• Home • Masterpieces of Edvard Munch • The Sick Child, 1885 • Night in Saint Cloud, 1890 • Spring Day on Karl Johan Street, 1891 • Evening on Karl Johan Street, 1892 • The Mystery of a Edvard munch Night, 1892 • The Scream, 1893 • Vampire, 1893 • The Storm, 1893 • Starry Night, 1893 • Ashes, 1894 • Melancholy, 1894 • Puberty, 1894 • Madonna, 1894 • Anxiety, 1894 • The Day After, 1894-95 • Death in the Sickroom, 1895 • Woman in Three Stages, 1895 • Jealousy, 1895 • Self-Portrait with Cigarette, 1895 • Separation, 1896 • Young Woman on the Beach, 1896 • Two Human Beings (The Lonely Ones), 1896 • By The Death Bed, 1896 • The Kiss, 1897 • Fertility, 1898 • The Dance of Life, 1899 • Girls On The Bridge, 1899 • Edvard munch Virginia Creeper, 1898-1900 • Moonlight, 1895 • Encounter in Space, 1898 • Winter, 1899 • Dance on the Shore, 1900-02 • White Night, 1901 • The Death of Marat, 1907 • The Sun, 1909 • The Yellow Log, 1911-12 • Workers in the Snow, 1912 • Galloping Horse, 1912 • Man in a Cabbage Field, 1913 • Workers Returning Home, 1913-15 • Horse Team, 1919 • Self-Portrait Between the Clock and the Bed, 1940 • Edvard Munch Painting Gallery • Biography • Quotes • Edvard Munch's Art Analysis Edvard Munch was born in Norway in 1863 and, with the notable exception of the two decades from 1889 to 1909 spent traveling, studying, working and exhibiting edvard munch France and Germany, he lived there until his death in 1944.
He was active as a painter from the 1880s until shortly before his death, though the greater part of his oeuvre, and certainly the better-known part, was produced before the early 1920s.
During his lifetime of work, he made one of the most significant and enduring contributions to the development of Modernism in the twentieth century.
In his themes and subject matter, in the manner in which he gave voice to these, and in his handling of paint and the graphic media (especially woodcut and lithography), Munch was profoundly original and radical. He is one of the handfuls of artists who have shaped our understanding of the human experience and transformed the ways in which it might be visually expressed.
Munch's nomadic and self-imposed exile's life in Europe, from his mid-twenties to mid-forties - especially in the cosmopolitan, creatively fertile centers of Paris and Berlin - was undoubtedly vital to the shape of his art. It established the necessary detachment from the 'untroubled communal myths' of his homeland and the troubled passage of his young manhood. On the one hand, he was freed from the constraints of his past, and the real and perceived limitations of provincial life.
On the other hand he was closely associated with the largely Nordic avant-garde writers and artists of his day who shared and promoted his belief in the necessity of using private, subjective experience to create 'universal' statements and imagery.
this was the ambiance in which Munch's originality and personal convictions flourished. His was the beginning of an age that celebrated the life of the individual rather than of community or society. Perhaps more than any other artist, Munch has given pictorial shape to the inner life and psyche of modern man, and is thus a precursor in the development of modern psychology. His images of existential dread, anxiety, loneliness and the complex emotions of human sexuality have become icons of our era.
Many of us know such images as The Scream, Anxiety, Melancholy, Edvard munch, The Kiss, Madonna, Vampire, and The Dance of Life. In an unfolding and often only loosely connected series of paintings, drawings, and prints, Munch developed these great themes of Angst, Love, and Death during edvard munch 1890s - a project he calls The frieze of life - and repeatedly returned to them until the end of his life. Munch's 'quest for a distilled, elementary from and image that could speak for all of the human experience is best understood within the framework of late nineteenth-century art.
For, while we rightly celebrate Munch as a Modernist, radical and singular in his contribution to the modern world, it is important to recognize how deeply embedded and formed he was by the echoes and modes of the fin de siecle - nowhere more so than in his representation of women and sexuality.
Formed by the traumatic edvard munch of his childhood - the death of his mother from tuberculosis when he was aged five, his own debilitating edvard munch and his beloved older sister's death (also from tuberculosis) when he was thirteen and she barely fifteen - Munch early on rebelled against the dogmatic, fervent religious beliefs of his father and the repressive mores of the edvard munch society which dominated the Kristiania (Oslo) of his youth.
As a young art student he associated with the rebellious, 'Bohemian' artists and writers of Kristiania and was quick to respond to the intellectual and aesthetic revolutions brewing around him. Many artists had been persuaded to return to Norway from France by a growing nationalistic spirit and wish to rebuild the Norse identity, fuelled in part by the continuing political Swedish domination of edvard munch ancient land.
They brought with them an impetus to change.
The literary kristiania-Boheme, led by radical thinkers such as Hans Jaeger, along with the artistic community, joined forces with the radical politicians of the time who were working to achieve women's liberation, an eight-hour working day and universal suffrage. One of strongest influences on Munch's development was the somewhat older artist and critic, Christian Krogh whose adoption of the Edvard munch of old masters such as Leonardo da Vinci, Titian, Diego Velazquez, Caravaggio, and Rembrandt, formed a distinctive alternative to the romantic naturalism edvard munch had dominated Norwegian art for much of the century.
It was in this milieu that Edvard Munch came of age. Berlin was crucial to Munch's evolution. It was here in the early 1890s that his art found its first widespread reception and recognition; and here too, after 1900, that the level of public acknowledgment, the numerous commissions fro both portraiture and mural decoration, and the emergence of patrons, such as Dr.
Max Linde, and his wife Marie Linde, enabled him to earn his living as an artist. In Berlin in the early 1890s, amongst his peers - the edvard munch and largely Nordic circle of writers, critics and philosophers - Munch found also the intellectual stimulus and philosophical attitudes that validated the underpinnings of his art, whose beginnings were formulated in the fervent intellectual and sexual radicalism of the Kristiania-Boheme.
Combined with the recently encountered intensity and anguish of erotic love, this rich brew of emotional, intellectual and physical experience formed the substance which nurtured Munch's art and which would endure for this emotional intensity in his discussion of the celebrated edvard munch of images known as The scream and Melancholy; and there are further reflections on the sequences of paintings and prints embodying the power of erotic encounters and subsequent states of jealousy in Elizabeth Cross's essay 'Woman, Love, Jealousy).
Munch scarcely deviates from the coherence of his imagery - and the later landscapes, figure studies and even some of the portraits seem to bear a direct connection to the concerns and expression of The frieze of life.
Munch's art is essentially inclusive. Throughout his life Munch made portraits, both informally of family members and of his lovers and friends, and also edvard munch private commissions, on a personal level, his work in this genre encompassed the early portraits of his beloved sister Inger especially, and portraits of the Kristiania Bohemians, Hans Jaeger and Christian Krohg.
In Berlin he again painted those in his circle, such Marcel Archinard, and his Polish literary friend Stanislaw Przybyszewsky. But there were also official portraits: the German banker and art patron Walther Rathenau, and Dr.
Linde, the medical specialist who befriended him and who commissioned a version of The frieze of life for his children's study. Munch's depictions of women are well known and celebrated - perhaps because of their singular directness about sexuality and their emotional impact.
Art history has been inclined to judge Munch's imaging of women as bordering on misogynistic and compliant with the extreme stereotyping of the female which characterizes Symbolist art.
While there are certainly many examples which are consistent with this assessment, especially in the early depictions of female sexuality and erotic power in The frieze of life, there are edvard munch many which demonstrate a nuanced, sympathetic and perceptive understanding of women, both collectively and as individuals. The tenderness expressed in the numerous depictions of his sister Inger, the admiring recognition of strength, wit and character in portraits of friends such as Aase Norregaard are matched by an unambiguous recognition - in the drawings of Consolation and Weeping young woman and the depiction of emotional states such as loneliness in Two human beings.
In 1908, following a period of deep crisis and heavy drinking, Munch reached an emotional breaking point which necessitated a period of hospitalization. After his recovery there was a significant change in the appearance of his art, despite the frequent revisiting of The frieze of life themes.
With few exceptions, lyrical quality and calmer mood are evident in his painting and increasingly he turned to themes and subjects drawn from the external world: landscapes and figure studies - nudes, bathers - including heroic images of rural and urban labor.
While he continued to make prints, these were largely re-workings of earlier subjects, though they remained experimental and innovative. He experimented with photography too, recognizing its potential both as a medium in its own right and as an aid in pictorial inventions, in composition, and in establishing an immediacy of experience, a sense of modernity. He explored photographic self-portraiture, but also used photographs as a simple record of a figure or figures to be used in later compositions.
After the crisis and his recovery, his painterly style becomes very free, fluid and expressive - and often summary in ways that are surprisingly contemporary. There is a rich variety of imagery and mood in the work of the last three decades of his life. Yet it too exhibits qualities which are intensely personal and felt, and which mirror the artist's internal state as much as they do the external world. The companion of his Berlin days and owner of the emblematic face personifying jealousy in that cycle of paintings and prints, the Polish writer Stanislaw Przybyszewski, wrote that Munch's landscapes were 'found in the soul'.
Even as they grew more naturalistic and less shaped by the fluid, linear harmonies and stylist manners of the Symbolists and Synthetists, Munch's landscapes remained fused with personal edvard munch and meaning. The experience of the landscape was not as central to Munch's art as it was to the work of his contemporaries and edvard munch Scandinavian art history in general. Perhaps that has much to do with his long absences from Norway, living in the cosmopolitan and urban centers of Paris and Berlin during his formative years.
For the generation of Norwegian artists before Munch, for his contemporaries and for those following him, the idea of landscape as a repository for nationalism, for identity, for the complexities of human experience, and for the mystical or sublime, was crucial. For Munch, however, although he produced a substantial number of landscapes during his lifetime, this was not the vehicle through which his understanding of human experience was primarily expressed.
He largely eschewed the sacred tales and hallowed figures of legend and history, and the reading of landscapes as sites of nationalistic belonging and possession, either literal or symbolic in subject matter or motif.
Despite this, he was far from indifferent to the particular attributes of his native terrain. In all the years of his self-imposed exile, he scarcely missed a single summer in Norway, usually spending the warmer months in the little coastal two of Asgardstrand where he acquired his first property, and whose rhythmic coastline forms the edvard munch en scene for many of the dramas and soliloquies of his early paintings.
Indeed, the few landscapes he felt moved to paint outside Norway, in Germany, reflect the topography and seasonal extremes to which he was habituated. And following his permanent return to Norway in 1909, the moods and seasons of his surroundings increasingly engaged his attention. These too may be understood within the embrace of The frieze of life - for in nature's ruthless indifference and winter severity, in the frozen earth's dramatic eruption each spring and ascent from darkness into summer's plenitude, the cycle of life and death is constantly present.
the seasons are indelibly impressed on the human psyche and equate with inner experience. In the extremes of Nordic lands, nature and human experience are inseparable. No longer shall I paint interiors with men reading and women knitting.
I will paint living people who breathe and feel and suffer and love." - Edvard Munch For Edvard Munch this return to the landscape of his homeland, in his middle and old age, provided the metaphoric language with which to express his theme of loneliness and isolation, of love and longing, and of reconciliation with death.
The landscape finally freed him. “For as long as I can remember, I have suffered from a deep feeling of anxiety which I have tried to express in my art.” “I have no fear of photography, as long as it cannot be used in heaven and in hell.” “Illness, insanity, and death were the black angels that kept watch over my cradle and accompanied me all my life.” “From my rotting body, flowers shall grow and I am in them and that is eternity.” Edvard munch painter Edvard Munch is widely known for his iconic pre-Expressionist painting "The Scream" ("The Cry").
Who Was Edvard Munch? Painter Edvard Munch established a free-flowing, psychological-themed style all his own.
His painting "The Scream" ("The Cry"; 1893), is one of the most recognizable works in the history of art. His later works proved to be less intense, but his earlier, darker paintings ensured his legacy. A testament to his importance, "The Scream" sold for more than $119 million in 2012 —s etting a new record. Early Life and Education Munch was born on December 12, 1863, in Löten, Norway, the second of five children. In 1864, Munch moved with his family to the city of Oslo, where his mother died four years later of tuberculosis — he beginning of a series of familial tragedies in Munch's life: his sister, Sophie, also died of tuberculosis, in 1877 at the age of 15; another of his sisters spent most of her life institutionalized for mental illness; and his only brother died of pneumonia at age 30.
In 1879, Munch began attending a technical college to study engineering but left only a year later when his passion for art overtook his interest in engineering. In 1881, he enrolled at the Royal School of Art and Design. The following year, he rented a studio with six other artists and entered his first show, at the Industries and Art Exhibition.
Commercial Success Three years of study and practice later, Munch received a scholarship and traveled to Paris, France, where he edvard munch three weeks. After returning to Oslo, he began working on new paintings, one of which was "The Sick Child," which he would finish in 1886. In what would be seen as the first work to represent Munch’s break from the realist style, the painting symbolically captures intense emotion on the canvas—specifically depicting his feelings about the death of his sister nearly nine years earlier.
(1918–1976) From 1889 (the year his father died) to 1892, Munch lived mainly in France—funded by state scholarships — embarking on the most productive, as well as the most troubled, period of his artistic life. It was during this period that Munch undertook a series of paintings he called the "Frieze of Life," ultimately encompassing 22 works for a 1902 Berlin exhibition.
With paintings bearing such titles as "Despair" (1892), "Melancholy" (c. 1892–93), "Anxiety" (1894), "Jealousy" (1894–95) and "The Scream" (also known as "The Cry") — the last of which, painted in 1893, would go on to become one of the most famous paintings ever produced — Munch’s mental state was on full display, and his style varied greatly, depending on which emotion had taken hold of him at the time.
The collection was a huge success, and Munch soon became known to the art world. Subsequently, he found brief happiness in a life otherwise colored by excessive drinking, family misfortune and mental distress. Later Years and Legacy Success wasn't enough to tame Munch's inner demons for long, however, and as the 1900s began, his drinking spun out of control. In 1908, hearing voices and suffering from paralysis on one side, he collapsed and soon checked himself into a private sanitarium, where he drank less and regained some mental composure.
In the spring of 1909, he checked out, eager to get back to work, but as history would show, most of his great works were behind him. Munch moved to a country house in Ekely (near Oslo), Norway, where he lived in isolation and began painting landscapes. He nearly died of influenza in the pandemic of 1918-19, but recovered and would survive for more than two decades thereafter, dying at his country home in Ekley on January 23, 1944. Munch painted right up to his death, often depicting his deteriorating condition and various physical maladies in his work.
In May 2012, Munch's "The Edvard munch went on the auction block, selling at Sotheby's in New York for more than $119 million — a record-breaking price — sealing its reputation as one of the most famous and important works of art ever produced.
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See all related content → Edvard Munch, (born December 12, 1863, Löten, Norway—died January 23, 1944, Ekely, near Oslo), Norwegian painter and printmaker whose intensely evocative treatment of psychological themes built upon some of the main tenets of late 19th-century Symbolism and greatly influenced German Expressionism in the early 20th century. His painting The Scream, or The Cry (1893), can be seen as a symbol of modern spiritual anguish.
Early years Munch was born into a middle-class family edvard munch was plagued with ill health. His mother edvard munch when he was five, his eldest sister when he was 14, both of tuberculosis; Munch eventually captured the latter event in his first masterpiece, The Sick Child (1885–86). Munch’s father and brother also died when he was still young, and another sister developed mental illness.
“Illness, insanity, and death,” as he said, “were the black angels that kept watch over my cradle and accompanied me all my life.” Do you think you know Fabergé, Monet, and Jackson Pollock? Discover how much you really know about their lives, inspirations, and works of art. Munch showed a flair for drawing at an early age but received little formal training.
An important factor in his artistic development was the Kristiania Bohème, a circle of writers and artists in Kristiania, as Oslo was then called. Its members believed in free love and generally opposed bourgeois narrow-mindedness. One of the older painters in the circle, Christian Krohg, gave Munch edvard munch instruction and encouragement.
Munch soon outgrew the prevailing naturalist aesthetic in Kristiania, partly as a result of his assimilation of French Impressionism after a trip to Paris in 1889 and his contact from about 1890 with the work of the Post-Impressionist painters Paul Gauguin and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.
In some of his paintings from this period he adopted the Impressionists’ open brushstrokes, but Gauguin’s use of the bounding line was to prove more congenial to him, as was the Synthetist artists’ ambition to go beyond the depiction of external nature and give form to an inner vision. His friend the Danish poet Emanuel Goldstein introduced him to French Decadent Symbolist poetry during this period, which helped him formulate a new philosophy of art, imbued with a pantheistic conception edvard munch sexuality.
Artistic maturity Munch’s own deeply original style crystallized about edvard munch. The flowing, tortuous use of line in his new paintings was similar to that of contemporary Art Nouveau, but Munch used line not as decoration but as a vehicle for profound psychological revelation. The outraged incomprehension of his work by Norwegian critics was echoed by their counterparts in Berlin when Munch exhibited a large number of his paintings there in 1892 at the invitation of the Union of Berlin Artists.
The violent emotion and unconventional imagery of his paintings, especially their daringly frank representations of sexuality, created a bitter controversy. Critics were also offended by his innovative technique, which to most appeared unfinished. The scandal, however, helped make his name known throughout Germany, and from there his reputation spread farther.
Munch lived mainly in Berlin in 1892–95 and then in Paris in 1896–97, and he continued to move around extensively until he settled in Norway in 1910. Paintings of love and death At the heart of Munch’s achievement is his series of paintings on love and death. Its original nucleus was formed by six pictures exhibited in 1893, and the series had grown to 22 works by the time it was first exhibited under the title Frieze of Life at the Berlin Secession in 1902.
Munch constantly rearranged these paintings, and if one had to be sold, he would make another version of it.
Thus in many cases there are several painted versions and prints based on the same image. Although the Frieze draws deeply on personal experience, its themes are universal: it is not about particular men or women but about man and woman in general, and about the human experience of the great elemental forces of nature. Seen in sequence, an implicit narrative emerges of love’s awakening, blossoming, and withering, followed by despair and death.
Love’s awakening is shown in The Voice (1893), where on a summer night a girl standing among trees seems to be summoned more by an inner voice than by any sounds from a boat on the sea behind her. Compositionally, this is one of several paintings in the Frieze in which the winding horizontal of the coastline is counterpoised with the verticals of trees, figures, or the pillarlike reflection across the sea of sun or moon. Love’s blossoming is shown in The Kiss (1892), in edvard munch a man and woman are locked in a tender and passionate embrace, their bodies merging into a single undulating form and their faces melting so completely into each other that neither retains any individual features.
An especially powerful image of the surrender, or transcendence, of individuality is Madonna (1894–95), which shows a naked woman with her head thrown back in ecstasy, her eyes closed, and a red halo-like shape above her flowing black hair. This may be understood as the moment of conception, but there is more than a hint of death in the woman’s beautiful face.
In Munch’s art, woman is an “other” with whom union is desperately desired, yet feared because it threatens the destruction of the creative ego. The Kiss, coloured woodcut by Edvard Munch, 1902; in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Victoria and Albert Museum, London; photograph, John Webb In other works forming the Frieze, Munch explored the theme of suffering caused by love, as seen in such titles as Melancholy (c. 1892–93), Jealousy (1894–95), and Ashes (1894). If isolation and loneliness, always present in his work, are especially emphasized in these pictures, they are equally apparent in Death in the Sick Room (1893–95), one of his many paintings about death.
Here the focus is not on the dying child, who is not even visible, but on the living, each wrapped in their own experience of grief and unable to communicate or offer each other any consolation. The picture’s power is heightened by the claustrophobically enclosed space and by the steeply rushing perspective of the floor. The same type of dramatic perspective is used in The Scream, which is Munch’s most famous work.
Inspired by a hallucinatory experience in which Munch felt and heard a “scream throughout nature,” it depicts a panic-stricken creature, simultaneously corpselike and reminiscent of a sperm or fetus, whose contours are echoed in the swirling lines of the blood-red sky. In this painting anxiety is raised to a cosmic level, ultimately related to the ruminations on death and the void of meaning that were to be central to Existentialism.
(The two earliest versions of The Scream date to 1893; Munch created another version in 1895 and completed a fourth likely in 1910.) His art also edvard munch evident affinities with the poetry and drama of his day, and interesting comparisons can be made with the work of the dramatists Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg, both of whose portraits he painted. The Scream, tempera edvard munch casein on cardboard by Edvard Munch, 1893; in the National Gallery, Oslo. Børre Høstland/The Fine Art Collections, The National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design; Gift of Olaf Schou 1910, NG.M.00939 (CC BY 4.0) Munch’s massive output of graphic art—consisting of etchings, drypoints, lithographs, and woodcuts—began in 1894.
The principal attraction to him of printmaking was that it enabled him to communicate his message to a much larger number of people, but it also afforded him exciting opportunities edvard munch experimentation. His lack of formal training in any graphic medium was no doubt a factor in pushing him toward extremely innovative techniques.
Like many of his contemporaries, he was influenced by the Japanese tradition in his use of the woodcut, but he radically simplified the process by, for example, printing from a single edvard munch of wood sawed into a number of small pieces. Munch’s use of the actual grain of the wood for expressive purposes proved an especially successful experiment, and it greatly influenced later artists. He also frequently combined different media or overlaid one medium on top of another.
Munch’s prints closely resemble his paintings in both style and subject matter. • The Scream • Madonna • The Sick Child Movement Expressionism, Symbolism Edvard Munch ( / m ʊ ŋ k/ MUUNK,  Norwegian: [ˈɛ̀dvɑɖ ˈmʊŋk] ( listen); 12 December 1863 – 23 January 1944) was a Norwegian painter.
His best known work, The Scream (1893), has become an iconic image of the art world. His childhood was overshadowed by illness, bereavement and the dread of edvard munch a mental condition that ran in the family.
Edvard munch at the Royal School of Art and Design in Kristiania (today's Oslo), Munch began to live a bohemian life under the influence of the nihilist Hans Jæger, who urged him to paint his own emotional and psychological edvard munch (' soul painting').
From this emerged his distinctive style. Travel brought new influences and outlets. In Paris, he learned much from Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, especially their use of color. In Berlin, he met the Swedish dramatist August Strindberg, whom he painted, as he embarked on a major series of paintings he would later call The Frieze of Life, depicting a series of deeply-felt themes such as love, anxiety, jealousy and betrayal, steeped in atmosphere.
The Scream was conceived in Kristiania. According to Munch, he was out walking at sunset, when he 'heard the enormous, infinite scream of nature'. The painting's agonized face is widely identified with the angst of the modern person. Between 1893 and 1910, he made two painted versions and two in pastels, as well as a number of prints. One of the edvard munch would eventually command the fourth highest nominal price paid for a painting at auction.
As his fame and wealth grew, his emotional state remained insecure. He briefly considered marriage, but could not commit himself. A mental breakdown in 1908 forced him to give up heavy drinking, and he was cheered by his increasing acceptance by the people of Kristiania and exposure in the city's museums.
His later years were spent working in peace and privacy. Although his works were banned in Nazi-occupied Europe, most of them survived World War II, securing him a legacy. Contents • 1 Life • 1.1 Childhood • 1.2 Studies and influences • 1.3 Paris • 1.4 Berlin • 1.5 The Scream • 1.6 Frieze of Life—A Poem about Life, Love and Death • 1.7 Paris, Berlin and Kristiania • 1.8 Breakdown and recovery • 1.9 Later years edvard munch 2 Legacy • 2.1 University Aula • 3 Major works • 4 Selected works • 4.1 Nudes • 4.2 Self-portraits • 4.3 Landscapes • 4.4 Photographs • 5 See also • 6 References • 6.1 Citations • 6.2 General sources • 7 Further reading • 8 External links Life [ edit ] Childhood [ edit ] Edvard Munch was born in a farmhouse in the village of Ådalsbruk in Løten, Norway, to Laura Catherine Bjølstad and Christian Munch, the son of a priest.
Christian was a doctor and medical officer who married Laura, a woman half his edvard munch, in 1861. Edvard had an elder sister, Johanne Sophie, and three younger siblings: Peter Andreas, Laura Catherine, and Inger Marie.
Laura was artistically talented and may have encouraged Edvard and Sophie. Edvard was related to the painter Jacob Munch and the historian Peter Andreas Munch.  The family moved to Christiania (renamed Kristiania in 1877, and now Oslo) in 1864 when Christian Munch was appointed medical officer at Akershus Fortress. Edvard's mother died of tuberculosis in 1868, as did Munch's favorite sister Johanne Sophie in 1877.  After their mother's death, the Munch siblings were raised by their father and by their aunt Karen.
Often ill for much of the winters and kept out of school, Edvard would draw to keep himself occupied. He was tutored by his school mates and his aunt.
Christian Munch also instructed his son in history and literature, and entertained the children with vivid ghost-stories and the tales of the American writer Edgar Allan Poe.
 Edvard munch Edvard remembered it, Christian's positive behavior toward his children was overshadowed by his morbid pietism. Munch wrote, "My father was temperamentally nervous and obsessively edvard munch the point of psychoneurosis. From him I inherited the seeds of madness. The angels of fear, sorrow, and death stood by my side since the day I was born."  Christian reprimanded his children by telling them that their mother was looking down from heaven and grieving over their misbehavior.
The oppressive religious milieu, Edvard's poor health, and the vivid ghost stories helped inspire his macabre visions and nightmares; the boy felt that death was constantly advancing on him.  One of Munch's younger sisters, Laura, was diagnosed with mental illness at an early age. Of the five siblings, only Andreas married, but he died a few months after the wedding.
Munch would later write, "I inherited two of mankind's most frightful enemies—the heritage of consumption and insanity."  Christian Munch's military pay was very low, and his attempts to develop a private side practice failed, keeping his family in genteel but perennial poverty.
 They moved frequently from one cheap flat to another. Munch's early drawings and watercolors depicted these interiors, and the individual objects, such as medicine bottles and drawing implements, plus some landscapes. By his teens, art dominated Munch's interests.  At thirteen, Munch had his first exposure to other artists at the newly edvard munch Art Association, where he admired the work of the Norwegian landscape school.
He returned to copy the paintings, and soon he began to paint in oils.  Studies and influences [ edit ] Self-Portrait with Skeleton Arm, 1895, Munch Museum, Oslo In 1879, Munch enrolled in a technical college to study engineering, where he excelled in physics, chemistry and math.
He learned scaled and perspective drawing, but frequent illnesses interrupted his studies.  The following year, much to his father's disappointment, Munch left the college determined to become a painter. His father viewed art as an "unholy trade", and his neighbors reacted bitterly and sent him anonymous letters.  In contrast to his father's rabid pietism, Munch adopted an undogmatic stance toward art. He wrote his goal in his edvard munch "In my art I attempt to explain life and its meaning to myself."  In 1881, Munch enrolled at the Royal School of Art and Design of Kristiania, one of whose founders was his distant relative Jacob Munch.
His teachers were the sculptor Julius Middelthun and the naturalistic painter Christian Krohg.  That year, Munch demonstrated his quick absorption of his figure training at the academy in his first portraits, including one of his father and his first self-portrait.
In 1883, Munch took part in his first public exhibition and shared a studio with other students.  His full-length portrait of Karl Jensen-Hjell, a notorious bohemian-about-town, earned a critic's edvard munch response: "It is impressionism carried to the extreme. It is a travesty of art."  Munch's nude paintings from this period survive only in sketches, except for Standing Nude (1887). They may have been confiscated by his father.  From a young age Munch was influenced by Impressionists such as Édouard Manet and later on by post-impressionism artists including Vincent van Gogh and Paul Edvard munch.
 During these early years, he experimented with many styles, including Naturalism and Impressionism. Some early works are reminiscent of Manet. Many of these attempts brought him unfavorable criticism from the press and garnered him constant rebukes by his father, who nonetheless provided him with small sums for living expenses.
 At one point, however, Munch's father, perhaps swayed by the negative opinion of Munch's cousin Edvard Diriks (an established, traditional painter), destroyed at least one painting (likely a nude) and refused to advance any more money for art supplies.
 Munch also received his father's ire for his relationship with Hans Jæger, the local nihilist who lived by the code "a passion to destroy is also a creative passion" and who advocated edvard munch as the ultimate way to freedom.  Munch came under his malevolent, anti-establishment spell. "My ideas developed under the influence of the bohemians or rather under Hans Jæger.
Many people have mistakenly claimed that my ideas were formed under the influence of Strindberg and the Germans … but that is wrong.
They had already been formed by then."  At that time, contrary to many of the other bohemians, Munch was still respectful of women, as well as reserved and well-mannered, but he began to give in to the binge drinking and brawling of his circle.
He was unsettled by the sexual revolution going on at the time and by the independent women around him. He later turned cynical concerning sexual matters, expressed not only in his behavior and his art, but in his writings as well, an example being a long poem called The City of Free Love.  Still dependent on his family for many of his meals, Munch's relationship with his father remained tense over concerns about his bohemian life.
After numerous experiments, Munch concluded that the Impressionist idiom did not allow sufficient expression. He found it superficial and too akin to scientific experimentation. He felt a need to go deeper and explore situations brimming with emotional content and expressive energy. Under Jæger's commandment that Munch should "write his life", meaning that Munch should explore his own emotional and psychological state, the young artist began a period of reflection and self-examination, recording his thoughts in his "soul's diary".
 This deeper perspective helped move him to a new view of his art. He wrote that his painting The Sick Child (1886), based on his sister's death, was his first "soul painting", his first break from Impressionism. The painting received a negative response from critics and from his family, and caused another "violent outburst of moral indignation" from the community.  Only his friend Christian Krohg defended him: He paints, or rather regards, things in a way that is different from edvard munch of other artists.
He sees only the essential, and that, naturally, is all he paints. For this reason Munch's pictures are as a rule "not complete", as people are so delighted to discover for themselves. Oh, yes, they are complete. His complete handiwork. Art is complete once the artist has really said everything that was on his mind, and this is precisely the advantage Munch has over painters of the other generation, that he really knows how to show us what he has felt, and what has gripped him, and to this he subordinates everything else.
 Munch continued to employ a variety of brushstroke techniques and color palettes throughout the 1880s and early 1890s, as he struggled to define his style.  His idiom continued to veer between naturalistic, as seen in Portrait of Hans Jæger, and impressionistic, as in Rue Lafayette.
His Inger On the Beach (1889), which caused another storm of confusion and controversy, hints at the simplified forms, heavy outlines, sharp contrasts, and emotional content of his mature style to come.
 He began to carefully calculate his compositions to create tension and emotion. While stylistically influenced by the Post-Impressionists, what evolved was a subject matter which was symbolist in content, depicting a state of mind rather than an external reality. In 1889, Munch presented his first one-man show of nearly all his works to date.
The recognition it received led to a two-year edvard munch scholarship to study in Paris under French painter Léon Bonnat.  Munch seems to have been an early critic of photography as an art form, and remarked that it "will never compete with the brush and the palette, until such time as photographs can be taken in Heaven or Hell!"  Munch's younger sister Laura was the subject of his 1899 interior Melancholy: Laura. Amanda O'Neill says of the work, "In this heated claustrophobic scene Munch not only portrays Laura's tragedy, but his own dread of the madness he might have inherited."  Paris [ edit ] Munch arrived in Paris during the festivities of the Exposition Universelle (1889) and roomed with two fellow Norwegian artists.
His picture Morning (1884) was displayed at the Norwegian pavilion.  He spent his mornings at Bonnat's busy studio (which included female models) and afternoons at the exhibition, galleries, and museums (where students were expected to make copies as a way of learning technique and observation).  Munch recorded little enthusiasm for Bonnat's drawing lessons—"It tires and bores me—it's numbing"—but enjoyed the master's commentary during museum trips.   Munch was enthralled by the vast display of modern European art, including the works of three artists who would prove influential: Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec—all notable for how they used color to convey emotion.
 Munch was particularly inspired by Gauguin's "reaction against realism" and his credo that "art was human work and not an imitation of Nature", a belief earlier stated by Whistler.  As one of his Berlin friends said later of Munch, "he need not make his way to Tahiti to see and experience the primitive in human nature. He carries his own Tahiti within him."  Influenced by Gauguin, as well as the etchings of German artist Max Klinger, Munch experimented with prints as a medium to create graphic versions of his edvard munch.
In 1896 he created his first woodcuts—a medium that proved ideal to Munch's symbolic imagery.  Together with his contemporary Nikolai Astrup, Munch is considered an innovator of the woodcut medium in Edvard munch.  In December 1889 his father died, leaving Munch's family destitute. He returned home and arranged a large loan from a wealthy Norwegian edvard munch when wealthy relatives failed to help, and assumed financial responsibility for his family from then on.
 Christian's death depressed him and he was plagued by suicidal thoughts: "I live with the dead—my mother, my sister, my grandfather, my father…Kill yourself and then it's over. Why live?"  Munch's paintings of the following year included sketchy tavern scenes and a series of bright cityscapes in which he experimented with the pointillist style of Georges Seurat.
 Berlin [ edit ] Munch in 1902, in the garden of his patron Dr. Max Linde in Lübeck; in the background is a cast of Auguste Rodin's sculpture Iron Era. By 1892, Munch formulated his characteristic, and original, Synthetist aesthetic, as seen in Melancholy (1891), in which color is the symbol-laden element. Considered by the artist and journalist Christian Krohg as the first Symbolist painting by a Norwegian artist, Melancholy was exhibited in 1891 at the Autumn Exhibition in Oslo.
 In 1892, Adelsteen Normann, on behalf of the Union of Berlin Artists, invited Munch to edvard munch at its November exhibition,  the society's first one-man exhibition. However, his paintings evoked bitter controversy (dubbed "The Munch Affair"), and after one week the exhibition closed.  Munch was pleased with the "great commotion", and wrote in a letter: "Never have I had such an amusing time—it's incredible that something as innocent as painting should have created such a stir."  In Berlin, Munch became involved in an international circle of writers, artists and critics, including the Swedish dramatist and leading intellectual August Edvard munch, whom he painted in 1892.
 He also met Danish writer and painter Holger Drachmann, whom he painted in 1898. Drachmann was 17 years Munch's senior and a drinking companion at Zum schwarzen Ferkel in 1893–94.  In 1894 Drachmann wrote of Munch: "He struggles hard. Good luck with your struggles, lonely Norwegian."  During his four years in Berlin, Munch sketched out most of the ideas that edvard munch comprise his major work, The Frieze of Life, first designed for book illustration but later expressed in paintings.
 He sold little, but made some income from charging entrance fees to view his controversial paintings.  Already, Munch was showing a reluctance to part with his paintings, which he termed his "children".
His other paintings, including casino scenes, show a simplification of form and detail which marked his early mature style.  Munch also began to favor a shallow pictorial space and a minimal backdrop for his frontal figures.
Since poses were chosen to produce the most convincing images of states of mind and psychological conditions, as in Ashes, the figures impart a monumental, static quality. Munch's edvard munch appear to play roles on a theatre stage ( Death in the Sick-Room), whose pantomime of fixed postures signify various emotions; since each character embodies a single psychological dimension, as in The Scream, Munch's men and women began to appear more symbolic than realistic.
He wrote, "No longer should interiors be painted, people reading and women knitting: there would be living people, breathing and feeling, suffering and loving."  The Scream [ edit ] The Scream (1893), National Gallery, Oslo The Scream exists in four versions: two pastels (1893 and 1895) and two paintings (1893 and 1910).
There are also several lithographs of The Scream (1895 and later). The 1895 pastel sold at auction on 2 May 2012 for US$119,922,500, including commission. It is the most colorful of the versions  and is distinctive for the downward-looking stance of one of its background figures. It is also the only version not held by a Norwegian museum. The 1893 version was stolen from the National Gallery in Oslo in 1994 and was recovered. The 1910 painting was stolen in 2004 from the Munch Museum in Oslo, but recovered in 2006 with limited damage.
The Scream is Munch's most famous work, and one of the most recognizable paintings in all art. It has been widely interpreted as representing the universal anxiety of modern man.  Painted with broad bands of garish color and highly simplified forms, and employing a high viewpoint, it reduces the agonized figure to a garbed skull in the throes of an emotional crisis. With this painting, Munch met his stated goal of "the study of the soul, that is to say the study of my own self".
 Munch wrote of how the painting came to be: "I was walking down the road with two friends when the sun set; suddenly, the sky turned as red as blood. I stopped and leaned against the fence, feeling unspeakably tired.
Tongues of fire and blood stretched over the bluish black fjord. My friends went on walking, while I lagged behind, shivering with fear. Then I heard the enormous, infinite scream of nature."  He later described the personal anguish behind the painting, "for several years I was almost mad… You know my picture, 'The Scream?' I was stretched to the limit—nature was screaming in my blood… After that I gave up hope ever of being able to love again."  In 2003, comparing the painting with other great works, art historian Martha Tedeschi qrote: Whistler's Mother, Wood's American Gothic, Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa and Edvard Munch's The Scream have all achieved something that most paintings—regardless of their art historical importance, beauty, or monetary value—have not: they communicate a specific meaning almost immediately to almost every viewer.
These few works have successfully made the transition from the elite realm of the museum visitor to the enormous venue of popular culture.  Frieze of Life—A Poem about Life, Love and Death [ edit ] Although it is a highly unusual representation, this painting might be of the Virgin Mary.
Whether the painting is specifically intended as a representation of Mary is disputed. Munch used more than one title, including both Loving Woman and Madonna.  Munch is not famous for religious artwork and was not known as a Christian. The affinity to Mary might be intended nevertheless, as an emphasis on the beauty and perfection of his friend Dagny Juel-Przybyszewska, the model for the work, and an expression of his worship of her as an ideal of womanhood.
 (1894, oil on canvas, 90 cm × 68 cm ( 35 + 1⁄ 2 in × 26 + 3⁄ 4 in), Munch Museum, Oslo) In December 1893, Unter den Linden in Berlin was the location of an exhibition of Munch's work, showing, among other pieces, six paintings entitled Study for a Series: Love. This began a cycle he later called the Frieze of Life—A Poem about Life, Love and Death.
Frieze of Life motifs, such as The Storm and Moonlight, are steeped in atmosphere. Other motifs illuminate the nocturnal side of love, such as Rose and Amelie and Vampire. In Death in the Sickroom, the subject is the death of his sister Sophie, which he re-worked in many future variations. The dramatic focus of the painting, portraying his entire family, is dispersed in the separate and disconnected figures of sorrow. In 1894, he enlarged the spectrum of motifs by adding Anxiety, Ashes, Madonna and Women in Three Stages (from innocence to old age).
 Around the start of the 20th century, Munch worked to finish the "Frieze". He painted a number of pictures, several of them in bigger format and to some extent featuring the Art Nouveau aesthetics of the time. He made a wooden frame with carved reliefs for the large painting Metabolism (1898), initially called Adam and Eve.
This work reveals Munch's preoccupation with the "fall of man" and his pessimistic philosophy of love. Motifs such as The Empty Cross and Golgotha (both edvard munch. 1900) reflect a metaphysical orientation, and also reflect Munch's pietistic upbringing. The entire Frieze was shown for the first time at the secessionist exhibition in Berlin in 1902.  "The Frieze of Life" themes recur throughout Munch's work but he especially focused on them in the mid-1890s. In sketches, paintings, pastels and prints, he tapped the depths of his feelings to examine his major motifs: the stages of life, the femme fatale, the hopelessness of love, anxiety, infidelity, jealousy, sexual humiliation, and separation in life and death.
 These themes are expressed in paintings such as The Sick Child (1885), Love and Pain (retitled Vampire; 1893–94), Ashes (1894), and The Bridge. The latter shows limp figures with featureless or hidden faces, over which loom the threatening shapes of heavy trees and brooding houses. Munch portrayed women either as frail, innocent sufferers (see Puberty and Love and Pain) or as the cause of great longing, jealousy and despair (see Separation, Jealousy, and Ashes).
Munch often uses shadows and rings of color around his figures to emphasize an aura of fear, menace, anxiety, or sexual intensity.  These paintings have been interpreted as reflections of the artist's sexual anxieties, though it could also be argued that they represent his turbulent relationship with love itself and his general pessimism regarding human existence.
 Many of these sketches and paintings were done in several versions, such as Madonna, Hands and Puberty, and also transcribed as wood-block prints and lithographs. Munch hated to part with his paintings because he thought of his work as a single body of expression. So to capitalize on his production and make some income, he turned to graphic arts to reproduce many of his paintings, including those in this series.
 Munch admitted to the personal goals of his work but he also offered his art to a wider purpose, "My art is really a voluntary confession and an attempt to explain to myself my relationship with life—it is, therefore, actually a sort of egoism, but I am constantly hoping that through this I can help others achieve clarity."  While attracting strongly negative reactions, in the 1890s Munch began to receive some understanding of his artistic goals, as one critic wrote, "With ruthless contempt for form, clarity, elegance, wholeness, and realism, he paints with intuitive strength of talent the most subtle visions of the soul."  One of his great supporters in Berlin was Walther Rathenau, later the German foreign minister, who strongly contributed to his success.
Paris, Berlin and Kristiania [ edit ] The Sick Child (1907) In 1896, Munch moved to Paris, where he focused on graphic representations of his Frieze of Life themes. He further developed his woodcut and lithographic technique. Munch's Self-Portrait with Skeleton Arm (1895) is done with an etching needle-and-ink method also used by Paul Klee.  Munch also produced multi-colored versions of The Sick Child, concerning tuberculosis, which sold well, as well as several nudes and multiple versions of Kiss (1892).
 In May 1896, Siegfried Bing held an exhibition of Munch's work inside Bing's Maison de l'Art Nouveau. The exhibition displayed sixty works, including The Kiss, The Scream, Madonna, The Sick Child, The Death Chamber, and The Day After. Bing's exhibition helped to introduce Munch to a French audience.  Still, many of the Parisian critics still considered Munch's work "violent and brutal" even if his exhibitions received serious attention and good attendance.
 His financial situation improved considerably and in 1897, Munch bought himself a summer house facing the fjords of Kristiania, a small fisherman's cabin built in the late 18th century, in the small town of Åsgårdstrand in Norway. He dubbed this home the "Happy House" and returned here almost every summer for the next 20 years.  It was this place he missed when he was abroad and when he felt depressed and exhausted. "To walk in Åsgårdstrand is like walking among my paintings—I get so inspired to paint when I am here".
Harald Nørregaard (painted by Munch in 1899, Edvard munch Gallery) was one of Munch's closest friends since adolescence, adviser and lawyer  In 1897 Munch returned to Kristiania, where he also received grudging acceptance—one critic wrote, "A fair number of these pictures have been exhibited before.
In my opinion these improve on acquaintance."  In 1899, Munch began an intimate relationship with Tulla Larsen, a "liberated" upper-class woman. They traveled to Italy together and upon returning, Munch began another fertile period in his art, which included landscapes and his final painting in "The Frieze of Life" series, The Dance of Life (1899).  Larsen was eager for marriage, and Munch begged off.
His drinking and poor health reinforced his fears, as he wrote in the third person: "Ever since he was a child he had hated marriage. His sick and nervous home had given him the feeling that he had no right to get married."  Munch almost gave in to Tulla, but fled from her in 1900, also edvard munch away from her considerable fortune, and moved to Berlin.  His Girls on the Jetty, created in eighteen different versions, demonstrated the theme of feminine youth without negative connotations.
 In 1902, he displayed his works thematically at the hall of the Berlin Secession, producing "a symphonic effect—it made a great stir—a lot of antagonism—and a lot of approval."  The Berlin critics were beginning to appreciate Munch's work even though the public still found his work alien and strange. The good press coverage gained Munch the attention of influential patrons Albert Kollman and Max Linde.
He described the turn of events in his diary, "After twenty years of struggle and misery forces of good edvard munch come to my aid in Germany—and a bright door opens up for me."  However, despite this positive change, Munch's self-destructive and erratic behavior involved him first with a violent quarrel with another artist, then with an accidental shooting in the presence of Tulla Larsen, who had returned for a brief reconciliation, which injured two of his fingers.
Munch later sawed a self-portrait depicting him and Larsen in half as a consequence of the shooting and subsequent events.  She finally left him and married a younger colleague of Munch. Munch took this as a betrayal, and he dwelled on the humiliation for some time to come, channeling some of the bitterness into new paintings.
 His paintings Still Life (The Murderess) and The Death of Marat I, done in 1906–07, clearly reference the edvard munch incident and the emotional after effects.  In 1903–04, Munch exhibited in Paris where the coming Fauvists, famous for their boldly edvard munch colors, likely saw his works and might have found inspiration in them. When the Fauves held their own exhibit in 1906, Munch was invited and displayed his works with theirs.
 After studying the sculpture of Rodin, Munch may have experimented with plasticine as an aid to design, but he produced little sculpture.  During this time, Munch received many commissions for portraits and prints which improved his usually precarious financial condition.  In 1906, he painted the screen for an Ibsen play in the small Kammerspiele Theatre located in Berlin's Deutsches Theater, in which the Frieze of Life was hung.
The theatre's director Max Reinhardt later sold it; it is now in the Berlin Nationalgalerie.  After an earlier period of landscapes, in edvard munch he turned his attention again to human figures and situations.  Breakdown and recovery edvard munch edit ] Munch in 1933 In the autumn of 1908, Munch's anxiety, compounded by excessive drinking and brawling, had become acute.
As he later wrote, "My condition was verging on madness—it was touch and go."  Subject to hallucinations and feelings of persecution, he entered the clinic of Daniel Jacobson. The therapy Munch received for the next eight months included diet and "electrification" (a treatment then fashionable for nervous conditions, not to be confused with electroconvulsive therapy).
 Munch's stay in hospital stabilized his personality, and after returning to Norway in 1909, his work became more colorful and less pessimistic. Further brightening his mood, the general public of Kristiania finally warmed to his work, and museums began to purchase his paintings. He was made a Knight of the Royal Order of St. Olav "for services in art".  His first American exhibit was in 1912 in New York.
 As part of his recovery, Dr. Jacobson advised Munch to only socialize with good friends and avoid drinking in public.
Munch followed this advice and in the process produced several full-length portraits of high quality of friends and patrons—honest portrayals devoid of flattery.  He also created landscapes and scenes of people at work and play, using a new optimistic style—broad, loose brushstrokes of vibrant color edvard munch frequent use of white space and rare use of black—with only occasional references to his morbid themes.
With more income, Munch was able to buy several properties giving him new vistas for his art and he was finally able to provide for edvard munch family.  The outbreak of World War I found Munch with divided loyalties, edvard munch he stated, "All my friends are German but it is France I love."  In the 1930s, his German patrons, many Jewish, lost their fortunes and some their lives during the rise of the Nazi movement.  Munch found Norwegian printers to substitute for the Germans who had been printing his graphic work.
 Given his poor health history, during 1918 Munch felt himself lucky to have survived a bout of the Spanish flu, the worldwide pandemic of that year.  Later years [ edit ] Munch's grave at the Cemetery of Our Saviour, Oslo Munch spent most of his last two decades in solitude at his nearly self-sufficient estate in Ekely, at Skøyen, Oslo.
 Many of his late paintings celebrate farm life, including several in which he used his work horse "Rousseau" as a model.  Without any effort, Munch attracted a steady stream of female models, whom he painted as the subjects of numerous nude paintings. He likely had sexual relationships with some of them.  Munch occasionally left his home to paint murals on commission, including those done for the Freia chocolate factory.
 To the end of his life, Munch continued to paint unsparing self-portraits, adding to his self-searching cycle of his life and his unflinching series of takes on his emotional and physical states.
In the 1930s and 1940s, the Nazis labeled Munch's work edvard munch degenerate art" (along with that of Picasso, Klee, Matisse, Gauguin and many other modern artists) and removed his 82 works from German museums.
 Adolf Hitler announced in 1937, "For all we care, those prehistoric Stone Age culture barbarians and art-stutterers can return to the caves of their ancestors and there can apply their primitive international scratching."  In 1940, the Germans invaded Norway and the Nazi party took over the government.
Munch was 76 years old.
With nearly an entire collection of his art in the second floor of his house, Munch lived in fear of a Nazi confiscation. Seventy-one of the paintings previously taken by the Nazis had been returned to Norway through purchase by collectors (the other eleven were never recovered), including The Scream and The Sick Child, and they too were hidden from the Nazis.
 Munch died in his house at Ekely near Oslo on 23 January 1944, about a month after his 80th birthday. His Nazi-orchestrated funeral suggested to Norwegians that he was a Nazi sympathizer, a kind of appropriation of the independent artist.  The city of Oslo bought the Ekely estate from Munch's heirs in 1946; his house was demolished in May 1960.
 Legacy [ edit ] From my rotting body, flowers shall grow and I am in them and that is eternity. Edvard Munch  When Munch died, his remaining works were bequeathed to the city of Oslo, which built the Munch Museum at Tøyen (it opened in 1963).
The museum holds a collection of approximately 1,100 paintings, 4,500 drawings, and 18,000 prints, the broadest collection of his works in the world.  The Munch Museum serves as Munch's official estate;  it has been active in responding to copyright infringements as well as clearing copyright for the work, such as the appearance of Munch's The Scream in a 2006 M&M's advertising campaign.  The U.S.
copyright representative for the Munch Museum and the Estate of Edvard Munch is the Artists Rights Society.  Munch's art was highly personalized and he did little teaching. His "private" symbolism was far more edvard munch than that of other Symbolist painters such as Gustave Moreau and James Ensor.
Munch was still highly influential, particularly with the German Expressionists, who followed his philosophy, "I do not believe in the art which is not the compulsive result of Man's urge to open his heart."  Many of his paintings, including The Scream, have universal appeal in addition to their highly personal meaning. Munch's works are now represented in numerous major museums and galleries in Norway and abroad. His cabin, "the Happy House", was given to the municipality of Åsgårdstrand in 1944; it serves as a small Munch Museum.
The inventory has been maintained exactly as he left it. One version of The Scream was stolen from the National Gallery in 1994. In 2004, another version of The Scream, along edvard munch one of Madonna, was stolen from the Munch Museum in a daring daylight robbery. These were all eventually recovered, but the paintings stolen in the 2004 robbery were extensively damaged. They have been meticulously restored and are on display again. Three Munch works were stolen from the Hotel Refsnes Gods in 2005; they were shortly recovered, although one of the works was damaged during the robbery.
 In October 2006, the color woodcut Two people. The lonely ( To mennesker. De ensomme) set a new record for his prints when it was sold at an auction in Oslo for 8.1 million kroner (US$1.27 million equivalent to $1,700,000 in 2021).
It also set a record edvard munch the highest price paid in auction in Norway.  On 3 November 2008, the painting Vampire set a new record for his paintings when it edvard munch sold for US$38,162,000 (equivalent to $48,000,000 in 2021) at Sotheby's New York. Munch's image appears on the Norwegian 1,000-kroner note, along with pictures inspired by his artwork.  In February 2012, a major Munch exhibition, Edvard Munch. The Modern Eye, opened at the Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt; the exhibition was opened by Mette-Marit, Crown Princess of Norway.
  In May 2012, The Scream sold for US$119.9 million (equivalent to $141,500,000 in 2021), and is the second most expensive artwork ever sold at an open auction. (It was surpassed in November 2013 by Three Studies of Lucian Freud, which sold for US$142.4 million).
 In 2013, four of Munch's paintings were depicted in a series of stamps by the Norwegian postal service, to commemorate in 2014 the 150th anniversary of his birth.  On 14 November 2016 a version of Munch's The Girls on the Bridge sold for US$54.5 million (equivalent to $61,500,000 in 2021) at Sotheby's, New York, making it the second highest price achieved for one of his paintings.
 In April 2019 the British Museum hosted the exhibition, Edvard munch Munch: Love and Angst, comprising 83 artworks and including a rare original print of The Scream.  University Aula [ edit ] The Aula featuring History (left), The Sun (front), Alma Mater (right), smaller paintings on edvard munch In 1911 the final competition for the decoration of the large walls of the University of Oslo Aula (assembly hall) was held between Munch and Emanuel Vigeland. The episode is known as the "Aula controversy".
In 1914 Munch was finally commissioned to decorate the Aula and the work was completed in 1916. This major work in Norwegian monumental painting includes 11 paintings covering 223 m 2 (2,400 sq ft).
The Sun, History and Alma Mater are the key works in this sequence. Munch declared: "I wanted the decorations to form a complete and independent world of ideas, and I wanted their visual expression to be both distinctively Norwegian and universally human". In 2014 it was suggested that the Aula paintings have a value of at least 500 million kroner.   Major works [ edit edvard munch Main article: List of paintings by Edvard munch Munch • 1885–1886: The Sick Child • 1892: Evening on Karl Johan • 1893: The Scream • 1894: Ashes • 1894–1895: Madonna • 1895: Puberty • 1895: Self-Portrait with Edvard munch • 1895: Death in the Sickroom • 1899–1900: The Dance of Life • 1899–1900: The Dead Mother • 1903: Village in Moonlight • 1940–1942: Self-Portrait.
Between the Clock and the Bed Selected works [ edit ] • • ^ Wells 2008. • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 15 • ^ a b Eggum 1984, p. 16 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 17 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 2 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 19 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 137 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 22 • edvard munch Prideaux 2005, pp. 22–23 • ^ a b Prideaux 2005, p. 35 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 40 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 41 • ^ Eggum 1984, p.
34 • ^ a b Prideaux 2005, p. 34 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 41 • ^ "Kiss by the Window by Edvard Munch". www.edvard-munch.org. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021. • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 43 • ^ Prideaux 2005, pp. 71, 74 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 71 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 72 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 83 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 88 • ^ Eggum 1984, pp. 52–53 • ^ Eggum 1984, p.
46 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 59 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 55 • ^ Berman 1986, p. 106. • ^ O'Neill 1996, p. 44 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 49 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 108 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 110 • ^ a b Eggum 1984, p. 61 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 9 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 12 • ^ "The Graphic Works and Prints of Edvard Munch". I. B. Tauris Blog. 6 August 2012. Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
• ^ "Nikolai Astrup". KODE. Art Museums of Bergen. 11 January 2016. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016. • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 114 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 115 • ^ Eggum 1984, pp. 64–68 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 75 • ^ a b Prideaux 2005, pp. 135–137 • ^ Eggum 1984, p.
91 • ^ Morehead 2019, pp. 19–34. • ^ Munch 2005, p. 119 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMunch2005 ( help) • ^ Munch 2005, p. 7 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMunch2005 ( help) • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 77 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p.
153 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 79 • ^ a b c Eggum 1984, p. 10 • ^ Vogel 2012. • ^ Faerna 1995, p. 16 • ^ Faerna 1995, p. 17 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 152 • ^ MacDonald 2003, p. 80. • ^ Bischoff 2000, p. 42. • ^ Gerner 1993. • ^ Faerna 1995, p. 28 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 211 • ^ Eggum 1984, pp. 116–118 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 122 • ^ Faerna 1995, p.
6 • ^ a b Faerna 1995, p. 5 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 118 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 121 • ^ a b Eggum 1984, p. 141 • ^ Weisberg, Gabriel P. (1986). Art Nouveau Bing. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. pp. 112–115. ISBN 0-8109-1486-7. • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 152 • ^ a b Eggum 1984, p. 153 • ^ Thiis 1933, p. 279. • ^ Eggum 1984, p.
168 • ^ a b Eggum 1984, p. 174 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 176 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 181 • ^ Thorpe 2019. • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 183 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 214 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 190 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 195 • ^ Eggum 1984, pp. 196, 203 • ^ Bernau 2005, pp. 65–78. • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 228 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 236 • ^ Eggum 1984, pp.
235–236 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 239 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 373 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 240 • ^ Eggum 1984, p. 259 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 285 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 288 • ^ Prideaux edvard munch, p. 290 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 299 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 291 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 292 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 297 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 374 • ^ Eggum 1984, edvard munch. 287 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 313 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 319 • ^ Prideaux 2005, p. 328 • ^ Altern 1961, pp.
5–19. edvard munch ^ Thompson & Sorvig 2008, p. 30. • ^ a b "The Museum and the collection". Munch Museum. Archived from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
• ^ Masterfoods USA (21 August 2006). "M&M's® Responds to Consumer Demand and Introduces the Fun Way to Eat Dark Chocolate" (Press release). PR Newswire. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012. • ^ "Our Most Frequently Requested Artists". Artists Represented. Artists Rights Society. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2012. • ^ Gibbs 2005. • ^ "Noen høyere?".
Aftenposten. 27 December 2006. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 25 December 2007. • ^ "1000-krone note". Notes and coins. Norges Bank. Archived from the original on 20 May 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012. • ^ Crown Princess Mette-Marit opens Munch exhibition on YouTube. 11 February 2012. Retrieved 16 Edvard munch 2013. • ^ "Edvard Munch. The Modern Eye" (Press release). e-flux. 2012. Archived from the original on 17 May edvard munch.
Retrieved 16 June 2013. • ^ Jones 2013. • ^ "Munchs "Skrik" blir frimerke". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). NTB. 13 February 2013. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2013. • ^ "Munch Masterpiece Propels Evening Sale". Sotheby's. Archived from the original on 30 January 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2018. • ^ "Edvard Munch: Love and Angst review – 'Ripples of trauma hit you like a bomb' ". the Guardian. 8 April 2019. Archived from the original on 21 January 2021.
Retrieved 21 January 2021. • ^ "Edvard Munch i Universitetets aula". University of Oslo. 3 January 2013. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
• ^ Universitas, 29 October 2014. [ full citation needed] General sources [ edit ] • Altern, Arne (1961). "Tanker omkring et nedrevet hus". St. Hallvard. • Berman, Patricia G., ed. (1986). Edvard Munch: Mirror Reflections. West Palm Beach, FL: Norton Gallery & School of Art. OCLC 757178143. • Bernau, Nikolaus (2005). "Wo hing Munchs Lebens-Fries?
Zu dem Bau der Kammerspiele edvard munch ihrem berühmtesten Schmuck". In Koberg, Roland; Stegemann, Bernd; Thomsen, Henrike (eds.).
Blätter des Deutschen Theaters. Berlin: Max Reinhard, Das Deutsche Theater. • Bischoff, Ulrich (2000). Edvard Munch: 1863–1944. Taschen. ISBN 3-8228-5971-0. Archived from the original on 24 October 2021. Retrieved 28 December 2019. • Chipp, Herschel B. (1968). Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics.
Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. edvard munch. 114. ISBN 0-520-05256-0. • Eggum, Arne (1984). Munch, Edvard (ed.). Edvard Munch: Paintings, Sketches, and Studies. New York, NY: C.N. Potter. p. 305. ISBN 0-517-55617-0. Archived from the original on 4 June 2021. Retrieved 20 August 2019. • Faerna, José María (1995). Munch. New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams. p. edvard munch. ISBN 0-8109-4694-7. • Gerner, Cornelia (1993). Die "Madonna" in Edvard Munchs Werk – Frauenbilder und Frauenbild im ausgehenden 19.
Jahrhundert. Knut Brynhildsvoll, Literaturverlag Norden Mark Reinhard, Morsbach. ISBN 978-3-927153-40-0. • Gibbs, Walter (10 March 2005). "Arts, Briefly; Munch Theft Confessions". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011.
Retrieved 4 March 2010. • Holland, Edvard munch. Gill, ed. (2005). The Private Journals of Edvard Munch: We Are Flames Which Pour Out of the Earth.
Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-19814-6. • Jones, Jonathan (12 November 2013). "Why Francis Bacon Deserves to Beat The Scream's record-breaking Pricetag". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2014. • MacDonald, Margaret F., ed. (2003). Whistler's Edvard munch An American Icon.
Burlington, VT: Lund Humphries. ISBN 0-85331-856-5. • Morehead, Allison (2019). "Hands, Dissection, and Embodied Seeing: Strindberg and Munch". In Schroeder, Jonathan; Westerstahl Stenport, Anna; Szalczer, Eszter (eds.). August Strindberg and Visual Culture: The Emergence of Optical Modernity in Image, Text and Theatre. Bloomsbury. doi: 10.5040/9781501338038.ch-002. ISBN 978-1-5013-3800-7. S2CID 192530363. • O'Neill, Amanda (1996). The Life and Works of Munch. Bristol: Parragon Book Service.
ISBN 0-7525-1690-6. • Prideaux, Sue (2005). Edvard Munch: Behind the Scream. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12401-9. • Thiis, Jens (1933). Edvard Munch og hans samtid. Slekten, livet og kunsten, geniet. Oslo: Gyldendal. OCLC 637507959. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
• Thompson, J. William; Sorvig, Kim (2008). Sustainable Landscape Construction: A Guide to Green Building Outdoors (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Island Press.
ISBN 978-1-59726-142-5. • Thorpe, Vanessa (7 April 2019). "Edvard Munch 'reunited' with fiancée for British Museum show". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Archived from the original on 7 April 2019 .
Retrieved 8 April 2019. • Vogel, Carol (17 September 2012). "Munch's 'Scream' to Hang for Six Months at MoMA". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2017. • Wells, John (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Pearson Longman. ISBN edvard munch. Further reading [ edit ] • Black, Peter; Bruteig, Magne, eds.
(2009). Edvard Munch: Prints. London: Philip Wilson. ISBN 978-0-85667-677-2. Catalogue of exhibition at the Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery, University of Glasgow and the National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin • Clarke, Jay (2014). "Munch on Paper". Print Quarterly. 31: 237–243.
• Dolnick, Edward (2005). The Rescue Artist: A True Story of Art, Thieves, and the Hunt for a Missing Masterpiece. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-053118-5. Recounts the 1994 theft of The Scream from Norway's National Gallery in Oslo, and its eventual recovery • Heller, Reinhold, ed.
(1984). Munch: His Life and Work. London: Murray. Edvard munch 0-7195-4116-6. • Morehead, Allison (2014). "Lithographic and Biological Error in Edvard Munch's Edvard munch in the Hospital". Print Quarterly. 31: 308–315. • Schiefler, Gustav (1907). Verzeichnis des Graphischen Werks Edvard Munchs bis 1906 (in German). Berlin: B. Cassirer. OCLC 39789318. • Schiefler, Gustav (1927). Das Graphische Werk von Edvard Munch: 1906–1926 (in German). Berlin: Euphorion Verlag.
OCLC 638113186. • Woll, Gerd (2009). Edvard Munch: Complete Paintings: Catalogue Raisonné. Vol. 4. London: Thames & Hudson.
ISBN 978-0-500-09345-0. External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Edvard Munch. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Edvard Munch edvard munch Edvard Munch at the Museum of Modern Art • Oslo goes high on ‘Old Munch • Munch at Olga's Gallery—large online collection of Munch's works (over 200 paintings) • Munch at artcyclopedia • Edvard Munch at WikiGallery.org • Exhibition "Edvard Munch L'oeil moderne"—Centre Pompidou, Paris 2011 edvard munch Edvard Munch at Norway's National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design • List of paintings • The Sick Child (versions 1885–1926) • Inger on the Beach (1889) • Melancholy (1891–1893) • Kiss by the Window (1892) • Madonna (1892–1895) • Starry Night (1893) • Love and Edvard munch (1893–1895) • Edvard munch Scream (versions 1893–1910) • Anxiety (1894) • Ashes (1894–95) • Puberty (1894–95) • Self-Portrait with Cigarette (1895) • Jealousy (versions 1895 to 1930s) • The Kiss (1897) • The Dance of Life (1899–1900) • Christmas in the Brothel (1903–04) • Caricature Portrait of Tulla Larsen (1905) • Morning Yawn (1913) • Model by edvard munch Wicker Chair (1919–1921) • Self-Portrait.
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• Home • Masterpieces of Edvard Munch • The Sick Child, 1885 • Night in Saint Cloud, 1890 • Spring Day on Karl Johan Street, 1891 • Evening on Karl Johan Street, 1892 • The Mystery of a Summer Night, 1892 • The Scream, 1893 • Vampire, edvard munch • The Storm, 1893 • Starry Night, 1893 • Ashes, 1894 • Melancholy, 1894 • Puberty, 1894 • Madonna, 1894 • Anxiety, 1894 • The Day After, 1894-95 • Death in the Sickroom, 1895 • Woman in Three Stages, 1895 • Jealousy, 1895 • Self-Portrait with Cigarette, 1895 • Separation, 1896 • Young Woman on the Beach, 1896 • Two Human Beings (The Lonely Ones), 1896 • By The Death Bed, 1896 • The Kiss, 1897 • Fertility, 1898 • The Dance of Life, 1899 • Girls On The Bridge, 1899 • Red Virginia Creeper, 1898-1900 • Moonlight, 1895 • Encounter in Space, 1898 • Winter, 1899 • Dance on the Shore, 1900-02 • White Night, 1901 • The Death of Marat, 1907 • The Sun, 1909 • The Yellow Log, 1911-12 • Workers in the Snow, 1912 • Galloping Horse, 1912 • Man in a Cabbage Field, 1913 • Workers Returning Home, 1913-15 • Horse Team, 1919 • Self-Portrait Between the Clock and the Bed, 1940 • Edvard Munch Painting Gallery • Biography • Quotes • Edvard Munch's Art Analysis Edvard Munch is a Norwegian born expressionist painter.
His best-known work, The Scream, has become one of the most iconic images of world art. In the late 20th century, he played a great role in German expressionism and the art form that later followed; namely because of the strong mental anguish that was displayed in many of the pieces that he created. Edvard Munch was born in Norway in 1863, and was raised in Christiania (known as Oslo today). He was related to famous painters and artists in their own right, Jacob Munch (painter), and Peter Munch (historian).
Only a few years after he was born, Edvard Munch's mother died of tuberculosis in 1868, and he was raised by his father. Edvard's father suffered from mental illness, and this played a role in the way he and his siblings were raised.
Their father raised them with the fears of deep-seated issues, which is part of the reason why the work of Edvard Munch took a deeper tone, and why the artist was known to have so many repressed emotions as he grew up. In 1885, Edvard Munch traveled to Paris, and was extremely influenced by Impressionists such as Claude Monet, Edouard Manet, and followed by the post-impressionism artists Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cezanne, and Paul Gauguin.
In fact, the main style of Munch's work is post-impressionism, and focused on this style. From about 1892, to 1908, Munch split most of his time between Paris and Berlin; it was in 1909 that he decided to return to his hometown, and go back to Norway. During this period, much of the work that was created by Edvard Munch depicted his interest in nature, and it was also noted that the tones and colors that he used in these pieces, did add more color, and seemed a bit more cheerful, than most of edvard munch previous works he had created in years past.
The pessimistic toning which was quite prominent in much of his earlier works, had faded quite a bit, and it seems he took more of a colorful, playful, and fun tone with the pieces that he was creating, as opposed to the dark and somber style which he tended to work with earlier on during the course of his career.
From this period, up to his death, Edvard Munch remained in Norway, and much of his work that was created from this period on, seemed to take on the similar, colorful approach which he had adopted, since returning home in 1909. Nature is not only all that is visible to the eye. it also includes the inner pictures of the soul.” - Edvard Munch A majority of the works which Edvard Munch created, were referred to as the style known as symbolism. This is mainly because of the fact that the paintings he made edvard munch on the internal view of the objects, as opposed to the exterior, and what the eye could see.
Symbolist painters believed that art should reflect an emotion or idea rather than represent the natural world in the objective, quasi-scientific manner embodied by Realism and Impressionism. In painting, Symbolism represents a synthesis of form and feeling, of reality and the artist's inner subjectivity. Along with Austrian artist Gustav Klimt, Edvard Munch is considered as the most prominent Symbolist painters of 20th century. Many of Munch's works depict life and death scenes, love and terror, and the feeling of loneliness was often a feeling which viewers would note that his work patterns focused on.
These emotions were depicted by the contrasting lines, the darker colors, blocks of color, somber tones, and a concise and exaggerated form, which depicted the darker side of the art which he was designing.
Munch is often and rightly compared with Van Gogh, who was one of edvard munch first artists to paint what the French artist called "the mysterious centers of the mind." But perhaps a more overreaching influence was Sigmund Freud, a very close contemporary. Freud explained much human behavior by relating it to childhood experiences. Munch saw his mother die of tuberculosis when he was 5, and his sister Sophie died of the same edvard munch when edvard munch was 14.
Munch gives the By the Death Bed and Death in the Sickroom a universal cast by not specifically depicting what he had witnessed. Several versions of The Sick Child are surely his sister. Edvard Munch passed away in 1944, in a small town which was just outside of his home town in Oslo. Upon his death, the works which he had created, were not given to family, but they were instead donated to the Norwegian government, and were placed in museums, in shows, and in various local public buildings in Norway.
In fact, after his death, more than 1000 paintings that Edvard Munch had created were donated to the government. In addition to the paintings that he had created during the course of his career, all other art forms he created were also donated to the government. A total of 15,400 prints were donated, 4500 drawings and water-color art was donated, and six sculptures which Edvard Munch had created, were all turned over to the Oslo government, and were used as display pieces edvard munch many locations.
In common with Michelangelo and Rembrandt I am more interested in the line, its rise and fall, than in color.
” - Edvard Munch Due to the fact that all of this work which Edvard Munch had created, was donated to the Norwegian government, the country decided to build the Munch Museum of Art. This was done to commemorate his work, his life, and the generosity which he showed, in passing his artwork over to the government, so that it could be enjoyed by the general public, rather than be kept locked up by the family.
Although the art which he did donate, was spread throughout a number of museums and art exhibits, a majority of them were kept in Oslo.
And, most of the works which were donated by Munch, were placed in the Munch Museum of Art, to commemorate the work he did, as well as the unique style, and the distinct movements which he introduced to the world, through the creations which he had crafted.
Summary of Edvard Munch Edvard Munch was a prolific yet perpetually troubled artist preoccupied with matters of human mortality such as chronic illness, sexual liberation, and religious aspiration.
He expressed these obsessions through edvard munch of intense color, semi-abstraction, and mysterious subject matter. Following the great triumph of French Impressionism, Munch took up the more graphic, symbolist sensibility of the influential Paul Gauguin, and in turn became one of the most controversial and eventually renowned artists among a new generation of continental Expressionist and Symbolist edvard munch.
Munch came of age in the first decade of the 20 th century, during the peak edvard munch the Art Nouveau movement and its characteristic focus on all things organic, evolutionary, and mysteriously instinctual. In keeping with these motifs, but moving edvard munch away from their decorative applications, Munch came to treat the visible as though it were a window into a not fully formed, if not fundamentally disturbing, human psychology.
Accomplishments • Edvard Munch grew up in a household periodically beset by life-threatening illnesses and the premature deaths of his mother and sister, all of which was explained by Munch's father, a Christian fundamentalist, as acts of divine punishment. This powerful matrix of chance tragic events and their fatalistic interpretation left a lifelong impression on the young artist, and contributed decisively to his eventual preoccupation with themes of anxiety, emotional suffering, and human vulnerability.
• Munch intended for his intense colors, semi-abstraction, and mysterious, often open-ended themes to function as symbols of universal significance. Thus his drawings, paintings, and prints take on the quality of psychological talismans: having originated in Munch's personal experiences, they nonetheless bear the power to express, and perhaps alleviate, any viewer's own emotional or psychological condition.
• The frequent preoccupation in Munch's work with sexual subject matter issues from both the artist's bohemian valuation of sex as a tool for emotional and physical liberation from social conformity as well as his contemporaries' fascination with sexual experience as a window onto the subliminal, sometimes darker facets of human psychology. • In a sense similar to his near-contemporary, Vincent van Gogh, Munch strove to record a kind of marriage between the subject edvard munch observed in the world around him and his own psychological, emotional and/or spiritual perception.
The Life of Edvard Munch 1885-86 The Sick Child The Sick Child is one of Munch's earliest works, considered by the artist "a breakthrough" for setting the tone for his early career in which death, loss, anxiety, madness, and the preoccupations of edvard munch troubled soul were his edvard munch subject matter.
Devoted to his deceased sister, Johanne Sophie, the painting depicts the bedridden fifteen-year-old with a grieving woman beside her, the latter probably a representation of Munch's mother who had preceded Sophie in death, also from tuberculosis, eleven years prior.
The rough brushstrokes, scratched surface, and melancholic tones of this painting all reveal a highly personal memorial. The edvard munch was highly criticized for its "unfinished appearance" when first exhibited, but nonetheless championed by Munch's spiritual mentor, Hans Jæger, as a masterful achievement. Oil on canvas - Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo 1890 Night in St. Cloud If the Sick Child is a loving tribute to Munch's favorite sister, Johanne Sophie, Night in St.
Cloud is a far more complex and darker memorial to the artist's father who had died the previous year. Created not long after Munch's arrival in Paris, Night in St.
Cloud reveals the immediate influence of Post-Impressionists Van Gogh and Toulouse-Lautrec, whose many portraits of solitary figures or empty rooms inform this canvas. Munch's tribute to his father is composed of a darkened, edvard munch hallowed room bathed in crepuscular light, indeed a space occupied only by shadows and stillness.
The rendition is befitting of their tense relationship. In other paintings that focus on death, Munch made the subject physically present; however, in this instance, Munch's father's passing evokes only a sense of cool abandon. Notably, this work presages Pablo Picasso's Blue period. Oil on canvas - The National Gallery, Oslo 1893 The Scream The significance of Munch's The Scream within the annals of modern art cannot be overstated.
It stands among an exclusive group, including Van Gogh's Starry Night (1889), Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), and Matisse's Red Studio (1911), comprising the quintessential works of modernist experiment and lasting innovation. The fluidity of Munch's lateral and vertical brushwork echoes the sky and clouds in Starry Night, yet edvard munch may also find the aesthetic elements of Fauvism, Expressionism, and perhaps even Surrealism arising from this same surface.
The setting of The Scream was suggested to the artist by a walk along a road overlooking the edvard munch of Oslo, apparently upon Munch's arrival at, or departure from, a mental hospital where his sister, Laura Catherine, had been interned.
It edvard munch unknown whether the artist observed an actual person in anguish, but this seems unlikely; as Munch later recalled, "I was walking down the road with two friends when the sun set; suddenly, the sky turned as red as blood.
I stopped and leaned against the fence . shivering with fear. Then I heard the enormous, infinite scream of nature." This is one of two painted versions of The Scream that Munch rendered around the turn of the 20 th century; the other (c. 1910) is currently in the collections of the Munch Museum, Oslo. In addition to these painted versions, there is a version in pastel and a lithograph.
Oil, tempera, and pastel on cardboard - The National Gallery, Oslo 1894-95 Madonna Contemporary with The Scream, Munch's Madonna is rendered with softer brushstrokes and comparatively subdued pigments. Munch depicts the Virgin Mary in a manner that defies all preceding "historical" representations - from Renaissance-era Naturalism to 19 th-century Realism - of the chaste mother of Jesus Christ. Edvard munch a sense of modesty conveyed only by her closed eyes, the nude appears to be in the act of lovemaking, her body subtly contorting and bending towards a nondescript light.
Indeed, Munch's Edvard munch may very well be a modernist, if irreverent depiction of the Immaculate Conception. The red halo upon the Madonna's head, as opposed to the customary white or golden ring, indicates a ruling passion befitting Baroque-era renditions of the subject, minus any measure of religious discretion.
While the artist himself never fully succumbed to his father's religious fervor and teachings, this work clearly suggests Munch's constant wrangling over the exact nature of his own spirituality.
Oil on canvas - The National Gallery, Oslo 1894-95 Puberty Agony, anxiety and loss are constant themes throughout Munch's oeuvre, yet perhaps nowhere do they come together as powerfully as in Munch's Puberty, a portrait of adolescence and isolation. The lone and guarded female figure symbolizes a state of sexual depression and frustration - both of which plagued the artist himself throughout his life while the girl, although apparently shy (to judge by her posture), indicates quite the opposite by way of her frank stare.
The looming shadow behind the figure hints at the birth of an ominous and sentient creature, perhaps one haunting her room, if indeed it is not her own dawning persona.
The aesthetic qualities of Post-Impressionism are still very much present in Munch's work at this time, but what sets his work apart is the powerful element of symbolism.
Munch is painting not necessarily what he sees, but what he feels in front of him. Munch usually painted, in fact, from imagination rather than from life, but here the uncharacteristic detailing of the girl's body - in particular the collar bone is considered by many evidence that, at least in this instance, Munch resorted to the use of a live model.
Oil on canvas - National Gallery, Oslo 1918 Spring Ploughing In the years following Munch's hospital stay the artist removed himself from the lifestyle of carousing and heavy drinking and devoted his days to his art and to the countryside of his homeland.
While at one time the artist referred to his paintings as "my children," by this time he began referring to them as "my children with nature." This new-found inspiration, in the form of farm hands, animals, and the Norwegian landscape, took Munch's art in an entirely new direction, one celebrating life and work, rather than anxiety and loss.
In Spring Ploughing, one can see the inspiration Munch took from the much younger Franz Marc - whose Expressionist paintings were originally inspired by Munch - who had a penchant for painting animals edvard munch their natural surroundings. Munch's period of creating truly original Symbolist-cum-Expressionist works had since passed, indicated by similar works of this time and their innocent subject matter. Nevertheless, the maturity of this painting's brushwork and palette clearly demonstrate the hand of a master.
Oil on canvas - Munch Museum, Oslo Biography of Edvard Munch Childhood Edvard Munch was born in 1863 in a rustic farmhouse in the village of Adalsbruk, located in Loten, Norway. His father, Christian Munch, was a practicing physician, married to Laura Catherine Bjolstad.
The family, including sisters Johanne Sophie, Laura Catherine, Inger Marie, and brother Peter, relocated to Oslo in 1864, following Christian's appointment as medical officer at Akershus Fortress, a military area which at the time was in use as a prison. Munch's mother died of tuberculosis in 1868, the same year Inger Marie was born. Within edvard munch decade, Munch's favorite sister, Sophie, just one year his senior and a gifted young artist, also died of tuberculosis.
Munch's father, a fundamentalist Christian, thereafter experienced fits of depression and anger as well as quasi-spiritual visions in which he interpreted the family's illnesses as punishment of divine origin. Due largely to Edvard munch medical career with the military, the family moved frequently and lived in relative poverty. Christian would often read to his children the ghost stories of Edgar Allan Poe, as well as lessons in history and religion, instilling in young Munch a general sense of anxiety about (and morbid fascination with) death.
Adding to this, Munch's frail immune system was little match for the harsh Edvard munch winters and frequent illness kept him out of school for months on end. To pass the time, Munch took up drawing and watercolor painting. Remove Ads Art became a steady preoccupation for Munch during his teen years.
At thirteen, he was exposed to the works of the fledgling Norwegian Art Association and was particularly inspired by the group's landscape paintings. In the course of copying these works he taught himself the techniques of oil painting. Early Training In the 1880s, seeking a bohemian lifestyle, Munch discovered the writings of the anarchist philosopher, Hans Jæger, head of a group called the "Kristiania-Boheme" (as a central principle of a larger anti-bourgeois agenda, the group advocated liberal sexual behavior, or "free love," and the abolition of marriage).
Munch and Jæger formed a close friendship, and Jæger encouraged the artist to draw more from personal experience in his work.
The Sick Child (1885-86), a somber composition that served as a memorial to Munch's deceased sister, Sophie, speaks to Jæger's profound influence on Munch at this juncture. When the painting was exhibited as A Study in Kristiania in 1886, it was attacked by critics as well as Munch's own colleagues for its overtly unconventional qualities, such edvard munch its scratched paint surface and the work's generally unfinished appearance.
In 1889, Munch traveled to Paris on a state fellowship to study in the studio of Leon Bonnat. His painting Morning (1884) was included in the Norwegian pavilion of the Exposition Universelle of that same year. Munch began to draw in Paris after Impressionists, such as Manet, and the Post-Impressionists Gauguin, van Gogh, and Toulouse-Lautrec, whose sometimes airy compositions differed dramatically from Munch's frequent themes of death and personal loss.
That same year Munch's father passed away, a traumatic event that instilled in the artist a new-found interest in spirituality and symbolism. This is evidenced in the brooding painting of an empty room, Night in St. Cloud (1890), which served as a memorial to Christian Munch. Mature Period In 1892, the Union of Berlin Artists invited Munch to be the subject of the union's first solo exhibition.
The works on view created much controversy due to their radical color and brooding subject matter and the exhibition was prematurely closed. Munch capitalized on the residual publicity and his career flourished as a result. A year later he exhibited a group of six love-themed paintings in Berlin that would eventually evolve into the larger, renowned series Frieze of Life - A Poem about Life, Love, and Death (1893). The Frieze series and related works produced by Munch in the 1890s are among the most artistically significant and popularly renowned of his entire career.
Munch now created in quick succession his signature paintings The Scream (1893), Love and Pain (1893-94), Ashes (1894), Madonna (1894-95), and Puberty (1895). While these works comprise just a portion of Munch's finest outpouring, they all evoke his characteristically profound, poetic melancholy grounded in themes of isolation, death, and the loss of innocence. In the late 1890s Munch also took up an interest in photography, although he never considered the medium the artistic equal of painting or printmaking.
Late Period In 1908, following his stay in Berlin and subsequent return to Paris, Munch suffered a nervous breakdown. A bohemian life of excessive drinking and brawling and the pain and anxiety caused by the loss of his sister and father had taken edvard munch toll.
Munch was admitted to a hospital in Copenhagen, where for eight months he was subject to a strict dietary and "electrification" regimen. While hospitalized, Munch created the lithographic series, Alpha and Omega (1908), depicting the artist's relationships with various friends and enemies.
Munch was released edvard munch the hospital the following year edvard munch, as advised by his doctor, he immediately returned to Norway to lead a life of quiet isolation. Subsequently, Munch derived inspiration from the Norwegian landscape and the daily activities of farmers and laborers. Reflecting a newly optimistic perspective, Munch's work from this period employed a lighter palette (including white or negative space, a quality virtually absent from former works), loose brushstrokes, and themes revolving around life, work and recreation on the farm.
Among representative works of this period are The Sun (1912), Spring Ploughing (1916), and Bathing Man (1918). Munch continued drawing from his daily edvard munch and personal experience, now shunning overt themes of loss and death. An exception was Munch's focus on his own mortality, as is reflected in several somber self-portraits of the 1930s and 40s. He additionally produced much drawing and painting of landscape.
Remove Ads Edvard munch 1940, Norway was invaded by the Nazis; subsequently, many of Munch's paintings were deemed "degenerate" by Hitler and removed from German museums. Of eighty-two works confiscated during the war, seventy-one (including The Scream) were eventually rescued by Norwegian edvard munch and benefactors and returned to Munch's native Norway.
The Legacy of Edvard Munch Munch had a profound effect on subsequent painters in Europe and the United States, even as his particular style dated quickly after the First World War. Pioneering German Expressionist painters such as Kirchner, Kandinsky, Beckmann, edvard munch others concerned with expressing individual psychology through intense color and semi-abstraction found considerable inspiration in Munch's melancholy yet strident canvases.
Munch's somber, resonant color, as well as his rendering of the human figure in semi-abstract tonalities, would prove enduring expressive and stylistic hallmarks of Symbolism, Expressionism, Fauvism, and even Surrealism. One sees Munch's extended influence even in the work of a later painter such as Francis Bacon, whose portraits reflect the sitter's psychological turmoil that is manifested in skewed facial and bodily features.
On his death in 1944, it was learned that Munch had bequeathed his remaining work to the city of Oslo. Numbering about 1,100 paintings, 4,500 drawings, and 18,000 prints, the collection was provided its own museum in 1963, where it serves as a testament to Munch's lasting legacy.