Belatu

belatu

Belatu people of the island of Nias located west of North Sumatra uses the Balato sword, both as a fighting sword and a belatu dance sword. The Balato comes in variety of blade shape and decoration style. The fighting sword are simpler and less decorated but much more functional. We offer for sale this fighting Balato sword.

Blade with straight spine, very slightly widening with a clipped spine toward the tip. The grip is Buffalo horn with cylindrical brass collar and with the pommel shaped like a styled Lasara ( Mythical monster). Wood scabbard bound with many plaited rattan bands (One missing). Blade belatu inches belatu a short 3 inches ricasso.

Total length 27 inches. Very good condition. Lightly belatu blade, no pitting and with minor edge nicks/ Good fighting sword.

late 19 or early 20 C. For a similar sword see A Belatu “Traditional Weapons of the Indonesian Archipelago” page 29, fig 37. NOT YOUR AVERAGE PIZZERIA ​ Bella Pizza is more than a business, it's our way of loving our community. Check out everything we do to go above and beyond being the best belatu to grab a slice. ​ Food BFFs - Making Belatu We Source Local ​ House Made - Getting You the Best Food from Scratch ​ People Over Profit - Giving Forward ​ European Flavor Meets PNW Style - Delivering GENUINE Recipes with PNW Twists.

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A Beltane bonfire on Calton Hill in Edinburgh Also called Lá Bealtaine ( Irish) Latha Bealltainn ( Scottish Gaelic) Laa Boaltinn/Boaldyn ( Manx) [1] Beltain; Beltine; Beltany [2] [3] Observed by Historically: Gaels Today: Irish people, Scottish people, Manx people, Modern Pagans Belatu Cultural, Pagan ( Celtic neopaganism, Wicca) Significance Beginning of summer Celebrations lighting bonfires, decorating homes belatu May flowers, making May bushes, visiting holy wells, feasting Date 1 May [4] (or 1 November in the S.

Hemisphere) Frequency annual Related to May Day, Calan Mai, Walpurgis Night Beltane ( / ˈ b ɛ l. t eɪ n/) [5] [6] is the Gaelic May Day festival. It is held on 1 May, or about halfway between the spring equinox and summer solstice.

Historically, it was widely observed throughout Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man. In Irish the name for the festival day is Lá Bealtaine ( [l̪ˠaː ˈbʲal̪ˠt̪ˠənʲə]), in Scottish Gaelic Latha Bealltainn ( [l̪ˠaː ˈpjaul̪ˠt̪ɪɲ]) and in Manx Gaelic Laa Boaltinn/ Boaldyn. It is one of the four Gaelic seasonal festivals—along with Samhain, Imbolc and Lughnasadh—and is similar to the Welsh Calan Mai.

Beltane is mentioned in the earliest Irish literature and is associated with important events in Irish mythology. Also known as Cétshamhain ("first of summer"), it marked the beginning of summer and was when cattle were driven out to the summer pastures. Rituals were performed to protect cattle, people and crops, and to encourage growth. Special bonfires were kindled, whose flames, smoke and ashes were deemed to have protective powers.

The people and their cattle would walk around or between bonfires, and sometimes leap over the flames or embers. All household fires would be doused and then re-lit from the Beltane bonfire.

These gatherings would be accompanied by a feast, belatu some of the food and drink would be offered to the aos sí. Doors, windows, byres and livestock would be decorated with yellow May flowers, perhaps because they evoked fire. In parts of Ireland, people would make a May Bush: typically a thorn bush or branch decorated with flowers, ribbons, bright shells and rushlights. Holy wells were also visited, while Beltane belatu was thought to bring beauty and maintain youthfulness.

Many of these customs were part of May Day or Midsummer festivals in parts of Great Britain and Europe. Beltane celebrations had largely died out by the mid-20th century, although some of its customs continued and in some places it has been revived as a cultural event.

Since the late 20th century, Celtic neopagans and Wiccans have observed a festival based on Beltane as a religious holiday. Some neopagans in the Southern Hemisphere celebrate Beltane on or around 1 November. Contents • 1 Historic customs • 1.1 Ancient and medieval • 1.2 Modern era • 1.2.1 Bonfires • 1.2.2 Flowers and May Bushes • 1.2.3 Appeasing the fairies • 1.2.4 Other customs • 2 Revival • 2.1 Neopaganism • 2.1.1 Celtic Reconstructionist • 2.1.2 Wicca belatu 3 Name • 3.1 Etymology • 3.2 Toponymy • 4 See also • 5 References • 6 Further reading • 7 External links Historic customs [ edit ] Beltane was one of four Gaelic seasonal festivals: Samhain (1 November), Imbolc (1 February), Beltane (1 May), and Lughnasadh (1 August).

Beltane marked belatu beginning of the pastoral summer season, when livestock were driven out to the summer pastures. [7] [8] Rituals were held at that time to protect them from harm, both natural and supernatural, and this mainly involved the "symbolic use of fire". [7] There were also rituals to protect crops, dairy products and people, and to encourage growth.

The aos sí (often referred to as spirits or fairies) were thought to be especially active at Belatu (as at Samhain) [7] and the goal of many Beltane rituals was to appease them. Most scholars see the aos sí as remnants of the pagan gods and nature spirits. [9] Beltane was a "spring time festival of optimism" during which "fertility ritual again was belatu, perhaps connecting with the waxing power of the sun".

[3] Ancient and medieval [ edit ] Beltane (the beginning of summer) and Samhain (the beginning of winter) are thought to have been the most important of the four Gaelic festivals. Sir James Belatu Frazer wrote in The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion that the times of Beltane and Samhain are of little importance to European crop-growers, but of great importance to herdsmen. Thus, he suggests that halving the year at 1 Belatu and 1 November dates from a time when the Celts were mainly a pastoral people, dependent on their herds.

[10] The earliest mention of Beltane is in Old Irish literature from Gaelic Ireland. According to the early medieval texts Sanas Cormaic (written belatu Cormac mac Cuilennáin) and Tochmarc Emire, Beltane was held on 1 May and marked the beginning of summer. The texts say that, to protect cattle from disease, druids would make two fires "with great incantations" and drive the cattle between them.

[11] [12] [13] According to 17th-century historian Geoffrey Keating, there was a great gathering at the hill of Uisneach each Beltane in medieval Ireland, where a sacrifice was made to a god named Beil. Keating wrote that two bonfires would be lit in every district of Ireland, and cattle would be driven between them to protect them from disease. [14] There is no reference to such a gathering in the annals, but the medieval Dindsenchas (lore of places) includes a tale of a hero lighting a holy fire on Uisneach that blazed for seven years.

Ronald Hutton writes that this may "preserve a tradition of Beltane ceremonies there", but adds "Keating or his belatu may simply have conflated this legend with the information in Sanas Chormaic to produce a piece of pseudo-history". [7] Nevertheless, excavations at Uisneach in the 20th century found evidence of large fires and charred bones, and showed it to have been a place of ritual since ancient times.

[7] [15] [16] Evidence suggests it was "a sanctuary-site, in which fire was kept burning perpetually, or kindled at frequent intervals", where animal sacrifices were offered.

[17] Beltane is also mentioned in medieval Scottish literature. [18] An early reference is found in the poem 'Peblis to the Play', contained in belatu Maitland Manuscripts of 15th- and 16th-century Scots poetry, which describes the celebration in the town of Peebles.

[19] Modern era [ edit ] From the late 18th century to the mid 20th century, many accounts of Beltane customs were recorded by folklorists and other writers. For example John Jamieson, in his Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language (1808) describes some of the Beltane customs which persisted in the 18th and early 19th centuries in parts of Scotland, which he noted were beginning to die out.

[20] In the 19th century, folklorist Alexander Belatu (1832–1912), collected the Scottish Gaelic song Am Beannachadh Bealltain ( The Beltane Blessing) in his Carmina Gadelica, which he heard from a crofter in South Uist. [19] The first two verses were sung as follows: Beannaich, a Thrianailt fhioir nach gann, (Bless, O Threefold true and bountiful,) Mi fein, mo cheile agus mo chlann, (Myself, my spouse and my children,) Mo chlann mhaoth's am mathair chaomh 'n an ceann, (My tender children and their beloved mother at their head,) Belatu chlar chubhr nan raon, air airidh chaon nam beann, (On the fragrant plain, at the gay mountain sheiling,) Air chlar chubhr belatu raon, air airidh chaon nam beann.

(On the fragrant plain, at the gay mountain sheiling.) Gach ni na m' fhardaich, no ta 'na m' shealbh, (Everything within my dwelling belatu in my possession,) Gach buar is barr, gach tan is tealbh, (All kine and crops, all flocks and corn,) Bho Oidhche Shamhna chon Oidhche Bheallt, (From Hallow Eve to Beltane Eve,) Piseach maith, agus beannachd mallt, (With goodly progress and gentle blessing,) Bho mhuir, belatu muir, agus bun gach allt, (From sea to sea, and every river mouth,) Bho thonn gu tonn, agus bonn gach steallt.

(From wave to wave, and base of waterfall.) [19] Bonfires [ edit ] A Beltane bonfire at Butser Ancient Farm Bonfires continued to be a key part of the festival in the modern era. All hearth fires and candles would belatu doused before the bonfire was lit, generally on a mountain or hill. [3] [21] Ronald Hutton writes that "To increase the potency of the holy flames, in Britain at least they were often kindled by the most primitive of all means, of friction between wood." [7] This is known as a need-fire or force-fire.

In the 19th century, John Ramsay described Scottish Highlanders kindling such a fire at Beltane, which was deemed sacred. [7] In the 19th century, the ritual of driving cattle between two fires—as described in Sanas Cormaic almost 1000 years before—was still practised across most of Ireland and in parts of Scotland.

[7] Sometimes the cattle would be driven around a bonfire or be made to leap over flames or embers. The people themselves would do likewise. [7] On the Isle of Man, people ensured that the smoke blew over them and their cattle. [8] When the bonfire had died down, people would daub themselves with its ashes and sprinkle it over their belatu and livestock. [7] Burning torches from the bonfire would be taken home, carried around the house or belatu of the farmstead, [22] and used to re-light the hearth.

[7] From these rituals, it is clear that the fire was seen as having protective powers. [7] Similar rituals were part of May Day or Midsummer customs in other parts of the British Isles and mainland Europe. [23] Frazer believed the fire rituals are a kind of imitative or sympathetic magic. He suggests they were meant to mimic the Sun and "ensure a needful supply of sunshine for men, animals, and plants", as well as to symbolically "burn up and destroy all harmful influences".

[24] A Beltane bonfire at WEHEC belatu Food was also cooked at the bonfire and there were rituals involving it. In the Scottish Highlands, Alexander Carmichael recorded that there was a feast featuring lamb, and that formerly this lamb was sacrificed. [25] In 1769, Thomas Pennant wrote of bonfires in Perthshire, where a caudle made from eggs, belatu, oatmeal and milk was cooked.

Some of the mixture was poured on the ground as a libation. Everyone present would then take an oatmeal cake, called the bannoch Bealltainn or "Beltane bannock". A bit was offered to the spirits to protect their livestock (one to protect the horses, one to protect the sheep, and so forth) and a bit offered to belatu of the predators that might harm their livestock (one to the fox, one to the eagle, and so forth).

Afterwards, they would drink the caudle. [7] According to 18th century writers, in parts of Scotland there was another ritual involving the oatmeal cake. The cake would be cut and one of the slices marked with charcoal. The slices would then be put in a bonnet and everyone would take one out while blindfolded. According to one writer, whoever got the marked piece had to leap through the fire three times.

According to another, those present pretended to throw the person into the fire and, for some time afterwards, would speak of them as if they were dead. This "may embody a memory of actual human sacrifice", or it may have always been symbolic.

[7] A similar ritual (i.e. of pretending to burn someone belatu the fire) was part of spring and summer bonfire festivals in other parts of Europe. [26] Flowers and May Bushes [ edit ] A flowering hawthorn Yellow and white flowers such as primrose, rowan, hawthorn, gorse, hazel, and marsh marigold were traditionally placed at doorways and windows; this is documented in 19th century Ireland, Scotland and Mann.

Sometimes loose flowers were strewn at doors and windows and belatu they were made into bouquets, garlands or crosses and belatu to them. They would also be fastened to cows and equipment for milking and butter making.

It is likely that such flowers were belatu because they evoked fire. [7] Similar May Day customs are found across Europe. The May Bush or May Bough belatu popular in belatu of Ireland until the late 19th century. [27] This was a small tree or branch—typically hawthorn, rowan, holly or sycamore—decorated with bright flowers, ribbons, painted shells or eggshells from Easter Sunday, and so forth.

The tree would either be decorated where it stood, or branches would be decorated and placed inside or belatu the house (particularly above windows and doors, on the roof, and on barns). [27] It was generally the responsibility of the oldest person of the house to decorate the May Bush, and the tree would remain up until May 31st.

[28] [29] The tree would also be belatu with candles or rushlights. [21] Sometimes a May Bush would be paraded through the town.

In parts of southern Ireland, gold and silver hurling balls known as May Balls belatu be hung on these May Bushes and handed out to children or given to the winners belatu a hurling match. [21] In Dublin and Belfast, May Bushes were brought into town from the countryside and decorated by the whole neighbourhood.

[21] Each neighbourhood vied for the most handsome tree and, sometimes, residents of one would try to steal the May Bush of another. This led to the May Bush being outlawed in Victorian times.

[21] In some places, it was customary to sing and dance around the May Bush, and at the end of the festivities it may be burnt in the bonfire. [30] In some areas belatu May Bush or Bough has also been called the "May Pole", but it is the bush or tree described above, and not the more commonly-known European maypole. [27] Thorn trees are belatu seen as special trees, associated with the aos sí.

Frazer believed the belatu of decorating trees or poles in springtime are a relic of tree worship and wrote: "The intention of these customs is to bring home to the village, and to each house, the blessings which the tree-spirit has in its power to bestow." [31] Emyr Estyn Evans suggests that the May Bush custom may have come to Ireland from England, because it seemed to be found in areas with strong English influence and because the Irish saw it as unlucky to damage certain thorn trees.

[32] Belatu, "lucky" and "unlucky" trees varied by region, and it has been suggested that Belatu was the only time when cutting thorn trees was allowed. [33] The practice belatu bedecking a May Bush with flowers, ribbons, garlands and bright shells is found among the Gaelic diaspora, most notably in Newfoundland, and in some Easter traditions on the East Coast of the United States. [21] Appeasing the fairies [ edit ] Many Beltane practices were designed to ward belatu or appease the fairies and prevent them from stealing dairy products.

For example, three black coals were placed under a butter churn to ensure the fairies did not steal the butter, and May Boughs were tied to milk pails, the tails of cattle or hung in the barns to ensure the cattle's milk was not stolen. [34] [29] Flowers were also used to decorate the horns of cattle, which was believed to bring good fortune. [35] Food was left or milk poured at the doorstep or places associated with the aos sí, such as 'fairy trees', as an offering.

[36] [37] However, milk was never given to a neighbor on May Day because it was feared that the milk would be transferred to the neighbor's cow.

[38] In Ireland, cattle would be brought to ' fairy forts', where a small amount of their blood would be collected. The owners would then pour it into the earth with prayers for the herd's safety. Belatu the blood would be left to dry and then be burnt. [36] It was thought belatu dairy products were especially at risk from harmful spirits.

[21] [39] [40] To protect belatu produce and encourage fertility, farmers would lead a procession around the boundaries of their farm. They would belatu with them seeds of grain, implements of husbandry, the first well water, and the herb vervain (or rowan as a substitute).

The procession generally stopped at the four cardinal points of the compass, beginning in the east, and rituals were performed in each of the four directions". [41] People made the belatu of the cross with milk for good luck on Beltane, and the sign of the cross was also made on the backsides of cattle. [42] [43] Other customs [ edit ] Holy wells were often visited at Beltane, and at the other Gaelic festivals of Imbolc and Lughnasadh.

Visitors to holy wells would pray for health while walking sunwise (moving from east to west) around the well. They would then leave offerings; typically coins or belatu (see clootie well).

[21] The first water drawn from a well on Beltane was thought to be especially potent, and would bring belatu luck to the person who drew it. Beltane morning dew was also thought to bring good luck and health. At dawn or before sunrise on Beltane, maidens would roll in belatu dew or wash their faces with it. [44] The dew was collected in a jar, left in belatu, then filtered. The dew was thought to increase sexual attractiveness, maintain youthfulness, protect from sun damage (particularly freckles and sunburn) and help with skin ailments for the ensuing year.

[8] [21] [44] [45] It was also thought that a man who washed his face with soap and water on Beltane will grow long whiskers on his face. [27] It was widely believed that no one should light a fire on May Day morning until they saw smoke rising from a neighbor's house. [29] It was also believed to be bad luck to put out ashes or clothes on May Day, and to give away coal or ashes would cause the giver difficulty in lighting fires for the next year.

[46] [45] Also, if belatu family owned a white horse, it should remain in the barn all day, and if any other horse was owned, a red rag should be tied to its tail. [27] Any foal born on May Day was fated to kill a man, and any cow that calved on May Day would die.

belatu

{INSERTKEYS} [46] Any birth or marriage on May Day was generally believed to be ill-fated. [47] [30] On May Night a cake and a jug were left on the table, because it was believed that the Irish who had died abroad would return on May Day to their ancestral homes, and it was also believed that the dead returned on May Day to visit their friends.

[47] [42] A robin that flew into the house on Beltane was believed to portend the death of a household member. [30] The festival persisted widely up until the 1950s, and in some places the celebration of Beltane continues today.

[16] [39] [40] Revival [ edit ] As a festival, Beltane had largely died out by the mid-20th century, although some of its customs continued and in some places it has been revived as a cultural event. In Ireland, Beltane fires were common until the mid-20th century, [21] but the custom seems to have lasted to the present day only in County Limerick (especially in Limerick itself) and in Arklow, County Wicklow. [48] The lighting of a community Beltane fire from which each hearth fire is then relit is observed today in some parts of the Gaelic diaspora, though in most of these cases it is a cultural revival rather than an unbroken survival of the ancient tradition.

[21] [49] [50] In parts of Newfoundland, the custom of decorating the May Bush also survives. [51] The town of Peebles in the Scottish Borders holds a traditional week-long Beltane Fair every year in June, when a local girl is crowned Beltane Queen on the steps of the parish church. Like other Borders festivals, it incorporates a Common Riding. [19] [52] Beltane Fire Festival dancers, 2012 Since 1988, a Beltane Fire Festival has been held every year on the night of 30 April on Calton Hill in Edinburgh, Scotland.

While inspired by traditional Beltane, it is a modern celebration of summer's beginning which draws on many influences. [53] The performance art event involves fire dances and a procession by costumed performers, led by the May Queen and the Green Man, culminating in the lighting of a bonfire. [54] A similar Bealtaine Festival has been held each year since 2009 at Uisneach in Ireland. [55] It culminates in a torchlit procession by participants in costume, some on horseback, and the lighting of a large bonfire at dusk.

[56] In 2017, the ceremonial fire was lit by the President of Ireland, Michael D Higgins. [57] The 1970 recording ' Ride a White Swan', written and performed by Marc Bolan and his band T.Rex, contains the line "Ride a white Swan like the people of the Beltane".

[58] Neopaganism [ edit ] Beltane and Beltane-based festivals are held by some Neopagans. As there are many kinds of Neopaganism, their Beltane celebrations can be very different despite the shared name. Some try to emulate the historic festival as much as possible. [59] Other Neopagans base their celebrations on many sources, the Gaelic festival being only one of them.

[60] [61] Neopagans usually celebrate Beltane on 30 April – 1 May in the Northern Hemisphere and 31 October – 1 November in the Southern Hemisphere, beginning and ending at sunset.

[62] [63] [64] [65] [66] Some Neopagans celebrate it at the astronomical midpoint between the spring equinox and summer solstice (or the full moon nearest this point).

In the Northern Hemisphere, this midpoint is when the ecliptic longitude of the Sun reaches 45 degrees. [67] In 2014, this was on 5 May.

[68] Celtic Reconstructionist [ edit ] Celtic Reconstructionists strive to reconstruct ancient Celtic religion. Their religious practices are based on research and historical accounts, [59] [69] but modified to suit modern life. They avoid syncretism and eclecticism (i.e. combining practises from unrelated cultures). [70] Celtic Reconstructionists usually celebrate Beltane when the local hawthorn trees are in bloom.

Many observe the traditional bonfire rites, to whatever extent this is feasible where they live. This may involve passing themselves and their pets or livestock between two bonfires, and bringing home a candle lit from the bonfire. If they are unable to make a bonfire or attend a bonfire ceremony, candles may be used instead. They may decorate their homes with a May Bush, branches from blooming thorn trees, or equal-armed rowan crosses.

Holy wells may be visited and offerings made to the spirits or deities of the wells. Traditional festival foods may also be prepared. [71] [72] Wicca [ edit ] Wiccans use the name Beltane or Beltain for their May Day celebrations. It is one of the yearly Sabbats of their Wheel of the Year, following Ostara and preceding Midsummer. Unlike Celtic Reconstructionism, Wicca is syncretic and melds practices from many different cultures. In general, the Wiccan Beltane is more akin to the Germanic/English May Day festival, both in its significance (focusing on fertility) and its rituals (such as maypole dancing).

Some Wiccans enact a ritual union of the May Lord and May Lady. [62] Name [ edit ] In Irish, the festival is usually called Lá Bealtaine ('day of Beltane') while the month of May is Mí Bhealtaine ("month of Beltane"). In Scottish Gaelic, the festival is Latha Bealltainn and the month is An Cèitean or a' Mhàigh. Sometimes the older Scottish Gaelic spelling Bealltuinn is used.

The word Céitean comes from Cétshamain ('first of summer'), an old alternative name for the festival. [73] [74] The term Latha Buidhe Bealltainn (Scottish) or Lá Buidhe Bealtaine (Irish), 'the bright or yellow day of Beltane', means the first of May.

In Ireland it is referred to in a common folk tale as Luan Lae Bealtaine; the first day of the week (Monday/ Luan) is added to highlight the first day of summer. [75] The name is anglicized as Beltane, Beltain, Beltaine, Beltine and Beltany. [2] Etymology [ edit ] Two modern etymologies have been proposed. Beltaine could derive from a Common Celtic * belo-te(p)niâ, meaning 'bright fire'. The element * belo- might be cognate with the English word bale (as in bale-fire) meaning 'white', 'bright' or 'shining'.

Alternatively, Beltaine might stem from a Common Celtic form reconstructed as * Beltiniyā, which would be cognate with the name of the Lithuanian goddess of death Giltinė, both from an earlier * gʷel-tiōn-, formed with the Proto-Indo-European root * gʷelH- ('suffering, death').

The absence of syncope (Irish sound laws rather predict a ** Beltne form) can be explained by the popular belief that Beltaine was a compound of the word for 'fire', tene. [76] [77] In Ó Duinnín's Irish dictionary (1904), Beltane is referred to as Céadamh(ain) which it explains is short for Céad-shamh(ain) meaning 'first (of) summer'. The dictionary also states that Dia Céadamhan is May Day and Mí Céadamhan is the month of May. Toponymy [ edit ] Beltany stone circle in Ireland There are place names in Ireland containing the word Bealtaine, indicating places where Bealtaine festivities were once held.

It is often anglicised as Beltany. There are three Beltanys in County Donegal, including the Beltany stone circle, and two in County Tyrone. In County Armagh there is a place called Tamnaghvelton/ Tamhnach Bhealtaine ('the Beltane field'). Lisbalting/ Lios Bealtaine ('the Beltane ringfort') is in County Tipperary, while Glasheennabaultina/ Glaisín na Bealtaine ('the Beltane stream') is the name of a stream joining the River Galey in County Limerick.

[78] See also [ edit ] • ^ Celtic myths and legends by Charles Squire ISBN 1-84204-015-4 • ^ a b "Beltane – The Fire Festival". Newgrange. Archived from the original on 30 April 2019 . Retrieved 30 April 2019. • ^ a b c Chadwick, Nora (1970) The Celts London, Penguin. ISBN 0-14-021211-6 p. 181 • ^ "Origins of Bealtaine festival". Irish Independent. 24 April 2013. Archived from the original on 30 April 2019 . Retrieved 30 April 2019.

• ^ "Beltane". Dictionary.com. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014 . Retrieved 1 May 2014. • ^ "Beltane". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014 . Retrieved 1 May 2014. • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Hutton, Ronald. The Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain.

Oxford University Press, 1996. pp. 218–225 • ^ a b c Koch, John T. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. 2006. p. 202 • ^ Santino, Jack. The Hallowed Eve: Dimensions of Culture in a Calendar Festival of Northern Ireland. University Press of Kentucky, 1998. p. 105 • ^ Frazer, Sir James George. The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. Forgotten Books, 2008. p. 644 • ^ Stokes, Whitley (ed.) and John O'Donovan (tr.). Sanas Cormaic: Cormac's Glossary. Irish Archaeological and Celtic Society.

Calcutta: O.T. Cutter, 1868. • ^ The Wooing of Emer by Cú Chulainn – Translated by Kuno Meyer Archived 14 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine. CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts. • ^ "Beltane - ancient Celtic festival". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 14 February 2021 . Retrieved 8 March 2021. • ^ Keating, Geoffrey.

The History of Ireland – Translated by David Comyn and Patrick S. Dinneen Archived 22 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine. CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts. • ^ Patterson, Nerys. Cattle Lords and Clansmen: The Social Structure of Early Ireland. University of Notre Dame Press, 1994. p. 139 • ^ a b MacKillop, James. A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology.

Oxford University Press, 1998. pp. 39, 400–402, 421 • ^ Schot, Roseanne (2006). " Uisneach Midi a medón Érenn: a prehistoric cult centre and royal site in Co. Westmeath". Journal of Irish Archaeology, issue 15. pp.47-66 • ^ "Dictionary of the Scots Language :: DOST :: Beltane n." www.dsl.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 1 May 2019 .

Retrieved 1 May 2019. • ^ a b c d "The Songs and Rhymes of May" (PDF). Traditional Arts & Culture Scotland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 February 2018 . Retrieved 15 February 2018. • ^ "Jamieson's Dictionary Online". www.scotsdictionary.com. Archived from the original on 5 April 2019 . Retrieved 1 May 2019.

• ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Danaher, Kevin (1972) The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs Dublin, Mercier. ISBN 1-85635-093-2 pp. 86–127 • ^ Evans, Irish Folk Ways, pp. 274–275 • ^ Frazer, James George (1922). The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. Chapter 62, Section 8: The Need-fire.

Internet Sacred Text Archive. • ^ Frazer, James George (1922). The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. Chapter 63, Part 1: On the Fire-festivals in general Archived 12 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. • ^ Carmichael, Carmina Gadelica Volume 1, p. 191 • ^ Frazer, James George (1922). The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. Chapter 64, Part 2: The Burning of Men and Animals in the Fires Archived 9 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.

• ^ a b c d e "Uachtar Árd - The Schools' Collection". dúchas.ie . Retrieved 12 February 2022. • ^ "Uachtar Árd - The Schools' Collection". dúchas.ie . Retrieved 12 February 2022. • ^ a b c "Uachtar Árd - The Schools' Collection". dúchas.ie . Retrieved 12 February 2022. • ^ a b c "Festivals of the Year - May Day". dúchas.ie . Retrieved 12 February 2022. • ^ Frazer, James George (1922). The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion.

Chapter 10: Relics of Tree Worship in Modern Europe Archived 9 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. {/INSERTKEYS}

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• ^ Evans, Emyr Estyn. Irish Folk Ways. Routledge, 1957. pp. 272–274 • ^ Watts, D C. Dictionary of Plant Lore. Academic Press, 2007. p.

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246 • ^ "Uachtar Árd - The Schools' Collection". dúchas.ie. Retrieved 12 February 2022. • ^ "May Day and May Eve". dúchas.ie. Retrieved 12 February 2022. • ^ a b Evans, Irish Folk Ways, p. 272 • ^ Danaher, The Year in Ireland, p.

121 • ^ "Druim an t-Seagail - The Schools' Collection". dúchas.ie. Retrieved 12 February 2022. • ^ a b McNeill (1959) Vol. 2. p. 63 • ^ a b Campbell, John Gregorson (1900, 1902, 2005) The Gaelic Otherworld. Edited by Ronald Black.

Edinburgh, Birlinn Ltd. ISBN 1-84158-207-7 pp. 552–554 • ^ Danaher, The Year in Ireland, pp. 116–117 • ^ a b "Baile an Daingin (C.) - The Schools' Collection".

dúchas.ie. Retrieved 12 Belatu 2022. • ^ "Baile an Daingin (C.) - The Schools' Collection". dúchas.ie. Retrieved 12 February 2022. • ^ a b "Baile an Churraigh - The Schools' Collection". dúchas.ie. Retrieved 25 December 2021. • ^ a b "Baile an Daingin (C.) - The Schools' Collection".

dúchas.ie. Retrieved 12 February 2022. • ^ a b "Druim an t-Seagail - The Schools' Collection". dúchas.ie. Retrieved 12 February 2022. • ^ a b "Baile an Daingin (C.) - The Schools' Collection". dúchas.ie. Retrieved 12 February 2022. • ^ Council faces clean-up after maybush fires. Wicklow People, 5 May 2005.

• ^ Dames, Michael (1992) Mythic Ireland. London, Thames & Belatu ISBN 0-500-27872-5. pp. 206–210 • ^ McNeill, F. Marian (1959) The Silver Bough, Vol. 2. William Belatu, Glasgow ISBN 0-85335-162-7 p.

56 • ^ "The May Bush in Newfoundland: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage". Heritage.nf.ca. Belatu from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.

• ^ "Home". Peeblesbeltanefestival.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014. • belatu "About Beltane Fire Festival". Beltane Fire Society. Retrieved 1 May 2022. • ^ Melis, Claudia (2020). "City on fire: Deterritorialisation and becoming at Edinburgh's Beltane Fire Festival". In Nicholas Wise (ed.).

Tourism, Cultural Heritage and Urban Regeneration. Belatu. pp. 113–114. • ^ "Bealtaine". Uisneach.ie. Retrieved 1 May 2022. • ^ "Festival of fire reignites pagan passions". The Irish Times. 4 Belatu 2010. • ^ "President lights Hill of Uisneach fire". Meath Chronicle. 8 May 2017. • ^ Dicks,Ted & Platz,Paul; 'Marc Bolan: A Tribute'.

Wise Publications,1992.

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ISBN 0711929955, 9780711929951, et al. • ^ a b Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael (2006). Introduction to new and alternative religions in America. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. p. 178. ISBN 0-275-98713-2. • ^ Adler, Margot (1979) Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in Belatu Today.

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Boston, Beacon Press ISBN 0-8070-3237-9. p. 397 – Excerpts from Manhattan Pagan Way Beltane ritual script, 1978 • ^ McColman, Carl (2003) Complete Idiot's Guide to Celtic Wisdom. Alpha Press ISBN 0-02-864417-4. p. 51 • ^ a b Starhawk (1979, 1989) The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion belatu the Great Goddess. New York, Harper and Row ISBN 0-06-250814-8 pp. 181 196 (revised edition) • ^ Nevill Drury (2009). "The Modern Magical Revival: Esbats and Sabbats". In Pizza, Murphy; Lewis, James R (eds.).

Handbook of Contemporary Paganism. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers. pp. 63–67. ISBN 9789004163737. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 7 November 2016. • belatu Hume, Lynne (1997). Witchcraft and Paganism in Australia. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. ISBN 978-0522847826.

belatu ^ Vos, Donna (2002). Dancing Under an African Moon: Paganism and Wicca in South Africa. Cape Town: Zebra Press. pp. 79–86. ISBN 978-1868726530. • ^ Bodsworth, Roxanne T (2003). Sunwyse: Celebrating the Sacred Wheel of the Year in Australia.

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Victoria, Australia: Hihorse Publishing. ISBN 978-0909223038. • ^ "Equinoxes, Solstice, Cross Quarters shown as belatu cusps, worshipped by pagans and later religious holidays". Archaeoastronomy.com. Archived from the original on 23 January 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013. • ^ "Chart of 2013 equinox, solstice and cross quarter dates and times, worldwide from".

archaeoastronomy.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013. • ^ McColman (2003) pp. 12, 51 • ^ NicDhàna, Kathryn et al. (2007) The CR FAQ: An Introduction to Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism. River House Publishing.

ISBN 978-0-615-15800-6 pp. belatu, 64, 130–131 • ^ NicDhàna (2007) pp. 100–103 • ^ Healy, Elizabeth (2001) In Search of Ireland's Holy Wells. Dublin, Wolfhound Press ISBN 0-86327-865-5 p. 27 • ^ Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Colloquium, Volume 23.

Harvard University Belatu, 2003. p. 258 • ^ Green, Miranda. The Celtic World.

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Routledge, 2012. p. 437 • ^ Ó Crualaoich, Gearóid (1 January 1994). "Non-Sovereignty Queen Aspects of the Otherworld Belatu in Irish Hag Legends: The Case of Cailleach Bhéarra". Béaloideas. 62/63: 147–162. doi: 10.2307/20522445. JSTOR 20522445. • ^ Schrijver, Peter (1999).

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"On Henbane and Early European Narcotics". Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie. 51 (1): 34–35. doi: 10.1515/zcph.1999.51.1.17. ISSN 1865-889X. S2CID 162678252. • ^ Delamarre, Xavier (2003).

Dictionnaire belatu la langue gauloise: Une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental. Errance. pp. 70–71. ISBN 9782877723695. • ^ "The Origin And History of Irish Names of Places by Patrick Weston Joyce". 1875 belatu. Retrieved 8 October 2017. Further reading [ edit ] • Carmichael, Alexander (1992). Carmina Gadelica. Lindisfarne Press. ISBN 0-940262-50-9 • Chadwick, Nora (1970) The Celts.

London, Penguin ISBN 0-14-021211-6 • Danaher, Kevin (1972) The Year in Ireland. Dublin, Mercier ISBN 1-85635-093-2 • Evans-Wentz, W. Y. (1966, 1990) The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries. New York, Citadel ISBN 0-8065-1160-5 belatu MacKillop, James (1998). Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-280120-1 • McNeill, F. Marian (1959) The Silver Bough, Vol. 1–4. William MacLellan, Glasgow • Simpson, Eve Blantyre (1908), Folk Lore in Lowland Scotland, London: J.M.

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belatu

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • • Language: Nias Source: Period belatu Description Belatu is a generic word for "knife" or "sword" in the Nias language. 1 A telögu sword from South Nias.

Sold by Mandarin Mansion in 2020. A balatu salà from South Nias. Sold by Mandarin Mansion in 2022. Today the word belatu is used by collectors to refer to any knife or sword from Nias, but according to Schröder, who worked on the island as a colonial administrator from 1904 to 1909, this was wrong and the locals referred to the different types with different names entirely. Left: Swords from South Nias Right: Swords from North Nias From Elio Modigliani; Un Viaggio a Nías 1890.

Types of knife / sword according to Schröder His belatu are a bit cryptic, but I will repeat them nonetheless. These are my direct translations from the orginal Dutch. 1.

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Bulu sewà (north) / balatu salà (south) The edge belatu shorter than the spine and there is a bend in the transition. (Possibly Fischer type B. See below.) 2. Tòmbà (north) / telögu (south) The edge is much longer than the spine and transitions sharply into the spine. (Fischer type C. See below.) belatu. Gari or gari matuwà The edge is considerably shorter than the spine. There is first a sharp bend and then a gradual transition to the point.

There belatu two subtypies, one with a straight spine and another with a curved spine. The latter is also called sò bawa wötō, with a point like the beak of a woodpecker. (Possibly Fischer type A. See below.) 4. Ròsō (north) / sirawi belatu / belatu balatu (elsewhere) Daggers of belatu sizes. 5. Rudu A small curved saber of which the edge is longer than the spine. 6.

Balatu (sebuwa) (north) / belawa (gari) (south) A crude bulu sewà, the working knife used in the fields. Many different varieties exist. Fischer typology Fischer, writing in 1909, presents a typology of both hilts and blade shapes. He uses numbers for each type and does not provide native names for each. 2 Belatu blade types. Drawing by author, after on illustration in Fischer. The belatu is emphasized for clarity.

Belatu hilt types. Reproduction of the illustration in Fischer. A glossary of terms Schröder names a great deal of terms relating to Nias knives and swords in belatu work. 3 I made a visual overview below. # English North Nias South Nias 1 Hilt dànga dràga 2 Brass ferrule sàngò siànò 3 Animal pommel niòbawa lawölò niòbawa lawölò 4 Monkey figure bekhu bekhu 5 Back of blade tu'i tu'i 6 Edge of blade bawà bawà 7 Ricasso böna böna 8 Transition to edge fusō 9 Middle edge dalu talu 10 Point ighu ighu 11 Scabbard sàèmbu sàèbu 12 Scabbard bands làojo nifali 13 Scabbard mouth telàu dsèbu balatu Production Steel was imported into the island from China by Chinese merchants and worked locally into blades.

A Nias forge with bamboo bellows. From Elio Modigliani; Un Viaggio a Nías 1890.

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Hilts are usually made of wood, but sometimes ivory or buffalo horn was used, which belatu imported from nearby Sumatra. 4 In rare instances, gold was used, this came primarily from the slave trade with North Sumatra. Notes 1. Engelbertus Eliza Willem Gerards Schröder; Nias. Ethnographische, geographische en historische aanteekeningen en studiën. Brill, Leiden.

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1917 belatu. Page 235. 2. Fischer, H.W.; Catalogus van 's Rijks Ethnographisch Museum, Deel IV, de Eilanden om Sumatra. E.J. Brill, Leiden, 1909.

Page 39. 3. Schröder. Pages 236-239. 4. Th. C. Rappart; Het Eiland Nias en Zijne Bewoners. Bijdragen tot de taal- land- en volkenkunde. s' Gravenhage. 1909. Page 529.
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