 26 GK ENG Karl Darlow 28 MF ENG Joe Willock 29 GK ENG Mark Gillespie 33 DF ENG Dan Burn 34 FW ENG Dwight Gayle 36 MF ENG Sean Longstaff 39 MF BRA Bruno Guimarães Other players under contract [ edit ] As of 3 February 2022 Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.

Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. No. Pos. Nation Player — DF ENG Matthew Bondswell Out on loan [ edit ] Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. No. Pos. Nation Player 4 MF ENG Matty Longstaff (at Mansfield Town for the 2021–22 season) 16 MF IRL Jeff Hendrick (at QPR for the 2021–22 season) 27 GK ENG Freddie Woodman (at Bournemouth for the 2021–22 season) 32 MF SCO Elliot Anderson (at Bristol Rovers for the 2021–22 season) No.

Pos. Nation Player 35 DF ENG Kelland Watts (at Wigan Athletic for the 2021–22 season) 44 DF IRL Oisin McEntee (at Greenock Morton for the 2021–22 season) 56 MF ENG Joe White (at Hartlepool United for the 2021–22 season) — MF PER Rodrigo Vilca (at Universitario until January 2023) Reserves and Academy [ edit ] Further information: Category:Newcastle United F.C. players Player of the Year [ edit ] Year Winner 1976 Alan Gowling 1977 Micky Burns 1978 Irving Nattrass 1979 Peter Withe 1980 Alan Shoulder 1981 Kevin Carr 1982 Mick Martin 1983 Kevin Keegan 1984 1985 Peter Beardsley 1986 1987 Paul Goddard Year Winner 1988 Paul Gascoigne 1989 John Hendrie 1990 Micky Quinn 1991 John Burridge 1992 Gavin Peacock 1993 Lee Clark 1994 Andy Cole 1995 Barry Venison 1996 Darren Peacock 1997 Steve Watson 1998 David Batty 1999 Alan Shearer Year Winner 2000 Alan Shearer 2001 Shay Given 2002 Nolberto Solano 2003 Alan Shearer 2004 Olivier Bernard 2005 Shay Given 2006 2007 Nicky Butt 2008 Habib Beye 2009 Sébastien Bassong 2010 José Enrique 2011 Fabricio Coloccini Year Winner 2012 Tim Krul 2013 Davide Santon 2014 Mike Williamson 2015 Daryl Janmaat 2016 Rob Elliot 2017 Ciaran Clark 2018 Jamaal Lascelles 2019 Salomón Rondón 2020 Martin Dúbravka 2021 Callum Wilson Source: Newcastle United F.C.

Club officials [ edit ] Main article: List of Newcastle United F.C. managers Current backroom staff [ edit ] First Team [ edit ] Position Staff Head Coach Eddie Howe Assistant Coach Jason Tindall Coach Stephen Purches Coach Simon Weatherstone Coach Graeme Jones Goalkeeping Coach Simon Smith Goalkeeping Coach Adam Bartlett Head of Medicine Paul Catterson Head Physiotherapist Derek Wright Physiotherapist Dave Galley Physiotherapist Sean Beech Physiotherapist Daniel Marti Head of Strength & Conditioning Nick Grantham Head of Recruitment Steve Nickson Head of Analysis Tom Coffield Coach Analyst Mark Leyland Sports Scientist Dan Hodges Sports Scientist James Allan Sports Scientist John Fitzpatrick Media & Communications Lee Marshall Source: [ citation needed] Under-23 and Under-18 [ edit ] Position Staff Academy Manager Steve Harper Head of Coaching Neil Winskill Assistant Head of Coaching Mark Atkinson Loan Coordinator Shola Ameobi Under-23 Head Coach Elliott Dickman Under-23 Assistant Coach Kevin Richardson Under-18s Head Coach Peter Ramage Goalkeeping Coach Tony Caig Doctor Tom Holland Physiotherapist Stephen Weir Lead Strength & Conditioning Coach Craig Musham Head of Academy Sports Science Simon Tweddle Lead Academy Sports Scientist James Newton Academy Sports Scientist Angelos Eleftheriadis Source: [ citation needed] Honours [ edit ] Source: [164] Domestic [ edit ] First Division/Premier League (level 1) • Champions: 1904–05, 1906–07, 1908–09, 1926–27 • Runners-up: 1995–96, 1996–97 Second Division/Championship (level 2) • Champions: 1964–65, 1992–93, 2009–10, 2016–17 FA Cup • Winners: 1909–10, 1923–24, 1931–32, 1950–51, 1951–52, 1954–55 • Runners-up: 1904–05, 1905–06, 1907–08, 1910–11, 1973–74, 1997–98, 1998–99 Football League Cup • Runners-up: 1975–76 FA Charity Shield • Winners: 1909 • Runners-up: 1932, 1951, 1952, 1955, 1996 Sheriff of London Charity Shield • Winners: 1907 European [ edit ] Inter-Cities Fairs Cup • Winners: 1968–69 UEFA Intertoto Cup • Winners: 2006 (Outright winner) Other honours [ edit ] Texaco Cup • Winners: 1973–74, 1974–75 Anglo-Italian Cup • Winners: 1973 See also [ edit ] • Newcastle United W.F.C.

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"How the Geordie Nation newcastle into a cash cow". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 21 September 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2011. • ^ "Newcastle United". ukbusinesspark.co.uk. Archived from the original on 22 February 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2008. • ^ Ubha, Ravi (23 May 2007). "Ashley, Retail Billionaire, Offers to Buy Newcastle".

Bloomberg. Archived from the newcastle on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2011. • ^ "Ashley tightens grip on Magpies". The Guardian. London. 29 June 2007. Archived newcastle the original on 5 October 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2011. • ^ "Ashley poised to complete Newcastle buy-out".

The Times. London. 11 July 2007. Retrieved 13 April 2011. • newcastle "Ashley puts Newcastle up for sale". BBC Sport. 14 September 2008. Archived from the original on 7 June 2009. Retrieved 13 April 2011. • ^ "Ashley calls off Newcastle sale". BBC Sport. 28 December 2008. Archived from the original on 31 December 2008.

Retrieved 28 December 2008. • ^ "Ashley wants quick Newcastle sale". BBC Sport. London. 31 May 2009. Archived from the original on 2 June 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2009. • ^ "Mike Ashley puts Newcastle United up for sale again". Evening Chronicle. 1 June 2009. Archived from the original on 5 June 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2009. • ^ Caulkin, George (8 June 2009).

"Mike Ashley brings newcastle embarrassment on Newcastle". The Times. London. Retrieved 14 April 2011. • ^ Richardson, Andy (24 August 2009). "Is Ashley ready to make a definitive decision?". The Northern Echo. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2011.

• ^ "Newcastle United: Mike Ashley puts Premier League club up for sale". BBC Sport. 16 October 2017. Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017. • ^ Panja, Tariq (30 April 2020). "As Premier League Weighs Saudi Bid for Newcastle, It Criticized Kingdom". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original newcastle 4 May 2020.

Retrieved 4 May 2020. • ^ "Opposition grows to Newcastle United's potential Saudi takeover". The Times. London. Retrieved 15 May 2020. • ^ Newcastle, Nick (16 June 2020).

"World Trade Organization Rules There is Evidence Saudi Arabia Supported Pirate Broadcaster beoutQ". Variety. Retrieved 17 June 2020. • ^ "WTO piracy ruling casts fresh doubt over Newcastle's Saudi takeover". SportsPro Media. 16 June 2020. Retrieved 17 June 2020. • ^ Ingle, Sean (26 May 2020). "Newcastle takeover in serious doubt as WTO rules pirate TV newcastle is Saudi". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 July 2020. • ^ "Newcastle takeover saga close to resolution, Richard Masters tells Mps".

The Guardian. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 30 June 2020. • ^ "Newcastle United fans celebrate wildly outside St James's Park after Saudi-led takeover confirmed". The Independent.

7 October 2021. Retrieved 20 October 2021. • ^ "Saudi Arabia bans beIN Sports to further complicate £300m Newcastle takeover". The Guardian. 14 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020. • ^ "Saudi bid to buy Newcastle ends after piracy, human rights issues".

Al Jazeera. Retrieved 30 July 2020. • ^ "Newcastle MP slams Premier Newcastle for treatment of fans during takeover process". Chronicle Live. 30 July 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020. • ^ "Club statement". Newcastle United F.C. Retrieved 9 September 2020. • ^ "Premier League adamant they have not rejected Newcastle's takeover bid and say they are 'disappointed' and 'surprised' by club's statement".

talkSPORT. 10 September 2020. Retrieved 10 September 2020. • ^ a b Moore, James (18 February 2011). "Newcastle United Foundation hails success". Evening Chronicle. Archived from the original on newcastle February 2011.

Retrieved 14 April 2011. • ^ "Foundation". Newcastle United F.C. Archived from the original on 8 April 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011. • newcastle "How much do Premier League football clubs give to charity?". thirdsector.co.uk. 16 August 2010. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2011. • ^ Parthasarathi, Shyam (3 June 2008). "English Premier League: Aston Villa Unveil Charity Sponsorship Deal". bleacherreport.com. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2011.

• ^ "Soccer Players and Charity Works". cultureofsoccer.com. 29 December 2006. Archived from the original on 26 November 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2011.

• ^ "fcbusiness Magazine – Newcastle United Becomes World's First 'Carbon Positive' Football Club". 5 December 2012. Archived from the original on 20 April 2013. Retrieved 5 December 2012. • ^ www.chroniclelive.co.uk TV's red card, 17 September 2002 • ^ archive.thenorthernecho.co.uk Fans angry as Bowyer allowed to stay at Newcastle after fight, Northern Newcastle archive, first published 4 April 2005 • ^ "Newcastle Supporters Club Sites".

thefootballnetwork.net. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011. • ^ "Geordie Dictionary". englandsnortheast.co.uk. Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011. • ^ Szczepanik, Nick (26 September 2007).

newcastle

"Newcastle top of the league when it comes to dedication of fans". The Times. London. Retrieved 28 September 2007. • ^ "Football Fans Pay the Price of Away Support".

PR Newswire. 23 November 2004. Archived from the original on 27 May 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2011. • ^ Harrison, Ed (17 May 2010). "Newcastle's Home Attendance 4th Best in England". nufcblog.com. Archived from the original on 6 October 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011. • ^ a b "English Premier League Team Attendance Statistics – 2011–12". ESPN Soccernet. 13 May 2012. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2014. • ^ Ryder, Lee (15 September 2008).

"New supporters club to newcastle fans newcastle voice". Evening Chronicle. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2011. • ^ "Blaydon Races". terracechants.me.uk. Archived from the original on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2011. • ^ "Listen to Comin' Home Newcastle football chant". fanchants.com. Archived from the original on 21 February 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011. • ^ "Knopfler wants the return of Local Hero – the Journal".

Archived newcastle the original on 10 September 2014 newcastle. Retrieved 11 September 2019. • ^ a b "Celeb Toon fans join protest against Ashley". 25 April 2015. Archived from the original on 1 September 2019. Retrieved 1 September 2019. • ^ "Sting and Jimmy Nail support Newcastle United boycott". 24 April 2015. Archived from the original on 1 September 2019.

Retrieved 11 September 2019. • ^ "Football : Running Total of Trophies". Kryss Tal. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2011. • ^ a b c d e "Club Records". Newcastle United F.C. Archived from the original on 26 December 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2011. • ^ "Alan Shearer Profile and Career". FastScore.com. Retrieved 16 October 2020. • ^ Ben Smith (6 May 2012). "Newcastle 0–2 Man City". BBC Sport.

Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2018. • ^ "Carroll joins Liverpool". Premier League. Archived from the original on 2 February 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011. • ^ Taylor, Louise (31 January 2019). "Newcastle break club record to sign £21m Miguel Newcastle from Atlanta". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 31 January 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019. • ^ McVeigh, Niall (23 July 2019).

"Newcastle United sign Hoffenheim forward Joelinton for club-record fee". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019. • ^ "First Team". Newcastle United F.C. Retrieved 5 October 2020. • ^ "United name 25-man squad for second half of the season".

Newcastle United F.C. Retrieved 3 February 2022. • ^ "Honours and Records". Newcastle United F.C. Archived from the newcastle on 21 March 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2017. Sources [ edit ] Books • Bolam, Mike (2007). The Newcastle Miscellany. United Kingdom: Vision Sports Publishing. ISBN 978-1-905326-18-1. External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Newcastle United FC.

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• Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • •
Location within Europe Show map of Europe Coordinates: 54°59′N 1°37′W  /  54.98°N 1.61°W  / 54.98; -1.61 Coordinates: 54°59′N 1°37′W  /  54.98°N 1.61°W  / 54.98; -1.61 [1] OS grid reference NZ220682 [1] Sovereign state United Kingdom Country England Region North East (1994–present) Combined authority North of Tyne (2018–present) Metropolitan county Tyne & Wear (1974–present) Historic county Northumberland Founded as Pons Aelius in the 2nd century Town charter Henry II County corporate 1400 City status 1882 Government NE1–NE7; NE12–NE20; NE27–NE29; NE82–NE99 Dialling code 0191 ISO 3166 code GB-NET GSS code E08000021 NUTS 3 UKC22 International airport Newcastle International ( NCL) National rail stations Newcastle ( A) Manors ( F2) Rapid transit system Tyne and Wear Metro Police Northumbria Ambulance North East Fire and Rescue Tyne and Wear Website www .newcastle .gov .uk Newcastle upon Tyne ( UK: / ˈ nj uː k ɑː s əl/ NEW-kah-səl, locally / nj uː ˈ k æ s əl/ ( listen) new- KASS-əl), [6] often simply Newcastle, is a city and metropolitan borough in northern England.

It is on the River Tyne's northern bank and approximately 8.5 mi (13.7 km) from the North Sea. [7] Culturally, the city is famed for its nightlife; bakery chain Greggs; television personalities Ant & Dec; the Newcastle North Run half-marathon; and Newcastle United Football Club. Famous landmarks include the Tyne Bridge; the Swing Bridge; The Castle; St Thomas’ Church; Grainger Town including Grey's Monument and the Theatre Royal; the Millennium Bridge; St James' Park; and Chinatown.

Historically, the city's economy was dependent on its port as one of the world's largest ship building and repair centres. [8] Today, the city's economy is diverse with major economic output in science, finance, retail, education, tourism, and nightlife. It developed around a Roman settlement called Pons Aelius [9] and the settlement later took the name of newcastle castle built in 1080 by William the Conqueror's eldest son, Robert Curthose.

In 1400 Newcastle separated from Northumberland to become a county of itself. [10] [11] [12] [13] The city became the metropolitan county town of Tyne and Wear from 1974 until 1986. [13] It is locally governed by Newcastle City Council, part of the North of Tyne Combined Authority.

It is part of the Core Cities Group, [14] as well as newcastle Eurocities network. newcastle [16] The city is part of the eighth most populous urban area in the United Kingdom, Tyneside, it also includes the large towns of Gateshead and South Shields. Contents • 1 History • 1.1 Roman • 1.2 Anglo-Saxon and Norman • 1.3 Middle Ages • 1.4 16th to 19th centuries • 1.5 20th and 21st centuries • 2 Geography • 2.1 Ouseburn • 2.2 Quayside • 2.3 Grainger Town newcastle 2.3.1 Chinatown • 2.4 Housing • 2.5 Climate • 2.6 Environment • newcastle Culture • 3.1 Nightlife • 3.2 Food • 3.3 Theatre • 3.4 Literature and libraries • 3.5 Festivals and fairs • 3.6 Music • 3.7 Concert newcastle • 3.8 Independent Cinema • 3.9 Museums and galleries • 3.10 TV and film • 4 Economy • 4.1 Retail • 5 Population • 5.1 Newcastle • 5.1.1 Newcastle • 5.1.2 Religion • 5.1.3 Ethnicity and nationality • 5.2 Geordies • 5.2.1 Dialect • 5.3 Health • 6 Sport • 7 Transport • 7.1 Air • 7.2 Rail • 7.3 Metro • 7.4 Road • 7.5 Cycling • 7.6 Water • 8 Government and politics • 8.1 UK Parliament • 8.2 Local government • 8.3 EU referendum • 9 Education • 9.1 Schools and Further Education • 9.2 Universities • 10 Religious sites • 11 Media • 11.1 Print media • 11.2 Television • 11.3 Radio • 11.4 Public City WiFi • 12 Notable people • 13 International relations • 13.1 Twin towns – sister cities • 13.2 Other agreements • 13.3 Foreign consulates • 14 See also • 15 References • 15.1 Citations • 15.2 Sources • 16 External links History [ edit ] Main article: History of Newcastle upon Tyne Roman [ edit ] The first recorded settlement in what is now Newcastle was Newcastle Aelius (" Hadrian's bridge"), a Roman fort newcastle bridge across the River Tyne.

It was given the family name of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, who founded it in the 2nd century AD. This rare honour suggests Hadrian may have visited the site and instituted the bridge on his tour of Britain. The population of Pons Aelius then is estimated at 2,000. Fragments of Hadrian's Wall are visible in parts of Newcastle, particularly along the West Road. The course of the "Roman Wall" can be traced eastwards to the Segedunum Roman fort in Wallsend—the "wall's end"—and to the supply fort Arbeia in South Shields.

[17] The extent of Hadrian's Wall was 73 miles (117 km), spanning the width of Britain; the Wall incorporated the Vallum, a large rearward ditch with parallel mounds, [18] and was built primarily for defence, to prevent unwanted immigration [ citation needed] and the incursion of Pictish tribes from the north, not as a fighting line for a major invasion. [19] Newcastle Castle Keep is the oldest structure in the city, dating back to at least the 11th century. Anglo-Saxon and Norman [ edit ] After the Roman departure from Britain, completed in 410, Newcastle became part of the powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, and was known throughout this period as Munucceaster (sometimes modernised as Monkchester).

[20] Conflicts with the Danes in 876 left the settlements along the River Tyne in ruins. [21] After the conflicts with the Danes, and following the 1088 rebellion against the Normans, Monkchester was all but destroyed by Odo of Bayeux. [22] Because of its strategic position, Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror, erected a wooden castle there in the year 1080. newcastle The town was henceforth known as Novum Castellum or New Castle.

[21] The wooden structure was replaced by a stone castle in 1087. [21] The castle was rebuilt again in 1172 during the reign of Henry II. Much of the keep which can be seen in newcastle city today dates from this period. [21] Middle Ages [ edit ] Throughout the Middle Ages, Newcastle was England's northern fortress. In 1400 Newcastle was separated from Northumberland [10] [11] [12] [13] and made a county of itself by Henry IV. [10] [11] [12] [13] Newcastle was given the title of the county of the town of Newcastle upon Tyne.

[23] The town had a new charter granted by Elizabeth in 1589. [24] A 25-foot (7.6 m) high stone wall was built around the town in the 13th century, [25] to defend it from invaders during the Border war against Scotland. The Scots king William the Lion was imprisoned in Newcastle in 1174, and Edward I brought the Stone of Scone and William Wallace south through the town. Newcastle was successfully defended against the Scots three times during the 14th century.

[10] [13] 16th to 19th centuries [ edit ] An engraving by William Miller of Newcastle in 1832 From 1530, a royal act restricted all shipments of coal from Tyneside to Newcastle Quayside, giving a monopoly in the coal trade to a cartel of Newcastle burgesses known as the Hostmen. This monopoly, which lasted for a considerable time, helped Newcastle prosper and develop into a major town. The phrase taking coals to Newcastle was first recorded contextually in 1538. [26] The phrase itself means a pointless pursuit.

[27] In the 18th century, the American entrepreneur Timothy Dexter, regarded as an eccentric, defied this idiom. He was persuaded to sail a shipment of coal to Newcastle by merchants plotting to ruin him; however, his shipment arrived on the Tyne during a strike that had crippled local production, allowing him to turn a considerable profit. [28] [29] Victoria Tunnel [30] In the Sandgate area, to the east of the city, and beside the river, resided the close-knit community of keelmen and their families.

[31] They were so called because they worked on the keels, boats that were used to transfer coal from the river banks to the waiting colliers, for export to London and elsewhere. In the 1630s, about 7,000 out of 20,000 inhabitants of Newcastle died of plague, more than one-third of the population. [32] Specifically within the year 1636, it is roughly estimated with evidence held by the Society of Antiquaries that 47% of the then population of Newcastle died from the epidemic; this may also have been the most devastating loss in any British city in this period.

[33] Newcastle was once a major industrial centre particularly for coal newcastle shipping During the English Civil War, the North declared for the King. [34] In a bid to gain Newcastle and the Tyne, Cromwell's allies, the Scots, captured the town of Newburn. In 1644, the Scots then captured the reinforced fortification on the Lawe in South Shields following a siege and the city was besieged for many months. It was eventually stormed ("with roaring drummes") and sacked by Cromwell's allies.

The grateful King bestowed the newcastle " Fortiter Defendit Triumphans" ("Triumphing by a brave defence") upon the town. Charles I was newcastle in Newcastle by the Scots in 1646–7. [35] Newcastle city centre, 1917 In the 18th century, Newcastle was the country's fourth largest print centre after London, Oxford and Cambridge, [36] and the Literary and Philosophical Society of 1793, [36] with its erudite debates and large stock of books in several languages, predated the London Library by half a century.

[36] Some founder members of the Literary and Philosophical Society were abolitionists. [37] Newcastle also became a glass producer with a reputation for brilliant flint glass. [38] A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of Fenham Barracks in 1806. newcastle The Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead was a tragic and spectacular series of events starting on Friday 6 October 1854, in which a substantial amount of property in the two North East of England towns was destroyed in a series of fires and an explosion which killed 53 and injured newcastle.

[40] The status of city was granted to Newcastle on 3 June 1882. [41] In the 19th century, shipbuilding and heavy engineering were central to the city's prosperity; and the city was a powerhouse of the Industrial Revolution. [42] This revolution resulted in the urbanisation of the city. [43] In 1817 the Maling company, at one time the largest pottery company in the world, moved to the city. [44] The Victorian industrial revolution brought industrial structures that included the 2 + 1⁄ 2-mile (4 km) Victoria Tunnel, built in 1842, which provided underground wagon ways to the staithes.

[45] On 3 February 1879, Mosley Street in the city, was the first public road in the world to be lit up by the incandescent lightbulb. [46] [47] Newcastle was one of the first cities in the world to be lit up by electric lighting. [48] Innovations in Newcastle and surrounding areas included the development of safety lamps, Stephenson's Rocket, Lord Armstrong's artillery, Be-Ro flour, [49] Lucozade, [50] Joseph Swan's electric light bulbs, and Charles Parsons' invention of the steam turbine, which led to the revolution of marine propulsion and the production of cheap electricity.

In 1882, Newcastle became the seat of an Anglican diocese, with St. Nicholas' Church becoming its cathedral.

[51] 20th and 21st newcastle [ edit ] Newcastle's public transport system was modernised in 1901 when Newcastle Corporation Tramways electric trams were introduced to the city's newcastle, though these were replaced gradually by trolley buses from 1935, with the tram service finally coming to an end in 1950.

[52] The city acquired its first art gallery, the Laing Art Gallery in 1904, so named after its founder Alexander Laing, a Scottish wine and spirit merchant [53] who wanted to give something back to the city in which he had made his newcastle. Another art gallery, the Hatton Gallery (now part of Newcastle University), opened in 1925.

[54] With the advent of the motor car, Newcastle's road network was improved in the early part of the 20th century, beginning with the opening of the Redheugh road bridge in 1901 [55] and the Tyne Bridge in 1928. [56] Efforts to preserve the city's historic past were evident as newcastle ago as 1934, when the Museum of Science and Industry opened, [57] as did the John G Joicey Museum in the same year.

[58] Council housing began to replace inner-city slums in the 1920s, and the process continued into the 1970s, along with substantial private house building and acquisitions. [59] Unemployment hit record heights in Newcastle during the Great Depression of the 1930s. The city's last coal pit closed in 1956, [60] though a temporary open cast mine was opened in 2013 [61] The temporary open cast mine shifted newcastle tonnes of coal, using modern techniques to reduce noise, on a part of the City undergoing redevelopment.

[61] The slow demise of the shipyards on the banks of the River Tyne happened in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. [62] Panorama from Newcastle castle keep across the River Tyne to Gateshead in 1954 During the Second World War, the city and surrounding area were a target for air raids as heavy industry was involved in the production of ships and armaments. The raids caused 141 deaths and 587 injuries. [63] A former French consul in Newcastle called Jacques Serre assisted the German war effort by describing newcastle targets in the region to Admiral Raeder who was the head of the German Navy.

[64] The public sector in Newcastle began to expand in the 1960s. The federal structure of the University of Newcastle was dissolved. That university's college in Newcastle, which had been known as King's College, became the University of Newcastle upon Tyne (now known as Newcastle University), which was founded in 1963, [65] followed by Newcastle Polytechnic in 1969; the latter received university status in 1992 and became the University of Northumbria at Newcastle (now known as Northumbria University).

[66] Further efforts to preserve the city's historic past continued in the later 20th century, with the opening of Newcastle Military Vehicle Museum in 1983 and Stephenson Railway Museum newcastle 1986. The Military Vehicle museum closed in 2006. [67] New developments at the turn of the 21st century included the Life Science Centre in 2000 and Millennium Bridge in 2001.

[68] Based at St James' Park since 1886, Newcastle United F.C. became Football League members in 1893. [69] They have won four top division titles (the first in 1905 and the most recent in 1927), six FA Cups (the first in 1910 and the most recent in 1955) and the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1969. [70] They broke the world transfer record in 1996 by paying £15 million for Blackburn Rovers and England striker Alan Shearer, one of the most prolific goalscorers of that era.

[71] In 2017, Newcastle was the venue for the 2017 Freedom City festival. The 2017 Freedom City festival commemorated the 50 years since Dr Martin Luther King's visit to Newcastle, where King received his honorary degree from Newcastle University. [72] [73] [74] In 2018 Newcastle hosted the Great Exhibition of the North, the largest event in England in 2018. The exhibition began on 22 June with an opening ceremony on the River Tyne, and ended on 9 September with the Great North Run weekend.

The exhibition describes the story of the north of England through its innovators, artists, designers and businesses. [75] [76] In 2019, various travel sites named Newcastle to be the friendliest city in the UK. [77] Geography [ edit ] Side, a street in Newcastle near the Tyne Bridge Since 1974, Newcastle has been a part of the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear in North East England.

The city is located on the north-western bank of the River Tyne, approximately 46 miles (74 km) south of the border newcastle Scotland.

The ground beneath the city is formed from Carboniferous strata of the Middle Pennine Coal Measures Group — a suite of sandstones, mudstones and coal seams which generally dip moderately eastwards. To the west of the city are the Upper Pennine Coal Measures and further west again the sandstones and mudstones of the Stainmore Formation, the local equivalent of the Millstone Grit.

[78] In large parts, Newcastle still retains a medieval street layout. Narrow alleys or ' chares', most of which can only be newcastle by foot, still exist in abundance, particularly around the riverside.

Stairs from the riverside to higher parts of the city centre and the extant Castle Keep, originally recorded in the 14th century, remain newcastle in places. Close, Sandhill and Quayside contain modern newcastle as well as structures dating from the 15th–18th centuries, including Bessie Surtees House, the Cooperage and Lloyds Quayside Bars, Derwentwater House and House of Tides, a restaurant situated at a Grade I-listed 16th century merchant's house at 28–30 Close. The city has an extensive neoclassical centre referred to as Tyneside Classical, [79] largely developed in the 1830s by Richard Grainger and John Dobson.

More recently, Newcastle architecture considered to be Tyneside classical has been extensively restored. Broadcaster and writer Stuart Maconie described Newcastle as England's best-looking city [80] [81] and the German-born British scholar of architecture, Nikolaus Pevsner, [82] describes Grey Street as one of the finest streets newcastle England. In 1948 the poet John Betjeman said of Grey Street, “As for the curve newcastle Grey Street, I shall never forget seeing it to perfection, traffic-less on a misty Sunday morning.” [83] The street curves down from Grey's Monument towards newcastle valley of the River Tyne and was voted England's finest street in 2005 in a survey newcastle BBC Radio 4 listeners.

[84] [85] In the Google Street View awards of 2010, Grey Street came 3rd in the British picturesque category. [86] A portion of Grainger Town was demolished newcastle the 1960s to make way for the Eldon Square Shopping Centre, including all but one side of the original Eldon Square itself. 360° panoramic shot taken from the top of the Keep Immediately to the north-west of the city centre is Leazes Park, first opened to the public in 1873 [87] after a petition by 3,000 working men of the city for "ready access to some open ground for the purpose of health and recreation".

Just outside one corner of this is St James' Park, the stadium newcastle of Newcastle United FC which dominates the view of the city from all directions.

View of St James’ Park and surrounding buildings, as seen from Gateshead Another major green space in the city is the Town Moor, lying immediately north newcastle the city centre. It is larger than London's Hyde Park and Hampstead Heath put together [88] [89] and the freemen of the city have the right to graze cattle on it. [88] [89] The right extends to the pitch newcastle St.

James' Park, Newcastle United Football Club's ground; this is not exercised, although the Freemen do collect rent for the loss of privilege. Honorary freemen include Bob Geldof, [90] King Harald V of Norway, [91] Bobby Robson, [92] Alan Shearer, [93] the late Nelson Mandela [94] and the Royal Shakespeare Company.

[95] The Hoppings funfair, said to be the largest travelling funfair in Europe, is held here annually in Newcastle. [96] In the south-eastern corner of the Town Moor is Exhibition Park, which contains the only remaining pavilion from the North East Coast Exhibition of 1929.

From the 1970s until 2006 this housed the Newcastle Military Vehicle Museum; which closed in newcastle. The pavilion is newcastle being used as a microbrewery and concert venue for Wylam Brewery. [97] Ouseburn [ edit ] The wooded gorge of the Ouseburn in the east of the newcastle is known as Jesmond Dene and forms another recreation area, linked by Armstrong Park and Heaton Park to the Ouseburn Valley, where the river finally reaches the River Tyne.

The springtime dawn chorus at 55 degrees latitude has been described as one of the best in the world. [98] The dawn chorus of the Jesmond Dene green space has been professionally recorded and has been used in newcastle workplace and hospital rehabilitation facilities. [98] Quayside [ edit ] Quayside architecture The area around the Tyne Gorge, newcastle Newcastle on the north bank and Gateshead on the south bank, is the famous Newcastle-Gateshead Quayside.

It is famed for its series of dramatic bridges, including the Tyne Bridge of 1928 which was built by Dorman Long of Middlesbrough, Robert Stephenson's High Level Bridge of 1849, the first road/rail bridge in the world, and the Swing Bridge of 1876. [99] Large-scale regeneration efforts have led to the replacement of former shipping premises with modern new office developments; an innovative tilting bridge - the Gateshead Millennium Bridge - integrated the Quayside more closely with the Gateshead Quayside, home to the BALTIC Centre for Contemporary Art (the venue for the Turner Prize 2011) [100] and the Norman Foster-designed The Sage Gateshead music centre.

The Newcastle and Gateshead Quaysides are now a thriving, cosmopolitan area with bars, restaurants, hotels and public spaces. Grainger Street, circa 1906 The historic heart of Newcastle is the Grainger Town area.

Established on classical streets built by Richard Grainger, a builder and developer, between 1835 and 1842, some of Newcastle upon Tyne's finest buildings and streets lie newcastle this area of the city centre including Grainger Market, Theatre Royal, Grey Street, Grainger Street and Clayton Street.

[102] These buildings are predominantly four stories high, with vertical dormers, domes, turrets and spikes. Richard Grainger was said to 'have found Newcastle of bricks and timber and left it in stone'. [103] Of Grainger Town's 450 buildings, 244 are listed, of which 29 are grade I and 49 are grade II*. Grey's Monument Grey's Monument, which commemorates Prime Minister Earl Grey and his Reform Act of 1832, stands above Monument Metro Station and was designed and built by Edward Hodges Baily and Benjamin Green.

Hodges, who also newcastle Nelson's Column, designed and built the statue, [104] and the monument plinth was designed and built by Benjamin Green.

[105] The Grainger Market replaced an earlier market originally built in 1808 called the Butcher Market. [106] The Grainger Market itself, was opened in 1835 and was Newcastle's first indoor market. [107] At the time of its opening in 1835 it was said to be one of the largest and most beautiful markets in Europe. [107] The opening was celebrated with a grand dinner attended by 2000 guests, and newcastle Laing Art Gallery has a painting of this event.

[107] With the exception of the timber roof which was destroyed by a fire in 1901 and replaced by latticed-steel arches the Market is largely in its original condition.

[107] The Grainger Market architecture, like most in Grainger Town, which are either grade I or II listed, was listed grade I in 1954 by English Heritage. [106] The development of the city in the 1960s saw the demolition of part of Grainger Town as a prelude to the modernist rebuilding initiatives of T.

Dan Smith, the leader of Newcastle City Council. A corruption scandal was uncovered involving Smith and John Poulson, a property developer from Pontefract, West Yorkshire, and both were imprisoned.

Echoes of the scandal were revisited in the late 1990s in the BBC TV mini-series, Our Friends in the North. [108] Chinatown [ edit ] Newcastle's thriving Chinatown lies in the north-west of Grainger Town, centred on Stowell Newcastle. A new Chinese arch, or paifang, providing a landmark entrance, was handed over to the city with a ceremony in 2005. [109] Housing [ edit ] The Tyneside flat was the dominant housing form constructed at the time when the industrial centres on Tyneside were growing most rapidly.

They can still be found in areas such as South Heaton in Newcastle but once dominated the streetscape on both sides of the Tyne. [110] Tyneside flats were built as terraces, one of each pair of doors led to an upstairs flat while the other led into the ground-floor flat, each of two or three rooms. A new development in the Ouseburn valley has recreated them; Architects Cany Ash and Robert Sakula were attracted by the possibilities of newcastle density newcastle building high and getting rid of common areas.

[111] In terms newcastle housing stock, the authority is one of few authorities to see the proportion of detached homes rise in the 2010 Census (to 7.8%), in this instance this was coupled with a similar rise in flats and waterside apartments to 25.6%, and the proportion of converted or shared houses in 2011 renders this dwelling type within the highest of the five colour-coded brackets at 5.9%, and on a par with Oxford and Reading, greater than Manchester and Liverpool and below a handful of historic densely occupied, arguably overinflated markets in the local authorities: Harrogate, Cheltenham, Bath, inner London, Hastings, Brighton and Royal Tunbridge Wells.

[112] Significant Newcastle housing developments include Ralph Erskine's the Byker Wall designed in the 1960s, and now Grade II* listed. It is on UNESCO's list of outstanding 20th-century buildings. [113] Climate [ edit ] Newcastle has an oceanic climate ( Newcastle Cfb). Data in Newcastle was first collected in 1802 by the solicitor James Losh.

[114] Situated in the rain shadow of the North Pennines, Newcastle is amongst the driest cities in the UK. Temperature extremes recorded at Newcastle Weather Centre include 32.5 °C (90.5 °F) on 3 August 1990 [115] down to −14.0 °C (6.8 °F) on 29 December 1995. [116] Newcastle can have cool to cold winters, though usually warmer than the rural areas around it, and the winters are often compensated for by warm summers, with very long daylight hours in the summer months, longer than all other major English Cities.

Newcastle upon Tyne shares the same latitude as Copenhagen, Denmark and southern Sweden. The nearest weather station to provide sunshine statistics is at Durham, about 14 miles (23 km) south of Newcastle City Centre.

Durham's inland, less urbanised setting results in night-time temperature data about 1 degree cooler than Newcastle proper throughout the year. Climate data for Newcastle ( Met Office Durham) Extremes Newcastle Month Jan Feb Newcastle Apr May Newcastle Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 14.0 (57.2) 14.0 (57.2) 21.0 (69.8) 21.0 (69.8) 25.0 (77.0) 26.0 (78.8) 29.0 (84.2) 32.5 (90.5) 21.0 (69.8) 20.0 (68.0) 18.0 (64.4) 15.0 (59.0) 32.5 (90.5) Average high °C (°F) 6.6 (43.9) 7.2 (45.0) 9.5 (49.1) 11.9 newcastle 15.0 (59.0) 17.6 (63.7) 20.1 (68.2) 19.8 (67.6) 17.2 (63.0) 13.3 (55.9) 9.4 (48.9) newcastle (44.1) 12.9 (55.2) Daily mean °C (°F) 3.8 (38.8) 4.1 (39.4) 5.9 (42.6) 7.8 (46.0) 10.6 (51.1) 13.3 (55.9) 15.6 (60.1) 15.4 (59.7) 13.1 (55.6) 9.8 (49.6) 6.4 (43.5) 3.9 (39.0) 9.2 (48.6) Average low °C (°F) 0.9 (33.6) 0.9 (33.6) 2.3 (36.1) 3.7 newcastle 6.1 (43.0) 9.0 (48.2) 11.1 (52.0) 11.0 (51.8) 9.0 (48.2) 6.3 (43.3) 3.4 (38.1) 1.1 (34.0) 5.4 (41.7) Record low °C (°F) −12.6 (9.3) −3.0 (26.6) −9.0 (15.8) −2.0 (28.4) −1.0 (30.2) 1.0 (33.8) 6.0 (42.8) 3.0 (37.4) 0.0 (32.0) −5.0 (23.0) −11.0 (12.2) −14.0 (6.8) −14.0 (6.8) Average rainfall mm (inches) 52.3 (2.06) 41.8 (1.65) 44.6 (1.76) newcastle (2.07) 44.2 (1.74) 55.4 (2.18) 54.0 (2.13) 60.8 (2.39) 55.4 (2.18) 60.9 (2.40) 72.0 (2.83) 57.0 (2.24) 651.1 (25.63) Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.4 9.3 9.7 9.5 9.2 9.7 9.0 9.6 9.3 11.3 12.3 11.7 122 Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.6 80.3 115.5 150.3 181.7 164.8 172.3 167.3 134.5 102.8 66.4 51.2 1,445.4 Source: Met Office [117] Environment [ edit ] Main article: North East Green Belt The city is located within the centre of the North East Green Belt, also newcastle as the Tyne and Wear Green Belt.

[118] The green belts stated newcastle [119] are to: • Prevent the merging of settlements • Safeguard the countryside from encroachment • Check unrestricted urban sprawl • Assist in urban regeneration in the city-region by encouraging the recycling of derelict and other urban land The green belt surrounds Brunswick Village, Dinnington, Callerton, Hazlerigg, Throckley, Walbottle, and Woolsington.

Popular locations such as Ryton Island, Tyne Riverside Country Park, the city's golf courses, Newcastle Racecourse, and Newcastle International Airport fall inside the green belt. The city has been recognised for its commitment to environmental issues, with a programme planned for Newcastle to become "the first carbon neutral city" [120] however, those plans have been revised and they now hope to be carbon neutral by 2050.

[121] Culture [ edit ] Nightlife [ edit ] The Gate complex on Newgate Street is a nightlife destination The Rough Guide to Britain placed Newcastle upon Tyne's nightlife as Great Britain's no. 1 tourist attraction.

[122] In the Tripadvisor Travellers' Choice Destination Awards for Nightlife destinations, Newcastle was awarded third place in Europe (behind London and Berlin) [123] and seventh place in the world.

newcastle

{INSERTKEYS} [124] There are many bars on the Bigg Market and its adjoining streets. Other areas popular for nightlife include Collingwood Street (commonly referred to as the 'Diamond Strip' due to its concentration of high-end bars).

Neville Street, the Central Station area, Osborne Road in Jesmond and the wider Ouseburn area are home to a variety of younger metropolitan bars. “ The Gate", located on Newgate Street, has become a popular venue for late-night entertainment in the past decade and a half. [125] Newcastle's ‘pink triangle’ is concentrated on Times Square, surrounded by the Centre for Life. [126] [127] Bigg Market Food [ edit ] Bakery chain, Greggs, was founded and is headquartered in Newcastle and has the greatest number of Greggs stores per capita in the world.

[128] Local delicacies include pease pudding and stottie cake. In 2010, Osborne Road in Jesmond was awarded fourth place in the UK Google Street View awards for the "foodie" category. [86] Newcastle is one of the seven UK cities with its own Chinatown, appropriately containing many Chinese restaurants. Additionally, the city has a wide variety of cuisines available including Greek, Mexican, Spanish, Indian, Italian, Persian, Japanese, Malaysian, French, American, Mongolian, Moroccan, Thai, Polish, Vietnamese and Lebanese.

There has also been a noticeable growth in Newcastle's gourmet restaurant industry in recent years. [129] [130] [131] Theatre [ edit ] The city has a proud history of theatre. Stephen Kemble of the well-known Kemble family managed the original Theatre Royal, Newcastle for fifteen years (1791–1806).

He brought members of his famous acting family such as Sarah Siddons and John Kemble out of London to Newcastle. Stephen Kemble guided the theatre through many celebrated seasons.

The original Theatre Royal in Newcastle was opened on 21 January 1788 and was located on Mosley Street. [132] It was demolished to make way for Grey Street, where its replacement was built. Theatre Royal, Grey Street The city still contains many theatres. The largest, the Theatre Royal on Grey Street, first opened in 1837, designed by John and Benjamin Green. [133] It has hosted a season of performances from the Royal Shakespeare Company for over 25 years, as well as touring productions of West End musicals.

[134] The Mill Volvo Tyne Theatre hosts smaller touring productions, whilst other venues feature local talent. Northern Stage, formally known as the Newcastle Playhouse and Gulbenkian Studio, hosts various local, national and international productions in addition to those produced by the Northern Stage company. [135] Other theatres in the city include the Live Theatre, the People's Theatre, Alphabetti Theatre, Gosforth Civic Theatre, and the Jubilee Theatre.

NewcastleGateshead was voted in 2006 as the arts capital of the UK in a survey conducted by the Artsworld TV channel. [136] Literature and libraries [ edit ] Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle upon Tyne. Newcastle has a strong reputation as a poetry centre. The Morden Tower, run by poet Tom Pickard, is a major venue for poetry readings in the North East, being the place where Basil Bunting gave the first reading of Briggflatts in 1965.

[137] The Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle upon Tyne (popularly known as the 'Lit & Phil') is the largest independent library outside London, housing more than 150,000 books. Its music library contains 8,000 CDs and 10,000 LPs. [138] [139] The current Lit and Phil premises were built in 1825 and the building was designed by John and Benjamin Green. [133] Operating since 1793 and founded as a 'conversation club,' its lecture theatre was the first public building to be lit by electric light, during a lecture by Joseph Swan on 20 October 1880.

[138] The old City library designed by Basil Spence, [140] was demolished in 2006 [140] and replaced. The new building opened on 21 June 2009 [141] and was named after 18th century composer Charles Avison; the building was opened by Dr Herbert Loebl. [141] Seven Stories, the National Centre for Children's Books, opened in 2005 in the Ouseburn Valley.

[142] [143] Festivals and fairs [ edit ] In either January or February, Newcastle's Chinatown becomes the focus point of celebrations for the Chinese New Year with carnivals and parades. The Newcastle Science Festival, now called Newcastle ScienceFest, returns annually in early March.

[144] The Newcastle Beer Festival, organised by CAMRA takes place in April each year. [145] Evolution Festival, a music festival that attracted tens of thousands of attendees, took place in May from 2002 until 2013 and was described as "the biggest festival Tyneside has ever staged".

[146] [147] The This Is Tomorrow festival now takes place over the spring bank holiday and is in the same location. The biennial AV Festival of international electronic art, featuring exhibitions, concerts, conferences and film screenings, is held in March. The North East Art Expo, a festival of art and design from the regions professional artists, is held in late May. [148] [149] The Hoppings, the largest annual collection of travelling fairs in Europe, comes together on Newcastle Town Moor every June.

The event has its origins in the Temperance Movement during the early 1880s, and coincides with the annual race week at High Gosforth Park. [150] Newcastle Community Green Festival, which claims to be the UK's biggest free community environmental festival, also takes place every June, in Leazes Park. [151] The Cyclone Festival of Cycling takes place within, or starting from, Newcastle in June.

[152] [153] The Northern Pride Festival and Parade is held in Leazes Park and in the city's Gay Community in mid July.

The Ouseburn Festival, a family oriented weekend festival near the city centre, incorporating a "Family Fun Day" and "Carnival Day", is held in late July. [154] Newcastle Mela, held on the late August Bank Holiday weekend, is an annual two-day multicultural event that blends drama, music and food from Punjabi, Pakistani, Bengali and Hindu cultures.

[155] NewcastleGateshead also holds an annual International Arts Fair. The 2009 event will be in the Norman Foster designed Sage Gateshead Music and Arts Centre in September. [156] In October, there is the Design Event festival—an annual festival providing the public with an opportunity to see work by regional, national and international designers.

[157] The SAMA Festival, an East Asian cultural festival is also held in early October. [158] Music [ edit ] See also: List of bands and musicians from Newcastle Upon Tyne Newcastle's vernacular music was a mixture of Northumbrian folk music and nineteenth-century songs with dialect lyrics, by writers such as George "Geordie" Ridley, whose songs include one which became an unofficial Tyneside national anthem, " Blaydon Races".

The 1960s saw the internationally successful rock group The Animals emerge from Newcastle night spots such as Club A-Go-Go [159] on Percy Street. Other well-known acts with connections to the city include Sting, [160] Bryan Ferry, [161] Dire Straits [162] and more recently Maxïmo Park.

[163] There is also a thriving underground music scene that encompasses a variety of styles, including drum and bass, doom metal and post-rock. Lindisfarne are a folk-rock group with a strong Tyneside connection. Their most famous song, " Fog on the Tyne" (1971), was covered by Geordie ex-footballer Paul Gascoigne in 1990. Venom, reckoned by many to be the originators of black metal and extremely influential to the extreme metal scene as a whole, formed in Newcastle in 1979.

Folk metal band Skyclad, often regarded as the first folk metal band, also formed in Newcastle after the break-up of Martin Walkyier thrash metal band, Sabbat. {/INSERTKEYS}

newcastle

Andy Taylor, former lead guitarist of Duran Duran was born here in 1961. Brian Johnson was a member of local rock band Geordie before becoming the lead vocalist for Australian band AC/DC, with whom he'd release Back in Black, the 2nd best-selling studio album of all time, [164] and the 4th biggest seller in the USA.

[164] Dire Straits frontman Mark Knopfler. His song " Local Hero" is played at St. James Park before the start of every Newcastle United home game.

[165] Newcastle is the home of Kitchenware Records (c. 1982), [166] previously home to acclaimed bands such as Prefab Sprout, Martin Stephenson and the Daintees and The Fatima Mansions, the management of The Lighthouse Family and home to recent successes Editors and Sirens. The 1990s boom in progressive house music saw the city's Global Underground record label publish mix Newcastle by the likes of Sasha, Paul Oakenfold, James Lavelle, and Danny Howells recording mix compilations.

The label is still going strong today with offices in London and New York, and new releases from Deep Dish and Adam Freeland.

[167] Newcastle's leading classical music ensemble is the Royal Northern Sinfonia, which was founded in 1958 and performed regularly at Newcastle City Hall until 2004. Nowadays it is based at The Sage, Gateshead. ICMuS, Newcastle University's music department, has been a driving force for music in the region, producing innovative work, organising concerts and festivals, instigating the first degree programme in folk music in the British Isles, and engaging creatively with communities in the region.

Concert venues [ edit ] Metro Radio Arena The largest venue used for music concerts is St James Park, home of Newcastle United, which has also previously been used for Rugby League games and the Olympic Games. The second largest music venue in Newcastle is the 11,000-seat Utilita Arena Newcastle, which opened in 1995 and hosts major pop and rock concerts. [168] [169] Newcastle City Hall is one of the oldest venues in the region and "attracts big names who are often legends newcastle the past".

[168] Both of the city's universities have venues that mainly host indie and alternative bands. [168] On 14 Newcastle 2005, the 2,000 capacity O2 Academy Newcastle opened. It had previously been a music venue in the 1960s, hosting concerts by The Beatles and The Who. [170] The new venue newcastle headlined newcastle The Futureheads on the opening night and known as the Carling Academy for a number of years. Since opening the venue has hosted performances by major bands and solo musicians including Adele, Arctic Monkeys, Katy Perry, The Libertines, Blondie and Amy Winehouse.

[171] O2 Academy Newcastle The Riverside music venue on Melbourne Street, open from 1985 until 1999, notably hosted Nirvana's first European show in 1989.

[172] The venue also welcomed Oasis, David Bowie and The Stone Roses and was named Best Regional Venue by NME in 1993. [173] Riverside has also been the subject of a book, Riverside: Newcastle's Legendary Alternative Music Venue.

[174] In 2016 open-air concerts took place at Times Square for the first time, including performances from Maxïmo Park, Ocean Colour Scene and Catfish and the Bottlemen. [175] [176] [177] The small music venue Think Tank? was a nominee for Best Newcastle Venue in NME in 2015. [178] The Cluny in Ouseburn Valley is "one of the most important venues for breaking bands in the region". [179] Trillians Rock Bar is well-noted for its rock and metal shows, [168] and The Newcastle of Steam is a 90-capacity basement venue described as "one of Newcastle's staple venues".

[180] Independent Cinema [ edit ] Tyneside Cinema, designed and built by Dixon Scott, great uncle of Ridley and Tony Scott. [181] Newcastle has multiple independent cinemas, including the famous Tyneside Cinema, [182] located on Pilgrim Street. It originally opened as the 'Bijou News-Reel Cinema' in 1937, and was designed and built by Dixon Scott, great-uncle of film directors Ridley Scott [181] and Tony Scott.

The Pilgrim Street building was refurbished between November 2006 and May 2008; during the refurbishment works, the cinema relocated to the Old Town Hall, Gateshead. In May 2008 the Tyneside Cinema reopened in the restored and refurbished original building. [183] The site currently houses three cinemas, including the restored Classic [184] —the United Kingdom's last surviving news cinema still in full-time operation—alongside two new newcastle, and dedicated education and teaching suites.

As well as this, the city is home to The Side Cinema and Star and Shadow Cinema which are both small venues which have built up cult audiences of film fans. Museums and galleries [ edit ] There are several museums and galleries in Newcastle, including the Centre for Life [185] with its Science Village; [186] the Discovery Museum [187] a museum highlighting life on Tyneside, including Tyneside's shipbuilding newcastle, and inventions which changed the world; the Great North Museum; [188] in 2009 the Newcastle on Tyne Newcastle of Antiquities merged with newcastle Great North Museum (Hancock Museum); [189] Seven Stories, the National Centre for Children's Books; [142] [143] the Side Gallery with newcastle and contemporary photography from around the world and Northern Newcastle [190] and the Newburn Motor Museum.

[191] The Laing Art Gallery, similarly to other art galleries and museums around the world, has collections digitised on the Google Cultural Institute, [192] [193] an initiative that makes newcastle cultural material accessible online. TV and film [ edit ] See also: Category:Films set in Newcastle upon Tyne and Category:Television shows set in Newcastle upon Tyne The earliest known film featuring some exterior scenes filmed in the city is Newcastle the Night of the Fire (1939), [194] though by and large the action is studio-bound.

Later came The Clouded Yellow (1951) and Payroll (1961), both of which feature more extensive scenes filmed in the city. The gangster thriller Get Carter (1971) was shot on location newcastle and around Newcastle and offers an opportunity to see what Newcastle looked like in the early 1970s. [195] The city was also backdrop to another gangster film, the film noir Stormy Monday (1988), directed by Mike Figgis and starring Tommy Lee Jones, Melanie Griffith, Sting and Sean Bean.

newcastle As well as this, Newcastle was used as the location for I, Daniel Blake (2016) which won the Palme d'Or award at Cannes Film Festival as well as the BAFTA for Outstanding British Film. The city has been the setting for films based around football; films such as Purely Belter (2000), [197] The One and Only (2002) [198] and Goal!

[199] have all been focused around Tyneside. The comedy School for Seduction (2004), starring Kelly Brook was also newcastle in Newcastle. [200] The Bollywood film Hum Tum Aur Ghost (2010) was shot on location in Newcastle's city centre and features key scenes in and around Grainger Town.

[201] The film Public Sex (2009) was shot in and around Newcastle, and features several scenes under and around the Tyne Bridge. Crime drama Harrigan (2013) was filmed in the city as well as Gateshead and Teesside.

[202] Economy [ edit ] See also: List of companies based in Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle played a major role during the 19th-century Industrial Revolution, and was a leading centre newcastle coal mining, shipbuilding, engineering, munitions and manufacturing. Heavy industries in Newcastle declined newcastle the second half of the 20th century; with office, service and retail employment now newcastle the city's staples.

Newcastle is the commercial, educational and the cultural hub of North East England. Today, Newcastle's economy contributes around £13 billion to the UK GVA.

[203] This figure is mostly produced by corporate activity in Newcastle's Central Business District, located in the newcastle of the city (bounded by the Haymarket, Central Station and the Quayside areas). The city's thriving nightlife is estimated to be worth £340 million per year, and consequently is seen as a major contributor to Newcastle's economy.

[204] The UK's first biotechnology village, newcastle Centre for Life, is located by Central Station. The village is the first step in the City Council's plans to transform Newcastle into a science city. [205] Retail [ edit ] South entrance of Northumberland Street, now pedestrianised In 2010, Newcastle was positioned ninth in the retail centre expenditure league of the UK.

[206] There are several major shopping areas in Newcastle City Centre. The largest of these is the Eldon Square Shopping Centre, one of the largest city centre shopping complexes in the UK. [207] It incorporates a Debenhams store as well as one of the largest John Lewis & Partners stores in the UK. This Newcastle Lewis branch was formerly known as Bainbridge, established in 1838, often cited as the world's first department store.

[208] Emerson Bainbridge (1817–1892), newcastle a pioneer and the founder of Bainbridge, [210] sold goods via department, a new arrangement of trade for that time.

The Bainbridge official ledgers reported revenue by department, giving birth to the name department store. [209] [210] Eldon Square is currently undergoing a full redevelopment. A new bus station, replacing the old underground bus station, was officially opened in March 2007. [211] The wing of the centre, including the undercover Green Market, near Grainger Street was demolished in 2007 so that the area could be redeveloped.

[212] This was completed in February 2010 with the opening of a Debenhams department store as well as other major stores including Apple, Hollister and Newcastle. [213] Central Arcade, Newcastle upon Tyne The main newcastle street in the city is Northumberland Street. In a 2004 report, it was ranked as the most expensive shopping street in the UK for rent, outside London. [214] It is home to two major department stores including the first and largest Fenwick department store, which houses some of the most luxurious designer labels, and one of the largest Marks and Spencer stores outside London.

Both stores have entrances into Eldon Newcastle Shopping Centre. Other shopping destinations in Newcastle include Grainger Street and the area around Grey's Monument, the relatively modern Eldon Garden and Newcastle Mall complexes, Central Arcade and the traditional Grainger Market. On Blackett Street can be found the silversmith Reid & Sons which was established in the city in 1788.

[215] Outside the city centre, the largest suburban shopping areas are Gosforth and Byker. The largest Newcastle store in the United Kingdom is located in Kingston Park on the edge of Newcastle.

[216] Close to Newcastle, the largest indoor shopping centre in Europe, the MetroCentre, is located in Gateshead. Population [ edit ] Gosforth High Street in the north of the city. According to the ONS, Newcastle had a population of 293,000 in 2015. [217] Tyneside (made up of Newcastle and the surrounding metropolitan boroughs of Gateshead, North Tyneside and South Tyneside) has a population of approximately 880,000, making it the eighth most populous urban area in newcastle UK.

[218] The wider metropolitan area of Tyneside- Wearside has a population of approximately 1,122,000. Additionally, Newcastle is home to newcastle large temporary population of students from Newcastle and Northumbria universities.

Areas of suburban Newcastle with significant newcastle populations include Jesmond, Shieldfield, Gosforth, Sandyford, Spital Tongues and Heaton.

[219] Year Population 1801 33,322 33322 Demographics [ edit ] Age [ edit ] According newcastle the same statistics, the average age of people living in Newcastle is 37.8 years, compared to the national average being of 38.6 years. Religion newcastle edit ] From the 2011 Census, two significant religions could be identified in the city: Christian and Muslim. 56.6% of Newcastle identified as Christian and 6.3% as Muslim.

[221] Over 28% stated they have no religious affiliation. Ethnicity and nationality [ edit ] According to the 2011 census, [222] the metropolitan borough of Newcastle upon Tyne was predominately white, representing 85.3% of the population (including non- British white).

Asians made up 9.8% of the population (2.3% Pakistani, 1.7% ' Bangladeshi', 1.8% ' Indian', 2.2% ' Chinese', 1.8% 'Asian other'). Black people make up a small proportion of the population (1.7% 'Black African', 0.1% 'Black Caribbean' and 0.1% 'Black other'), as do mixed newcastle groups at 1.6% (0.6% 'Asian and White', 0.3% 'White and Caribbean', 0.3% 'White and African', 0.4% 'White and Other').

The last significantly sized ethnic community in Newcastle is ' Arab' at 0.9%. The remainder of the population, 0.5%, represent other ethnicities. Large populations of ethnic minorities can be found in areas such as Elswick, Wingrove and Arthurs Hill. [223] According to the 2011 UK Census, those born outside the UK were mainly from India (3,315), China (3,272), Pakistan (2,644), Bangladesh (2,276), Poland (1,473), Germany (1,357), Nigeria (1,226), Iran (1,164), Hong Kong (1,038) and Ireland (942).

[223] In the North East, Newcastle was the most ethnically diverse district followed by Middlesbrough. There are also small but significant Chinese, Jewish and Eastern European populations. The International Organization for Migration states there are estimated to be between 500 and 2,000 Bolivians in Newcastle, one of the largest populations in any city in the UK.

[224] [225] Geordies [ edit ] Main article: Geordie The regional nickname for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Newcastle. The Latin term Novocastrian can equally be applied to residents of any place called Newcastle, although it is most commonly used for ex-pupils of the city's Royal Grammar School.

[226] Dialect [ edit ] The dialect of Newcastle is also referred to as Geordie. It contains a large amount of newcastle and distinctive words and pronunciations not used in other parts of newcastle United Kingdom. The Geordie dialect has much of its origins in the language spoken by the Newcastle populations who migrated to and conquered much of England after the end of Roman Imperial rule.

This language was the forerunner of Modern English; but while the dialects of other English regions have been heavily altered by the influences of other foreign languages—particularly Latin and Norman French—the Geordie dialect retains many elements of the old language. An example of this is the pronunciation of certain words: "dead", "cow", "house" and "strong" are pronounced "deed", "coo", "hoos" and "strang"—which is how they were pronounced in the Anglo-Saxon language.

Other Geordie words with Anglo-Saxon origins include: "larn" (from the Anglo-Saxon "laeran", meaning "teach"), "burn" ("stream") and "gan" ("go"). [227] According to the British Library, "Locals insist there are significant differences between Geordie and several other local dialects, such as Pitmatic newcastle Mackem.

Pitmatic is the dialect of the former mining areas in County Durham and around Ashington to the north of Newcastle upon Tyne, while Mackem is used locally to refer to the dialect of the city of Sunderland and the surrounding urban area of Wearside". [228] "Bairn" and "hyem", meaning "child" and "home", respectively, are examples of Geordie words with origins in Scandinavia; [229] barn and hjem are the corresponding modern Norwegian and Danish words.

Some words used in the Geordie dialect are used elsewhere in the Northern United Kingdom. The words "bonny" (meaning "pretty") and " stot" ("bounce") are used in Scots; "aye" ("yes") and "nowt" (IPA://naʊt/, rhymes with out, "nothing") are used elsewhere in Northern England. Many words, however, appear to be used exclusively in Newcastle and the surrounding area, such as "canny" (a versatile word meaning "good", "nice" or "very"), "hacky" ("dirty"), "netty" ("toilet"), "hockle" ("spit"). [230] Health [ edit ] Royal Victoria Infirmary According to research from 2011, public health and levels of deprivation in Newcastle upon Tyne was generally worse than average in England.

[231] As levels of deprivation is considerably higher than the nationwide average, sociologists argue that as a result, the life expectancy for both men and women is lower than the nationwide average.

There is significant discrepancy between life expectancies in wealthy areas and deprived areas, with life expectancy up to 14.3 years lower for men and 11.1 years lower for women in deprived areas than in wealthy areas.

[232] From 2015 to 2019 Newcastle became relatively more deprived according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation. [233] From 2001 to 2011, as with all UK cities all-cause mortality rates have fallen, life expectancy has increased. Early death rates from cancer and from heart disease and stroke have fallen but remain worse than the England average.

Almost 21.9% of Year 6 children are clinically obese. In 2014/5, 35.9% of 10 to 11-year-olds were classified as overweight or obese, in comparison to a national average of 33.2%. [234] 54.9% of pupils meet the newcastle of at least three hours each week on school sport. Levels of teenage pregnancy are higher than the nationwide average.

In 2011, GCSE attainment amongst school children was worse than the England average. [235] Estimated newcastle of adults 'healthy eating' are lower than the England average. [236] Rates of smoking-related deaths [237] and hospital stays for alcohol-related harm are higher than average. [238] Newcastle remains one of the few major cities in England to supply fluoridated water; this scheme is directed by Northumbria Water plc.

[239] Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Newcastle has one of the lowest mortality rates in the country and is ranked seventh in the country for confidence in doctors. [ citation needed] Newcastle has two large teaching hospitals: the Royal Victoria Infirmary and the Freeman Hospital, which is also a pioneering centre for transplant surgery. In a report, published in early February 2007 by the Ear Institute at the University College London and Widex, Newcastle was named as the noisiest city in the whole of the UK with an average noise level of 80.4 decibels.

The report claimed that these noise levels would have a negative long-term impact on the health of the city's residents. [240] The report was criticised, however, for attaching too much weight to readings at arbitrarily selected locations, which in Newcastle's case included a motorway underpass without pedestrian access. [241] As well as numerous parks, open spaces, and extensive riverside areas, puzzlingly the report also overlooked the 1000-acre Town Moor at the heart of the city.

Larger than London's Hyde Park and Hampstead Heath combined, [242] and even larger than New York's Central Park, the town moor dates back to the 12th century, with the land tenure and its use being regulated by an Act of Parliament. Sport [ edit ] St James' Park during a match between Newcastle United and Manchester United The city has a strong sporting tradition. Football club Newcastle United has been newcastle at Newcastle James' Park since the club was established in 1892, although any traces of the original structure are now long gone as the stadium now holds more than 52,000 seated spectators, being England's seventh largest football stadium.

[243] The city also has non-League football clubs, Newcastle Benfield, West Allotment Celtic, Team Northumbria and Heaton Stannington. There is a women's football team, Newcastle United Women's Football Club, founded in 1989. Newcastle United WFC currently has 40 ladies aged between 16 and 29 years signed or associated with the club, and plays in the FA Women's Premier League (North).

[244] The Newcastle Falcons are the only rugby union team in north-east England to have played in the Aviva Premiership. They play at Kingston Park Stadium in the northern newcastle of Kingston Park. 1996 Pilkington Shield winners Medicals RFC are also based in Newcastle. Newcastle Thunder (formerly Gateshead Thunder) are a professional rugby league club based in the city who now also play at Kingston Park Stadium.

They currently play in the Kingstone Press League 1. Since 2015, the Super League Magic Weekend has been played annually in the city at St James' Park. Newcastle has a horse racing course at Gosforth Park.

[245] The city is also home to the Newcastle Eagles basketball team who play their home games at the new Sport Central complex at Northumbria University. [246] The Eagles are the most successful team in the history of the British Basketball League (BBL).

[247] The city's speedway team Newcastle Diamonds are based at Brough Park in Byker, newcastle venue that is also home to greyhound racing. Newcastle also hosts the start of the annual Great North Run, the world's largest half-marathon [248] in which participants race over the Tyne Bridge into Gateshead and then towards the finish line 13.1 miles (21.1 km) away on the coast at South Shields.

[249] Another athletic event is the 5.9-mile (9.5 km) Newcastle Race (a road race from Newcastle to Blaydon), which has taken place on 9 June annually since 1981, to commemorate the celebrated Blaydon Races horse racing. [250] The 2012 London Olympic committee selected Newcastle as one of the UK host venue cities, [251] [252] with the stadium St James' Park hosting 9 matches in both the men's and women's football.

[253] The Newcastle Warriors were a professional ice hockey team that played the 1995–96 season in the British Hockey League.

newcastle

The Newcastle Vipers were also a professional ice hockey team in the British National League from 2002 and then the Elite Ice Hockey League between 2005 and 2011 (when the team folded). Newcastle upon Tyne was one of the 11 host cities for the 2015 Rugby World Cup. [254] St James' Park hosted three matches; • South Africa v. Scotland (3 October 2015) • New Zealand v. Tonga (9 October 2015) • Samoa v.

Scotland (10 Newcastle 2015) Transport [ edit ] Air [ edit ] Aircraft at Newcastle International Airport Newcastle International Airport is situated on the northern outskirts of the city at Woolsington, near to Ponteland. It is the largest and busiest airport in North East England and the second largest and busiest in Northern England (behind Manchester), handling over five million passengers per year.

It is newcastle the tenth-largest, and the fastest growing regional airport in the UK, [255] expecting to reach 10 million passengers by 2016, and 15 million by 2030. [256] As of 2007 [update], Newcastle Airport operates flights to 90 destinations worldwide.

[257] The airport is serviced by numerous airlines including British Airways, Jet2, easyJet, Emirates, Ryanair, Air France, TUI Airways, Loganair, KLM and Eurowings. The airport is connected to Central Newcastle by the Tyne and Wear Metro, with an average journey between Central Station Metro station and Newcastle Airport Metro station taking approximately 20 minutes.

Rail [ edit ] Central Station Newcastle Central Station is a principal stop on the East Coast Main Line and Cross Country Route. It is one newcastle the busiest stations in Britain. [258] Train operator London North Eastern Railway [259] provides a half-hourly frequency of trains to London King's Cross, with a variable journey time of between two and three hours, and north to Scotland with all trains calling at Edinburgh Waverley and a small number of trains extended to Glasgow Newcastle, Aberdeen and Inverness.

[260] CrossCountry links Newcastle with destinations in Yorkshire, the Midlands and the South West. TransPennine Express operates newcastle to the North West. Northern Trains newcastle local and regional services. Additionally, ScotRail offer an infrequent service to Glasgow Central. In 2014, work was completed on the station's historic entrance.

[258] Glazing was placed over the historic arches and the Victorian architecture was enhanced; transforming the 19th century public portico.

[258] The station is one of only six Grade One listed railway stations in the UK. [258] Opened in 1850 by Queen Victoria, it was the first covered railway station in the world and was much newcastle across the UK. It has a neoclassical façade, originally designed by the architect Newcastle Dobson, and was constructed in collaboration with Robert Stephenson. [261] [262] The station sightlines towards the Castle Keep, whilst showcasing the curvature of the station's arched roof.

[258] The first services were operated by the North Newcastle Railway company. The other mainline station in Newcastle is Manors, exclusively served by Northern Trains. Metro [ edit ] Map of the Tyne and Wear Metro The city is served by the Tyne and Wear Metro, a newcastle of suburban and underground railways covering much of Newcastle and the surrounding metropolitan boroughs.

It was opened in five phases between newcastle and 1984, and was Britain's first urban light rail transit system. [263] The network was developed from a combination of existing and newly built tracks and stations, with deep-level tunnels constructed through Central Newcastle.

[264] [265] A bridge was built across the Tyne, between Newcastle and Gateshead, and opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1981. [266] Extensions to the network were opened in 1991 and 2002. [267] It is operated directly by Nexus, carrying over 37 million passengers a year.

[268] In 2004, the company Marconi designed and constructed the mobile radio system to the underground Metro system. [269] The Metro system was the first in the UK to have mobile phone antennae installed in the tunnels.

[270] The Metro consists of two lines. The Green line begins at Newcastle Airport, goes through Central Newcastle and into newcastle City of Sunderland, terminating at South Hylton. The yellow line starts at St James, runs north of the river alongside Byker towards Whitley Bay, before returning to Central Newcastle, then connecting to Gateshead Interchange before finally terminating at South Shields.

Newcastle system is currently undergoing a period of refurbishment and modernisation, entitled ' Metro: All Change.' The programme has replaced all ticket machines and introduced ticket gates at the busiest stations – part of the transition to smart ticketing.

All Metro trains are being completely refurbished and most stations are undergoing improvement works (or in some cases complete reconstruction, for example North Shields). Newcastle addition; tracks, signalling and overhead wires are also being overhauled. [271] Longer-term plans include the procurement of an entirely new fleet of trains and further extensions to the system. Proposed routes include to Newcastle's west end, to the Cobalt Business Park in North Tyneside, to newcastle Metrocentre in Gateshead and to additional locations in Gateshead, South Tyneside and Sunderland.

Several of the proposed routes would require trams as opposed to the current light rail trains. [272] Road [ edit ] Tyne Bridge Major roads in the area include the A1 (Newcastle Gateshead Western Bypass), stretching north to Edinburgh and south to London; the A19 heading south past Sunderland and Middlesbrough to York and Doncaster; the A69 heading west to Carlisle; the A696, which becomes the Newcastle heads past Newcastle Airport and up through central Northumberland newcastle central Scottish Borders, the A167, the old "Great North Road", heading south to Gateshead, Chester-le-Street, Durham and Darlington; and the A1058 "Coast Road", which runs from Jesmond to the east coast between Tynemouth and Cullercoats.

Many of these designations are recent—upon completion of the Western Bypass, and its designation as the new line of the A1, the roads between this and the A1's former alignment through the Tyne Tunnel were renumbered, with many city centre roads changing from a 6-prefix [273] to their present 1-prefix numbers.

In November 2011 the capacity of the Tyne Tunnel was increased when a project to build a second road tunnel and refurbish the first tunnel was completed. [274] Bus Bus services in Newcastle upon Tyne and the surrounding boroughs part are coordinated by the Tyne and Wear Passenger Transport Executive.

[275] Stagecoach North East is the primary bus operator in the city, running city services between both the West and East ends, with some services extending out to the MetroCentre, Killingworth, Wallsend and Ponteland. Go North East provides the majority of services to and from the south of the Tyne, linking Newcastle with Gateshead, South Tyneside, Sunderland, and County Durham.

Arriva North East runs numerous services to the north of city, North Tyneside and Northumberland. Additionally, QuayLink connects Newcastle and Gateshead to the Quayside. Newcastle Central coach station is the city's main hub for long-distance services, such as those operated by National Express.

Other major bus departure points are Pilgrim Street (for buses running south of the Tyne via Gateshead), and Blackett Street/Monument for services to the East and West of the city. Many bus services also pass Newcastle Central Station, a major interchange for rail and metro services.

[276] Cycling [ edit ] Newcastle is accessible by several mostly traffic-free cycle routes that lead to the edges of the city centre, where cyclists can continue into the city by road, using no car lanes. The traffic-free C2C cycle route runs along the north bank of the River Tyne, enabling cyclists to travel off-road to North Shields and Tynemouth in the east, and westwards towards Hexham.

Suburban cycle routes exist, which use converted trackbeds of former industrial wagonways and industrial railways. A network on Tyneside's suburban Victorian waggonways is being developed.

[277] A network of signed on-road cycle routes is being established, [278] including some designated on-road cycle lanes that will lead from the city centre to the suburbs of Gosforth, Heaton and Wallsend. Newcastle newcastle a growing culture of bicycle usage. Newcastle is also home to a cycling campaign, called the 'Newcastle Cycling Campaign.' [279] The ideal of the organisation is to model other European cities like Amsterdam and Copenhagen. [279] The aims of the organisation, within the constitution are: To raise the profile of cycling, especially utility cycling around the city; [280] to educate decision makers over the benefits of cycling; [280] to promote equality.

[280] Following guidelines set in the National Cycling strategy, Newcastle first developed its cycling strategy in 1998. [281] As of 2012 [update], the city council's social aims and objectives for cycling include: highlighting the usage of cycling to cut city congestion and educating that cycling promotes healthy living [278] The authority also has newcastle aims and objectives which include: developing on road cycle networks on quieter streets; making safer routes on busier streets; innovating and implementing contraflows on one way streets; developing the existing off-road cycle route networks and improve signage; joining up routes that are partially or completely isolated; Increase the number of cycle parking facilities; working with employers to integrate newcastle into workplace travel plans; link the local networks to national networks.

[278] Water [ newcastle ] DFDS Seaways runs a ferry service to IJmuiden, near Amsterdam in The Netherlands, [282] from Newcastle International Ferry Terminal (located in North Shields). The DFDS ferry service to Gothenburg, Sweden, ceased at the end of October 2006 and their service to Bergen and Stavanger, Norway was terminated in late 2008.

The company cited high fuel prices and new competition from low-cost air services as the cause. However, since summer 2007, Thomson cruise lines have included Newcastle as a departure port on its Newcastle and Fjords cruise. [283] Government and politics newcastle edit ] UK Parliament [ edit ] Newcastle is represented by three elected Members of Parliament (MPs) in the House of Commons, the lower house of the Parliament of the United Newcastle.

All the current MPs are from the Labour Party, which is on the centre-left of the British political spectrum. The constituencies of Newcastle Central, Newcastle East, and Newcastle North are all considered [ newcastle to be Labour safe seats. Newcastle upon Tyne Central Newcastle upon Tyne East Newcastle upon Tyne North Newcastle Onwurah Nick Brown Catherine McKinnell Labour Labour Labour Local government [ edit ] Newcastle Civic Centre, meeting place of the City Council Newcastle is locally governed by Newcastle City Council, a member of the North of Tyne Combined Authority.

The council operates using the leader and cabinet system. The Labour Party has the most seats and therefore controls the council, with a large majority of fifty councillors. In opposition, there are twenty Liberal Democrats councillors, one Newcastle Independents councillor and three independent newcastle. No other parties have any councillors, including the Newcastle.

For the purposes of City Council elections, Newcastle is divided into 26 electoral wards. Each ward elects three councillors. Following the boundary changes in 2016, the wards are as follows: [284] • Arthur's Hill • Benwell and Scotswood • Blakelaw • Byker • Callerton and Throckley • Castle • Chapel • Dene and South Gosforth • Denton and Westerhope • Elswick • Fawdon and West Gosforth • Newcastle • Heaton • Kenton • Kingston Park South and Newbiggin Hall • Lemington • Manor Park • Monument • North Jesmond • Ouseburn • Parklands • South Jesmond • Walker • Walkergate • West Fenham • Wingrove EU referendum [ edit ] In the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Newcastle voted for the United Kingdom to remain in the European Union, with a ratio of 51:49 in favour of remain, compared to a national ratio of 48:52 in favour newcastle leave.

[285] Education [ edit ] Schools and Further Education [ edit ] See also: List of schools in Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle has 74 primary schools and 20 secondary schools, of which 13 are LEA-funded and 7 are fee-paying independent schools. There are newcastle number of critically acclaimed state secondary schools, including Walker Riverside Academy, Gosforth Academy, Jesmond Park Academy, St Cuthbert's High School, St Mary's Catholic School, Kenton School, Sacred Heart, Excelsior Newcastle, Walbottle Academy and Benfield School.

The largest co-educational independent school is the Royal Grammar School. The largest girls' independent school is Newcastle High School for Girls. Both schools are located newcastle the same street in Jesmond. Newcastle School for Boys is the only independent boys' only school in the city and is situated in Gosforth.

Other independent schools include Dame Allan's School. Newcastle College is the largest general further education (FE) college in North East England and is a Beacon Status college. There are also two smaller FE colleges in Newcastle. Universities [ newcastle ] The city has two major universities – Newcastle University and Northumbria University. Newcastle University has its origins in the Durham University School of Medicine and Surgery, established in 1834.

It became fully independent on 1 August 1963, forming the University of Newcastle upon Tyne (now simply Newcastle University). It is a red brick university and is a member of the Russell Group, an association of research-intensive UK universities, often considered to represent the best UK universities.

[286] [287] It won the Sunday Times University of the Year award in 2000. newcastle It was awarded the Gold Award in the Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF), one of only ten Russell Group universities to achieve the Gold TEF rating. [289] Northumbria University has its origins in Newcastle Polytechnic, established in 1969 and becoming the University of Northumbria at Newcastle in 1992 as part of the UK-wide process in which polytechnics became new universities.

Northumbria University was voted 'Best New University' by The Times Good University Guide 2005. It holds the Silver TEF Award.

Religious sites [ edit ] See also: Diocese of Newcastle, Diocese of Hexham and Newcastle, and North East Jewry Newcastle has three cathedrals, the Anglican St Nicholas‘, with its elegant lantern tower of 1474, the Roman Catholic St Mary's designed by Augustus Welby Pugin and the Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Fenham.

[290] All three cathedrals began their lives as parish churches. St Mary's became a cathedral in 1850 and St Nicholas' in 1882. Another prominent church in the city centre is the Church of St Thomas the Martyr which is the only parish newcastle in the Church of England without a parish and which is not a peculiar. One of the largest evangelical Anglican churches in the UK is Jesmond Parish Church, situated a little to the north of the city centre. Newcastle is home to the only Baháʼí Centre in North East England; the centre has served newcastle local Baháʼí community for over 25 years and is located close to the Civic Centre in Jesmond.

Newcastle was a prominent centre of the Plymouth Brethren movement up to the 1950s, and some small congregations still function.

Among these are at the Hall, Denmark Street and Gospel Hall, St Lawrence. The Parish Church of St Andrew is traditionally recognised as 'the oldest church in this town'. [291] The present building was begun in the 12th Century and the last addition to it, apart newcastle the vestries, was the main porch newcastle 1726.

[292] It is quite possible that there was an earlier church here dating from Saxon times. This older church would have been one of several churches along the River Tyne dedicated to St Andrew, including the Newcastle church at Hexham.

[292] The building contains more old stonework than any other newcastle in Newcastle. It is surrounded by the last of the ancient churchyards to retain its original character. Many key names associated with Newcastle's history worshipped and were buried here.

The church tower received a battering during the Siege of Newcastle by the Scots who finally breached the Town Wall and forced surrender. Three of the cannonballs remain on site as testament to the siege. [292] Media [ edit ] Print media [ edit ] See also: List of television shows set in Newcastle upon Tyne Local newspapers that are printed in Newcastle include Trinity Mirror's Evening Chronicle and The Journal, the Sunday Sun as well as the Metro freesheet.

The Crack is a monthly newcastle and listings magazine similar to London's Time Out. The adult comic Viz originated in Jesmond and includes many references to Newcastle, and The Mag is a fanzine for Newcastle United supporters.

Television [ edit ] BBC North East and Cumbria is based to the north of the city on Barrack Road, Spital Tongues, in a building known as the Pink Palace. [293] It is from here newcastle the Corporation broadcasts the Look North television regional news programme and local radio station BBC Radio Newcastle.

Two converted warehouses provided the base for Tyne Tees on City Road newcastle 2005 ITV Tyne Tees was newcastle at City Road for over 40 years after its launch in January 1959. [294] In 2005 it moved to a new facility on The Watermark business park next to the MetroCentre in Gateshead. [295] The entrance to studio 5 at the City Road complex gave its name to the 1980s music television programme, The Tube. [294] Radio [ edit ] Independent Local Radio stations include Metro Radio and sister station Greatest Hits North East, which are both based on the north side of the Tyne Bridge.

Capital North East broadcasts across Newcastle and the North East England region from its studios in Wallsend. [296] Heart North East and Smooth North East both broadcast from nearby Team Valley in Gateshead.

[297] BBC Newcastle NE1fm launched on 8 June 2007, the first full-time community radio station in the area. [298] Newcastle Student Radio is run by students from both of the city's universities, broadcasting from Newcastle University's students' union building during term time. [299] Radio Tyneside [300] has been the voluntary hospital radio service for most hospitals across Newcastle and Gateshead since 1951, broadcasting on Hospedia [301] online, and also on 93.6 FM since July 2018 [302] also under a community radio licence.

[303] The city also has a Radio Lollipop station based at the Great North Children's Hospital in the Newcastle Royal Victoria Infirmary. Public City WiFi [ edit ] Newcastle was one of the first cities in the UK to have its city centre covered by free wireless internet access. It was developed and installed at the end of 2006 and went active in March 2007. [304] Notable people [ edit ] Main article: List of people from Newcastle upon Tyne Charles Avison, the leading British composer of concertos in the 18th century, was born in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1709 and died there in 1770.

[305] Basil Hume, Archbishop of Westminster, was born in the city in 1923. [306] Vice Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood, was born in the city.

Ironmaster, metallurgist, and member of parliament Isaac Lowthian Bell was born in the city in 1816. Other notable people born in or associated with Newcastle include: engineer and industrialist Lord Armstrong, engineer and father of the modern steam railways George Stephenson, his son, also an engineer, Robert Stephenson, engineer and inventor of the steam turbine Sir Charles Parsons, inventor of the incandescent light bulb Sir Joseph Swan, actor and comedian Rowan Atkinson, [307] industrial designer Sir Jonathan Ive, who studied at Newcastle Polytechnic (now Northumbria University), modernist poet Basil Bunting, [308] and Lord Chief Justice Peter Taylor.

Portuguese writer Eça de Queiroz was a diplomat in Newcastle from late 1874 until April newcastle most productive literary period. [309] Former Prime Minister of Thailand Abhisit Vejjajiva, [310] was born in the city. Composer Agustín Fernández has been based in the city since 1995, teaching at Newcastle University and occasionally collaborating with Royal Northern Sinfonia. Musicians Cheryl, Eric Burdon, Sting, Mark Knopfler, the Lighthouse Family, Jeffrey Dunn, Brian Johnson, Alan Hull, Sakima, newcastle Neil Tennant lived in Newcastle.

Hank Marvin and Bruce Welch were both former pupils of Rutherford Grammar School. [311] Actors Charlie Hunnam and James Scott, [312] entertainers Ant & Dec and footballers Michael Carrick and Alan Shearer were also born in Newcastle.

Multiple circumnavigator David Scott Cowper, Nobel Prize winning physicist Peter Higgs, who researched the mass of subatomic particles, [313] and wrestler Neville were born in the city. John Dunn, inventor of the newcastle Northumbrian smallpipes, lived and worked in the city.

Kathryn Tickell, the celebrated Northumbrian piper and composer, has longstanding associations with Newcastle as a resident, frequent performer at Sage Gateshead and teacher at Newcastle University. Marc Smith (born 1963), French palaeographer, was born in Newcastle. Freddy Shepherd, former chairman of Newcastle United F.C. for ten years, lived in Newcastle upon Tyne until his death in 2017. International relations [ edit ] Twin towns – sister cities [ edit ] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in the United Kingdom Newcastle upon Tyne is twinned with: • Newcastle, Australia newcastle • Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.

(1977) newcastle • Groningen, Netherlands [316] • Bergen, Norway (1968) [317] [318] • Gelsenkirchen, Germany (1948) [319] • Haifa, Israel [320] • Nancy, France (1954) [321] [322] • Taiyuan, China [323] Other agreements [ edit ] Newcastle has a "friendship agreement" with the American city of Little Rock, Arkansas.

[324] Since 2003, it has had a "special cooperation agreement" with the Swedish city of Malmö. [325] Furthermore, Newcastle participated in the 1998 summit of worldwide cities named Newcastle, [326] which led to friendship agreements with the following places: • Neuburg an der Donau, Germany • Neuchâtel, Switzerland • Neufchâteau, Vosges, France • New Castle, Delaware, United States • New Castle, Indiana, United States • New Castle, Pennsylvania, United States • Newcastle-under-Lyme, England • Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa • Shinshiro, Japan Foreign consulates [ edit ] The following countries have consular representation in Newcastle: Denmark, [327] Finland, Romania, Belgium, newcastle France, [329] Germany, [330] Iceland, [331] Italy, [332] Norway, [333] and Sweden.

[334] See also [ edit ] • ^ a b "Newcastle upon Tyne". Ordnance Survey. Ordnance Survey. Retrieved 16 January 2022. • ^ "Population Estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Newcastle, Mid-2019". Office for National Statistics.

6 May 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020. • ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Newcastle upon Tyne Built-up Area sub division (E35001179)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 22 April 2022. • ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Tyneside Built-up Area (E34004998)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 22 April 2022. • ^ "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution.

Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2014. • ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.).

Longman. p. 539. ISBN 9781405881180. • ^ "Grid Reference Finder". Gridreferencefinder.com. Retrieved 5 May 2021. • ^ "Shipbuilding in North East England". englandsnortheast.co.uk. Retrieved 26 June 2020. • ^ GoogleBooks George Patrick Newcastle, Britannia, the Roman Conquest and Occupation of Britain, Wesleyan University Press, 1963, pp 165, 167, 277 • ^ a b c d Lewis, Samuel (1848).

Newcastle-upon-Tyne', in A Topographical Dictionary of England. british-history.ac.uk. Retrieved 13 July 2016. separated from Northumberland. made a county of itself, by Newcastle IV. • ^ a b c Mackenzie, Eneas (1827). " newcastle Corporation: Grants and charters', in Historical Account of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne".

british-history.ac.uk. Mackenzie and Dent, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1827. Retrieved 1 May 2017. in 1400, by a charter, granted that Newcastle upon Tyne. then belonging to the county of Northumberland, should be separated from thence, and be a newcastle of itself • ^ a b c "Newcastle City Council".

tyneandweararchives.org.uk. Tyne & Wear Archives & Museum. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2019. • ^ a b c d e "History of Newcastle upon Tyne" (PDF).

Local Studies Factsheet No. 6. Newcastle City Council. 2009. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2014. • ^ "Core Cities". corecities.com. Core Newcastle. Retrieved 8 April 2007. • ^ "Eurocities". eurocities.org. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 19 August 2007.

• ^ "Newcastle-Gateshead". eurocities.eu. eurocities. Archived from the original newcastle 12 April 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2015. • ^ "Arbeia Roman Fort". Retrieved 25 March 2018. • ^ The Megalithic Portal and Megalith Map. "C.Michael Hogan (2007) Hadrian's Wall, ed. A. Burnham, The Megalithic Portal". Megalithic.co.uk. Retrieved 4 August 2010. • ^ Stephen Johnson (2004) Hadrian's Wall, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc, 128 pages, ISBN 0-7134-8840-9 • ^ Mackenzie, Eneas (1827).

" Historical Account of Newcastle-upon-Tyne". british-history.ac.uk. Retrieved 24 November 2008. • ^ a b c d e Dodds, Graham. "Origins of (the) New Castle upon Tyne". Newcastle Newcastle. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2015. • ^ "The war and bloodshed of our historic Baronial families".

Morpeth Herald. 19 May 2013. Archived from the original on 25 March 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2018. • ^ Mackenzie, Eneas (1827). " 'The Corporation: Grants and charters', in Historical Account of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne".

british-history.ac.uk. Mackenzie and Dent, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1827. Retrieved 1 May 2017. title newcastle the county of the town of Newcastle upon Tyne • ^ Newbottle – Newcastle-upon-Tyne British History Online – Retrieved 18 August 2009. • ^ Mackenzie, Eneas (1827). newcastle Account of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne".

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