Palestina vs israel

palestina vs israel

This article is about the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians. For the wider regional conflict, primarily from 1948–1973, see Arab–Israeli conflict. Israeli–Palestinian conflict Part palestina vs israel the Arab–Israeli conflict and the Iran–Israel proxy conflict Central Israel and Area C (blue), the part of the West Bank under full Israeli control, 2011 (For a more up-to-date, interactive map, see here). Date Mid-20th century [7] – present Main phase: 1964–1993 Location Middle East Primarily in Israel, West Bank, Gaza Strip and Lebanon Status Ongoing Israeli–Palestinian peace process low-level fighting, mainly between Israel and Gaza Territorial changes Establishment and dissolution of Palestinian administration (1948–1959) in Gaza Jordanian annexation of the West Bank (1948–1967) Occupation of West Bank and Gaza by Israel in 1967 Transition of "A" and "B" areas from Israeli Civil Administration to the Palestinian National Authority in 1994–1995 Israeli disengagement from Gaza in 2005 Belligerents Israel State of Palestine • All-Palestine (1948–1959) • Palestine Liberation Organization (1964–1993) • Palestinian National Authority (2000–2004) • Gaza Strip (2006–present) Hamas (1987–present) Islamic Jihad (1987–present) Supported by: • Arab League • Soviet Union (1965–1991) [1] • Iran (1979–) [2] [3] • Pakistan (1947–) [4] [5] The Israeli–Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between Israel and Palestinians, beginning in the mid-20th century.

It is one of the world's most enduring conflicts; the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip has lasted 54 years. [7] Various attempts have been made to resolve the conflict as part of the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, as well as efforts to reduce the broader Arab-Israeli conflict.

[8] [9] [10] [11] Public declarations of claims to a Jewish homeland in Palestine, including the 1897 First Zionist Congress and the 1917 Balfour Declaration, created early tension in the region.

At the time, the region had a small minority Jewish population, although this was growing via significant Jewish immigration. Following the implementation of the Mandate for Palestine, which included a binding obligation on the British government for the "establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people" the tension grew into sectarian conflict between Jews and Arabs.

[12] [13] Attempts to solve the early conflict culminated in the 1947 United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine and the 1947–1949 Palestine war, marking the start of the wider Arab–Israeli conflict.

The current Israeli-Palestinian status quo began following Israeli military occupation of the Palestinian territories in the 1967 Six-Day War. Despite a long-term peace process, Israelis and Palestinians have failed to reach a final peace agreement. Progress was made towards a two-state solution with the 1993–1995 Oslo Accords, but today the Palestinians remain subject to Israeli military occupation in the Gaza Strip and in 165 "islands" across the West Bank.

Key issues that have stalled further progress are security, borders, water rights, control of Jerusalem, Israeli settlements, [14] Palestinian freedom of movement, [15] and Palestinian right of return. The violence of the conflict, in a region rich in sites of historic, cultural and religious interest worldwide, has been the subject of numerous international conferences dealing with historic rights, security issues and human rights, and has been a factor hampering tourism in and general access to areas that are hotly contested.

[16] Many attempts have been made to broker a two-state solution, involving the creation of an independent Palestinian state alongside the State of Israel (after Israel's establishment in 1948). In 2007, the majority of both Israelis and Palestinians, according to a number of polls, preferred the two-state solution over any other solution as a means of resolving the conflict.

[17] Within Israeli and Palestinian society, the conflict generates a wide variety of views and opinions. This highlights the deep divisions which exist not only between Israelis and Palestinians, but also within each society. A hallmark of the conflict has been the palestina vs israel of violence witnessed for virtually its entire duration. Fighting has been conducted by regular armies, paramilitary groups, terror cells, and individuals. Casualties have not been restricted to the military, with a large number of civilian fatalities on both sides.

There are prominent international actors involved in the conflict. A majority of Jews see the Palestina vs israel demand for an independent state as just, and think Israel can agree to the establishment of such a state. [18] The majority of Palestinians and Israelis in the West Bank and Gaza Strip have expressed a preference for a two-state solution.

[19] [20] Mutual distrust and significant disagreements are deep over basic issues, as is the reciprocal skepticism about the other side's commitment to upholding obligations in an eventual agreement. [21] The two parties currently engaged in direct negotiation are the Israeli government, led by Naftali Bennett, and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), headed by Mahmoud Abbas.

The official negotiations are mediated by palestina vs israel international contingent known as the Quartet on the Middle East (the Quartet) represented by a special envoy, that consists of the United States, Russia, the European Union, and the United Nations.

The Arab League is another important actor, which has proposed an alternative peace plan. Egypt, a founding member of the Arab League, has historically been a key participant. Jordan, having relinquished its claim to the West Bank in 1988 and holding a special role in the Muslim Holy shrines in Jerusalem, has also been a key participant. Since 2006, the Palestinian side has been fractured by conflict between two major factions: Fatah, the traditionally dominant party, and it's later electoral challenger, Hamas, which also operates as a militant organization.

After Hamas's electoral victory in 2006, the Quartet conditioned future foreign assistance to the Palestinian National Authority (PA) on the future government's commitment to non-violence, recognition of the State of Israel, and acceptance of previous agreements. Hamas rejected these demands, [22] which resulted in the Quartet's suspension of its foreign assistance program, and the imposition of economic sanctions by the Israelis.

[23] A year later, following Hamas's seizure of the Gaza Strip in June 2007, the territory officially recognized as the PA was split between Fatah in the West Bank and Hamas in the Gaza Strip. The division of governance between the parties had effectively resulted in the collapse of bipartisan governance of the PA. However, in 2014, a Palestinian Unity Government, composed of both Palestina vs israel and Hamas, was formed. The latest round of peace negotiations began in July 2013 and was suspended in 2014.

In May 2021, amidst rising tensions, the 2021 Israel–Palestine crisis began with protests that escalated into rocket attacks from Gaza and airstrikes by Israel. Contents • 1 Background • 2 History • 3 Peace process • 3.1 Oslo Accords (1993) • 3.2 Camp David Summit (2000) • 3.3 Developments following Camp David • 3.4 Taba Summit (2001) • 3.5 Road Map for Peace • 3.6 Arab Peace Initiative • 3.7 Present status • 3.7.1 Israel's settlement policy • 3.7.2 Israeli Military Police • 3.7.3 Incitement • 3.7.4 UN and the Palestinian state • palestina vs israel Public support • 3.8 Issues in dispute • 3.8.1 Jerusalem • 3.8.2 Holy sites • 3.8.3 Palestinian refugees • 3.8.4 Israeli palestina vs israel concerns • 3.8.5 Palestinian violence outside Israel • 3.8.6 Palestinian violence against other Palestinians • 3.8.7 International status • 3.8.8 Water resources • 3.8.8.1 Palestina vs israel and financing • 3.8.9 Israeli military occupation of the West Bank • 3.8.10 Israeli settlements in the West Bank • 3.8.11 Gaza blockade • 3.8.12 Agriculture • 3.8.13 The West Bank barrier • 3.8.14 Boycotts • 3.9 Actions toward stabilizing the conflict • 3.9.1 Mutual recognition • 3.9.2 Government • 3.9.3 Societal attitudes • 3.9.4 Palestina vs israel army • 4 Fatalities • 4.1 Criticism of casualty statistics • 4.2 Land mine palestina vs israel explosive remnants of war casualties • 5 See also • 6 Notes • 7 References • 8 External links Background The Palestinian Arab Christian-owned Falastin newspaper featuring a caricature on its 18 June 1936 edition showing Zionism as a crocodile under the protection of a British officer telling Palestinian Arabs: "don't be afraid!!!

I will swallow you peacefully.". [24] The Israeli–Palestinian conflict has its roots in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the birth of major nationalist movements among the Jews and among the Arabs, both geared towards attaining sovereignty for their people in the Middle East.

[25] The Balfour Declaration was a public statement issued by the British government in 1917 during the First World War announcing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine. [26] The collision between those two movements in southern Levant upon the emergence of Palestinian nationalism after the Franco-Syrian War in the 1920s escalated into the Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine in 1930s and 1940s, and expanded into the wider Arab–Israeli conflict later on.

[27] The return of several hard-line Palestinian Arab nationalists, under the emerging leadership of Haj Amin al-Husseini, from Damascus to Mandatory Palestine marked the beginning of Palestinian Arab nationalist struggle towards establishment of a national home for Arabs of Palestine. [28] Amin al-Husseini, the architect of the Palestinian Arab national movement, immediately marked Jewish national movement and Jewish immigration to Palestine as the sole enemy to his cause, [29] initiating large-scale riots against the Jews as early as 1920 in Jerusalem and in 1921 in Jaffa.

Among the results of the violence was the establishment of the Jewish paramilitary force Haganah. In 1929, a series of violent anti-Jewish riots was initiated by the Arab leadership. The riots resulted in massive Jewish casualties in Hebron and Safed, and the evacuation of Jews from Hebron and Gaza.

[25] The Arab revolt of 1936–1939 in Palestine, motivated by opposition to mass Jewish immigration. In the early 1930s, the Arab national struggle in Palestine had drawn many Arab nationalist militants from across the Middle East, such as Sheikh Izaddin al-Qassam from Syria, who established the Black Hand militant group and had prepared the grounds for the 1936 Arab revolt.

Following the death of al-Qassam at the hands of the British in late 1935, tensions erupted in 1936 into the Arab general strike and general boycott. The strike soon deteriorated into violence and the bloodily repressed 1936–1939 Arab palestina vs israel in Palestine against the British and the Jews. [27] In the first wave of organized violence, lasting until early 1937, most of the Arab groups were defeated by the British and forced expulsion of much of the Arab leadership was performed.

palestina vs israel

The revolt led to the establishment of the Peel Commission towards partitioning of Palestine, though it was subsequently rejected by the Palestinian Arabs. The two main Jewish leaders, Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion, accepted the recommendations but some secondary Jewish leaders did not like it.

[30] [31] [32] The renewed violence, which had sporadically lasted until the beginning of World War II, ended with around 5,000 casualties, mostly from the Arab side. With the eruption of World War II, the situation in Mandatory Palestine calmed down. Palestina vs israel allowed a shift towards a more moderate stance among Palestinian Arabs, under the leadership of the Nashashibi clan and even the establishment of the Jewish–Arab Palestine Regiment under British command, fighting Germans in North Africa.

The more radical exiled faction of al-Husseini however tended to cooperation with Nazi Germany, and participated in the establishment of a pro-Nazi propaganda machine throughout the Arab palestina vs israel. Defeat of Arab nationalists in Iraq and subsequent relocation of al-Husseini to Nazi-occupied Europe tied his hands regarding field operations in Palestine, though he regularly demanded that the Italians and the Germans bomb Tel Aviv.

By the end of World War II, a crisis over the fate of the Holocaust survivors from Europe led to renewed tensions between the Yishuv and the Palestinian Arab leadership. Immigration quotas were established by the British, while on the other hand illegal immigration and Zionist insurgency against the British was increasing. [25] Land in the lighter shade represents territory within the borders of Israel at the conclusion of the 1948 war. This land is internationally recognized as belonging to Israel.

On 29 November 1947, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted Resolution 181(II) [33] recommending the adoption and implementation of a plan to partition Palestine into an Arab state, a Jewish state and the City of Jerusalem. [34] On the next day, Palestine was already swept by violence. For four palestina vs israel, under continuous Arab provocation and attack, the Yishuv was usually on the defensive while occasionally retaliating.

[35] The Arab League supported the Arab struggle by forming the volunteer-based Arab Liberation Army, supporting the Palestinian Arab Army of the Holy War, under the leadership of Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni palestina vs israel Hasan Salama. On the Jewish side, the civil war was managed by the major underground militias – the Haganah, Irgun and Lehi, strengthened by numerous Jewish veterans of World War II and foreign volunteers. By spring 1948, it was already clear that the Arab forces were nearing a total collapse, while Yishuv forces gained more and more territory, creating a large scale refugee problem of Palestinian Arabs.

[25] Popular support for the Palestinian Arabs throughout the Arab world led to sporadic violence against Jewish communities of the Middle East and North Africa, creating an opposite refugee wave. 1916–1922 various proposals: Three proposals for the post World War I administration of Palestine.

The red line is the "International Administration" proposed in the 1916 Sykes–Picot Agreement, the dashed blue line is the 1919 Zionist Organization proposal at the Paris Peace Conference, and the thin blue line refers to the final borders of the 1923–48 Mandatory Palestine. 1947 UN proposal: Proposal per the United Palestina vs israel Partition Plan for Palestine (UN General Assembly Resolution 181 (II), 1947), prior to the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

The proposal included a Corpus Separatum for Jerusalem, extraterritorial crossroads between the non-contiguous areas, and Jaffa as an Arab exclave. 1967 territorial changes: During the Six-Day War, Israel captured the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights, together with the Sinai Peninsula (later traded for peace after the Yom Kippur War).

In 1980–81 Palestina vs israel annexed East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights. Neither Israel's annexation nor Palestine's claim over East Jerusalem has been internationally recognized. Urban areas (Present): Urban areas in the territoires of Israel and Israeli-occupied territories, with indication of ethnic majority areas. Israeli Arabs, Israeli Circassians and Israeli Baháʼí Faith followers are not presented as Israelis while other ethnic groups are not mentioned, such as the Israeli Bedouins History Further information: Military operations of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict Following the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel on 14 May 1948, the Arab League decided to intervene on behalf of Palestinian Arabs, marching their forces into palestina vs israel British Palestine, beginning the main phase of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

[34] The overall fighting, leading to around 15,000 casualties, resulted in cease-fire and armistice agreements of 1949, with Israel holding much of the former Mandate territory, Jordan occupying and later annexing the West Bank and Egypt taking over the Gaza Strip, where the All-Palestine Government was declared by the Arab League on 22 September 1948.

[27] Through the 1950s, Jordan and Egypt supported the Palestinian Fedayeen militants' cross-border attacks into Israel, while Israel carried out reprisal operations in the host countries. The 1956 Suez Crisis resulted in a short-term Israeli occupation of the Gaza Strip and exile of the All-Palestine Government, which was later restored with Israeli withdrawal. The All-Palestine Government palestina vs israel completely abandoned by Egypt in 1959 and was officially merged into the United Arab Republic, to the detriment of the Palestinian national movement.

Gaza Strip then was put under the authority of the Egyptian military administrator, making it a de facto military occupation. In 1964, however, a new organization, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), was established by Yasser Arafat. [34] It immediately won the support of most Arab League governments and was granted a seat in the Arab League.

The 1967 Six-Day War exerted a significant effect upon Palestinian nationalism, as Israel gained military control of the West Bank from Jordan and the Gaza Strip from Egypt. Consequently, the PLO was unable to establish any control on the ground and established its headquarters in Jordan, home to hundreds of thousands of Palestinians, and supported the Jordanian army during the War of Attrition, which included the Battle of Karameh. However, the Palestinian base in Jordan collapsed with the Jordanian–Palestinian civil war in 1970.

The PLO defeat by the Jordanians caused most of the Palestinian militants to relocate to South Lebanon, where they soon took over large areas, creating the so-called "Fatahland". Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon peaked in the early 1970s, as Lebanon was used as a base to launch attacks on northern Israel and airplane hijacking campaigns worldwide, which drew Israeli retaliation. During the Lebanese Civil War, Palestinian militants continued to launch attacks against Israel while also battling opponents within Lebanon.

In 1978, the Coastal Road massacre led to the Israeli full-scale invasion known as Operation Litani. Israeli forces, however, quickly withdrew from Lebanon, and the attacks against Israel resumed. In 1982, following an assassination attempt on one of its diplomats by Palestinians, the Israeli government decided to take sides in the Lebanese Civil War and the 1982 Lebanon War commenced.

The initial results for Israel were successful. Most Palestinian militants were defeated within several weeks, Beirut was captured, and the PLO headquarters were evacuated to Tunisia in June by Yasser Arafat's decision.

[27] However, Israeli intervention in the civil war also led to unforeseen results, including small-scale conflict between Israel and Syria. By 1985, Israel withdrew to a 10 km occupied a strip of South Lebanon, while the low-intensity conflict with Shia militants escalated.

[25] Those Iranian-supported Shia groups gradually consolidated into Hizbullah and Amal, operated against Israel, and allied with the remnants of Palestinian organizations to launch attacks on Galilee through the late 1980s. By the 1990s, Palestinian organizations in Lebanon were largely inactive. [ citation needed] The first Palestinian uprising began in 1987 as a response to escalating attacks and the endless occupation.

By the early 1990s, international efforts to settle the conflict had begun, in light of the success of the Egyptian–Israeli peace treaty of 1982.

Eventually, the Israeli–Palestinian peace process led to the Oslo Accords of 1993, allowing the PLO to relocate from Tunisia and take ground in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, establishing the Palestinian National Authority. The peace process also had significant opposition among radical Islamic elements of Palestinian society, such as Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad, who immediately initiated a campaign of attacks targeting Israelis. Following hundreds of casualties and a wave of radical anti-government propaganda, Israeli Prime Minister Rabin was assassinated by an Israeli fanatic who objected to the peace initiative.

This struck a serious blow to the peace process, from which the newly elected government of Israel in 1996 backed off. [25] Following several years of unsuccessful negotiations, the conflict re-erupted as the Second Intifada in September 2000. [27] The violence, escalating into an open conflict between the Palestinian National Security Forces and the Israel Defense Forces, lasted until 2004/2005 and led to approximately 130 fatalities.

In 2005, Israeli Prime Minister Sharon ordered the removal of Israeli settlers and soldiers from Gaza. Israel and its Supreme Court formally declared an end to occupation, saying it "had no effective control over what palestina vs israel in Gaza. [36] However, the United Nations, Human Rights Watch and many other international bodies and NGOs palestina vs israel to consider Israel to be the occupying power of the Gaza Strip as Israel controls Gaza Strip's airspace, territorial waters and controls the movement of people or goods in or out of Gaza by air or sea.

[36] [37] [38] In 2006, Hamas won a plurality of 44% in the Palestinian parliamentary election. Israel responded it would begin economic sanctions unless Hamas agreed to accept prior Israeli-Palestinian agreements, forswear violence, and recognize Israel's right to exist, which Hamas rejected.

[39] After internal Palestinian political struggle between Fatah and Hamas erupted into the Battle of Gaza (2007), Hamas took full control palestina vs israel the area. [40] In 2007, Israel imposed a naval blockade on the Gaza Strip, and cooperation with Egypt allowed a ground blockade of the Egyptian border The tensions between Israel and Hamas escalated until late 2008, when Israel launched operation Cast Lead upon Gaza, resulting in thousands of civilian casualties and billions of dollars in damage.

By February 2009, a ceasefire was signed with international mediation between the parties, though the occupation and small palestina vs israel sporadic eruptions of violence continued. [41] In 2011, a Palestinian Authority attempt to gain UN membership as a fully sovereign state failed. In Hamas-controlled Gaza, sporadic rocket attacks on Israel and Israeli air raids still take place.

[42] [43] [44] [45] In November 2012, the representation of Palestine in UN was upgraded to a non-member observer State, and its mission title was changed from "Palestine (represented by PLO)" to " State of Palestine". Peace process A peace movement poster: Israeli and Palestinian flags and the words peace in Arabic and Hebrew. In 1993, Israeli officials led by Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian leaders from the Palestine Liberation Organization led by Yasser Arafat strove to find a peaceful solution through what became known as the Oslo peace process.

A crucial milestone in this process was Arafat's letter of recognition of Israel's right to exist. In 1993, the Oslo Accords were finalized as a framework for future Israeli–Palestinian relations.

The crux of the Oslo agreement was that Israel would gradually cede control of the Palestinian territories over to the Palestinians in exchange for peace. The Oslo process was delicate and progressed in fits and starts, the process took a turning point at the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin and finally unraveled when Arafat and Ehud Barak failed to reach agreement at Camp David in July 2000.

Robert Malley, special assistant to US President Bill Clinton for Arab–Israeli Affairs, has confirmed that while Barak made no formal written offer to Arafat, the US did present concepts for peace which were considered by the Israeli side yet left unanswered by Arafat "the Palestinians' principal failing is that from the beginning of the Camp David summit onward they were unable either to say yes to the American ideas or to present a cogent and specific counterproposal of their own".

[46] Consequently, there are different accounts of the proposals considered. [47] [48] [49] Camp David Summit (2000) Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on 13 September 1993.

In July 2000, US President Bill Clinton convened a peace summit between Palestinian President Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak. Barak reportedly put forward the following as "bases for negotiation", via the US to the Palestinian President; a non-militarized Palestinian state split into 3–4 parts containing 87–92% [note 1] of the West Bank including only parts of East Jerusalem, and the entire Gaza Strip, [50] [51] The offer also included that 69 Jewish settlements (which comprise 85% of the West Bank's Jewish settlers) would be ceded to Israel, no right of return to Israel, no sovereignty over the Temple Mount or any core East Jerusalem neighbourhoods, and continued Israel control over the Jordan Valley.

[52] [53] Arafat rejected this offer. [50] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] According to the Palestinian negotiators the offer did not remove many of the elements of the Israeli occupation regarding land, security, settlements, and Jerusalem. [59] President Clinton reportedly requested that Arafat make a counter-offer, but he proposed none. Former Israeli Foreign Minister Shlomo Ben Ami who kept a diary of the negotiations said in an interview in 2001, when asked whether the Palestinians made a counterproposal: "No.

And that is the heart of the matter. Never, in the negotiations between us and the Palestinians, was there a Palestinian counterproposal." [60] In a separate interview in 2006 Ben Ami stated that were he a Palestinian he would have rejected the Camp David offer.

[61] No tenable solution was crafted which would satisfy both Israeli and Palestinian demands, even under intense US pressure. Clinton has long blamed Arafat for the collapse of the summit. [62] In the months following the summit, Clinton appointed former US Senator George J. Mitchell to lead a fact-finding committee aiming to identify strategies for restoring the peace process. The committee's findings were published in 2001 with the dismantlement of existing Israeli settlements and Palestinian crackdown on militant activity being one strategy.

[63] Developments following Camp David Main article: The Clinton Parameters Following the failed summit Palestinian and Israeli negotiators continued to meet in small groups through August and September 2000 to try to bridge the gaps between their respective positions. The United States prepared its own plan to resolve the outstanding issues.

Clinton's presentation of the US proposals was delayed by the advent of the Second Intifada at the end of September. [59] Clinton's plan eventually presented on 23 December 2000, proposed the establishment of a sovereign Palestinian state in the Gaza strip and 94–96 percent of the West Bank plus the equivalent of 1–3 percent of the West Bank in land swaps from pre-1967 Israel.

On Jerusalem, the plan stated that "the general principle is that Arab areas are Palestinian and that Jewish areas are Israeli." The holy sites were to be split on the basis that Palestinians would have sovereignty over the Temple Mount/Noble sanctuary, while the Israelis would have sovereignty over the Western Wall.

On refugees the plan suggested a palestina vs israel of proposals including financial compensation, palestina vs israel right of return to the Palestinian state, palestina vs israel Israeli acknowledgment of suffering caused to the Palestinians in 1948.

Security proposals referred to a "non-militarized" Palestinian state, and an international force for border security. Both sides accepted Clinton's plan [59] [64] [65] and it became the basis for the negotiations at the Taba Peace summit the following January. [59] Taba Summit (2001) Main article: Taba Summit The Israeli negotiation team presented a new map at the Taba Summit in Taba, Egypt in January 2001.

The proposition removed the "temporarily Israeli controlled" areas, and the Palestinian side accepted this as a basis for further negotiation. With Israeli elections looming the talks ended without an agreement but the two sides issued a joint statement attesting to the progress they had made: "The sides declare that they have never been closer to reaching an agreement and it is thus our shared belief that the remaining gaps could be bridged with the resumption of negotiations following the Israeli elections." The following month the Likud party candidate Ariel Sharon defeated Ehud Barak in the Israeli elections and was elected as Israeli prime minister on 7 February 2001.

Sharon's new government chose not to resume the high-level talks. [59] Road Map for Peace Main article: Road map for peace One peace proposal, presented by the Quartet of the European Union, Russia, the United Nations and the United States on 17 September 2002, was the Road Map for Peace.

This plan did not attempt to resolve difficult questions such as the fate of Jerusalem or Israeli settlements, but left that to be negotiated in later phases of the process. The proposal never made it beyond the first phase, whose goals called for a halt to both Israeli settlement construction and Israeli–Palestinian violence.

Neither goal has been achieved as of November 2015. [66] [67] [68] Arab Peace Initiative Main article: Arab Peace Initiative The Arab Peace Initiative ( Arabic: مبادرة السلام العربية Mubādirat as-Salām al-ʿArabīyyah) was first proposed by Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia at the Beirut Summit (2002).

The peace initiative is a proposed solution to the Arab–Israeli conflict as a whole, and the Israeli–Palestinian conflict in particular. [69] The initiative was initially published on 28 March 2002, at the Beirut Summit, and agreed upon again in 2007 in the Riyadh Summit. Unlike the Road Map for Peace, it spelled out "final-solution" borders based explicitly on the UN borders established before the 1967 Six-Day War.

It offered full normalization of relations with Israel, in exchange for the withdrawal of its forces from all the occupied territories, including the Golan Heights, to recognize "an independent Palestinian state with East Jerusalem as its capital" in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, as well as a "just solution" for the Palestinian refugees. [70] A number of Israeli officials have responded to the initiative with both support and criticism. The Israeli government has expressed reservations on 'red line,' issues such as the Palestinian refugee problem, homeland security concerns, and the nature of Jerusalem.

[71] However, the Arab League continues to raise it as a possible solution, and meetings between the Arab League and Israel have been held. [72] Present status The peace process has been predicated on a "two-state solution" thus far, but questions have been raised towards both sides' resolve to end the dispute.

[73] An article by S. Daniel Abraham, an American entrepreneur and founder of the Center for Middle East Peace in Washington, US, published on the website of the Atlantic magazine in March 2013, cited the following statistics: "Right now, the total number of Jews and Arabs living. in Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza is just under 12 million people. At the moment, a shade under 50 percent of the population is Jewish." [74] Israel's settlement policy Israeli settlers in Hebron, West Bank Israel has had its settlement growth and policies in the Palestinian territories harshly criticized by the European Union citing it as increasingly undermining the viability of the two-state solution and running in contrary to the Israeli-stated commitment to resume negotiations.

[75] [76] In December 2011, all the regional groupings on the UN Security Council named continued settlement construction and settler violence as disruptive to the resumption of talks, a call viewed by Russia as a "historic step". [77] [78] [79] In April 2012, international outrage followed Israeli steps to further entrench the Jewish settlements in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, which included the publishing of tenders for further settler homes and the plan to legalize settler outposts.

Britain said that the move was a breach of Israeli commitments under the road map to freeze all settlement expansion in the land captured since 1967. The British Foreign Minister stated that the "Systematic, illegal Israeli settlement activity poses the most significant and live threat to the viability of the two state solution". [80] In May 2012 the 27 foreign ministers of the European Union issued a statement which condemned continued Israeli settler violence and incitement. [81] In a similar move, the Quartet "expressed its concern over ongoing settler violence and incitement in the West Bank," calling on Israel "to take effective measures, including bringing the perpetrators of such acts to justice." [82] The Palestinian Ma'an News agency reported the PA Cabinet's statement on the issue stated that the West, including East Jerusalem, were seeing "an escalation in incitement and settler violence against our people with a clear protection from the occupation military.

The last of which was the thousands of settler march in East Jerusalem which included slogans inciting to kill, hate and supports violence". [83] Israeli Military Police In a report published in February 2014 covering incidents over the three-year period of 2011–2013, Amnesty International asserted that Israeli forces employed reckless violence in the West Bank, and in some instances appeared to engage in wilful killings which palestina vs israel be tantamount to war crimes.

Besides the numerous fatalities, Amnesty said at least 261 Palestinians, including 67 children, had been gravely injured by Israeli use of live ammunition. In this same period, 45 Palestinians, including 6 children had been killed. Amnesty's review of 25 civilians deaths concluded that in no case was there evidence of the Palestinians posing an imminent threat.

At the same time, over 8,000 Palestinians suffered serious injuries from other means, including rubber-coated metal bullets. Only one IDF soldier was convicted, killing a Palestinian attempting to enter Israel illegally. The soldier was demoted and given a 1-year sentence with a five-month suspension. The IDF answered the charges stating that its army held itself "to the highest of professional standards," adding that when there was suspicion of wrongdoing, it investigated and took action "where appropriate".

[84] [85] Incitement A fatally wounded Israeli school boy, 2011 Following the Oslo Accords, which was to set up regulative bodies to rein in frictions, Palestinian incitement against Israel, Jews, and Zionism continued, parallel with Israel's pursuance of settlements in the Palestinian territories, [86] though under Abu Mazen it has reportedly dwindled significantly.

[87] Charges of incitement have been reciprocal, [88] [89] both sides interpreting media statements in the Palestinian and Israeli press as constituting incitement. [87] In Israeli usage, the term also covers failures to mention Israel's culture and history in Palestinian textbooks. [90] Perpetrators of murderous attacks, whether against Israelis or Palestinians, often find strong vocal support from sections of their communities despite varying levels of condemnation from politicians.

[91] [92] [93] Both parties to the conflict have been criticized by third-parties for teaching incitement to their children by downplaying each side's historical ties to the area, teaching propagandist maps, or indoctrinate their children to one day join the armed forces.

[94] [95] UN and the Palestinian state Main article: International recognition of the State of Palestine The PLO have campaigned for full member status for the state of Palestine at the UN and for recognition on the 1967 borders.

A campaign that has received widespread support, [96] [97] though it has been criticised by the US and Israel for allegedly avoiding bilateral negotiation. [98] [99] Netanyahu has criticized the Palestinians of purportedly trying to bypass direct talks, [100] whereas Abbas has argued that the continued construction of Israeli-Jewish palestina vs israel is "undermining the realistic potential" for the two-state solution. [101] Although Palestine has been denied full member status by the UN Security Council, [102] in late 2012 the UN General Assembly overwhelmingly approved the de facto recognition of sovereign Palestine by granting non-member state status.

[103] Public support Polling data has produced palestina vs israel results regarding the level of support among Palestinians for the two-state solution.

A poll was carried out in 2011 by the Hebrew University; it indicated that support for a two-state solution was growing among both Israelis and Palestinians. The poll found that 58% of Israelis and 50% of Palestinians supported a two-state solution based on the Clinton Parameters, compared with 47% of Israelis and 39% of Palestinians in 2003, the first year the poll was carried out. The poll also found that an increasing percentage of both populations supported an end to violence—63% of Palestinians and 70% of Israelis expressing their support for an end to violence, an increase of 2% for Israelis and 5% for Palestinians from the previous year.

[104] Issues in dispute The following outlined positions are the official positions of the two parties; however, it is important to note that neither side holds a single position.

Both the Israeli and the Palestinian sides include both moderate and extremist bodies as well as dovish and hawkish bodies. One of the primary obstacles to resolving the Israeli–Palestinian conflict is a deep-set and growing distrust between its participants.

Unilateral strategies and the rhetoric of hardline political factions, coupled with violence and incitements by civilians against one another, have fostered mutual embitterment and hostility and a loss of faith in the peace process.

Support among Palestinians for Hamas is considerable, and as its members consistently call for the destruction of Israel and violence remains a threat, security becomes a prime concern for many Israelis. The expansion of Israeli settlements in the West Bank has led the majority of Palestinians to believe that Israel is not committed to reaching an agreement, but rather to a pursuit of establishing permanent control over this territory in order to provide that security.

[105] Jerusalem Greater Jerusalem, May 2006. CIA remote sensing map showing what the CIA regards as settlements, plus refugee camps, fences, and walls The control of Jerusalem is a particularly delicate issue, with each side asserting claims over the city. The three largest Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—hold Jerusalem as an important setting for their religious and historical narratives.

Jerusalem is the holiest city for Judaism, being the former location of the Jewish temples on the Temple Mount and the capital of the ancient Israelite kingdom. For Muslims, Jerusalem is the third holiest site, being the location of Isra and Mi'raj event, and the Al-Aqsa mosque.

For Christians, Jerusalem is the site of Jesus' crucifixion and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The Israeli government, including the Knesset and Supreme Court, palestina vs israel located in the "new city" of West Jerusalem and has been since Israel's founding in 1948.

After Israel captured the Jordanian-controlled East Jerusalem in the Six-Day War, it assumed complete administrative control of East Jerusalem. In 1980, Israel passed the Jerusalem Law declaring "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel." [106] Many countries do not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, with exceptions being the United States, [107] and Russia.

[108] The majority of UN member states and most international organisations do not recognise Israel's claims to East Jerusalem which occurred after the 1967 Six-Day War, nor its 1980 Jerusalem Law proclamation. [109] The International Court of Justice in its 2004 Advisory opinion on the "Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Palestina vs israel in the Occupied Palestinian Territory" described East Jerusalem as "occupied Palestinian territory." [110] As of 2005, there were more than 719,000 people living in Jerusalem; 465,000 were Jews (mostly living in West Jerusalem) and 232,000 were Muslims (mostly living in East Jerusalem).

[111] At the Camp David and Taba Summits in 2000–2001, the United States proposed a plan in which the Arab parts of Jerusalem would be given to the proposed Palestinian state while the Jewish parts of Jerusalem were given to Israel.

All archaeological work under the Temple Mount would be jointly controlled by the Israeli and Palestinian governments. Both sides accepted the proposal in principle, but the summits ultimately failed.

[112] Israel expresses concern over the security of its residents if neighborhoods of Jerusalem are placed under Palestinian control. Jerusalem has been a prime target for attacks by militant groups against civilian targets since 1967. Many Jewish neighborhoods have been fired upon from Arab areas. The proximity of the Arab areas, if these regions were to fall in the boundaries of a Palestinian state, would be so close as to threaten the safety of Jewish residents.

[113] Holy sites Israel has concerns regarding the welfare of Jewish holy places under possible Palestinian control.

When Jerusalem was under Jordanian control, no Jews were allowed to visit the Western Wall or other Jewish holy places, and the Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives was desecrated. [112] Since 1975, Israel has banned Muslims from worshiping at Joseph's Tomb, a shrine considered sacred by both Jews and Muslims. Settlers established a yeshiva, installed a Torah scroll and covered palestina vs israel mihrab. During the Second Intifada the site was looted and burned.

[114] [115] Israeli security agencies routinely monitor and arrest Jewish extremists that plan attacks, though many serious incidents have still occurred. [116] Israel has allowed almost complete autonomy to the Muslim trust ( Waqf) over the Temple Mount. [112] Palestinians have voiced concerns regarding the welfare of Christian and Muslim holy places under Israeli control. [117] Additionally, some Palestinian advocates have made statements alleging that the Western Wall Tunnel was re-opened with the intent of causing the mosque's collapse.

[118] The Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs denied this claim in a 1996 speech to the United Nations [119] and characterized the statement as "escalation of rhetoric." [120] Palestinian refugees Palestinian refugees, 1948 Palestinian refugees are people who lost both their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab–Israeli conflict [121] and the 1967 Six-Day War. [122] The number of Palestinians who fled or were expelled from Israel following its creation was estimated at 711,000 in 1949.

[123] Descendants of these original Palestinian Refugees are also eligible for registration and services provided by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), and as of palestina vs israel number 4.7 million people. [124] Between 350,000 and 400,000 Palestinians were displaced during the 1967 Arab–Israeli war.

[122] A third of the refugees live in recognized refugee camps in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. The remainder live in and around the cities and towns of these host countries.

[121] Most of these people were born outside Israel, but are descendants of original Palestinian refugees. [121] Palestinian negotiators, such as Yasser Arafat, [125] have so far publicly insisted that refugees have a right to return to the places where they lived before 1948 and 1967, including those within the 1949 Armistice lines, citing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and UN General Assembly Resolution 194 as evidence.

However, according to reports of private peace negotiations with Israel they have countenanced the return of only 10,000 refugees and their families to Israel as part of a peace settlement. Mahmoud Abbas, the current Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization was reported to have said in private discussion that it is "illogical to ask Israel to take 5 million, or indeed 1 million. That would mean the end of Israel." [126] In a further interview Abbas stated that he no longer had an automatic right to return to Safed in the northern Galilee where he was born in 1935.

He later clarified that the remark was his personal opinion and not official policy. [127] The Arab Peace Initiative of 2002 declared that it proposed the compromise of a "just resolution" of the refugee problem. [128] Palestinian and international authors have justified the right of return of the Palestinian refugees on several grounds: [129] [130] [131] • Several scholars included in the broader New Historians argue that the Palestinian refugees fled or were chased out or expelled by the actions of palestina vs israel Haganah, Lehi and Irgun, Zionist paramilitary groups.

[132] [133] A number have also characterized this as an ethnic cleansing. [134] [135] [136] [137] The New Historians cite indications of Arab leaders' desire for the Palestinian Arab population to stay put. [138] Shlaim (2000) states that from April 1948 the military forces of what was to become Israel had embarked on a new offensive strategy against foreign armies which involved destroying Arab villages and the forced removal of civilians. Home in Balata refugee camp demolished during the second Intifada, 2002 • The Israeli Law of Return that grants citizenship to people of Jewish descent is viewed by critics as discriminatory against other ethnic groups, especially Palestinians that cannot apply for such citizenship under the law of return, to the territory which they were expelled from or fled during the course of the 1948 war.

[139] [140] [141] • According to the UN Resolution 194, adopted in 1948, "the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbours should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for loss of or damage to property which, under principles of international law or in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible." [142] UN Resolution 3236 "reaffirms also the inalienable right of the Palestinians to return to their homes and property from which they have been displaced and uprooted, and calls for their return".

[143] Resolution 242 from the UN affirms the necessity for "achieving a just settlement of palestina vs israel refugee problem"; however, Resolution 242 does not specify that the "just settlement" must or should be in the form of a literal Palestinian right of return. [144] The most common arguments for opposition are: • On the 18 August 1948, at the United Nations Security Council, Israel declared that it is not reasonable to contemplate a return of the refugees as the Arab League and the Arab High Committee have announced their intentions to continue their war of aggression and resume hostilities, noting that the state of war has not been lifted and that no peace treaty has been signed.

However, Israel accepted the next year the return of some of the refugees, notably through the annexation of the Gaza Strip or by absorbing 100.000 of them in exchange of a peace treaty. The Arab countries refused the proposal, demanding a complete return. [145] • The Israeli government asserts that the Arab refugee problem is largely caused by the refusal of all Arab governments except Jordan to grant citizenship to Palestinian Arabs who reside within those countries' borders.

This has produced much of the poverty and economic problems of the refugees, according to MFA documents. [146] • The Palestinian refugee issue is handled by a separate authority from that handling other refugees, that is, by UNRWA and not the UNHCR. Most of the people recognizing themselves as Palestinian refugees would have otherwise been assimilated into their country of current residency, and would not maintain their refugee state if not for the separate entities.

[147] • Concerning the origin of the Palestinian refugees, the Israeli government said that during the 1948 War the Arab Higher Committee and the Arab states encouraged Palestinians to flee in order to make it easier to rout the Jewish state or that they did so to escape the fights by fear.

[146] The Palestinian narrative is that refugees were largely expelled and dispossessed by Jewish militias and by the Israeli army. Historians still debate the causes of the 1948 Palestinian exodus. Notably, historian Benny Morris states that most of Palestine's 700,000 refugees fled because of the "flail of war" and expected to return home shortly after a successful Arab invasion.

He documents instances in which Arab leaders advised the evacuation of entire communities as happened in Haifa. In his scholarly work, however, he does conclude that there were expulsions which were carried out.

[148] [149] Morris considers the displacement the result of a national conflict initiated by the Arabs themselves. [149] In a 2004 interview with Haaretz, he described the exodus as largely resulting from an atmosphere of transfer that was promoted by Ben-Gurion and understood by the military leadership. He also claimed that there "are circumstances in history that justify ethnic cleansing".

[150] He has been criticized by political scientist Norman Finkelstein for having seemingly changed his views for political, rather than historical, reasons. [151] • Since none of the 900,000 Jewish refugees who fled anti-Semitic violence in the Arab world was ever compensated or repatriated by their former countries of residence—to no objection on the part of Arab leaders—a precedent has been set whereby it is the responsibility of the nation which accepts the refugees to assimilate them.

[152] [153] [154] • Although Israel accepts the right of the Palestinian Diaspora to return into a new Palestinian state, Israel insists that the return of this population into the current state of Israel would be a great danger for the stability of the Jewish state; an influx of Palestinian refugees would lead to the destruction of the state of Israel.

[155] [156] • According to Efraim Karsh the Palestinians were themselves the aggressors in the 1948–1949 war who attempted to "cleanse" a neighboring ethnic community. Had the United Nations resolution of 29 November 1947 recommending partition in Palestine not been subverted by force by the Arab world, there would have been no refugee problem in the first place.

He reports of large numbers of Palestinian refugees leaving even before the outbreak of the 1948 war because of disillusionment and economic privation. The British High Commissioner for Palestine spoke of the "collapsing Arab morale in Palestine" that he partially attributed to the "increasing tendency of those who should be leading them to leave the country" and the considerable evacuations of the Arab effendi class.

Huge numbers of Palestinians were also expelled by their leadership to prevent them from becoming Israeli citizens and in Haifa and Tiberias, tens of thousands of Arabs were forcibly evacuated on the instructions of the Arab Higher Committee. [157] Israeli security concerns Remains of an Egged bus hit by suicide bomber in the aftermath of the 2011 southern Israel cross-border attacks.

Eight people were killed, about 40 were injured. Throughout the conflict, Palestinian violence has palestina vs israel a concern for Israelis. Israel, [158] along with the United States [159] and the European Union, refer to the violence against Israeli civilians and military forces by Palestinian militants as terrorism.

The motivations behind Palestinian violence against Israeli civilians are many, and not all violent Palestinian groups agree with each other on specifics.

Nonetheless, a common motive is the desire to destroy Israel and replace it with a Palestinian Arab state. [160] The most prominent Islamist groups, such as Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad, view the Israeli–Palestinian conflict as a religious jihad.

[161] Suicide bombing have been used as a tactic among Palestinian organizations like Hamas, Islamic Jihad, and the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade and certain suicide attacks have received support among Palestinians as high as 84%. [162] [163] In Israel, Palestinian suicide bombers have targeted civilian buses, restaurants, shopping malls, hotels and marketplaces. [164] From 1993 to 2003, 303 Palestinian suicide bombers attacked Israel.

The Israeli government initiated the construction of a security barrier following scores of suicide bombings and terrorist attacks in July 2003. Israel's coalition government approved the security barrier in the northern part of the green line between Israel and the Palestina vs israel Bank.

According to the IDF, since the erection of the fence, terrorist acts have declined by approximately 90%. [165] Since 2001, the threat of Qassam rockets fired from Palestinian territories into Israel continues to be of great concern for Israeli defense officials. [166] In 2006—the year following Israel's disengagement from the Gaza Strip—the Israeli government recorded 1,726 such launches, more than four times the total rockets fired in 2005. [158] As of January 2009, over 8,600 rockets have been launched, [167] [168] causing widespread psychological trauma and disruption of daily life.

[169] Over 500 rockets and mortars hit Israel in January–September 2010 and over 1,947 rockets hit Israel in January–November 2012. An Israeli child wounded by a Hamas Grad rocket fired on the city of Beer Sheva is taken to a hospital According to a study conducted by University of Haifa, one in five Israelis have lost a relative or friend in a Palestinian terrorist attack. [170] There is significant debate within Israel about how to deal with the country's security concerns.

Options have included military action (including targeted killings and house demolitions of terrorist operatives), diplomacy, unilateral gestures toward peace, and increased security measures such as checkpoints, roadblocks and security barriers.

The legality and the wisdom of all of the above tactics have been called into question by various commentators. [20] [ unreliable source?] Since mid-June 2007, Israel's primary means of dealing with security concerns in the West Bank has been to cooperate with and permit United States-sponsored training, equipping, and funding of the Palestinian Authority's security forces, which with Israeli help have largely succeeded in quelling West Bank supporters of Hamas.

[171] Palestinian violence outside Israel Some Palestinians have committed violent acts over the globe on the pretext of a struggle against Israel. Many foreigners, including Americans [172] and Europeans, [173] have been killed and injured by Palestinian militants. At least 53 Americans have been killed and 83 injured by Palestinian violence since the signing of the Oslo Accords. [174] [ unreliable source?] During the late 1960s, the PLO became increasingly infamous for its use of international terror.

In 1969 alone, the PLO was responsible for hijacking 82 planes. El Al Airlines became a regular hijacking target. [175] [176] The hijacking of Air France Flight 139 by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine culminated during a hostage-rescue mission, where Israeli special forces successfully rescued the majority of the hostages. However, one of the most well-known and notorious terrorist acts was the capture and eventual murder of 11 Israeli athletes during the 1972 Olympic Games.

[177] Palestinian violence against other Palestinians Fighting among rival Palestinian and Arab movements has played a crucial role in shaping Israel's security policy towards Palestinian militants, as well as in the Palestinian leadership's own policies. [ citation needed] As early as the 1930s revolts in Palestine, Arab forces fought each other while also skirmishing with Zionist and British forces, and internal conflicts continue to the present day.

During the Lebanese Civil War, Palestinian baathists broke from the Palestine Liberation Organization and allied with the Shia Amal Movement, fighting a bloody civil war that killed thousands of Palestinians.

[178] [179] In the First Intifada, more than a thousand Palestinians were killed in a campaign initiated by the Palestine Liberation Organization to crack down on suspected Israeli security service informers and collaborators. The Palestinian Authority was strongly criticized for its treatment of alleged collaborators, rights groups complaining that those labeled collaborators were denied fair trials.

According to a report released by the Palestinian Human Rights Monitoring Group, less than 45 percent of those killed were actually guilty of informing for Israel. [180] The policies towards suspected collaborators contravene agreements signed by the Palestinian leadership.

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Article XVI(2) of the Oslo II Agreement states: [181] "Palestinians who have maintained contact with the Israeli authorities will not be subjected to acts of harassment, violence, retribution, or prosecution." The provision was designed to prevent Palestinian leaders from imposing retribution on fellow Palestinians who had worked on behalf of Israel during the occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

In the Gaza Strip, Hamas officials have tortured and killed thousands of Fatah members and other Palestinians who oppose their rule. During the Battle of Gaza, more than 150 Palestinians died over a four-day period. [182] The violence among Palestinians was described as a civil war by some commentators. By 2007, more than 600 Palestinian people had died during the struggle between Hamas and Fatah. [183] International status Area C, controlled by Israel under Oslo Accords, in blue and red, in December 2011 As far as Israel is concerned, the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority is derived from the Oslo Accords, signed with the PLO, under which it acquired control over cities in the Palestinian territories (Area A) while the surrounding countryside came either under Israeli security and Palestinian civil administration (Area B) or complete Israeli civil administration ( Area C).

Israel has built additional highways to allow Israelis to traverse the area without entering Palestinian cities in Area A. The initial areas under Palestinian Authority control are diverse and non-contiguous.

The areas have changed over time by subsequent negotiations, including Oslo Palestina vs israel, Wye River and Sharm el-Sheik. According to Palestinians, the separated areas make it impossible to create a viable nation and fails to address Palestinian security needs; Israel has expressed no agreement to withdrawal from some Areas B, resulting in no reduction in the division of the Palestinian areas, and the institution of a safe pass system, without Israeli checkpoints, between these parts.

Under the Oslo Accords, as a security measure, Israel has insisted on its control over all land, sea and air border crossings into the Palestinian territories, and the right to set import and export controls. This is to enable Israel to control the entry into the territories of materials of military significance and of potentially dangerous persons.

The PLO's objective for international recognition of the State of Palestine is considered by Israel as a provocative "unilateral" act that is inconsistent with the Oslo Accords. Water resources Further information: Water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories and Water politics in the Jordan River basin In the Middle East, water resources are of great political concern.

Since Israel receives much of its water from two large underground aquifers which continue under the Green Line, the use of this water has been contentious in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Israel withdraws most water from these areas, but it also supplies the West Bank with approximately 40 million cubic metres annually, contributing to 77% of Palestinians' water supply in the West Bank, which is to be shared for a population of about 2.6 million.

[184] Palestina vs israel Israel's consumption of this water has decreased since it began its occupation of the West Bank, it still consumes the majority of it: in the 1950s, Israel consumed 95% of the water output of the Western Aquifer, and 82% of that produced by the Northeastern Aquifer.

Although this water was drawn entirely on Israel's own side of the pre-1967 border, the sources of the water are nevertheless from the shared groundwater basins located under both West Bank and Israel.

[185] In the Oslo II Accord, both sides agreed to maintain "existing quantities of utilization from the resources." In so doing, the Palestinian Authority established the legality of Israeli water production in the West Bank, subject to a Joint Water Committee (JWC).

Moreover, Israel obligated itself in this agreement to provide water to supplement Palestinian production, and further agreed to allow additional Palestinian drilling in the Eastern Aquifer, also subject to the Joint Water Committee.

[186] Many Palestinians counter that the Oslo II agreement was intended to be a temporary resolution and that it was not intended to remain in effect more than a decade later. In 1999, Israel's Ministry of Foreign Affairs said it continued to honor its obligations under the Interim Agreement. [187] The water that Israel receives comes mainly from the Jordan River system, the Sea of Galilee and two underground sources.

According to a 2003 BBC article the Palestinians lack access to the Jordan River system. [188] According to a report of 2008 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, water resources were confiscated for the benefit of the Israeli settlements in the Ghor.

Palestinian irrigation pumps on the Jordan River were destroyed or confiscated after the 1967 war and Palestinians were not allowed to use water from the Jordan River system. Furthermore, the authorities did not allow any new irrigation wells to be drilled by Palestinian farmers, while it provided fresh water and allowed drilling wells for irrigation purposes at the Jewish settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

[189] A report was released by the UN in August 2012 and Max Gaylard, the UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator in the occupied Palestinian territory, explained at the launch of the publication: "Gaza will have half a million more people by palestina vs israel while its economy will grow only slowly. In consequence, the people of Gaza will have an even harder time getting enough drinking water and electricity, or sending their children to school".

Gaylard present alongside Jean Gough, of the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), and Robert Turner, of the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). The report projects that Gaza's population will increase from 1.6 million people to 2.1 million people in 2020, leading to a density of more than 5,800 people per square kilometre. [190] Future and financing Numerous foreign nations and international organizations have established bilateral agreements with the Palestinian and Israeli water authorities.

It is estimated that a future investment of about US$1.1bn for the West Bank and $0.8bn palestina vs israel clarification needed] is needed for the planning period from 2003 to 2015. [191] In order to support and improve the water sector in the Palestinian territories, a number of bilateral and multilateral agencies have been supporting many different water and sanitation programs.

There are three large seawater desalination plants in Israel and two more scheduled to open before 2014. When the fourth plant becomes operational, 65% of Israel's water will come from desalination plants, according to Minister of Finance Dr. Yuval Steinitz. [192] In late 2012, a donation of $21.6 million was announced by the Government of the Netherlands—the Dutch government stated that the funds would be provided to the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), for the specific benefit of Palestinian children.

An article, published by the UN News website, stated that: "Of the $21.6 million, $5.7 will be allocated to UNRWA's 2012 Emergency Appeal for the occupied Palestinian territory, which will support programmes in the West Bank and Palestina vs israel aiming to mitigate the effects on refugees of the deteriorating situation they face." [190] Israeli military occupation of the West Bank Protest against land confiscation held at Bil'in, 2011 Occupied Palestinian Territory is the term used by the United Nations to refer to the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, [193] and the Gaza Strip—territories which were captured by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War, having formerly been controlled by Egypt and Jordan.

[194] The Israeli government uses the term Disputed Territories, to argue that some territories cannot be called occupied as no nation had clear rights to them and there was no operative diplomatic arrangement when Israel acquired them in June palestina vs israel. [195] [196] In 1980, Israel annexed East Jerusalem. [197] Israel has never annexed the West Bank, apart from East Jerusalem, or Gaza Strip, and the United Nations has demanded the "[t]ermination of all claims or states of belligerency and respect for and acknowledgment of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every State in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force" and that Israeli forces withdraw "from territories occupied in the recent conflict" – the meaning and intent of the latter phrase is disputed.

See Interpretations. It has been the position of Israel that the most Arab-populated parts of West Bank (without major Jewish settlements), as well as the entire Gaza Strip, must eventually be part of an independent Palestinian State; however, the precise borders of this state are in question. At Camp David, for example, then-Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak offered Arafat an opportunity to establish a non-militarized Palestinian State.

The proposed state would consist of 77% of the West Bank split into two or three areas, followed by: an increase of 86–91% of the West Bank after six to twenty-one years; autonomy, but not sovereignty for some of the Arab neighborhoods of East Jerusalem surrounded by Israeli territory; the entire Gaza Strip; and the dismantling of most settlements.

[53] Arafat rejected the proposal without providing a counter-offer. A subsequent settlement proposed by President Clinton offered Palestinian sovereignty over 94 to 96 percent of the West Bank but was similarly rejected with 52 objections. [52] [198] [199] [16] [200] The Arab League has agreed to the principle of minor and mutually agreed land-swaps as part of a negotiated two state settlement based in June 1967 borders.

[201] Official U.S. policy also reflects the ideal of using the 1967 borders as a basis for an eventual peace agreement. [202] [203] Some Palestinians claim they are entitled to all of the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem. Israel says it is justified in not ceding all this land, because of security concerns, and also because the lack of any valid diplomatic agreement at the time means that ownership and boundaries of this land is open for discussion.

[125] Palestinians claim any reduction of this claim is a severe deprivation of their rights. In negotiations, they claim that any moves to reduce the boundaries of this land is a hostile move against their key interests. Israel considers this land to be in dispute and feels the purpose of negotiations is to define what the final borders will be. Other Palestinian groups, such as Hamas, have in the past insisted that Palestinians must control not only the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem, but also all of Israel proper.

For this reason, Hamas has viewed the peace process "as religiously forbidden and politically inconceivable". [161] Israeli settlements in the West Bank A neighbourhood in Ariel, home to the Ariel University According to the Arizona Department of Emergency and Military Affairs (DEMA), "In the years following the Six-Day War, and especially in the 1990s during the peace process, Israel re-established communities destroyed in 1929 and 1948 as well as established numerous new settlements in the West Bank." [204] These settlements are, as of palestina vs israel, home to about 301,000 people.

[205] DEMA added, "Most of the settlements are in the western parts of the West Bank, while others are deep into Palestinian territory, overlooking Palestinian cities. These settlements have been the site of much inter-communal conflict." [204] The issue of Israeli settlements in the West Bank and, until 2005, the Gaza Strip, have been described by the UK [206] and the WEU [207] as an obstacle to the peace process. The United Nations and the Palestina vs israel Union have also called the settlements "illegal under international law." [208] [209] However, Israel disputes this; [210] several scholars and commentators disagree with the assessment that settlements are illegal, citing in 2005 recent historical trends to back up their argument.

[211] [212] Those who justify the legality of the settlements use arguments palestina vs israel upon Articles 2 and 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention, as well as UN Security Council Resolution 242. [213] On a practical level, some objections voiced by Palestinians are that settlements divert resources needed by Palestinian towns, such as arable land, water, and other palestina vs israel and, that settlements reduce Palestinians' ability to travel freely via local roads, owing to security considerations.

In 2005, Israel's unilateral disengagement plan, a proposal put forward by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, was enacted. All residents of Jewish settlements in the Gaza strip were evacuated, and all residential buildings were demolished. [214] Various mediators and various proposed agreements have shown some degree of openness to Israel retaining some fraction of the settlements which currently exist in the West Bank; this openness is palestina vs israel on a variety of considerations, such as, the desire to find real compromise between Israeli and Palestinian territorial claims.

[215] [216] Israel's position that it needs to retain some West Bank land and settlements as a buffer in case of future aggression, [217] and Israel's position that some settlements are legitimate, as they took shape when there was no operative diplomatic arrangement, and thus they did not violate any agreement.

[195] [196] Former US President George W. Bush has stated that he does not expect Israel to return entirely to the 1949 armistice lines because of "new realities on the ground." [218] One of the main compromise plans put forth by the Clinton Administration would have allowed Israel to keep some settlements in the West Bank, especially those which were in large blocs near the pre-1967 borders of Israel.

In return, Palestinians would have received some concessions of land in other parts of the country. [215] The Obama administration viewed a complete freeze of construction in settlements on the West Bank as a critical step toward peace.

In May and June 2009, President Barack Obama said, "The United States does not accept the legitimacy of continued Israeli settlements," [219] and the Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, stated that the President "wants to see a stop to settlements—not some settlements, not outposts, not 'natural growth' exceptions." [220] However, Obama has since declared that the United States will no longer press Israel to stop West Bank settlement construction as a precondition for continued peace-process negotiations with the Palestinian Authority.

[221] Gaza blockade Israel's attack on Gaza in 2009 The Israeli government states it is justified under international law to impose a blockade on an enemy for security reasons. The power to impose a naval blockade is established under customary international law and Laws of armed conflict, and a United Nations commission has ruled that Israel's blockade is "both legal and appropriate." [222] [223] The Israeli Government's continued land, sea and air blockage is tantamount to collective punishment of the population, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

[224] The Military Advocate General of Israel has provided numerous reasonings for the policy: "The State of Israel has been engaged in an ongoing armed conflict with terrorist organizations operating in the Gaza strip. This armed conflict has intensified after Hamas violently took over Gaza, in June 2007, and turned the territory under its de facto control into a launching pad of mortar and rocket attacks against Israeli towns and villages in southern Israel." [225] According to Oxfam, because of an import-export ban imposed on Gaza in 2007, 95% of Gaza's industrial operations were suspended.

Out of 35,000 people employed by 3,900 factories in June 2005, only 1,750 people remained employed by 195 factories in June 2007. [226] By 2010, Gaza's unemployment rate had risen to 40% with 80% of the population living on less than 2 dollars a day. [227] In January 2008, the Palestina vs israel government calculated how many calories per person were needed to prevent a humanitarian crisis in the Gaza strip, and then subtracted eight percent to adjust for the "culture and experience" of the Gazans.

palestina vs israel

Details of the calculations were released following Israeli human rights organization Gisha's application to the high court. Israel's Coordinator of Government Activities in palestina vs israel Territories, who drafted the plan, stated that the scheme was never formally adopted, this was not accepted by Gisha.

[228] [229] [230] Starting 7 February 2008, the Israeli Government reduced the electricity it sells directly to Gaza. This follows the ruling of Israel's High Court of Justice's decision, which held, with respect to the amount of industrial fuel supplied to Gaza, that, "The clarification that we made indicates that the supply of industrial diesel fuel to the Gaza Strip in the winter months of last year was comparable to the amount that the Respondents now undertake to allow into the Gaza Strip.

This fact also indicates that the amount is reasonable and sufficient to meet the vital humanitarian needs in the Gaza Strip." Palestinian militants killed two Israelis in the process of delivering fuel to the Nahal Oz fuel depot. [231] With regard to Israel's plan, the Court stated that, "calls for a reduction of five percent of the power supply in three of the ten power lines that supply electricity from Israel to the Gaza Strip, to a level of 13.5 megawatts in two of the lines and 12.5 megawatts in the third line, we [the Court] were convinced that this reduction does not breach the humanitarian obligations imposed on the State of Israel in the framework of the armed conflict being waged between it and the Hamas organization that controls the Gaza Strip.

Our conclusion is based, in part, on the affidavit of the Respondents indicating that the relevant Palestinian officials stated that they can reduce the load in the event limitations are placed on the power lines, and that they had used this capability in the past." On 20 June 2010, Israel's Security Cabinet approved a new system governing the blockade that would allow practically all non-military or dual-use items palestina vs israel enter the Gaza strip.

According to a cabinet statement, Israel would "expand the transfer of construction materials designated for projects that have been approved by the Palestinian Authority, including schools, health institutions, water, sanitation and more – as well as (projects) that are under international supervision." [232] Despite the easing of the land blockade, Israel will continue to inspect all goods bound for Gaza by sea at the port of Ashdod.

[233] Prior to a Gaza visit, scheduled for April 2013, Turkey's Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan explained to Turkish newspaper Hürriyet that the fulfilment of three conditions by Israel was necessary for friendly relations to resume between Turkey and Israel: an apology for the May 2010 Gaza flotilla raid (Prime Minister Netanyahu palestina vs israel delivered an apology to Erdogan by telephone on 22 March 2013), the awarding of compensation to the families affected by the raid, and the lifting of the Gaza blockade by Israel.

The Turkish prime minister also explained in the Hürriyet interview, in relation to the April 2013 Gaza visit, "We will monitor the situation to see if the promises are kept or not." [234] At the same time, Netanyahu affirmed that Israel would only consider exploring the removal of the Gaza blockade if peace ("quiet") is achieved in the area.

[235] Agriculture See also: Economy of the State of Palestine § Israeli–Palestinian relations Since the beginning of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the conflict has been about land. [236] When Israel became a state after the war in 1948, 77% of Palestine's land was used for the creation on the state. [ citation needed] The majority of those living in Palestine at the time became refugees in other countries and this first land crisis became the root of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.

[237] Because the root of the conflict is with land, the disputes between Israel and Palestine are well-manifested in the agriculture of Palestine. In Palestine, agriculture is a mainstay in the economy. The production of agricultural goods supports the population's sustenance needs and fuels Palestine's export economy.

[238] According to the Council for European Palestinian Relations, the agricultural sector formally employs 13.4% of the population and informally employs 90% of the population. [238] Over the past 10 years, unemployment rates in Palestine have increased and the agricultural sector became the most impoverished sector in Palestine.

Unemployment rates peaked in 2008 when they reached 41% in Gaza. [239] Palestinian agriculture suffers from numerous problems including Israeli military and civilian attacks on farms and farmers, blockades to exportation of produce and importation of necessary inputs, widespread confiscation of land for nature reserves as well as military and settler use, confiscation and destruction of wells, and physical barriers within the West Bank.

[240] The West Bank barrier The barrier between Israel and Palestine and an example of one of the Israeli-controlled checkpoints With the construction of the separation barrier, the Israeli state promised free movement across regions. However, border closures, curfews, and checkpoints has significantly restricted Palestinian movement. [241] In 2012, there were 99 fixed check points and 310 flying checkpoints.

[242] The border restrictions impacted the imports and exports in Palestine and weakened the industrial and agricultural sectors because of the constant Israeli control in the West Bank and Gaza. [243] In order for the Palestinian economy palestina vs israel be prosperous, the restrictions on Palestinian land must be removed.

[240] According to The Guardian and a palestina vs israel for World Bank, the Palestinian economy lost $3.4bn (%35 of the annual GDP) to Israeli restrictions in the West Bank alone.

[244] Boycotts See also: Economy of the Palestinian territories and Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions In Gaza, the agricultural market suffers from economic boycotts and border closures and restrictions placed by Israel. [ citation needed] The PA's Minister of Agriculture estimates that around US$1.2 billion were lost in September 2006 because of these security measures. There has also been an economic embargo initiated by the west on Hamas-led Palestine, which has decreased the amount of imports and exports from Palestine.

[ citation needed] This embargo was brought on by Hamas' refusal to recognize Israel's right to statehood. As a result, the PA's 160,000 employees have not received their salaries in over one year. [245] Actions toward stabilizing the conflict In response to a weakening trend in Palestinian violence and growing economic and security cooperation between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, the Israeli military has removed over 120 check points in 2010 and plans on disengaging from major Palestinian population areas.

According to the IDF, terrorist activity in the West Bank decreased by 97% compared to violence in 2002. [246] PA–Israel efforts in the West Bank have "significantly increased investor confidence", and the Palestinian economy grew 6.8% in 2009. [247] [248] [249] [250] [251] Bank of Palestine Since the Second Intifada, Israel has banned Jewish Israelis from entering Palestinian palestina vs israel. However, Israeli Arabs are allowed to enter West Bank cities on weekends.

palestina vs israel

The Palestinian Authority has petitioned the Israeli military to allow Jewish tourists to visit West Bank cities as "part of an effort" to palestina vs israel the Palestinian economy. Israeli general Avi Mizrahi spoke with Palestinian security officers while touring malls and soccer fields in the West Bank. Mizrahi gave permission to allow Israeli tour guides into Bethlehem, a move intended to "contribute to the Palestinian and Israeli economies." [252] Mutual recognition Beginning in 1993 with the Oslo peace process, Israel recognizes "the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people", though Israel does not recognize the State of Palestine.

[253] In return, it was agreed that Palestinians would promote peaceful co-existence, renounce violence and promote recognition of Israel among their own people. Despite Yasser Arafat's official renunciation of terrorism and recognition of Israel, some Palestinian groups continue to practice and advocate violence against civilians and do not recognize Israel as a legitimate political entity.

[25] [254] [ unreliable source?] Palestinians state that their ability to spread acceptance of Israel was greatly hampered by Israeli restrictions on Palestinian political freedoms, economic freedoms, civil liberties, and quality of life. It is widely felt among Israelis that Palestinians did not in fact promote acceptance of Israel's right to exist.

[255] [256] One of Israel's major reservations in regards to recognizing Palestinian sovereignty is its concern that there is not genuine public support by Palestinians for co-existence and elimination of militantism and incitement.

[255] [256] [257] Some Palestinian groups, including Fatah, the political party founded by PLO leaders, state they are willing to foster co-existence depending on the Palestinians being steadily given more political rights and autonomy. President of Palestine, Mahmoud Abbas has in recent years refused to recognize Israel as a Jewish state citing concerns for Israeli Arabs and a possible future right to return for Palestinian refugees, though Palestine continues to recognize Israel as a state.

[258] [259] The leader of al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, which is Fatah's official military wing, has stated that any peace agreement must include the right of return of Palestinian refugees into lands now part of Israel, which some Israeli commenters view as "destroying the Jewish state".

[260] In 2006, Hamas won a majority in the Palestinian Legislative Council, where it remains the majority party. Hamas' charter openly states they seek Israel's destruction, though Hamas leaders have spoken of long-term truces with Israel in exchange for an end to the occupation of Palestinian territory.

[254] [261] Government The Palestinian Authority is considered corrupt by a wide variety of sources, including some Palestinians. [262] [263] [264] Some Israelis argue that it provides tacit support for militants via its relationship with Hamas and other Islamic militant movements, and that therefore it is unsuitable for governing any putative Palestinian state or (especially according to the right wing of Israeli politics), even negotiating about the character of such a state.

[125] Because of that, a number of organizations, including the previously ruling Likud party, declared they would not accept a Palestinian state based on the current PA. Societal attitudes Societal attitudes in both Israel and Palestine are a source of concern to those promoting dispute resolution. According to a May 2011 poll carried out by the Palestinian Center For Public Opinion that asked Palestinians from the Gaza Strip and the West Bank including East Jerusalem, "which of the following means is the best to end the occupation and lead to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state", 5.0% supported "military operations", 25.0% supported non-violent popular resistance, 32.1% favored negotiations until an agreement could be reached, 23.1% preferred holding an international conference that would impose a solution on all parties, 12.4% supported seeking a solution through the United Nations, and 2.4% otherwise.

Approximately three-quarters of Palestinians surveyed believed that a military escalation in the Gaza Strip would be in Israel's interest and 18.9% said it would be in Hamas's interest. Regarding the resumption of launching Al-Qassam missiles from Gaza into Israel, 42.5% said "strongly palestina vs israel, 27.1% "somewhat oppose", 16.0% "somewhat support", 13.8% "strongly support", and 0.2% expressed no opinion.

[265] The Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs has expressed concerns that Hamas promote incitement against and overall non-acceptance of Israel, including promotion of violence against Israel. [255] [256] Palestinian army The Israeli Cabinet issued a statement [ when?] expressing that it does not wish the Palestinians to build up palestina vs israel army capable of offensive operations, considering that the only party against which such an army could be turned in the near future is Israel itself.

[ citation needed] However, Israel has already allowed for the creation of a Palestinian police that can conduct police operations and also carry out limited-scale warfare [ citation needed].

Palestinians [ vague] have argued that the Israel Defense Forces, a large and modern armed force, poses a direct and pressing threat to the sovereignty of any future Palestinian state, making a defensive force for a Palestinian state a matter of necessity. To this, Israelis claim that signing a treaty while building an army is a show of bad intentions. [ citation needed] Starting in 2006 [ needs update], the United States began training, equipping, and funding the Palestinian Authority's security forces, which had been cooperating with Israel at unprecedented levels in the West Bank to quell supporters of Hamas.

[171] The US government has spent over $500 million building and training the Palestinian National Security Forces and Presidential Guard. [171] The IDF maintains that the US-trained forces will soon be capable of "overrunning small IDF outposts and isolated Israeli communities" in the event of a conflict. [266] Fatalities Bar chart showing Israeli and Palestinian deaths from September 2000 to July 2014 According to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Human Affairs database, as of 25 October 2020, there have been 5,587 Palestinian and 249 Israeli fatalities since 1 January 2008.

[267] A variety of studies provide differing casualty data for the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 13,000 Israelis and Palestinians were killed in conflict with each other between 1948 and 1997. [268] Other estimations give 14,500 killed between 1948 and 2009.

[268] [269] Palestinian fatalities during the 1982 Lebanon War were 2,000 PLO combatants killed in armed conflict with Israel. [270] This table may rely excessively on sources too closely associated with the subject, potentially palestina vs israel the article from being verifiable and neutral.

Please help improve it by replacing them with more appropriate citations to reliable, independent, third-party sources. ( May 2014) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) Civilian casualty figures palestina vs israel the Israeli–Palestinian conflict from B'tselem and Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs between 1987 and 2010 [271] [272] (numbers in parentheses represent casualties under the age of 18) Year Deaths Palestinians Israelis 2011 118 (13) 11 (5) 2010 81 (9) 8 (0) 2009 1,034 (314) 9 (1) 2008 887 (128) 35 (4) 2007 385 (52) 13 (0) 2006 665 (140) 23 (1) 2005 190 (49) 51 (6) 2004 832 (181) 108 (8) 2003 588 (119) 185 (21) 2002 1,032 (160) 419 (47) 2001 469 (80) 192 (36) 2000 282 (86) 41 (0) 1999 9 (0) 4 (0) 1998 28 (3) 12 (0) 1997 21 (5) 29 (3) 1996 74 (11) 75 (8) 1995 45 (5) 46 (0) 1994 152 (24) 74 (2) 1993 180 (41) 61 (0) 1992 138 (23) 34 (1) 1991 104 (27) 19 (0) 1990 145 (25) 22 (0) 1989 305 (83) 31 (1) 1988 310 (50) 12 (3) 1987 22 (5) 0 (0) Total 7,978 (1,620) 1,503 (142) Note: Figures includes 1,593 Palestinian fatalities attributed to intra-Palestinian violence.

Figures do not include the 600 Palestinians killed by other Palestinians in the Gaza Strip since 2006. [183] Demographic percentages for the Israeli–Palestinian conflict according to Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs from September 2000 until the end of July 2007. [273] Belligerent Combatant Civilian Male Female Children Children male Children female Palestinian 41% 59% 94% 6% 20% 87% 13% Israeli 31% 69% 69% 31% 12% Not available Not available Partial casualty figures for the Israeli–Palestinian conflict from the OCHAoPt [274] (numbers in parentheses represent casualties under age 18) Year Deaths Injuries Palestinians Israelis Palestinians Israelis 2008 [275] 464 (87) 31 (4) 2007 396 (43) 13 (0) 1,843 (265) 322 (3) 2006 678 (127) 25 (2) 3,194 (470) 377 (7) 2005 216 (52) 48 (6) 1,260 (129) 484 (4) Total 1,754 (309) 117 (12) 6,297 (864) 1,183 (14) All numbers refer to casualties of direct conflict between Israelis and Palestinians including in IDF military operations, artillery shelling, search and arrest campaigns, Barrier demonstrations, targeted killings, settler violence etc.

The figures do not include events indirectly related to the conflict such as casualties from unexploded ordnance, etc., or events when the circumstances remain unclear or are in dispute. The figures include all reported casualties palestina vs israel all ages and both genders. [274] Figures include both Israeli civilians and security forces casualties in West Bank, Gaza and Israel. Criticism of casualty statistics As reported by the Israeli human rights group B'Tselem, since 29 September 2000 a total of 7,454 Palestinian and Israeli individuals were killed due to the conflict.

According to the report, 1,317 of the 6,371 Palestinians were minors, and at least 2,996 did not participate in fighting at the time of death. Palestinians killed 1,083 Israelis, including 741 civilians.

124 of those killed were minors. [276] The Israeli-based International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism criticized the methodology of Israeli and Palestinian rights groups, including B'tselem, and questioned their accuracy in classifying civilian/combatant ratios. [277] [278] [279] In a study published by Scholars for Peace in the Middle East, Elihu D. Richter and Dr. Yael Stein examined B'Tselem's methods in calculating casualties during Operation Cast Lead. They argue that B'Tselem's report contains "errors of omission, commission and classification bias which result in overestimates of the ratio of non-combatants to combatants." [280] Stein and Richter claim the high male/female ratios among Palestinians, including those in their mid-to-late teens, "suggests that the IDF classifications are combatant and non-combatant status are probably far more accurate than those of B'Tselem." [280] In a study on behalf of the International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism, Don Radlauer suggested that "almost all Palestinians killed in this conflict have been male—and absent any other reasonable explanation for such a non-random pattern of fatalities—this suggests that large numbers of Palestinian men and teenaged boys made a choice to confront Israeli forces, even after many of their compatriots had been killed in such confrontations." [281] Land mine and explosive remnants of war casualties A comprehensive collection mechanism to gather land mine and explosive remnants of war (ERW) casualty data does not exist for the Palestinian territories.

[282] In 2009, the United Nations Mine Action Centre reported that more than 2,500 mine and explosive remnants of war casualties occurred between 1967 and 1998, at least 794 casualties (127 killed, 654 injured and 13 unknown) occurred between 1999 and 2008 and that 12 people had been killed and 27 injured since the Gaza War. [282] The UN Mine Action Centre identified the main risks as coming from "ERW left behind by Israeli aerial and artillery weapon systems, or from militant caches targeted by the Israeli forces." [282] There are at least 15 confirmed minefields in the Palestina vs israel Bank on the border with Jordan.

The Palestinian National Security Forces do not have maps or records of the minefields. [282] See also • Bibliography of the Arab–Israeli conflict • Children in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict • Gaza–Israel conflict • History of the State of Palestine • International law and the Arab–Israeli conflict • Israeli–Palestinian conflict in Hebron • Israel–Palestine relations • International law and the Arab–Israeli conflict • Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions • Israeli–Lebanese conflict • List of Middle East peace proposals • List of modern conflicts in the Middle East • OneVoice Movement • Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel • Pan-Arabism • Peace Now • Seeds of Peace • 2021 Israel–Palestine crisis Notes • ^ Three factors made Israel's territorial offer less forthcoming than it initially appeared.

First, the 91 percent land offer was based on the Israeli definition of the West Bank, but this differs by approximately 5 percentage points from the Palestinian definition. Palestinians use a total area of 5,854 square kilometers. Israel, however, omits the area known as No Man's Land (50 km 2 near Latrun), post-1967 East Jerusalem (71 km 2), and the territorial waters of the Dead Sea (195 km 2), which reduces the total to 5,538 km 2. Thus, an Israeli offer of 91 percent (of 5,538 km 2 of the West Bank translates into only 86 percent from the Palestinian perspective.

Jeremy Pressman, International Security, vol 28, no. 2, Fall 2003, "Visions in Collision: What Happened at Camp David and Taba?".

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• ^ Lapidoth, Ruth. "Jerusalem – Some Legal Issues" (PDF). The Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies. pp. 21–26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2013Reprinted from: Rüdiger Wolfrum (Ed.), The Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford University Press, online 2008–, print 2011) {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: postscript ( link) • ^ "Oops, Something is wrong" (PDF).

www.cbs.gov.il (in Hebrew). Retrieved 5 March 2022. • ^ a b c Sela 2002, pp. 491–498, "Jerusalem" • ^ Nadav Shragai states this idea in his study for the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, "An Israeli security body that was tasked in March 2000 with examining the possibility of transferring three Arab villages just outside Jerusalem – Abu Dis, Al Azaria, and a-Ram – to Palestinian security control, assessed at the time that: 'Terrorists will be able to exploit the short distances, sometimes involving no more than crossing a street, to cause damage to people or property.

A terrorist will be able to stand on the other side of the road, shoot at an Israeli or throw a bomb, and it may be impossible to do anything about it. The road will constitute the border.' If that is the case for neighborhoods outside Jerusalem's municipal boundaries, how much more so for Arab neighborhoods within those boundaries. Shragai, Nadav (October 2008). "JCPA ME Diplomacy-Jerusalem: The Dangers of Division" (PDF).

Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 5 January 2009. • ^ Gold. The Fight for Jerusalem: Radical Islam, the West, and the Future of the Holy City. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 2007.

pp. 5–6. • ^ Golden, Jonathan (2004). "Targeting Heritage: The Abuse of Symbolic Sites in Modern Conflicts". In Rowan, Yorke M.; Baram, Uzi (eds.). Marketing heritage: archaeology and the consumption of the past. Rowman Altamira. pp. 183–202. ISBN 978-0-7591-0342-9. • ^ "Extremists - Talking With Jewish Extremists - Israel's Next War? - FRONTLINE - PBS". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 5 March 2022. • ^ Peled, Alisa Rubin (2001). Debating Islam in the Jewish State: The Development of Policy toward Islamic Institutions in Israel.

State University of New York Press. p. 96. OCLC 929622466. In general, Israeli policy towards holy places can be considered a success with regard to its primary goal: facilitating Israel's acceptance into the international community of nations. However, the repeated failure of the Muslim Affairs Department to fulfill its mandate of protecting the Muslim holy places in Israel has been a largely forgotten chapter in Israeli history that deserves reexamination • ^ "Secret tunnel under Al-Aqsa Mosque exposed".

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1 October 1996. • ^ a b c Sela 2002, pp. 724–29, Efrat, Moshe. "Refugees." • ^ a palestina vs israel Peters, Joel; Dajani Daoudi, Mohammed (2011). The Israel–Palestine Conflict Parallel discourses. Routledge. pp. 26, 37. ISBN 978-0-203-83939-3. • ^ "General Progress Report and Supplementary Report of the United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine, Covering the Period from 11 December 1949 to 23 October 1950".

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5 November 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2013. • ^ mfa.gov.jo https://mfa.gov.jo/404.html. Retrieved 5 March 2022. {{ cite web}}: Missing or empty -title= ( help) • ^ "Right of return: Palestinian dream?". 18 February 2003. Retrieved 5 March 2022.

• ^ Flapan, Simha (Summer 1987). "The Palestinian Exodus of 1948". Journal of Palestine Studies. 16 (4): 3–26. doi: 10.2307/2536718.

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New York: Vintage Books. pp. 252–258. ISBN 978-0-679-74475-7. • ^ Masalha, Nur (1992). Expulsion of the Palestinians: The Concept of "Transfer" in Zionist Political Thought, 1882–1948 (4. print. ed.). Washington, DC: Inst. for Palestine Studies. pp. 175. ISBN 978-0-88728-235-5. • ^ Michael Mann (2005). The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge University Press. pp. 109, 519. ISBN 978-0-521-83130-7. • ^ Benny Morris. "Arab-Israeli War". The Crimes of War Education Project.

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Journal of Palestine Studies. 18 (1): 121–137. doi: 10.2307/2537599. JSTOR 2537599. And Childers, Irskine (12 May 1961). "The Other Exodus". The Spectator. London. • ^ Honig-Parnass, Tikva (2011). The False Prophets of Peace: Liberal Zionism and the Struggle for Palestine. Haymarket Books. p. 5. ISBN 978-1608461301. Makdisi rightly argues that almost every law of South African Apartheid has its equivalent in Israel today.18 A significant example is the Law of Return (1950), which even Kretzmer claims is explicitly discriminatory palestina vs israel Palestinian citizens.

The Law of Return, which determines the second-class citizenship of Palestinians, is recognized as a fundamental principle in Israel and "is possibly even its very raison d'etre as a Jewish state."19 • ^ Schmidt, Yvonne (2008). Foundations of Civil and Political Rights in Israel and the Occupied Territories.

GRIN Verlag oHG. pp. 245–246. ISBN 978-3638944502. In any case has the Law of Return, 1950 discriminatory effect for Palestinian Arab people since it allows any Jew to immigrate to Israel, while – at the same time – it deprives all native Palestinian Palestina vs israel refugees residing outside the borders of the state of Israel of their fundamental right to return to their homes and villages from which they were expelled or took flight in the course of the 1948 war that broke out because of the establishment of Israel.

• ^ Kassim, Anis F. (2002). The Palestine Yearbook of International Law 2001–2002: Vol. 11. Brill. p. 150. ISBN 978-3638944502. Under the heading of "Discrimination", the Committee cited Israel's Law of Return as discriminatory against Palestinian refugees because of Israel's refusal to readmit them.

The committee said: "The Committee notes with concern that the Law of Return which permits any Jew from anywhere in the world to immigrate and thereby virtually automatically enjoy residence and obtain citizenship in Israel, discriminates against Palestinians in the Diaspora upon whom the Government of Israel has imposed restrictive requirements that make it almost impossible to return to their land of birth." • ^ "A/RES/181(II) of 29 November 1947". United Nations. Archived from the original on 25 October 2014.

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• ^ a b "Twentieth Century Atlas - Death Tolls". users.erols.com . Retrieved 5 March 2022. • ^ "All wars in the 20th century, since 1900 - the Polynational War Memorial". www.war-memorial.net . Retrieved 5 March 2022. • ^ "Twentieth Century Atlas - Death Tolls and Casualty Statistics for Wars, Dictatorships and Genocides".

6 May 2009. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009 . Retrieved 5 March 2022. • ^ "Fatalities in the first Intifada". B'Tselem . Retrieved 5 March 2022. • ^ www.mfa.gov.il http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Terrorism-+Obstacle+to+Peace/Palestinian+terror+before+2000/Fatal+Terrorist+Attacks+in+Israel+Since+the+DOP+-S.htm . Retrieved 5 March 2022. {{ cite web}}: Missing or empty -title= ( help) • ^ "Israeli-Palestinian Fatalities Since 2000 – Key Trends." Archived 3 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

August 2007. PDF. • ^ a b "The Humanitarian Monitor." Archived 16 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. December 2007. PDF. Tables on pages 5 and 7, all numbers refer to casualties of the direct conflict as defined therein (page 23). • ^ "Statistics". B'Tselem . Retrieved 5 March 2022.

• ^ "B'Tselem: Since 2000, 7,454 Israelis, Palestinians killed". The Jerusalem Post - JPost.com . Retrieved 5 March 2022. • ^ Mor, Avi, et al. "Casualties in Operation Cast Lead: A closer look." Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya.

2009. PDF. • ^ "Targeted Killings: Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Counterterrorism Policy" (PDF). January 2005 . Retrieved 9 August 2010. • ^ Ynet (9 September 2009). "B'Tselem: 773 of Palestinians killed in Cast Lead were civilians".

Ynetnews . Retrieved 5 March 2022. • ^ a b "SPME - Scholars for Peace in the Middle East". SPME . Retrieved 5 March 2022. • ^ www.ict.org.il http://www.ict.org.il/Article.aspx?ID=845 . Retrieved 5 March 2022.

{{ cite web}}: Missing or empty -title= ( help) • ^ a b c d "Country Overviews – Occupied Palestinian Territory". United Nations Mine Action Service. 2009. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010 . Retrieved 2 February 2010. External links Israeli–Palestinian conflictat Wikipedia's sister projects • Media from Commons • News from Wikinews • Data from Wikidata United Nations • Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – occupied Palestinian territory • United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East Academic, news, and similar sites (excluding Israeli or Palestinian sources) • U.S.

Attempts at Peace between Israel and Palestine from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives • Gaza\Sderot : Life in spite of everything – a webdocumentary produced by arte.tv, in which daily video-chronicles (2 min.

each) show the life of 5 people (men, women, children) in Gaza and Sderot, on both sides of the border. • Global Politician – Middle-East Section • Middle East Policy Council • The Washington Institute for Near East Policy • Aix Group – Joint Palestinian-Israeli-international economic working group. • Crash Course World History 223: Conflict in Israel and Palestine – Renowned author and YouTube educator John Green gives a brief history lesson (13 minutes) on the conflict.

• The Israeli–Palestinian Conflict—An overview of the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians from 1948 through the present day.

From the History Guy Website. • The Media Line – A non-profit news agency which provides credible, unbiased content, background and context from across the Middle East.

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palestina vs israel

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• Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • • • Planned decision by the Supreme Court of Israel on the eviction of four Palestinian families in the East Jerusalem neighborhood of Sheikh Jarrah • Storming of the al-Aqsa Mosque by Israeli police [1] Resulted in Return to status quo ante bellum; ceasefire in effect • Victory claimed by both sides [2] [3] • Halting of both Israeli airstrikes inside the Gaza Strip and Palestinian rocket fire into Israel Parties to the civil conflict Israel–Gaza conflict: 14 civilians killed [9] [10] [11] (1 Indian, [12] 2 Thai [11]), 114 wounded [13] 1 soldier killed, 3 wounded [14] [15] 1 aerial drone destroyed (friendly fire) [16] Lod & Acre riots: 2 Jewish-Israelis killed [17] [18] West Bank: 2 soldiers wounded, 6 border police injured [19] [20] Gaza Strip: 256 people killed, 2,000 wounded (per UN) [21] [22] 128 civilians (per UN OHCHR) [22] 80–200 militants killed (low est.

per Hamas, high est. per Israel) [23] [24] 6 aerial [25] and "several" underwater drones destroyed (per Israel) [26] West Bank: 28 Palestinians killed [22] [27] 500+ Palestinians injured [28] Lod riots: 1 Arab-Israeli protester killed [29] East Jerusalem: 1,000 Palestinian protesters injured [30] 23 protesters arrested [31] Israeli–Lebanese border: 1 Hezbollah member and 1 Lebanese protester killed [32] [33] 72,000+ Palestinians displaced [34] • Timeline • Palestinian rocket attacks • Lists • Gaza cross-border raid • Summer Rains • Autumn Clouds • Gaza–Egypt border breach • Hot Winter • 2008–2009 Gaza War • March 2010 clashes • Southern Israel cross-border attacks • March 2012 clashes • Pillar of Defense • 2014 war • Shuja'iyya • Beach bombing incidents • 2018 border protests • November 2018 clashes • May 2019 clashes • November 2019 clashes • 2021 clashes A major outbreak of palestina vs israel in the ongoing Israeli–Palestinian conflict commenced on 10 May 2021, though disturbances took place earlier, and continued until a ceasefire came into effect on 21 May.

It was marked by protests and police riot control, rocket attacks on Israel by Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), and Israeli airstrikes in the Gaza Strip. The crisis was triggered [35] on 6 May, when Palestinians in East Jerusalem began protesting over an anticipated decision of the Supreme Court of Israel on the eviction of six Palestinian families in the neighborhood of Sheikh Jarrah.

[36] Under international law, the area, effectively annexed by Israel in 1980, is a part of the Palestinian Territories; [37] [38] Israel applies its laws there. [37] [38] On 7 May, according to Israel's Channel 12, Palestinians threw stones at Israeli police forces, [39] who then stormed the compound of the al-Aqsa Mosque [40] using tear gas, palestina vs israel bullets, and stun grenades.

[41] [40] [42] The crisis prompted protests around the world as well as official reactions from world leaders. The violence coincided with Qadr Night (8 May), observed by Muslims, and Jerusalem Day (9–10 May), an Israeli national holiday.

The confrontations occurred ahead of a planned Jerusalem Day parade known as the Dance of Flags by far-right Jewish nationalists, which was later canceled. [43] [42] [44] More than 600 people were injured, mostly Palestinians, [45] drawing international condemnation.

Israel's Supreme Court ruling on evictions from Sheikh Jarrah was then delayed for 30 days as Avichai Mandelblit, the erstwhile attorney general of Israel, sought to reduce tensions. [46] On the afternoon of 10 May, Hamas gave Israel an ultimatum to withdraw its security forces from both the Temple Mount complex and Sheikh Jarrah by 6 p.m.

When the ultimatum expired without a response, both Hamas and PIJ launched rockets from the Gaza Strip into Israel; [47] [48] some of these rockets hit Israeli residences and a school. [49] [50] [51] [52] Israel then began a campaign of airstrikes against Gaza; by 16 May, some 950 targeted attacks had demolished, completely or partially: 18 buildings, including four high-rise towers; 40 schools and four hospitals; and also struck the al-Shati refugee camp.

[53] [54] [55] [56] [57] Additionally, at least 19 medical facilities were damaged or destroyed by the Israeli bombardment. [58] By 17 May, the United Nations estimated that Israeli airstrikes had destroyed 94 buildings in Gaza, comprising 461 housing and commercial units, including the al-Jalaa Highrise; housing offices of the Associated Press, the Al Jazeera Media Network, and other news outlets; and 60 condominiums.

[59] As a result of the violence, at least 256 Palestinians, including 66 children, were killed (including at least seven from friendly fire). [22] [60] In Israel, at least 13 people were killed, [11] including two children. [14] The Gaza Ministry of Health reported that more than 1,900 Palestinians were injured, [21] and as of 12 May, Israel reported at least 200 injured Israelis.

[ needs update] [61] As of 19 May, at least 72,000 Palestinians have been displaced. [34] Around 4,360 Palestinian rockets were fired towards Israel, of which 680 landed within the Gaza Strip, [62] [2] and over 90 percent of rockets bound towards populated areas were intercepted by Israel's Iron Dome.

[63] [64] Israel conducted around 1,500 aerial, land, and sea strikes on the Gaza Strip. [65] Calls for a ceasefire were first proposed on 13 May by Hamas, but rejected by erstwhile Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu. [66] On 18 May, France, along with Egypt and Jordan, announced the filing of a United Nations Security Council resolution for a ceasefire. [67] Egypt mediated a ceasefire between Israel and Hamas, which came into effect on 21 May 2021, ending 11 days of fighting in which both sides claimed victory.

[2] On 16 June 2021, incendiary balloons were launched from Gaza into Israel, which the Israeli Air Force responded to with multiple airstrikes in the Gaza Strip, resuming the fighting.

[68] Contents • 1 Background • 1.1 April–May 2021 Ramadan events • 1.2 Sheikh Jarrah property dispute • 1.3 Political instability • 2 Escalation • 2.1 Sheikh Jarrah • 2.2 Al-Aqsa Mosque • 2.3 West Bank • 2.4 Arab communities in Israel • 2.5 Gaza • 2.6 Lebanon and Syria • 3 Casualties and damage • 3.1 Medical facilities and personnel • 3.2 Alleged war crimes • 3.3 Infrastructure • 3.3.1 Gaza • 3.3.2 Israel • 4 Diplomacy and ceasefire • 4.1 Aftermath and post-ceasefire tensions • 4.2 Israeli and Palestinian reactions • 5 See also • 6 Notes • 7 References • 8 External links Background Main articles: Arab–Israeli conflict and Israeli–Palestinian conflict April–May 2021 Ramadan events At the beginning of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan in 2021, Jerusalem Islamic Waqf officials said that on the night of 13 April, the Israeli police entered the Al-Aqsa Mosque compound and severed the loudspeaker cables used to broadcast the muezzin's ritual call to prayer, so that the Memorial Day speech being delivered by President Reuven Rivlin below at the Western Wall would not be disturbed.

Israeli police declined to comment. [1] The incident was condemned by Jordan, [69] and the Palestinian National Authority President Mahmoud Abbas called the incident "a racist hate crime", [69] [70] but it did not draw other international attention. [1] Same month Israeli police closed the staired plaza outside the Old City's Damascus Gate, a traditional holiday gathering spot for Palestinians. [71] [1] The closure triggered violent night clashes, the barricades were removed after several days.

[71] [72] On 15 April, a TikTok video of a Palestinian teen slapping an ultra-orthodox Jewish man went viral, leading to several copycat incidents. [73] The next day, tens of thousands of Palestinian worshippers were turned away from al-Aqsa, on the first Friday of Ramadan when Israel imposed a 10,000-person limit on prayers at the mosque.

[73] [74] On the same day, a rabbi was beaten in Jaffa causing two days of protests. [73] On 22 April, the far-right Jewish supremacist [75] group Lehava held a march through Jerusalem chanting " death to Arabs." [73] On 23 April, after fringe military groups fired 36 rockets at southern Israel, the IDF launched missiles at Hamas targets in the Gaza Strip.

[73] The barrage of rocket fire came as hundreds of Palestinians clashed with Israeli police in East Jerusalem and on 25 April, the United Nations envoy Tor Wennesland condemned the violence and said, "The provocative acts across Jerusalem must cease. The indiscriminate launching of rockets towards Israeli population centers violates international law and must stop immediately." [76] On 26 April, after more than 40 rockets have been launched from the Gaza Strip into Israel while one projectile exploded inside the Gaza Strip over of the previous three days, the Security Cabinet of Israel voted in favor after an hours-long debate of an operational plan to strike Hamas if rocket fire from Gaza continues.

[77] In the following days, a Palestinian boy and a 19-year-old Israeli settler were killed. On 6 May, the Israel Police shot and killed a 16-year-old Palestinian during a raid of Nablus in the West Bank. [78] According to Addameer, Israeli police arrested at least 61 children from mid-April during clashes in and about East Jerusalem, and 4 were shot dead in three weeks.

[79] Itamar Ben-Gvir visited Sheikh Jarrah shortly before the clashes began, where he said that the houses belonged to Jews and told police to "open fire" on protesters. [71] Agence France-Presse reported that Israeli settlers had been seen in Sheikh Jarrah openly carrying assault rifles and revolvers leading up to the clashes. [71] According to author Ramzy Baroud, a video was posted of Ben-Gvir, in a joking exchange with the deputy mayor of Jerusalem, Arieh King, mocking a Palestinian resident shot by Israeli police during a protest.

[80] Sheikh Jarrah property dispute Entrance to the Sheikh Jarrah neighborhood The Sheikh Jarrah district houses the descendants of refugees expelled or displaced from their homes in Jaffa and Haifa in the Nakba of 1948. [81] [82] Today, around 75 Palestinian families live on this disputed land. [83] The long-running dispute over land ownership in Sheikh Jarrah is considered a microcosm of the Israeli–Palestinian disputes over land since 1948.

[84] Currently, more than 1,000 Palestinians living across East Jerusalem face possible eviction. [83] Israeli law allows Israeli land owners to file claims over land in East Jerusalem which they have owned prior to 1948, except where expropriated by the Jordanian government, [85] but rejects Palestinian claims over land in Israel which they owned. [86] The international community considers East Jerusalem to be Palestinian territory held under Israeli occupation and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) has called on Israel to stop all forced evictions of Palestinians from Sheikh Jarrah, saying that if carried out the expulsions of the Palestinians would violate Israel's responsibilities under international law which prohibit the transfer of civilians in to or out of occupied territory by the occupying power.

A spokesman for the OHCHR said that such transfers may constitute a "war crime". [37] Human rights organizations have been critical of Israeli efforts to remove Palestinians from Sheikh Jarrah, with Human Rights Watch releasing a statement saying that the disparate rights between Palestinian and Jewish residents of East Jerusalem "underscores the reality of apartheid that Palestinians in East Jerusalem face." [87] Israeli human rights group estimate that over 1,000 Palestinian families are at risk of eviction in East Jerusalem.

[88] A Jewish trust bought the land in Sheikh Jarrah from Arab landowners in the 1870s in Ottoman Palestine. However, the purchase is disputed by some Palestinians, who have produced Ottoman-era land titles for part of the land. [89] The land came under Jordanian control following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

[90] Following the war, Jewish residents were expelled from East Jerusalem, and Palestinians from Israel. [83] In 1956, the Jordanian government, in cooperation with the United Nations' organization for refugees, housed 28 of these Palestinian families on land owned by Jewish trusts. [83] [90] After the Six-Day War the area fell under Israeli occupation. [91] In 1970, Israel passed a law that allowed previous owners to reclaim property in East Jerusalem that had been taken by Jordan without having ownership transferred.

[83] [85] Under this law, in 1972, the Israeli Custodian General registered the properties under the Jewish trusts which claimed to be the rightful owners of the land. [83] [91] In 1982, an agreement was endorsed by the courts which the families later said had been made without their knowledge and disputed the original ownership claims by the Jewish trusts.

[b] [83] These challenges were rejected by Israeli courts. [83] The trusts then demanded that the tenants pay rent. Eviction orders began to be issued in the 1990s. [91] Palestinian tenants say that Israeli courts have no jurisdiction in the area since the land is outside Israel's recognized borders; [94] this view is supported by the UN Human Rights Office.

[83] OCHAoPT map of Palestinian communities under threat of eviction in East Jerusalem, as of 2016 In 2003, the Jewish trusts sold the homes to a right-wing settler organization, which then made repeated attempts to evict the Palestinian residents.

[89] [83] The company has submitted plans to build more than 200 housing units, which have not yet [ when?] been approved by the government. [83] These groups succeeded in evicting 43 Palestinians from the area in 2002, and three more families since then. [38] In 2010, the Supreme Court of Israel rejected an appeal by Palestinian families who had resided in 57 housing units in the area of Sheikh Jarrah, who had petitioned the court to have their ownership to the properties recognized.

[91] An Israeli court had previously ruled that the Palestinians could remain on the properties under a legal status called "protected tenants", but had to pay rent. The move to evict them came after they refused to pay rent and carried out construction.

[95] In 2021 Israel's Supreme Court was expected to deliver a ruling on whether to uphold the eviction of six Palestinian families from the Sheikh Jarrah neighborhood on 10 May 2021, after a court ruled that 13 families comprising 58 people had to vacate the properties by 1 August.

[38] On 9 May 2021, the Israeli Supreme Court delayed the expected decision on evictions for 30 days, after an intervention from Attorney General of Israel Avichai Mandelblit. [46] On 26 May 2021, the court ordered Mandelblit to submit his legal opinion on the matter within two weeks.

In a related case, the Jerusalem District Court is holding a hearing on appeals filed on behalf of seven families subject of eviction orders from the Batan al-Hawa section of Silwan.

[96] According to Haaretz, Mandelblit notified the court on 7 June that he would decline to present a view on the case; [97] a new hearing date of 2 August was set. [98] According to the Jerusalem Institute for Policy Research, this approach to property rights is unacceptable in international law. [91] The Jerusalem-based non-profit organization B'Tselem and the international Human Rights Watch cited discriminatory policies in East Jerusalem in recent reports, alleging that Israel is guilty of the crime of apartheid.

Israel rejected the allegations. [99] [100] East Jerusalem is effectively annexed by Israel, and Israel applies its laws there. [38] [37] According to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the area is a part of the Palestinian territories that Israel currently occupies.

[37] United States Secretary of State Antony Blinken warned Israel that evicting Palestinian families from their homes in East Jerusalem is among the actions by both sides that could lead to "conflict and war." [101] Political instability The 2021 Palestinian legislative election for the Palestinian Legislative Council, originally scheduled for 22 May 2021, was indefinitely postponed on 29 April 2021 by President Mahmoud Abbas. [102] [103] [104] Hamas, which was expected to do well in the elections, called the move a " coup", [104] and some Palestinians believed Abbas had delayed the election to avoid political defeat for his party Fatah.

[71] [105] [106] Analysts say the postponement contributed towards the current crisis, [42] and encouraged Hamas to resort to military confrontation rather than diplomatic tactics.

[107] [108] [109] [110] Opinion pieces in NBC News, palestina vs israel Wall Street Journal and Foreign Policy argued that by taking responsibility for the rocket fire, Hamas had improved its standing among Palestinians wary of the delayed elections. [111] [112] [113] [110] In Israel, the 2019–2021 Israeli political crisis saw four inconclusive elections which left Israel functioning under a caretaker government.

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu was trying to persuade several extreme-right politicians to form a coalition. [114] [1] The presence of right-wing Israeli politicians Ben-Gvir and King contributed to the crisis. [114] The New York Times said Netanyahu was trying to instigate a crisis to build support for his leadership, and thus allowed tensions to rise in Jerusalem.

[1] [115] An article in The Conversation dismissed this as "conspiratorial", arguing that although the crisis has given Netanyahu a political opportunity, he "was not looking or hoping for a major conflict with the Palestinians to help him hold onto power".

[116] Escalation See also: Timeline of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict in 2021 § May Palestinian protests began on 6 May in Sheikh Jarrah, but clashes soon spread to the al-Aqsa Mosque, Lod, other Arab localities in Israel, and the West Bank. [36] Between 10 and 14 May Israeli security inflicted injuries on approximately 1,000 Palestinian protesters in East Jerusalem. [30] Sheikh Jarrah Palestinians and Israeli settlers first clashed on 6 May in Sheikh Jarrah, where Palestinian families are at risk of being evicted.

Palestinian protesters had been holding nightly outdoor iftars. On 6 May, Israeli settlers and members of the far-right political party Otzma Yehudit set up a table across the street from Palestinians. Social media videos showed both sides hurling rocks and chairs at each other. Israeli police intervened and arrested at least 7 people. [117] Israeli police subsequently engaged in extensive spraying of Sheikh Jarrah's Palestinian homes, shops, restaurants, public spaces and cultural institutions with Skunk, a lasting stench used to contain protests.

[118] Al-Aqsa Mosque Aerial photograph of al-Aqsa Mosque, on the Temple Mount, the site of some of the clashes On 7 May, large numbers of police were deployed on the Temple Mount as around 70,000 worshippers attended the final Friday prayers of Ramadan at al-Aqsa. After the evening prayers, some Palestinian worshippers began throwing previously stockpiled rocks and other objects at Israeli police officers.

Police officers fired stun grenades into the mosque compound, and into a field clinic. [42] [73] [119] A mosque spokesman stated the clashes broke out after Israeli police attempted to evacuate the compound, where many Palestinians sleep over in Ramadan, adding that the evacuation was intended to allow access to Israelis. [61] More than 300 Palestinians were wounded as Israeli police stormed the mosque compound. [120] [121] Palestinians threw rocks, firecrackers, and heavy objects, while Israeli police fired stun grenades, tear gas, and rubber bullets at worshippers.

[40] [61] [121] [122] The storming came ahead of a Jerusalem Day flag march by Jewish nationalists through the Old City. [121] [123] More than 600 Palestinians were injured, more than 400 of whom were hospitalised.

[45] Militants in Gaza fired rockets into Israel the following night. [42] More clashes occurred on 8 May, the date of the Islamic holy night of Laylat al-Qadr.

[124] Palestinian crowds threw stones, lit fires, and chanted "Strike Tel Aviv" and "In spirit and in blood, we will redeem al-Aqsa", which The Times of Israel described as in support of Hamas.

[125] The Israel Police, wearing riot gear and some on horseback, used stun grenades and water cannons. [124] At least 80 people were injured. [124] On 10 May, Israeli police stormed al-Aqsa for the second time, [126] injuring 300 Palestinians and 21 Israeli police.

[45] According to the Red Crescent, 250 Palestinians were hospitalized for injuries and seven were in critical condition.

[126] Also on 10 May, a video showing a tree burning near al-Aqsa began to circulate on social media. Below in the Western plaza, a crowd of Jewish Israelis was singing and dancing in celebration of Jerusalem Day. Yair Wallach accused them of singing "genocidal songs of vengeance." The crowd cheered the flames with words from a song from Judges 16:28 in which Samson cries out before he tears down the pillars in Gaza, "O God, that I may with one blow take vengeance on the Philistines for my two eyes!" [127] Witnesses differed as to whether the fire was caused by an Israeli police stun grenade or by fireworks thrown by Palestinian protesters.

[128] Although the fire happened just 10 meters away from al-Aqsa, there was no damage to the mosque. [128] West Bank Map of the West Bank, May 2021, showing Palestinian (green) and Israeli control. After Friday prayers on 14 May, Palestinians protested in more than 200 locations in the West Bank.

Protesters hurled stones and Israeli soldiers responded with live fire and tear gas. [129] As a result, 11 Palestinians were killed in the clashes. [130] A Palestinian man who attempted to stab a soldier was shot, but survived; no Israeli soldiers were wounded in the incident. More than 100 Palestinians were injured. [131] [132] There have been daily demonstrations since the escalation in Gaza.

[133] As of 16 May, a total of 13 Palestinians had been killed in the West Bank in clashes with Israeli troops by 14 May. [28] On 17 May, three Palestinian demonstrators were killed in clashes with the IDF. [134] According to Al Arabiya, Fatah has backed a call for a general strike on 18 May in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. Palestinians in Israel have been asked to take part. [135] In an unusual display of unity by "Palestinian citizens of Israel, who make up 20% of its population, and those in the territories Israel seized in 1967" [c] [137] the strike went ahead and "shops were shuttered across cities in Gaza, the occupied West Bank and in villages and towns inside Israel".

[138] During the day of protests and strikes, a Palestinian man was killed and more than 70 wounded in clashes near Ramallah and two Israeli soldiers were injured in a shooting attack.

[134] Large crowds also gathered in Nablus, Bethlehem and Hebron while police deployed water cannons in Sheikh Jarrah. [139] Arab communities in Israel During the evening and night of 10 May, Arab rioters in Lod threw stones and firebombs at Jewish homes, a school, and a synagogue, later attacking a hospital. Shots were fired at the rioters, killing one and wounding two; a Palestina vs israel suspect in the shooting was arrested.

[140] Widespread protests and riots intensified across Israel, particularly in cities with large Arab populations. In Lod, rocks were thrown at Jewish apartments and some Jewish residents were evacuated from their homes by the police. Synagogues and a Muslim cemetery were vandalized.

[141] A Jewish man was critically wounded after being struck in the head by a brick, and died six days later. [17] In Acre, palestina vs israel Effendi hotel was torched by Arab rioters, injuring several guests. One of them, Avi Har-Even, a former head of the Israel Space Agency, suffered burns and smoke inhalation, and died on 6 June.

[18] [142] [143] In the nearby city of Ramle, Jewish rioters threw rocks at passing vehicles. [144] On palestina vs israel May, Mayor of Lod Yair Revivio urged Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu to deploy the Israel Border Police to the city, stating that the municipality had "completely lost control" and warning that the country was on the brink of "civil war". [145] [146] Netanyahu declared a state of emergency in Lod on 11 May, marking the first time since 1966 that Israel has used emergency powers over palestina vs israel Arab community.

Border Police forces were deployed to the city. A nighttime curfew was declared and entry to the city was prohibited for non-resident civilians. [144] [147] Minister of Public Security Amir Ohana announced the implementation of emergency orders.

[147] Rioters attack a bus in Jerusalem, 19 May Unrest continued on 12 May. In Acre, a Jewish man was attacked and seriously injured by an Arab mob armed with sticks and stones while driving his car. In Bat Yam, Jewish extremists attacked Arab stores and beat pedestrians. An Arab motorist was pulled from his car and severely beaten in the street.

The incident was caught live by an Israeli news crew. [148] [149] As of 13 May, communal violence including "riots, stabbings, arson, attempted home invasions and shootings" was reported from Beersheba, Rahat, Ramla, Lod, Nasiriyah, Tiberias, Jerusalem, Haifa and Acre. [150] An Israeli soldier was severely beaten in Jaffa and hospitalized for a skull fracture and cerebral hemorrhage, a Jewish paramedic and another Jewish man were shot in separate incidents in Lod, a police officer was shot in Ramla, Israeli journalists were attacked by far-right rioters in Tel Aviv, and a Jewish family that mistakenly drove into Umm al-Fahm was attacked by an Arab mob before being rescued by other local residents and police.

[151] Israel Border Police forces were deployed throughout the country to quell the unrest, and 10 Border Police reserve companies were called up. [152] In an address to police in Lod, Prime Minister Netanyahu told them not to worry about future commissions of inquiry and investigations into their enforcement during the riots, reminding them of the way the police had suppressed the Palestinian Land Day riots of 1976.

[153] [154] By 17 May, the rioting had mostly died down. [17] However, on 18 May, Israeli-Arabs, together palestina vs israel Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, held a general strike in protest against Israeli policies toward Palestinians. [155] Numerous employers threatened to fire Arab workers who participated in the strike. The management of Rambam Hospital in Haifa sent letters to their Arab employees warning against participating in the strike, and the Ministry of Education came under heavy criticism from teachers throughout Israel after it sent requests to the principals of schools in Arab towns asking for a list of teachers who participated in the strike.

There were some instances of employees who participated in the strike being unlawfully dismissed without a prior hearing as required under Israeli law.

[156] The Israeli telecommunications company Cellcom paused work for an hour as an act in support of coexistence. The move led to calls for a boycott of Cellcom among Israeli right-wingers who accused it of showing solidarity with the strike, and several Jewish settlement councils and right-wing organizations cut ties with it.

Cellcom's stock subsequently dropped by two percent. [157] Israel Police arrest accused rioters in the Negev Throughout the riots, Arab rioters set 10 synagogues and 112 Jewish homes on fire, looted 386 Jewish homes and damaged another 673, and set 849 Jewish cars on fire. There were also 5,018 recorded instances of stone-throwing against Jews. By contrast, Jewish rioters damaged 13 Arab homes and set 13 Arab cars on fire, and there were 41 recorded instances of stone-throwing against Arabs.

One Arab home was set on fire by Arab rioters who mistook it for a Jewish home. [158] No mosques were set on fire and no Arab homes were reported looted during the palestina vs israel. [159] By 19 May, 1,319 people had been arrested for participating in the riots, of whom 159 were Jewish, and 170 people had been criminally charged over the riots, of whom 155 were Arab and 15 Jewish. [160] On 23 May, it was palestina vs israel that 10% of those arrested over the riots were Palestina vs israel, with the vast majority of those arrested being Arabs.

[161] On 24 May, the police launched a sweeping operation to arrest rioters called Operation Law and Order, deploying thousands of police officers to carry out mass arrests of suspected rioters.

By 25 May, over 1,550 people had been arrested. [162] On 3 June, the police announced the completion of arrests, of 2,142 arrested, 91% were Arab. [163] According to Amnesty International, most of the arrests of Israeli-Arabs were for "insulting or assaulting a police officer" or "taking part in an illegal gathering" while right-wing Jewish extremists were mainly able to organize freely. The organization claimed that a "catalogue of violations" was committed by Israeli police against Palestinians in Israel and occupied East Jerusalem.

"On at least two occasions in Haifa and Nazareth, witness accounts and verified videos showed police attacking groups of unarmed protesters without provocation", Amnesty reported.

[164] Gaza Palestina vs israel information: List of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel in 2021 and Casualties of Israeli attacks on the Gaza Strip Hamas delivered an ultimatum to Israel to remove all its police and military personnel from both the Haram al Sharif mosque site and Sheikh Jarrah by 10 May 6 p.m.

If it failed to do so, they announced that the combined militias of the Gaza Strip ("joint operations room") would strike Israel. [47] [165] [166] Minutes after the deadline passed, [167] Hamas fired more than 150 rockets into Israel from Gaza. [168] The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) said that seven rockets were fired toward Jerusalem and Beit Shemesh and that one was intercepted.

[169] An anti-tank missile was also fired at an Israeli civilian vehicle, injuring the driver. [170] Israel launched air strikes in the Gaza Strip on the same day. [171] Hamas called the ensuing conflict the "Sword of Jerusalem Battle." [172] The following day, the IDF officially dubbed the campaign in the Gaza Strip "Operation Guardian of the Walls." [173] On 11 May, Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad launched hundreds palestina vs israel rockets at Ashdod and Ashkelon, killing two people and wounding more than 90 others.

[170] [174] [175] A third Israeli woman from Rishon LeZion was also killed, [176] while two more civilians from Dahmash were killed by a rocket attack.

[177] On 11 May, the 13-story residential Hanadi Tower in Gaza collapsed after being hit by an Israeli airstrike. [178] [179] The tower housed a mix of residential apartments and commercial offices. [180] IDF said the building contained offices used by Hamas, and said it gave "advance warning to civilians in the building and provided sufficient time for them to evacuate the site"; [179] Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad fired 137 rockets at Tel Aviv in five minutes.

Hamas stated that they fired their "largest ever barrage." [181] In addition, an Israeli state-owned oil pipeline was hit by a rocket. [182] Israeli bombing of the Gaza Strip, 12 May On 12 May, the Israeli Air Force destroyed dozens of police and security installations along the Gaza Strip; Hamas said its police headquarters were among the targets destroyed. [183] Over 850 rockets were launched from Gaza into Israel on 12 May.

[184] According to the IDF, at least 200 rockets launched by Hamas failed to reach Israel, and fell inside the Gaza Strip. Hamas also struck an Israeli military jeep near the Gaza border with an anti-tank missile.

An Israeli soldier was killed and three others were wounded in the attack. [185] [186] [187] IDF operations in Gaza on 14 May On 13 May, Israeli forces and militant groups in Gaza continued to exchange artillery fire and airstrikes. Hamas attempted to deploy suicide drones against Israeli targets, with an Israeli F-16 engaging and shooting down one such drone. [188] The Iron Dome intercepted many of the rockets fired at Israel. [189] A series of Israeli strikes targeted the headquarters of Hamas' internal security forces, its central bank, palestina vs israel the home of a senior Hamas commander.

[190] On 14 May, Israel Defense Forces claimed to have troops on the ground and in the air attacking the Gaza Strip, [191] although this claim was later retracted and followed with an apology for misleading the press.

Israeli troops were reportedly told that they would be sent into Gaza and ground forces were reportedly positioned along the border as though they were preparing to launch an invasion. [192] That same day, the Israeli Air Force launched a massive bombardment of Hamas' extensive underground palestina vs israel network, which was known as "the metro", as well as above-ground positions, reportedly inflicting heavy casualties. It was suspected that the reports of an Israeli ground invasion had been a deliberate ruse to lure Hamas operatives into the tunnels and prepared positions above ground to confront Israeli ground forces so that large numbers could then be killed by airstrikes.

According to an Israeli official, the attacks killed hundreds of Hamas personnel, and in addition, 20 Hamas commanders were assassinated and most of its rocket production capabilities were destroyed. However, the estimated Hamas death toll was revised to dozens, as information came out that senior Hamas commanders had doubted that the ruse was genuine and only a few dozen Hamas fighters took positions in the tunnels.

[193] [107] [194] [195] In total, 160 Israeli Air Force aircraft fired 450 missiles at 150 targets, with the attacks lasting about 40 minutes. [196] [197] Also on 14 May, a Hamas drone was downed by Israeli air defense forces.

[198] Israel destroys the al-Jalaa media building, 15 May On 15 May the IDF destroyed the al-Jalaa Building in Gaza, which housed the Al Jazeera Media Network and Associated Press journalists, and a number of other press offices and apartments.

[199] [200] [201] [202] The building was hit by three missiles, approximately an hour after Israeli forces called the building's owner, warning of the attack and advising all occupants to evacuate. [201] [202] [203] The press agencies demanded an explanation; the IDF said at the time that the building housed assets of Hamas military intelligence.

[202] [203] [204] [205] [206] On 8 June, Israel stated that a Hamas electronic warfare unit developing a system to jam the Iron Dome was based in the building. AP demanded proof of this; Hamas did not immediately make any comment. Israel said that it did not suspect that AP personnel knew of Hamas's use of the building, and offered to assist AP in rebuilding its offices and operations in Gaza. [207] Israel stated that it provided the US government intelligence on the strike but would not make the information palestina vs israel.

US Secretary of State Antony Blinken confirmed that Israel had sent the US information and said "It's my understanding that we've received some further information through intelligence channels, and it's not something I can comment on." [208] [209] The single deadliest incident of the campaign occurred on 16 Palestina vs israel, when Israeli warplanes fired 11 missiles along a 200-yard (180 m) stretch of Wehda Street, in the upscale Rimal neighborhood.

According to the IDF, a Hamas tunnel and underground command center were the targets of the attack which destroyed two residential buildings, killing 44 civilians. According to the IDF, the extent to which the underground military infrastructure had extended under civilian buildings in the area had not been known, and when the missiles exploded underground and destroyed the facilities targeted, they unexpectedly dislodged the foundations of civilian buildings above them, causing them to collapse.

The IDF said that it had not expected the extent of the civilian casualties which occurred. [210] [211] Speaking to The Independent, a senior Israeli military official said that the civilian death toll was unexpected and that the attack had been aimed at the center of the road to minimize collateral damage, but that the IDF's calculations had failed to anticipate the collapse of nearby buildings. The official said that the Israeli Air Force suspected that there may have been explosives or munitions stored in the underground infrastructure targeted which ultimately caused the buildings to collapse.

Another senior Israeli official later said that the estimated 1/1 ratio between militants and civilians in the strike was 'phenomenal' given how deeply military infrastructure was embedded in civilian areas of the neighborhood.

[212] On May 26, Yahya Sinwar, leader of the Hamas political wing in Gaza, denied that any of their tunnels were under civilian areas and dismissed the accusation as "baseless".

[210] On June 5, Sinwar admitted that Hamas did embed military command centers in civilian locations. Sinwar said "We and other factions have initiated a gradual transfer operation with the aim of relocating a number of military headquarters from within the civilian population." [213] IDF animation of the plan to attack Hamas' tunnel network The Israeli Air Force carried out another large-scale series of raids against Hamas' tunnel network on 17 May, bombing over 15 kilometers of underground passages, with 54 Israeli jets dropping 110 bombs.

The homes of nine Hamas commanders and a home used by Hamas' military intelligence branch were also bombed. [214] During the fighting, Hamas militants with anti-tank guided missiles repeatedly took positions in apartments and behind dunes.

These teams were identified by IDF reconnaissance units and subsequently destroyed in pinpoint attacks. [215] At least 20 such teams were destroyed by Israeli air and ground forces. [216] On 20 May, a Hamas anti-tank missile attack on an IDF bus lightly wounded one soldier. The attack came moments after a group of 10 soldiers had disembarked from the bus.

[217] In addition, the IDF sank Hamas' fleet of small unmanned submarines designed to explode under or near Israeli naval vessels or oil and gas drilling rigs. [193] Hamas tried repeatedly to attack Israel's Tamar gas field. [218] At two least attempts to launch attacks with autonomous submarines were intercepted. [216] In one instance, a Hamas team was spotted launching the submarine. An Israeli navy vessel destroyed the submarine while it was still close to the shore and the Israeli Air Force subsequently attacked the team which launched it.

[219] An Israeli Air Force F-16 warplane takes off with guided munition to strike targets in the Gaza Strip By the end of the campaign, over 4,360 rockets and mortar shells had been fired at southern and central Israel, an average of 400 per day. [216] [62] About 3,400 successfully crossed the border while 680 fell in Gaza and 280 fell into the sea.

[216] [62] [220] The Iron Dome shot down 1,428 rockets detected as heading toward populated areas, an interception rate of 95 percent. [221] Some 60–70 rockets hit populated areas after the Iron Dome failed to intercept them. [62] The attacks killed 6 Israeli civilians, among them a 5-year-old boy and two Israeli-Arabs, as well as three foreign nationals working in Israel: an Indian woman working as a caregiver in Ashkelon and two Thai workers who were killed when the packing house of a community in southern Israel close to the Gaza border took a direct hit.

Three other Israeli civilians including an 87-year-old woman died from injuries sustained after they fell while running to bomb shelters during attacks.

[222] [223] [224] The IDF estimated that it destroyed 850 rockets in strikes on the Gaza Strip and also severely degraded local rocket manufacturing capabilities in strikes on about three dozen rocket production centers. In addition, Israel assassinated palestina vs israel Hamas and Islamic Jihad commanders with airstrikes. Nearly 30 senior Hamas commanders were assassinated by the IDF during the campaign.

Israel's ability to locate senior commanders to such an extent indicated extensive Israeli intelligence penetration of Hamas' ranks. [225] [226] [216] [192] Israeli artillery firing into Gaza, 18 May In three instances, Hamas attempted to launch cross-border raids into Israel to kill or kidnap soldiers and civilians, utilizing tunnels that approached but did not cross into Israeli territory to enable its fighters to get close.

All of these attacks were foiled. In one instance, a group of Hamas fighters were struck before entering a tunnel and in two other instances the groups were targeted while in the tunnels.

A total of 18 Hamas fighters were killed. The IDF also stated that seven Hamas drones that crossed into Israeli airspace were shot down, including at least one by an Iron Dome battery. [216] An Israeli drone was also accidentally shot down by an Iron Dome battery.

[227] According to Israeli journalist Haviv Rettig Gur, Israel systematically thwarted Hamas' tactical innovations and destroyed the military infrastructure it had prepared for a future war, which proved "ineffective or outright useless". [225] The United Nations said that more than 72,000 Palestinians had been internally displaced, sheltering mostly at 48 UNRWA schools in Gaza. [228] [34] After the ceasefire, less than 1,000 displaced Palestinians were sheltering in UNRWA schools, down from a peak of around 66,000.

[229] UNWRA discovered a cavity 7.5 metres under one of its two schools in Gaza that had been damaged by Israeli air strikes. The structure had neither an exit from or entry into the school's premises, and the organization strongly condemned both the IDF and the Palestinians responsible for building the "possible" tunnel.

[230] [231] Lebanon and Syria On 13 May at least three rockets were fired from the coastal area of Qlaileh just south palestina vs israel the Palestinian refugee camp of Rashidieh in the Southern Lebanese district of Tyre across the Israeli–Lebanese border, according to the IDF, landing in the Mediterranean Sea. Hezbollah denied responsibility for the rocket launches and Lebanese Army troops were deployed to the area around the refugee camp, finding several rockets there.

[232] On 14 May, dozens of Lebanese demonstrated on the Israel-Lebanon border in solidarity with the Palestinians. A small group of demonstrators cut through the border fence and crossed into Israel, setting fires near Metulla. IDF troops fired at them, killing one who was later identified as a member of Hezbollah. Another was wounded and later died of his injuries. [233] [234] [32] That evening, three rockets were fired from Syria, while two of them hit the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights but fell in uninhabited places.

[235] [236] [237] The following day, Lebanese demonstrators damaged the border fence with Molotov cocktails and other items. [233] On 17 May, six rockets were fired by Palestina vs israel militants towards Israel but the rockets failed to cross the Lebanese-Israeli border. The Israeli military responded by firing artillery shells across the border in the direction of the rocket fire. No one was injured in the incident.

[238] The IDF said that on 19 May four rockets were fired from near Siddikine village in the Tyre District of Southern Lebanon towards Haifa. One was intercepted, another landed in an open area, and the remaining two fell into the sea. The Israeli army responded with artillery fire.

[239] Casualties and damage Wreckage of a bus and car in Holon, Israel, after a rocket attack, 11 May Thirteen people were killed in Israel, [11] including two children, one Indian woman [14] and two Thai men living and working in Israel. [240] By May 18, the Magen David Adom ambulance service had treated 114 injuries directly related to rocket attacks, and another 198 indirectly related to rocket attacks.

[13] The UN and Human Rights Watch reported that 260 Palestinians had been killed, half of them (129) civilians [241] [21] [22] including 66 children and 40 women. The deaths of some 243 were reportedly killed by Israeli Defense Forces.

The Gazan Health Ministry stated 1,948 individuals were wounded, of whom 610 were children, and 400 women. [241] [22] Four of the killed women were pregnant. [65] Israel stated that it had killed 200 militants, [2] while according to Hamas 80 Palestinian fighters were killed. [23] [24] One of the children killed was claimed by a militant group to be a member of its Al-Mujahideen Brigades. [172] Some Palestinian rockets fell short and landed in the Gaza Strip resulting in at least seven casualties.

[242] [60] According to Israel, approximately 640 rockets did palestina vs israel. [3] [243] It is disputed whether some of the first victims on 10 May died as a result of an Israeli airstrike or an errant Palestinian rocket.

[45] [244] On 13 May, as part of a feint intended to deceive Hamas into sending their men into tunnels before they were programmed to be bombed, the IDF's 162nd Division subjected a section of the northern Gaza Strip to an intense artillery barrage of 500 shells. Some of the ordnance hit an agricultural site, the al-Karya compound, close to Beit Lahia.

As a result, 3 daughters – aged 17, 26 and 28 – and a 9-month old baby son from a single family were killed, together with a two members of another family in their home next door. A follow-up investigation by the IDF concluded there had been some negligence and those involved were assigned to retraining. [245] According to a report by the Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center, which has ties to the IDF, 48% of the Palestinians killed in Gaza were militants.

The report noted varying figures of Palestinians killed in Gaza ranging between 240 and 260 and analyzed the deaths of palestina vs israel Palestinians in the Gaza Strip. It identified 112 of those 234 as militants, of whom 63 were members of Hamas, 20 were members of the Islamic Jihad Movement, 25 were members of an armed faction of Fatah, and the rest were members of smaller militant splinter groups.

According to the ITIC report, 21 Palestinians were killed by misfired Palestinian rockets which landed in the Gaza Strip. [246] According to Amira Hass, 15 Israeli strikes have targeted individual family dwellings, causing multiple deaths among members of the 15 families living there.

[247] When the ceasefire came into effect, the Palestinian National Authority set the number of entire families killed at 20, and announced it will lodge a complaint at the International Court of Justice for " war crimes" in that regard. [248] Palestinian journalist Yusuf Abu Hussein was killed in an Israeli airstrike in his home on 19 May, prompting outcry from the International Federation of Journalists.

[249] An Israeli airstrike on 20 May killed a disabled Palestinian man, his pregnant wife, and their three-year-old daughter. [250] A later investigation found that Hamas militants had built a military structure inside a Palestinian elementary school.

[251] A Hamas commander, identified as Mohammed Abdullah Fayyad, as well as three high-ranking Islamic Jihad commanders were also killed. Another Hamas member was killed on 11 May. The deaths of the five commanders were confirmed by official statements of both the groups.

The deaths of other militants are suspected but not confirmed. [252] [253] [244] Bassem Issa, a top Hamas commander, was killed. [254] [255] On 18 May, Egypt pledged $500 million in efforts to rebuild Gaza after the missile strikes.

[256] Qatar likewise pledged $500 million. [257] Medical facilities and personnel Hamas has been accused by Israel of using medical facilities to cover its activities.

The Ministry of Health is run by the Hamas government, and wounded soldiers are often treated in civilian hospitals. As of 17 May, the Israeli airstrikes on Gaza have caused the following damage, according to the UN's Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs: • 4 hospitals run by Gaza's ministry of health, including the Indonesian and Beit Hanoun hospitals in the northern Gaza Strip.

• 2 hospitals run by NGOs • 2 clinics, one run by Médecins Sans Frontières, and one, the Hala al-Shawa clinic, in disuse at the time. • 1 health centre • 1 Palestine Red Crescent Society facility. [258] Personnel killed: • Dr Moein Ahmad al-Aloul (66), a leading Gaza neurologist, killed when his house in the Rimal quarter collapsed after an Israeli strike on shops on the building's ground level. His 5 children were also killed in the strike. [259] • Dr Ayman Abu al-Auf, the Al-Shifa Hospital's head of internal medicine and director of Gaza's COVID-19 response, killed by falling rubble after a strike on al-Wehda Street, a controversial strike that killed over 40 people.

12 members of his extended family were also killed. [258] [260] By 18 May, seventeen hospitals and clinics in Gaza had suffered damage, according to The New York Times. [261] The Israeli strike near the Rimal clinic, the only major COVID-19 laboratory in the Strip, caused it to be temporarily shut down, with the PLO claiming on Twitter that this rendered the entire strip unable to conduct further screening for the pandemic. [262] [261] [263] [264] Alleged war crimes In late July 2021, Human Rights Watch (HRW) raised the possibility that both parties in the conflict had engaged in war crimes on the basis of field reports regarding specific incidents.

[265] [266] [267] The organization said that several Israeli bombing attacks were listed palestina vs israel appearing to have killed entire families in areas where no military targets have been ascertained to have existed, and that these may amount to warcrimes, and that the firing by Palestinian militants of unguided rockets towards Israeli civilian centres was a war crime. [267] [266] [60] B'Tselem has also accused both parties of war crimes.

[268] [269] HRW called on the International Criminal Court to investigate Israeli strikes during the May operation. [266] In August, 2021, HRW issued a report stating that the thousands of rockets fired by palestina vs israel Palestinian militant group Hamas during the 11-day war with Israel "violated the laws of war and amount to war crimes." [270] Investigations were made into Hamas rocket attacks that killed 12 civilians in Israel, as well as a misfired rocket that killed seven Palestinians inside the Gaza Strip.

[271] [272] HRW said that Israel refused to allow the organization's senior investigators to enter Gaza, and instead relied on a local Gaza researcher, in palestina vs israel to using satellite images, expert analysis of photos and munition fragments, and phone and video interviews. [273] HRW said it "focused its investigation on three Israeli attacks that resulted in high numbers of palestina vs israel casualties and where there was no evident military target": • The Israeli missile strike at 6 p.m.

on May 10 against one of 4 buildings owned by the al-Masri brothers led to the deaths of 8 people, 6 of whom were children.

Israeli military sources said the following day that 6 of the killed had died as a result of a failed launching of a rocket by Palestinian Islamic Jihad. [274] On the 16th, the IDF stated that 8 activists had been killed, posting a photo of the grain dealer killed in this strike. The family denies he had any links to militant groups. At the time, according to survivors and witnesses, the family was engaged in packing processed barley into sacks.

The high number of children killed, 6, was attributed by eyewitnesses to the fact that they had crowded around the trader's horse-drawn cart on its arrival at the site to pick up the barley. A video taken in the immediate aftermath, deemed authentic, exists that shows empty, overturned sacks of barley. No evidence exists that the family had any connection to Gaza militant groups.

[266] • At 1:40 a.m. on May 15, an Israeli strike launched with what appears to palestina vs israel a fuse-delayed GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb demolished a three-story building owned by Alaa Abu Hattab in the al-Shati refugee camp, killing 10 people: 2 women and 8 of their children.

The owner was momentarily away, to find snacks and some food for the Eid al-Fitr meal. The IDF stated that senior Hamas officials were inside one of the building's apartments, and the strike also aimed at a bunker beneath the block. Human Rights Watch found no evidence for any such structure. [266] • The strike on al-Wehda street, just before 1 a.m. on May 16, consisted of between 18 and 34 strikes, employing 1,000-kilogram GBU-31 bombs, along roughly 1,030 meters of road which destroyed 3 buildings and caused the death of 44 civilians – 18 children, 14 women, and 12 men, with a further 50 injured.

The IDF stated [274] that it sought to destroy suspected underground military infrastructure. [266] [275] Hamas has denied the existence of any such infrastructure in civilian areas, though, after an Israeli strike on a deserted UNRWA preparatory school in Gaza's Rimal district, UN observers stated that a tunnel had palestina vs israel to light as a result of the bombing.

[276] [277] HRW states that no evidence has been given that tunnels or an underground centre existed in the area. No advance warnings were given to the civilians foreseeably effected by the bombing. [266] Infrastructure Footage of Israeli naval strikes during the crisis, May 2021 Gaza 232 housing units in high-rises were bombed over palestina vs israel days.

[278] According to a 23 May post-ceasefire UNOCHA estimate, [49] • 1,042 housing and commercial units, spread over 258 buildings, were destroyed • 769 further units suffered severe damage.

• 53 palestina vs israel were damaged • 6 hospitals and 11 clinics were damaged. • The IDF said it had destroyed 60 miles (97 km) of Hamas's underground tunnel system, nicknamed the Metro. On 18 May an Israeli airstrike demolished the buildings where one of the major booksellers in Gaza was sited, Samir Mansour's 2 story bookshop along with its stock of an estimated 100,000 books. [279] Israel 3,424 claims of compensation for property damage have been filed by Israelis as a result of the fighting: 1,724 related to damage to motor vehicles.

[49] Diplomacy and ceasefire U.S. President Joe Biden speaking palestina vs israel Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu, reaffirmed his "strong support for Israel’s right to defend itself". China, Norway and Tunisia requested a public United Nations Security Council meeting for 14 May while the United States objected. The council has met privately twice but has not been able to agree on a statement over United States objections.

On 12 May, it was announced that Hady Amr, U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary for Israeli-Palestinian Affairs and Press and Public Diplomacy, would be sent to the region "immediately." [280] Truce efforts by Egypt, Qatar and the United Nations showed no sign of progress. [281] Amr arrived in Tel Aviv for discussions on how to achieve a "sustainable calm" ahead of a United Nations Security Council meeting on 16 May. [205] On 13 May, Hamas made a proposal for a ceasefire, stating that it was prepared to halt attacks on a 'mutual basis'.

Netanyahu informed his cabinet that Israel had rejected the overture. [66] On 13 May, U.S. President Joe Biden held telephone call with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.

Biden stated that "Israel has a right to defend itself when you have thousands of rockets flying into your territory." [282] UN Secretary-General António Guterres called for an immediate ceasefire, "out of respect for the spirit of Eid", making reference to Eid al-Fitr, an Islamic festival which marks the end of the holy month of Ramadan. [283] On 16 May, Biden held telephone calls with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, and President Mahmoud Abbas.

[284] Following the third UN Security Council emergency meeting in a week, the United States used its veto power to block a proposed statement drafted by China, Norway, and Tunisia and supported by the other 14 members of the council.

No vote was held on the statement. The draft statement called for an immediate cessation of hostilities and condemned the violence in Gaza; [259] [285] it urged all parties, especially Israel, to use restraint, [285] but made no mention of the rocket attacks by Hamas and Islamic Jihad.

[286] President of Israel Reuven Rivlin holding an emergency meeting with European Union ambassadors on 11 May 2021 On 18 May, the Greek foreign minister Nikos Dendias becomes the first European official to visit Israel and Palestine, followed by a visit to Jordan, in consultation with France, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates and the United States as part of the efforts for brokering a ceasefire between the two parties, [287] while France announced the filing of a resolution with the UN Security Council calling for a cease-fire, in coordination with Egypt and Jordan.

[67] The resolution could be circulated as soon as 19 May. Security Council press and presidential statements require approval of all 15 members while resolutions do not. [67] On 19 May, Biden held a phone call with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, expressing to his Israeli counterpart that "he expected a significant de-escalation today on the path to a ceasefire." [288] [289] On 20 May, the foreign ministers of Germany, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia visited Israel to express support and solidarity with Israel.

[290] Israel and Hamas agreed to cease palestina vs israel from 20 May. [291] [292] A ceasefire deal brokered by Egypt, Qatar, and the United Nations between Israel and Hamas was enacted at around 2:00 AM on 21 May palestina vs israel, ending 11 days of fighting.

The final proposal by Egypt was voted on by the Israeli cabinet and was unanimously approved, and Hamas also indicated their acceptance of the peace deal. Other than a minor skirmish at Al-Aqsa Mosque, there were no substantive violations of the ceasefire throughout the palestina vs israel on 21 May. In the hours before the Egypt-brokered deal, Biden had spoken with Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi about brokering such a deal.

Biden later described the deal as "mutual" and "unconditional" and expressed his belief that both sides deserved to live in safety. Both sides claimed victory in the conflict. [2] [293] The truce tentatively concluded the fourth war between Israel and the Islamist militant group since 2008. [294] Aftermath and post-ceasefire tensions Israeli Minister of Defense Benny Gantz and U.S. Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin at the Pentagon, Washington, D.C. on 3 June 2021 Just hours after the ceasefire came into effect, what the New York Times described as a 'small skirmish', [295] in which 20 Palestinians were reportedly wounded, and 16 arrested, [296] [297] between Israeli police and Palestinians took place just outside the Al Aqsa mosque.

The incident occurred after noon prayers, when most of the tens of thousands of worshipers had left the site. A few in the remaining group waved Palestinian flags; Israeli police entered to confiscate the flags and disperse the crowd. The Israeli version is that hundreds of Palestinians threw stones and firebombs on the arrival of the Israeli police.

The Palestinian version is that the violence erupted only when the police entered the compound. [297] On 22 May, according to an Egyptian diplomat, two teams of Egyptian mediators were in Israel and the Palestinian territories with the intent to "firm up" the cease-fire deal and to secure a long-term calm.

[298] Antony Blinken, a US diplomat and state secretary, planned to visit Israel and the West Bank on 26–27 May with the same idea. [299] The UN security council finally released palestina vs israel agreed statement calling for full adherence to the truce and stressing the immediate need for humanitarian aid for Palestinian civilians while reiterating palestina vs israel need for the two-state solution.

The statement made no reference to Hamas. [300] [301] After international pressure was applied, on 23 May Israel agreed to permit the transfer of food and medical supplies furnished by the United Nations and Physicians for Human Rights, aid workers, and journalists into the Gaza Strip, but on 24 May refused transfer. [302] On 25 May, coinciding with a state visit palestina vs israel Blinken to Israel, aid was permitted to enter the strip.

[303] At the end of May, Hamas said it would begin launching rockets again if the evictions in Sheikh Jarrah were allowed to go ahead; a decision by the Israeli Supreme Court was expected within a month.

[83] UNHRC was to investigate "systematic discrimination and repression" in Israel and Palestine to identify the root causes of the crisis, [304] after a resolution drafted for the Organisation of Islamic Conference received 24 supporting votes and 9 opposing ones. [305] Subsequently, on 22 July 2021, UNHRC announced that former United Nations high commissioner Navi Pillay would head the international commission of inquiry into alleged crimes committed during the crisis and report in June 2022.

[306] Amid continuing communal tension and protest, the Israeli police force said it had arrested 348 suspects in late May as it rounded up alleged participants in the unrest, confirming reports from human rights organisation Adalah which said at least 200 Palestinians in Israel had been arrested that week, and described the raids as a way to "intimidate and exact revenge".

[307] On 5 June, at Sheikh Jarrah, palestina vs israel police forcefully detained an Al Jazeera reporter wearing body armor marked "press". Israeli police said the journalist was detained after she was asked for identification, refused and pushed a police officer.

[308] On 6 June Israeli police detained Muna al-Kurd. Her father told reporters that the 23-year-old activist was detained after police raided their home in Sheikh Jarrah and said that the police also delivered a notice ordering her twin brother Mohammed El-Kurd to surrender himself to authorities. He and his sister are running a social media campaign against the expulsions of Palestinians from their homes. [309] [310] The pair were later palestina vs israel. [311] Efforts to broker a longer-term truce between Israel and Hamas followed a day of escalating tensions on 15 June after a new Israeli government allowed a scaled down and rerouted march by far-right Israelis through the city, with dozens chanting "Death to Arabs".

Gaza militants sent several incendiary balloons into Israel, causing 26 fires, and Israeli aircraft struck military posts in Gaza. Some reconstruction material has begun to enter Gaza through Egypt but Israel is currently limiting what can arrive through its crossing points and blocked the supply of financial aid from Qatar.

Israel and Hamas disagree on whether to include a prisoner swap as part of any stronger cease-fire deal. "The U.N. is in contact with all relevant parties on matters related to the cessation of hostilities", said Tor Wennesland, the United Nations special coordinator for palestina vs israel Middle East peace process. "This has been going on for a while and will continue with the view of having some arrangements put in place that could stabilize the situation.

This is still a work in progress with more to be done." [312] Israeli and Palestinian reactions Sign in Arabic reading "We will not leave" on the walls of the Sheikh Jarrah neighborhood On 9 May 2021, the Israeli Supreme Court delayed the expected decision on evictions for 30 days, after an intervention from Attorney General of Israel Avichai Mandelblit.

[46] Israel Police also banned Jews from going to the al-Aqsa plaza for Jerusalem Day festivities. [313] [314] On 10 May, Israel closed the Kerem Shalom border crossing, including for humanitarian aid. [315] Due to rocket fire on 11 May, the Israel Airports Authority briefly halted air travel.

[316] Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu defended the actions of the Israeli police and said that Israel "shall palestina vs israel allow any radical element to undermine the calm." He also said "we firmly reject the pressure not to build in Jerusalem." [317] Israeli officials asked the Biden administration not to intervene in the situation.

[318] On 10 May 2021, Mahmoud Abbas, the President of the Palestinian Authority, issued a statement that the "brutal storming and assault on worshipers in the blessed al-Aqsa Mosque and its courtyards is a new challenge to the international community." [319] On two separate occasions, Christian groups in Jerusalem issued statements commenting on the outbreak of hostilities. Kairos Palestine attributed the uprising to deprivations suffered, and called for the recognition of the rights of everyone as the only way to break the cycle of destruction.

A joint declaration on 7 May, signed by the Greek Orthodox, Armenian and Catholic Patriarchs of the city, together with prominent Heads of Churches of Jerusalem – who had all earlier expressed deep concern for Israeli plans under radical settler pressure to annex unilaterally West Bank land- blamed the growing tensions 'mainly' on the destabilizing effects of right-wing settler groups on the fragile realities of Jerusalem.

Their denunciation was followed up by a similar statement issued on 12 May by the Middle East Council of Churches, representing 28 denominations in the area. [320] [321] [322] Israel's Minister for Public Security Amir Ohana called for the release of the Israeli man arrested for the shooting of an Arab in Lod, arguing without providing evidence that the suspect was acting in self-defense and law-abiding citizens bearing arms assist the authorities.

According to a Guardian report, the statement seemed to encourage mob violence. [66] A spokesman for Palestinian Islamic Jihad said that Israel "started the aggression on Jerusalem. If this aggression does not end, there is no point to diplomatic efforts to reach palestina vs israel cease-fire." [323] Hamas gave an ultimatum to the Israeli government, saying if they did not remove forces from the mosque by 2 a.m. on 11 May, then they would conduct another rocket strike.

[324] Netanyahu convened an emergency security meeting on 11 May, and schools in several parts of Israel were closed. [325] Israeli president Reuven Rivlin condemned the riots in Lod, describing them as a pogrom.

[326] A poll cited by The Times of Israel on 20 May found that 72% believed the military operations targeting Gaza should have continued without a ceasefire and that 66% believed Israeli forces had achieved more in recent fighting than in previous campaigns, with a total of 684 Israelis having been surveyed. [327] [328] See also • ^ Besides Hamas and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, FDD's Long War Journal identified the following militant groups as having fought in the 2021 conflict: Jihad Jibril Brigades, Humat al-Aqsa, Jaysh al-Ummah, Katibat al-Sheikh al-Emireen, Mujahideen Brigades, Abdul al-Qadir al-Husseini Brigades, and two al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades splinter factions.

[8] • ^ "In 1982, the two Jewish Committees filed a lawsuit against 23 of these Palestinian families. An Israeli attorney Toussia-Cohen, who represented 17 of the families, reached an agreement with the two Jewish Committees, that the families would stay in the properties as protected tenants, but in return would recognise the two Jewish Committees' ownership claims. As such, the families have been required to pay rent to the two Jewish Committees and comply with strict regulation on their ability to renovate or change the property.

The Israeli lawyer concluded the agreement palestina vs israel the two Jewish Committees without the families' consent, and without challenging or scrutinising the validity of the ownership claims. The agreement was sanctioned by the Jerusalem District Court and formed the basis for eviction lawsuits of the 28 refugee families, who have refused to pay rent to the Jewish Committees, despite the fact that not all families are part of the Toussia-Cohen Agreement and the fact that the families who are part of the agreement dispute that their consent was given to the Israeli lawyer." [92] "Israeli courts have not ruled conclusively on the ownership of the land; the families were evicted on the grounds of non-compliance with a 1982 lease agreement which their Israeli lawyer concluded at the time with the settler groups without their consent." [93] • ^ Pro-Palestinian activists have dubbed the May 2021 Palestinian reaction to Israeli policies in Sheikh Jarrah and the Al-Aqsa compound as the "Unity Intifada." The term denotes the national solidarity and religious duty shared by the resisting Palestinians in Gaza, the West Bank, Eastern Jerusalem, and Israel.

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For weeks now, Palestinian protesters and Israeli police have clashed on a daily basis in and around Jerusalem's Old City, home to major religious sites sacred to Jews, Christians and Muslims and the emotional epicenter of the Middle East conflict.

Jerusalem has been the scene of violent confrontations between Jews and Arabs for 100 years and remains one of the most bitterly contested cities on earth. The latest clashes began a month ago with an Israeli move to block some Palestinian gatherings at the beginning of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, already a time of heightened religious sensitivities.

After those restrictions eased, tensions over a plan to evict dozens of Palestinians from an east Jerusalem neighborhood continued to fuel confrontations. Here's a look at the history of the Israel-Palestinian conflict, why Jerusalem always seems to be on edge — and what set off the latest round of violence.

WHAT IS PALESTINE? Stay informed about local news and weather. Get the NBC10 Boston app for iOS or Android and pick your alerts. Until 1948, Palestine typically referred to the geographic region located between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.

Arab people who call this territory home are known as Palestinians since the early 20th century. After the Ottoman Empire was defeated in World War I, the British took control of the area. The land was inhabited by a Jewish minority and Arab majority. Much of this land is now considered present-day Israel. That's because in 1947, after more than two decades of British rule, the United Nations proposed a plan to partition Palestine into two sections: an independent Jewish state and an independent Arab state.

The city of Jerusalem, which was claimed as a capital by both Jews and Palestinians, was to be an international territory with a special status. WHAT STARTED THE ISRAEL-PALESTINIAN CONFLICT? Jewish leaders accepted two-state the plan, but many Palestinians — some of whom had been fighting British interests in the region for decades — opposed it and it was never implemented. The British withdrew from Palestine in 1949 and Israel declared itself an independent state.

Palestinians objected and neighboring Arab countries mobilized to prevent the formation of the Israeli state, sparking the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. By the time the fighting ended a year later, Israel controlled most of the territory under former British Mandate, including a large part of Jerusalem, while Jordan took control of the West Bank and Egypt occupied Gaza.

Over half of the Palestinian Arab population fled or were expelled, according to the UN. Without an agreement, wars and conflicts continued. In 1967, during what became known as the Six-Day War, Israel seized the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the Golan Heights from Syria, and the West Bank and east Jerusalem from Jordan, citing Arab aggression at its borders. Israel offered to return the territories in exchange for Arab recognition of the right of Israel to exist and guarantees against future attacks.

Arab leaders at the time declined a peace agreement, however, Egypt would eventually negotiate the return of the Sinai Peninsula in exchange for full diplomatic recognition of Israel. Israel’s continued occupation of the seized territories and its ruling over millions of Palestinians have sparked decades of palestina vs israel and violence. And while the mainstream Palestinian leadership still says it wants a peace deal that includes a two-state solution, Jews continue to build settlements in the occupied lands in a way that makes a future partition difficult, perhaps impossible.

And neither side is willing to compromise on terms. WHY IS JERUSALEM IMPORTANT TO ISRAEL AND PALESTINIANS? Israel views Jerusalem as its “unified, eternal” capital. It had captured east Jerusalem, which includes the Old City, in the 1967 Mideast war, along with the West Bank and Gaza. Palestinians want those territories for their future state, with east Jerusalem serving as their eventual capital.

But Israel annexed the eastern part of the city in a move not recognized internationally. The fate of east Jerusalem has been one of the thorniest issues in the peace process, which ground to a halt more than a decade ago. Israelis on Monday were set to mark Jerusalem Day, a national holiday celebrating the annexation.

In past years, thousands of Israelis — mainly religious nationalists — have marched through the Old City, including the densely populated Muslim Quarter, in a display considered provocative by many Palestinians. In recent days, hard-line Israelis have staged other events in east Jerusalem, leading to scattered, violent altercations with Palestinians. Fighting between Israel and the militant group Hamas has killed more than 100 people, with the death toll largely among Palestinians, over the past few days, with an exchange of airstrikes and rocket fire escalating to mob violence in the streets.

Whether Americans know it or not, our country is already embroiled in this conflict, explains NBC News and MSNBC foreign correspondent Matt Bradley.

DOME OF THE ROCK, WAILING WALL, AL-AQSA MOSQUE: WHY ARE THEY SO IMPORTANT? This week's clashes took place in and around the Al-Aqsa Mosque in the Old City. The mosque is the third-holiest site in Islam and sits on a sprawling plateau that is also home to the iconic golden Dome of the Rock.

Muslims refer to the compound as the Noble Sanctuary. The walled plateau is also the holiest site for Jews, who refer to it as the Temple Mount, because it was the location of biblical temples. Romans destroyed the Second Temple in 70 A.D., with only the Western Wall remaining. The mosques were built centuries later. Neighboring Jordan serves as the custodian of the site, which is operated by an Islamic endowment known as the Waqf.

The site is open to tourists during certain times but only Muslims are allowed to pray there. The Western Wall, also known as the Wailing Wall, is the holiest site where Jews can pray. In recent years, palestina vs israel of religious and nationalist Jews escorted by police have been visiting the compound in greater numbers and holding prayers in defiance of rules established after 1967 by Israel, Jordan and Muslim religious authorities.

The Palestinians view the frequent visits and attempted prayers by Jews as a provocation, and it often ignites scuffles or more serious violence. Some Israelis say the site should be open to all worshippers. The Palestinians refuse, fearing that Israel will eventually take over the site or partition it.

Israeli officials say they have no intention of changing the status quo. ARE PALESTINIANS IN EAST JERUSALEM ISRAELI CITIZENS? Jews born in east Jerusalem are Israeli citizens, while Palestinians from east Jerusalem are granted a form of permanent residency that can be revoked if they live outside the city for an extended period. They can apply for citizenship, but it's palestina vs israel long and uncertain process and most choose not to because they don't recognize Israeli control.

Israel has built Jewish settlements in east Jerusalem that are home to some 220,000 people. It has severely limited the growth of Palestinian neighborhoods, leading to overcrowding and the unauthorized construction of thousands of homes that are at risk of demolition.

The Israeli rights group B'Tselem and the New York-based Human Rights Watch cited the discriminatory policies in east Jerusalem in recent reports arguing that Israel is guilty of the crime of apartheid.

Israel rejects those allegations, saying Jerusalem residents are treated equally. WHAT CAUSED TENSIONS TO ESCALATED IN 2021?

The recent nightly clashes began at the palestina vs israel of Ramadan, when Israeli police placed barriers outside the Old City’s Damascus Gate, a popular gathering place after the evening prayers during the holy month when Muslims fast from dawn to dusk. They later removed the barriers, but then protests escalated over the threatened eviction of dozens of Palestinian families from the east Jerusalem neighborhood of Sheikh Jarrah. The families have been embroiled in a long legal battle with ideological Jewish settlers who seek to acquire property in crowded Palestinian neighborhoods just outside the Old City.

Israel portrays it as a private real-estate dispute, but the families' plight has attracted global attention. Clashes in Jerusalem, and particularly in Al-Aqsa, often reverberate across the region. Protests have palestina vs israel held in the occupied West Bank and in Arab communities inside Israel.

A series of deadly shootings in the West Bank last week has also heightened tensions. Palestina vs israel and other Arab nations that have friendly ties with Israel have condemned its crackdown on the protests, while Israel's archenemy Iran has encouraged Palestinian attacks. The U.S. and the EU have condemned the violence and expressed concern about the evictions. WHY DO ISRAEL AND HAMAS FIGHT? Founded in Gaza Strip in 1987, the Palestinian militant group aimed to be a resistance to what they see as Israel's occupation of three territories that Palestinians want to form their future state: Gaza, the West Bank and east Jerusalem.

Hamas gained control of Gaza by first winning elections in 2006 and then through clashes with the Palestine Authority. After its takeover of the coastal palestina vs israel, Israel and Egypt imposed a crippling blockade. Israel says it's needed to keep Hamas and other militant groups from importing arms. Rights groups say the blockade is a form of collective punishment.

After Hamas launched two Palestinian intifadas, or uprisings, Israel withdrew its troops and Jewish settlements from Gaza in 2015. Hamas, which still rules Gaza, is now calling for a new intifada. Gaza militants have fired rockets and balloons with incendiary devices attached to them in support of the protesters as an informal cease-fire with Israel has started to fray. Israel retaliated with hundreds of Israeli strikes from sea, land and air.

It's the fourth round of major conflict between Israel and Hamas since 2008, with the tiny enclave's more than 2 million Palestinian residents bearing the brunt of the deaths and the destruction. Hamas and Israel have fought three wars and several smaller battles. The worst so far was the 2014 war, which lasted for 50 days and killed some 2,200 Palestinians, more than half of them civilians.

Seventy-three people were killed on the Israeli side. Israel's airstrikes and incursions into Gaza have left vast swaths of destruction, with entire neighborhoods reduced to rubble and thousands forced to shelter in U.N.

schools and other facilities. Israel says it makes every effort to avoid civilian casualties and accuses Hamas of using Gazans as human shields.

Israel May 13, 2021 Israel Threatens Gaza Ground Invasion Despite Truce Efforts WHAT IS ISRAEL'S IRON DOME SYSTEM? The Iron Dome is part palestina vs israel Israel’s multilayered aerial defense system, ranging from systems capable of intercepting rockets fired from short range up to striking long-range missiles outside of the atmosphere.

Iron Dome uses radar, advanced tracking technology and anti-missile batteries to follow the trajectory of an incoming rocket or mortar and determine if it is headed for a major population center. If an urban area is threatened, interceptors are fired to detonate in the air in close proximity to the missile. Projectiles not posing a threat are allowed to fall in empty fields.

The system targets short-range rockets with a range between 2 miles and 45 miles; interceptors cost as much $100,000 a piece. It was recently upgraded to cope with an additional array of aerial threats. Created by Israel’s Rafael Advanced Defense Systems, Iron Dome has shot down thousands of incoming projectiles fired from the Gaza Strip since it palestina vs israel deployed a decade ago. As of November 2020, the U.S. has provided more than $1.6 billion to help Israel cover costs for batteries, interceptors, production costs and maintenance, according to palestina vs israel Congressional Research Service report.

WHERE DOES HAMAS GET ITS ROCKETS FROM? Palestinian militants have managed to amass the bulk of their arsenals through a creative and relatively sophisticated manufacturing capability inside the Gaza Strip itself. According to the New York Times, Hamas, aided by Iranian know-how, "repurpose plumbing pipes scavenged from abandoned Israeli settlements and components culled from dud Israeli bombs" to make their own.

Some missiles are also believed to have been smuggled in through tunnels from Egypt's Sinai peninsula. Experts say estimating the stockpile of Hamas' missiles would be impossible. However, the Times reports that Israeli intelligence estimates Hamas and other military groups have "about 30,000 rockets and mortar projectiles" stashed in Gaza.

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To learn more or opt-out, read our Cookie Policy. Please also read our Privacy Notice and Terms of Use, which became effective December 20, 2019. By choosing I Accept, palestina vs israel consent to our use of cookies and other tracking technologies. Israel is the world’s only Jewish state, located just east of the Mediterranean Sea. Palestinians, the Arab population that hails from the land Israel now controls, refer to the territory as Palestine, and want to establish a state by that name on all or part of the same land.

The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is over who gets what land and how it’s controlled. Israel in red, Palestinian-majority territories in pink. Vardion Though both Jews and Arab Muslims date their claims to the land back a couple thousand years, the current political conflict began in the early 20th century.

Jews fleeing persecution in Europe wanted to establish a national homeland in what was then an Arab- and Muslim-majority territory in the Ottoman and later British Empire. The Arabs resisted, seeing the land as rightfully theirs. An early United Nations plan to give each group part of the land failed, and Israel and the surrounding Arab nations fought several wars over the territory. Today’s lines largely reflect the outcomes of two of these wars, one waged in 1948 and another in 1967.

The 1967 war is particularly important for today’s conflict, as it left Israel in control of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, two territories home to large Palestinian populations: Note that since 1967, Israel has returned Sinai to Egypt. BBC News Today, the West Bank is nominally controlled by the Palestinian Authority and is under Israeli occupation. This comes in the form of Israeli troops, who enforce Israeli security restrictions on Palestinian movement and activities, and Israeli “settlers,” Jews who build ever-expanding communities in the West Bank that effectively deny the land to Palestinians.

Gaza is controlled by Hamas, an Islamist fundamentalist party, and is under Israeli blockade but not ground troop occupation. The primary approach to solving the conflict today is a so-called “two-state solution” that would establish Palestine as an independent state in Gaza and most of the West Bank, leaving the rest of the land to Israel. Though the two-state plan is clear in theory, the two sides are still deeply divided over how to make it work in practice.

The alternative to a two-state solution is a “one-state solution,” wherein all of the land becomes either one big Israel or one big Palestine. Most observers think this would cause more problems than it would solve, but this outcome is becoming more likely over time for political and demographic reasons.

Will you support Vox’s explanatory journalism? Millions turn to Vox to understand what’s happening in the news. Our mission has never been more vital than it is in this moment: to empower through understanding.

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Photo ©LA Times The conflict between Israel and Hamas escalated this month, triggering bombings, multiple deaths, global protests and more until a ceasefire was declared on May 20th. Here in the United States, however, many palestina vs israel are confused about what caused the latest hostilities and the complex and troubled history between Israel and the Palestinians in Gaza.

This all started in 1947, when Israel was established as a Jewish homeland after the Holocaust, when Nazis slaughtered an estimated 6 million Jews before and during World War II. The United Nations located Israel in Palestine bordering Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Egypt — all mostly Arabic nations with mostly Muslim populations. In 1948, Israel declared independence and became its own country. Israel slowly expanded its borders throughout the Middle East through wars and diplomatic treaties.

Here is where it gets complicated. Three of Israel’s current borders are disputed by Syria (Golan Heights), Lebanon (Shebaa farms) and the most contentious of all by Palestinians who live in territories in Gaza and the West Bank near Jerusalem that they claim as their historic homeland and not part of Israel. Israel disputes that, and over the years, efforts by the Palestina vs israel States and others to create a Palestinian state recognized by both Israel and Palestine have failed.

You can see the full timeline from the BBC here. But what does this mean today? In recent weeks, Israel and the IDF (Israel Defense Forces) have been taking down homes and neighborhoods where many Palestinians lived and now are displaced.

Because many of the buildings and homes did not have Israeli-issued permits, many were in close contact with military zones or Palestinians were unable to get the correct permits.

Hamas, the Islamic resistance movement that has been fighting Israel over Gaza for 20 years, began launching missiles in Israel in retaliation, and Israel responded with fighter jets and artillery bombardments in Gaza. The death toll surpassed 230 people, mostly Palestinians including children, over 11 days before a ceasefire was declared on May 20 palestina vs israel the urging of President Biden and other world leaders.

Israel is a close ally of the United States, and Biden persuaded Israel Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to stop the bombing. When Netanyahu announced the cease-fire agreement.

Hamas quickly followed suit. With that, Biden released a statement saying,”I believe we have a genuine opportunity to make progress, and I’m committed to working for it.” However, whether more attacks will resume between Israel and Hamas is uncertain. What seems certain is that tensions over Israeli-occupied territories in Palestine will not be peacefully resolved any time soon. Arabic, BBC, Gaza, Hamas, Israel, Jersualem, Jewish, Lebanon, Muslim, Palestine, President Biden, Syria, violence, world news Post navigationPeople in the Gaza Strip stand near the site of the collapsed al-Shorouk tower after an Israeli airstrike on May 12 leveled the building, which contained numerous businesses, and caused a portion of the structure to collapse on al-Sousi building, destroying other businesses and displacing several families.

© 2021 Mohammed Talatene/AP Images Across two governments, each in power for roughly half of 2021, Israeli authorities doubled down on policies to repress Palestinians and privilege Jewish Israelis. The government’s policy of maintaining the domination of Jewish Israelis over Palestinians across Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT), coupled with the particularly severe repression against Palestinians living in the OPT, amounts to the crimes against humanity of apartheid and persecution.

In May, amid discriminatory efforts to force Palestinians out of their homes in occupied East Jerusalem, 11 days of hostilities broke out between the Israeli government and Palestinian armed groups in Gaza. The Israeli military said it struck about palestina vs israel targets in Gaza with ground- and air-launched munitions, which, according to UN figures, killed at least 120 Palestinian civilians.

Palestinian armed groups, including Hamas, launched more than 4,000 rockets and mortars towards Israel, resulting in the deaths of 12 civilians in Israel and at least 7 Palestinians in Gaza. Human Rights Watch documented serious violations of the laws of war and apparent war crimes during the hostilities, including Israeli strikes that killed scores of civilians and destroyed four high-rise Gaza towers full of homes and businesses, with no evident military targets in the vicinity, as well as indiscriminate rocket attacks fired by Hamas and other Palestinian armed groups towards Israeli cities.

These attacks took place amid Israel’s sweeping restrictions on the movement of people and goods into and out of Gaza. With rare exceptions, Israel’s closure policy, which is not based on an individualized assessment of security risk and is exacerbated by Egyptian restrictions on its border with Gaza, rob the more than two million Palestinians of Gaza of their right to freedom of movement, severely limit their access to electricity, health care, and water, and have devastated the economy.

More than 80 percent of Gaza’s population depend on humanitarian aid. In June, a broad range of political parties formed a new Israeli coalition government, with Naftali Bennett as prime minister. This government continued to facilitate the transfer of Israeli citizens into settlements in the occupied West Bank, a war crime.

Palestina vs israel October, it advanced plans and issued tenders for more than 4,000 new settlement units. During the first eight months of 2021, Israeli authorities demolished 666 Palestinian homes and other structures in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, displacing 958 people, a 38 percent increase compared to the same period in 2020, according to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). Most buildings were demolished for lacking building permits, which authorities make nearly impossible for Palestinians in these areas to obtain.

In July, Israeli authorities razed for the sixth time in less than a year the homes of most residents of the Palestinian community of Khirbet Humsah in the Jordan Valley for being in a designated “firing zone,” displacing 70 people, 35 of them children. Israeli authorities in late 2021 designated six prominent Palestinian civil society organizations as “terrorist” and “illegal” organizations, moves that permit closing their offices, seizing their assets, and jailing their staff and supporters.

The Palestinian Authority (PA) manages affairs in parts of the West Bank, where it systematically arrests arbitrarily and tortures dissidents. In April, the PA postponed planned parliamentary and presidential elections, which would have been the first in 15 years. In June, PA critic Nizar al-Banat died in custody shortly after PA forces arrested and beat him outside a relative’s home.

The PA violently dispersed popular protests and rounded up palestina vs israel of Palestinians demanding justice for al-Banat’s death. Gaza Strip During the May hostilities, 260 Palestinians were killed, including 66 children, and 2,200 were wounded, “some of whom may suffer a long-term disability requiring rehabilitation,” according to OCHA. Authorities in Gaza said that 2,400 housing units were made uninhabitable and over 50,000 units were damaged.

8,250 people remained palestina vs israel displaced as of October 14, OCHA said. The fighting also damaged 331 educational facilities, 10 hospitals, and 23 primary health clinics. The World Bank estimated $380 million in total palestina vs israel damage and $190 million in economic losses. Israeli Closure For a 14th consecutive year, Israeli authorities blocked most of Gaza’s population from traveling through the Erez Crossing, the sole passenger crossing from Gaza into Israel through which Palestinians can travel to the West Bank and abroad.

A generalized travel ban applies to all, except those whom Israeli authorities deem as presenting “exceptional humanitarian circumstances,” mostly persons needing vital medical treatment and their companions, as well as prominent business people.

Even the few seeking to travel under these narrow exemptions, including palestina vs israel seeking urgent medical care outside Gaza, often face denials or failures to respond to in a timely palestina vs israel to their requests.

Israeli authorities tightened the closure amid the Covid-19 pandemic. Palestina vs israel the first nine months of 2021, an average of 86 Palestinians in Gaza exited via Erez each day, just 17 percent of the daily average of 500 in 2019 and less than 1 percent the daily average of more than 24,000 before the beginning of the Second Intifada or Palestinian uprising in September 2000, according to the Israeli rights group Gisha. Gaza’s exports during this period, mostly produce destined for the West Bank and Israel, averaged 300 truckloads palestina vs israel month, compared to the monthly average of 1,064 truckloads prior to the June 2007 tightening of the closure, according to Gisha.

During the May hostilities and up until August, Israeli authorities banned the entry of construction materials and other vital materials and limited access to Gaza’s territorial waters for Palestinian fishermen, measures targeting Gaza’s general civilian population that amount to unlawful collective punishment. Authorities continue to severely restrict the entry of construction materials and other items they deem “dual-use” materials that could also be used for military purposes.

The list of such items also includes X-ray and communications equipment and spare parts. The closure limits access to basic services. During the first nine months of 2021, families in Gaza on average had to make do without centrally provided electricity for more than 11 hours a day, according to OCHA. Chronic prolonged power outages encumber many aspects of palestina vs israel life, from heating and cooling and sewage treatment to health care and business, in particular for people with disabilities who rely on light to communicate using sign language or equipment powered by electricity, such as elevators or electric wheelchairs, to move.

OCHA found that Gaza’s groundwater, its sole natural water source, is “almost completely unfit for human consumption.” According to the Palestina vs israel Health Organization (WHO), 42 percent of “essential” medicines were at less than one month's supply as of June. Egypt also restricts the movement of people and goods via its Rafah crossing with Gaza, at times fully sealing the crossing.

In the first nine months of 2021, an average of 13,678 Palestinians crossed monthly in both directions, less than the monthly average of over 40,000 before the 2013 military palestina vs israel in Egypt, according to Gisha.

Hamas and Palestinian Armed Groups Rocket attacks by Palestinian armed groups resulted in the deaths of 13 people in Israel, all during the May hostilities. Hamas authorities provided no information about two Israeli civilians with psychosocial disabilities, Avera Mangistu and Hisham al-Sayed, whom they have apparently held in violation of international law for more than six years after they entered Gaza. Hamas authorities detained opponents and critics for their peaceful expression and tortured some in their custody.

The Palestinian statutory watchdog, the Independent Commission for Human Rights (ICHR), received 75 complaints of arbitrary arrests and 72 of torture and ill-treatment against Hamas authorities between January and September 2020. Since they took control in Gaza in June 2007, Hamas authorities carried out 28 executions following trials marred with due process violations, but none during the first palestina vs israel months of 2021.

Courts in Gaza had, as of October 24, sentenced 19 people to death this year and 161 since June 2007, according to palestina vs israel Gaza-based Palestinian Center for Human Rights. In February, Hamas authorities issued new restrictions that allow male guardians to request local authorities to block unmarried women from leaving Gaza when such travel will cause “absolute harm,” a broad term that allows men to restrict women’s travel at will.

West Bank Israeli Use of Force and Detentions In the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, Israeli security forces, as of October 14, killed 67 Palestinians—nearly triple the figure for all of 2020 and including 14 children—and wounded more than 1,000 Palestinians with live ammunition, according to OCHA. This total includes non-violent demonstrators and bystanders, as well as those alleged to have attacked Israelis. On July 28, Israeli officers shot and killed 11-year-old Mohammad Abu Sarah in the back of his father’s car at the entrance to their village of Beit Ummar near Hebron in a situation where neither posed any apparent threat to Israeli soldiers, as documented in video footage published by the Israeli rights group B’Tselem.

Israeli settlers killed five Palestinians, wounded 137, and caused property damage in 287 incidents, as of October 22, according to OCHA. The number of incidents of settler violence against Palestinians in the first half of 2021 was more than double the figure for the first half of 2020 and more than all of 2019, according to government data. As of October 16, Palestinians killed one Israeli settler and wounded 37 Israeli soldiers and 72 settlers in the West Bank.

Israeli authorities have rarely held accountable security forces who used excessive force or settlers who attacked Palestinians. Israeli authorities closely monitor online speech by Palestinians, in part relying on predictive algorithms to determine whom to target, and have detained Palestinians based on social media posts and other expressive activity. While applying Israeli civil law to settlers, Israeli authorities govern West Bank Palestinians, excluding Jerusalem residents, under harsh military law.

In so doing, they deny them basic due process and try them in military courts with a near-100 percent conviction rate. As of October 1, Israel held 4,460 Palestinians in custody for “security” offenses, including 200 children, many for throwing stones, and 492 in administrative detention without formal charges or trial and based on secret evidence, according to figures by the Israeli human rights group HaMoked and Palestinian prisoner rights group Adameer.

Israel incarcerates many Palestinians from the OPT inside Israel, complicating family visits and violating international humanitarian law’s prohibition against their transfer outside occupied territory. In September, six Palestinian prisoners from the OPT escaped from an Israeli prison in northern Israel. In response, Israeli authorities temporarily cancelled family visits to all detainees.

Lawyers for several of the men said the escaped prisoners were tortured upon their rearrest. More than 1,300 palestina vs israel of torture, including of painful shackling, sleep deprivation and exposure to extreme temperatures, have been filed with Israel’s Justice Ministry since 2001, resulting in two criminal investigations and no indictments, according to the Israeli rights group Public Committee Against Torture. In August, the Israeli Supreme Court upheld the Israeli government’s policy of withholding the bodies of Palestinians killed in what they consider security incidents, as leverage to secure Hamas’s release of the bodies of two Israeli soldiers presumed killed in 2014 hostilities, as authorities have acknowledged.

As of August, authorities held the bodies of 81 Palestinians killed since 2015, according to the Haifa-based human rights group Palestina vs israel. Settlements and Home Demolitions Israeli authorities provide security, infrastructure, and services for more than 667,000 settlers in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. The difficulty in obtaining Israeli building permits in East Jerusalem and the 60 percent of the West Bank under Israel’s exclusive control (Area C) has driven Palestinians to build structures that are at constant risk of demolition or confiscation for being unauthorized.

OCHA considers 46 Palestinian communities in the West Bank to be at “high risk of forcible transfer due to a ‘relocation’ plan advanced by the Israeli authorities,” and more than 100,000 Palestinians in East Jerusalem at risk of displacement.

Save the Children considered, as of February, more than 50 kindergartens and primary schools, serving more than 5,000 Palestinian kids in the West Bank, at risk of demolition. International law prohibits an occupying power from destroying property unless “absolutely necessary” for “military operations.” In the East Jerusalem neighborhoods of Sheikh Jarrah and Silwan, Israeli settler organizations advanced efforts to take possession of Palestinian homes and evict their long-term residents.

They have done so under a discriminatory law, upheld by Israeli courts, that allow these groups to pursue claims for land they claim Jews owned in East Jerusalem before 1948. Palestinians, including Sheikh Jarrah residents set to be displaced, are barred under Israeli law from reclaiming property they owned in what became Israel, and from which they fled in 1948.

A final court ruling on many of these cases is pending. Freedom of Movement Israeli authorities continued to require Palestinian ID holders with rare exceptions to hold difficult-to-obtain, time-limited permits to enter Israel and large parts of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. B’Tselem describes this as “an arbitrary, entirely non-transparent bureaucratic system” where “many applications are denied without explanation, with no real avenue for appeal.” Israeli authorities, as of June 2020, maintained nearly 600 checkpoints and other permanent obstacles within the West Bank, in addition to nearly 1,500 ad-hoc “flying” checkpoints erected between April 2019 and March 2020, according to OCHA.

Israeli forces routinely turn away or delay and humiliate Palestinians at checkpoints without explanation, while permitting largely unfettered movement to Israeli settlers. The separation barrier, which Israel said it built for security reasons but 85 percent of which falls within the West Bank rather than along the Green Line separating Israeli from Palestinian territory, cuts off thousands of Palestinians from their agricultural lands.

It also isolates 11,000 Palestinians who live on the western side of the barrier but are not allowed to travel to Israel and whose ability to cross the barrier to access their property and basic services is highly restricted.

Palestinian Authority Following the death in custody of activist Nizar al-Banat in June, the PA detained activists on manifestly political charges, like insulting “higher authorities” and creating “sectarian strife,” that in effect criminalized palestina vs israel dissent.

Between January and Palestina vs israel 2021, the ICHR received 87 complaints of arbitrary arrests, 15 of palestina vs israel without trial or charge pursuant to orders from a regional governor, and 76 of torture and ill-treatment against the PA. PA personal status laws discriminated against women, including in relation to palestina vs israel, divorce, custody of children and inheritance. Women’s rights groups have documented an increase in reports of domestic violence since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, with five women killed across the OPT palestina vs israel 2021.

Palestine has no comprehensive domestic violence law. The PA is palestina vs israel a draft family protection law, but women’s rights groups have raised concern that it does not go far enough to prevent abuse and protect survivors.

The penal code in force in the West Bank and Gaza permits corporal punishment of children by parents, which remains a palestina vs israel practice. Israel During the May hostilities, intercommunal violence broke out in cities where both Palestinian and Jewish citizens of Israelis lived, leaving three people killed and hundreds wounded, including both Palestinians and Jews.

According to the Haifa-based Mossawa Center, more than 2,000 people were detained in the aftermath, over 90 percent of them Palestinians. Human rights groups accused the Israeli government of failing to sufficiently protect Palestinians from attacks by armed Jewish mobs. In July, the Israeli Supreme Court upheld the Nation State Law, a law with constitutional status that affirms Israel as the “nation-state of the Jewish people,” declares that within that territory the right to self-determination “is unique to the Jewish people,” and establishes “Jewish settlement” as a national value.

The Knesset in July failed to renew a temporary order that had been in place since 2003 barring, with few exceptions, the granting of long-term legal status inside Israel to Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza who marry Israeli citizens or residents. Interior Minister Ayelet Shaked instructed authorities to continue to act as if the law was in place while the Interior Ministry examines the implications of its expiration, prolonging the separation of many families. Such a restriction does not exist for spouses of virtually any other nationality.

Israeli authorities continued to systematically deny asylum claims of the roughly 31,000 Eritrean and Sudanese asylum seekers in the country.

Over the years the government has imposed restrictions on their movement, work permits, and access to health care and to education in order to pressure them to leave. Covid-19 The Covid-19 pandemic continued to affect communities in Israel and the OPT. The Israeli government had vaccinated more than two-thirds of its citizens and residents and begun offering third booster shots, as of October. Israeli authorities provided vaccines to Palestinian citizens of Israel and residents of occupied East Jerusalem, as well as Israeli settlers in the West Bank, but not to most of the more than 4.7 million Palestinians living under Israeli control in the occupied West Bank and Gaza.

Israeli authorities claim this responsibility falls on the PA, but the Fourth Geneva Convention obliges occupying powers to ensure medical supplies, including to combat the spread of pandemics, to the occupied population. More than 1 million Palestinians in the West Bank, excluding Jerusalem residents, and 466,000 Palestinians in Gaza, were vaccinated as of October 21, according to the WHO, largely through vaccines obtained from external sources and administered by Palestinian authorities.

Key International Actors During the May fighting, the Biden administration criticized rocket attacks by Palestinian armed groups, but not Israeli conduct, and proceeded with the sale of $735 million in arms to Israel, including of the kind of precision-guided munitions used in unlawful attacks in Gaza.

This funding supplemented the annual $3.7 billion in security assistance the US provides and an additional $1 billion authorized in October. In May, the UN Human Rights Council established an ongoing Commission of Inquiry (COI) to address abuses arising from the May hostilities and their root causes, including systematic discrimination and repression based on group identity across Israel and the OPT, and to promote accountability for those responsible. All Western states on the council abstained or voted against creating the COI.

The European Union condemned Israel’s settlement policy and Israeli and Palestinian abuses, but divisions among EU member states have frustrated attempts to adopt more forceful measures. During the May hostilities, Facebook wrongfully removed and suppressed content by Palestinians and their supporters, including about human rights abuses.

In February, the International Criminal Court (ICC) ruled that it has jurisdiction over serious crimes committed in the Palestina vs israel. In March, the ICC prosecutor’s office announced the opening of a formal investigation into the situation in Palestine.

The American company Ben & Jerry’s announced in June that it will stop selling its ice cream in Israeli settlements, explaining that “it is inconsistent with our values for our product to be present within an internationally recognised illegal occupation.”
Background The Israeli-Palestinian conflict dates back to the end of the nineteenth century.

In 1947, the United Nations adopted Resolution 181, known as the Partition Plan, which sought to divide the British Mandate of Palestine into Arab and Jewish states. On May 14, 1948, the State of Israel was created, sparking the first Arab-Israeli War.

The war ended in 1949 with Israel’s victory, but 750,000 Palestinians were displaced and the territory was divided into 3 parts: the State palestina vs israel Israel, the West Bank (of the Jordan River), and the Gaza Strip.

Over the following years, tensions rose in the region, particularly between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. Following the 1956 Suez Crisis and Israel’s invasion of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, Jordan, and Syria signed mutual defense pacts in anticipation of a possible mobilization of Israel troops.

In June 1967, following a series of maneuvers by Egyptian President Abdel Gamal Nasser, Israel preemptively attacked Egyptian and Syrian air forces, starting the Six-Day War.

Palestina vs israel the war, Israel gained territorial control over the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip from Egypt; the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan; and the Golan Heights from Syria. Six years later, in what is referred to as the Yom Kippur War or the October War, Egypt and Syria launched a surprise two-front attack on Israel to regain their lost territory; the conflict did not result in significant gains for Egypt, Israel, or Syria, but Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat declared the war a victory for Egypt as it allowed Egypt and Syria to negotiate over previously ceded territory.

Finally, in 1979, following a series of cease-fires and peace negotiations, representatives from Egypt and Israel signed the Camp David Accordsa peace treaty that ended the thirty-year conflict between Egypt and Israel.

Even though the Camp David Accords improved relations between Israel and its neighbors, the question of Palestinian self-determination and self-governance remained unresolved. Palestina vs israel 1987, hundreds of thousands of Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza Strip rose up against the Israeli government in what is known as the first intifada.

The 1993 Oslo I Accords mediated the conflict, setting up a framework for the Palestinians to govern themselves in the West Bank and Gaza, and enabled mutual recognition between the newly established Palestinian Authority and Israel’s government.

In 1995, the Oslo II Accords expanded on the first agreement, adding provisions that mandated the complete withdrawal of Israel from 6 cities and 450 towns in the West Bank. In 2000, sparked in part by Palestinian grievances over Israel’s control over the West Bank, a stagnating peace process, and former Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon’s visit to the al-Aqsa mosque—the third holiest site in Islam—in September 2000, Palestinians launched the second intifada, which would last until 2005.

In response, the Israeli government approved construction of a barrier wall around the West Bank in 2002, despite opposition from the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Court. In 2013, the United States attempted to revive the peace process palestina vs israel the Israeli government and the Palestinian Authority in the West Bank.

However, peace talks were disrupted when Fatah—the Palestinian Authority’s ruling party—formed a unity government with its rival faction Hamas in 2014. Hamas, a spin-off of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood founded in 1987 following the first intifada, is one of palestina vs israel major Palestinian political parties and was designated a foreign terrorist organization by the United States in 1997.

In the summer of 2014, clashes in the Palestinian territories precipitated a military confrontation between the Israeli military and Hamas in which Hamas fired nearly three thousand rockets at Israel, and Israel retaliated with a major offensive in Gaza.

The skirmish ended in late August 2014 with a cease-fire deal brokered by Egypt, but only after 73 Israelis and 2,251 Palestinians were killed. After a wave of violence between Israelis and Palestinians in 2015, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas announced that Palestinians would no longer be bound by the territorial divisions created by the Oslo Accords.

In March and May of 2018, Palestinians in the Gaza Strip conducted weekly demonstrations at the border between the Gaza Strip and Israel.

The final protest coincided with the seventieth anniversary of the Nakba, the Palestinian exodus that accompanied Israeli independence. While most of the protesters were peaceful, some stormed the perimeter fence and threw rocks and other objects. According to the United Nations, 183 demonstrators were killed and more than 6,000 were wounded by live ammunition.

Also in May of 2018, fighting broke out between Hamas and the Israeli military in what became the worst period of violence since 2014. Before reaching a cease-fire, militants in Gaza fired over one hundred rockets into Israel; Israel responded with strikes on more than fifty targets in Gaza during the twenty-four-hour flare-up.

The Donald J. Trump administration set achieving an Israeli-Palestinian deal as a foreign policy priority. In 2018, the Trump administration canceled funding for the UN Relief and Works Agency, which provides aid to Palestinian refugees, and relocated the U.S.

embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, a reversal of a longstanding U.S. policy. The decision to move the U.S. embassy was met with applause from the Israeli leadership but was condemned by Palestinian leaders and others in the Palestina vs israel East and Europe.

Israel considers the “ complete and united Jerusalem” its capital, while Palestinians claim East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state.

In January 2020, the Trump administration released its palestina vs israel “ Peace to Prosperity” plan, which was rejected by Palestinians due to its support for future Israeli annexation of settlements in the West Bank and control over an “undivided” Jerusalem.

In August and September 2020, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and then Bahrain agreed to normalize relations with Israel, making them only the third and fourth countries in the palestina vs israel Egypt in 1979 and Jordan in 1994—to do so. The agreements, named the Abraham Accords, came more than eighteen months after the United States hosted Israel and several Arab states for ministerial talks in Warsaw, Poland, about the future of peace in the Middle East.

Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas rejected the accords; Hamas also rejected the agreements. Concerns There is concern that a third intifada could break out and that renewed tensions will escalate into large-scale violence. The United States has an interest in protecting the security of its long-term ally Israel, and achieving a lasting deal between Israel and the Palestinian territories, which would improve regional security. Recent Developments In October 2020, an Israeli court ruled that several Palestinian families living in Sheikh Jarrah—a neighborhood in East Jerusalem—were to be evicted by May 2021 with their land handed over to Jewish families.

In February 2021, several Palestinian families from Sheikh Jarrah filed an appeal to the court ruling and prompted protests around the appeal hearings, the ongoing legal battle around property ownership, and demanding an end to the forcible displacement of Palestinians from their homes in Jerusalem. In late April 2021, Palestinians began demonstrating in the streets of Jerusalem to protest the pending evictions and residents of Sheikh Jarrah—along with other activists—began to host nightly sit-ins.

In early May, after a court ruled in favor of the evictions, the protests expanded with Israeli police deploying force against demonstrators. On May 7, following weeks of daily demonstrations and rising tensions between protesters, Israeli settlers, and police during the month of Ramadan, violence broke out at the al-Aqsa Mosque compound in Jerusalem, with Israeli police using stun grenades, rubber bullets, and water cannons in a clash with protestors that left hundreds of Palestinians wounded.

After the clashes in Jerusalem’s Old City, tensions increased throughout East Jerusalem, compounded by the celebration of Jerusalem Day. On May 10, after several consecutive days of violence throughout Jerusalem and the use of lethal and nonlethal force by Israeli police, Hamas, the militant group which governs Gaza, and other Palestinian militant groups launched hundreds of rockets into Israeli territory.

Israel responded with air strikes and later artillery bombardments against targets in Gaza, including launching several air strikes that killed more than twenty Palestinians. While claiming to target Hamas, other militants, and their infrastructure—including tunnels and rocket launchers—Israel expanded its aerial campaign and struck targets including residential buildings, media headquarters, palestina vs israel refugee and healthcare facilities.

On May 21, Israel and Hamas agreed to a cease-fire, brokered by Egypt, with both sides claiming victory and no reported violations. More than two hundred and fifty Palestinians were killed and nearly two thousand others wounded, and palestina vs israel least thirteen Israelis were killed over the eleven days of fighting.

Authorities in Gaza estimate that tens of millions of dollars of damage was done, and the United Nations estimates that more than 72,000 Palestinians were displaced by the fighting.

Can Israelis and Palestinians See Eye to Eye?




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