Cygnus

cygnus

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THE MK5 SURFACE RANGE MULTI-MODE ULTRASONIC THICKNESS GAUGES Find out more >> Cygnus 6+ PRO MULTI-MODE ULTRASONIC THICKNESS GAUGES Find out more >> Cygnus DIVE Underwater WRIST-MOUNTABLE ULTRASONIC THICKNESS GAUGE Find out more >> CYGNUS HATCH SURE ULTRASONIC HATCH COVER LEAK DETECTOR Find out more >> cygnus years ago Cygnus were the original pioneers, developing digital cygnus echo technology to obtain accurate thickness measurements through coatings and corrosion.

Cygnus manufacture and supply ultrasonic thickness gauges which are employed in almost every industrial application around the world. With successful diversification, Cygnus now carries three ultrasonic product lines – thickness gauges, a hatch cover/water-tight door leak detector and a flooded member cygnus (FMD) system.
Cygnus spacecraft approaching the International Space Station for the NG-12 mission Manufacturer Northrop Grumman Country of origin United States Operator Northrop Grumman Applications ISS resupply Specifications Spacecraft type Uncrewed cargo vehicle Launch mass 6,600 kg Dry mass 3,400 kg Payload capacity 3,000 kg Cygnus 18.9 m 3 Power 3.5 kW Design life 1 week to 2 years [1] Dimensions Length 5.1 m Diameter 3.07 m Production Status In service Cygnus 18 Launched 18 Operational 1 Retired 16 Lost 1 Maiden launch 18 September 2013 Last launch 19 February 2022 Part of a series on Private spaceflight Active companies • Arianespace • Astra • Axiom Space • Bigelow Aerospace • Blue Origin • Firefly Aerospace • Galactic Energy • i-Space • Northrop Grumman • Redwire • Relativity Space • Rocket Lab • Scaled Composites • SpaceX • The Spaceship Company • United Launch Alliance • Virgin Galactic • Virgin Orbit Active vehicles • Antares • Ariane 5 • Ceres-1 • Cygnus • SpaceX Dragon 2 • Electron • Cygnus 9 cygnus Falcon Heavy • Hyperbola-1 cygnus LauncherOne • New Shepard • Pegasus • Astra Rocket 3 • SpaceShipTwo • Vega Contracts and programs • Ansari X Prize • Commercial Crew Development cygnus Commercial Resupply Services • Google Lunar X Prize • SpaceX Mars transportation infrastructure • SpaceX reusable launch system development • Spaceflight portal • v • t • e Cygnus is an expendable American cargo spacecraft developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation and now manufactured and launched by Northrop Grumman Space Systems as part of NASA's Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) program.

It is launched by Northrop Grumman's Antares rocket or ULA's Atlas V and is designed to transport supplies to the International Space Station (ISS) following the retirement of the Cygnus Space Shuttle.

Since August 2000, ISS resupply cygnus have been regularly flown by the Russian Progress spacecraft, as well as by the European Automated Transfer Vehicle, and the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle.

With the Cygnus spacecraft and the SpaceX Dragon, NASA seeks to increase its partnerships with domestic commercial cygnus and aeronautics industry. [2] Cygnus is the Latinized Greek word for swan and a northern constellation. The NASA Administrator Charles Bolden (third from left) in front of the Cygnus spacecraft in May 2012. With Rocketplane Kistler unable to meet funding obligations for its K-1 launch vehicle under the terms of the COTS agreement, NASA cygnus on 18 October 2007 to terminate its contract with Rocketplane Kistler and re-award its contract after cygnus competition.

[3] On 19 February 2008, NASA announced that it had chosen Orbital Sciences as the new winner. [4] On 23 December 2008, NASA awarded Orbital Sciences a $1.9 billion contract under the Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) program.

Under this contract, Orbital Sciences agreed to deliver up to 20 tons of cargo to the ISS through 2016 in eight Cygnus spacecraft flights. [2] Cygnus April 2010, Cygnus had displayed a full-scale model of the Cygnus cargo delivery spacecraft at the National Space Symposium (NSS) in Colorado Springs, CO.

[5] Launched on an Antares (renamed from Taurus II) medium-class launch vehicle or Atlas V, the first Cygnus flight was originally planned to occur in December 2010. [6]· [7] The Cygnus demonstration mission was successfully launched on 18 September 2013. [8] On 12 January 2014, the first scheduled Cygnus resupply mission arrived at the space station; the capsule carried Christmas presents and fresh fruit for the astronauts. Its arrival was delayed, first by the need to repair the station, and then by frigid weather at the launch site and solar flares that forced postponements.

[8]· [9] With the December 2015 launch of Orb CRS-4 on Atlas V, the enhanced version of Cygnus made its debut. While it was planned from the beginning to fly on the cygnus mission, the Orb CRS-3 failure and subsequent move to Atlas V meant a delay. However, lessons learned on packing and the extra capabilities of the Atlas allowed payload to be increased to 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). [10] Design [ edit ] A scale drawing of the Standard (left) and Enhanced (right) Cygnus.

The Cygnus spacecraft consists of two basic components: the Pressurized Cargo Module (PCM) and the Service Module (SM). The PCM is manufactured by Thales Alenia Space in Turin, ( Italy). The initial PCMs have an empty mass of 1,500 kg [11] and a volume of cygnus m 3·. [12] The service module is built by Orbital ATK and is based on their GEOStar and LEOStar spacecraft buses cygnus well as components from the development of the Dawn spacecraft.

It has a gross mass of 1,800 kg with propulsion provided by thrusters using the hypergolic propellants hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide (the propellant mass is 800 kg [13] [14]). The service module is capable of producing up to 4 kW of electrical power via two gallium arsenide solar arrays. [12] On 12 November 2009, Dutch Space announced it will provide the solar arrays for the initial Cygnus spacecraft.

[15] The Standard Cygnus cygnus unberthed from the Harmony module. The fourth and all subsequent Cygnus spacecraft are planned to be of the "Enhanced" variant, as the cygnus variant has been retired.

[16] These will use a stretched 1,800-kilogram (empty weight) PCM which increases the interior volume to 27 m 3 and the service module will use Orbital ATK Ultraflex solar arrays which will provide the same amount cygnus power as the previous solar arrays but at a lower mass. [12]· [16] A new upper stage built by Orbital ATK, the Castor 30XL, will be used in conjunction with the enhanced Cygnus; because of the more powerful upper stage and the lighter solar arrays, the payload that Cygnus can deliver to the ISS will be increased by 700 kg.

[17] During nominal CRS missions, Cygnus cygnus close to the International Space Station, where the Canadarm2 robotic arm grapples the spacecraft and berths it to a Common Berthing Mechanism on the Harmony module in a similar fashion to the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle and the retired SpaceX Dragon, [12] but not the other active American CRS Dragon 2 vehicle, which docks autonomously.

For typical missions, Cygnus is planned to remain berthed for about 30 days. [18]· [19] Unlike Dragon 2 and the earlier Dragon, Cygnus does not provide cargo return capability. However, it can be loaded with obsolete equipment and trash for destructive reentry similar to the Russian Progress vehicles. [20] Cygnus formerly planned variant of Cygnus would have replaced the PCM with the Unpressurized Cargo Module (UCM), based on NASA's ExPRESS Logistics Carrier, and would have been used to transport unpressurized cargo, such as ISS Orbital Replacement Units.

[6]· cygnus Another proposed variant would have replaced the PCM with the Return Cargo Module (RCM), which would cygnus allowed Cygnus to return cargo to Earth.

[6]· Lunar Gateway module variant [ edit ] In August 2019, NASA decided to sole source its design for the Minimal Habitation Module (now known as the Habitation and Logistics Outpost, or HALO) of the Lunar Gateway to Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems, which offered a minimalist 6.1-meter (20 feet) by 3-meter (9.8 feet) design based directly on the Enhanced Cygnus, as well as a larger 7-meter (22.9 feet) by 4.4-meter (14.4 feet) design also based on the Cygnus, [22] [23] to the outside of cygnus radial docking ports, body-mounted radiators (BMRs), batteries and communications antennae will cygnus added.

Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems opted to build the minimalist design, which offered the advantage of component compatibility and expedited testing of life support systems on existing Cygnus spacecraft. [24] [25] On 5 June 2020, NASA awarded Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems a $187 million contract to complete the preliminary design of HALO.

NASA will sign a separate contract with Northrop for the fabrication of the HALO, and for integration with the Power and Propulsion Element (PPE), being built by Maxar. [24] [25] Missions [ edit ] List includes only currently manifested missions. Five missions are currently planned to be launched from Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport Launch Pad 0A on Antares, while two were launched on Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral SLC-41.

cygnus

{INSERTKEYS} [26] The PCM of each mission thus far has been named after a deceased NASA person (mostly astronauts). Cygnus spacecraft missions # Mission Patch Payload Variant Launch date Rocket Payload mass Outcome Ref.

0 Cygnus Mass Simulator Cygnus Payload Simulator N.A. 21 April 2013, 21:00:00 UTC Antares 110 Success [27]· [28] First Antares launch, demonstrated Antares's performance and capability to place its payload on a precise target orbit. [29] 1 Orb-D1 G. David Low Cygnus 1 Orbital Sciences COTS Demo Flight Standard 18 September 2013, 14:58:00 UTC Antares 110 1,299 lb (589 kg) Success [30]· [31]· [27]· [32] First Cygnus mission, first mission to rendezvous with ISS, first mission to berth with ISS, second launch of Antares.

The rendezvous between the new Cygnus cargo freighter and the International Space Station was delayed due to a computer data link problem, [33] but the issue was resolved and berthing followed shortly thereafter.

[34] 2 Orb-1 C. Gordon Fullerton Orbital-1 Standard 9 January 2014, 18:07:05 UTC Antares 120 2,780 lb (1,260 kg) Success [31]· [27]· [35]· [32] First Commercial Resupply Service (CRS) mission for Cygnus, first Antares launch using the Castor 30B upperstage.

3 Orb-2 Janice E. Voss Orbital Sciences CRS Flight 2 Standard 13 July 2014, 16:52:14 UTC Antares 120 3,293 lb (1,494 kg) Success [27]· [32] Second Commercial Resupply Service (CRS) mission for Cygnus. 4 Orb-3 Deke Slayton Orbital Sciences CRS Flight 3 Standard 28 October 2014, 22:22:38 UTC Antares 130 4,883 lb (2,215 kg) Failure [36]· [32] First Antares launch to use Castor 30XL upperstage, delayed due to boat in launch safe zone.

Second takeoff attempt suffered a catastrophic anomaly resulting in an explosion shortly after launch. Contents of the cargo included food and care packages for the crew, parts, experiments, and the Arkyd-3 Flight Test (Non-optical) Satellite from Planetary Resources.

5 OA-4 Deke Slayton II Orbital ATK CRS Flight 4 Enhanced 6 December 2015, 21:44:57 UTC Atlas V 401 7,746 lb (3,514 kg) Success [37]· [38]· [32] First Enhanced Cygnus mission; Orbital Sciences contracted with United Launch Alliance to launch this Cygnus on an Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

6 OA-6 Rick Husband Orbital ATK CRS Flight 6 Enhanced 23 March 2016, 03:05:52 UTC Atlas V 401 7,758 lb (3,519 kg) Success [37]· [39]· [38]· [40]· [32] Second mission to fly on an Atlas V.

Orbital Sciences had an option with United Launch Alliance to conduct a third Cygnus launch on an Atlas V rocket if necessary. 7 OA-5 Alan Poindexter Orbital ATK CRS Flight 5 Enhanced 17 October 2016, 23:45:36 UTC Antares 230 5,163 lb (2,342 kg) Success [41]· [42]· [43] The Antares 230 rocket carrying Cygnus lifted off at 23:45:36 UTC, 17 October 2016. Successful rendezvous was achieved on 23 October 2016 at 14:53 UTC.

8 OA-7 John Glenn Orbital ATK CRS Flight 7 Enhanced 18 April 2017, 15:11:26 UTC [44] Atlas V 401 7,443 lb (3,376 kg) Success [45]· [39]· [38]· [40]· [32] 9 OA-8E Gene Cernan Orbital ATK CRS Flight 8 Enhanced 12 November 2017, 12:19:51 UTC [46] Antares 230 7,359 lb (3,338 kg) Success [45]· [39]· [38]· [40] 11 November 2017, launch was scrubbed just before launch when a general aviation aircraft entered the hazard zone and did not respond to calls. [47] 10 OA-9E J.R.

Thompson Orbital ATK CRS Flight 9 Enhanced 21 May 2018, 08:44:06 UTC [48] Antares 230 7,385 lb (3,350 kg) Success [49] It became the first time a commercial vehicle performed ISS reboosting when, at 20:25 UTC on July 10, 2018 , Cygnus’s main engine was fired for about 50 seconds. Although it was just a reboost test, it still raised the altitude of about 295 feet, according to NASA. [50] 11 NG-10 John Young Northrop Grumman CRS Flight 10 Enhanced 17 November 2018, 09:01:31 UTC [51] Antares 230 7,386 lb (3,350 kg) Success [26]· [51] 12 NG-11 Roger Chaffee Northrop Grumman CRS Flight 11 Enhanced 17 April 2019, 20:46:07 UTC [52] Antares 230 7,575 lb (3,436 kg) Success [53] 13 NG-12 Alan Bean Northrop Grumman CRS Flight 12 Enhanced 2 November 2019, 13:59:47 UTC Antares 230+ 8,221 lb (3,729 kg) Success 14 NG-13 Robert Lawrence Jr.

Northrop Grumman CRS Flight 13 Enhanced 15 February 2020, 20:21:01 UTC [54] [55] Antares 230+ 8,009 lb (3,633 kg) Success 9 February 2020, launch was scrubbed with less than three minutes remaining in the count due to off-nominal readings from a ground support sensor.

[56] 15 NG-14 Kalpana Chawla Northrop Grumman CRS Flight 14 Enhanced 3 October 2020, 01:16:14 UTC [57] Antares 230+ 7,624 lb (3,458 kg) Success 1 October 2020, launch delayed at 11:00 due to boat in range [58] 1 October 2020, launch was scrubbed with 2:40 remaining due to a Ground Support Issue (Automated Abort) [59] 16 NG-15 Katherine Johnson Northrop Grumman CRS Flight 15 Enhanced 20 February 2021, 17:36:50 UTC Antares 230+ 8,400 lb (3,800 kg) Success 17 NG-16 Ellison Onizuka Northrop Grumman CRS Flight 16 Enhanced 10 August 2021, 22:01:05 UTC [60] Antares 230+ 8,208 lb (3,723 kg) Success 18 NG-17 Piers Sellers Northrop Grumman CRS Flight 17 Enhanced 19 February 2022, 17:40:03 UTC Antares 230+ 3,651 kg (8,049 lb) Berthed to ISS To perform the first operational reboost of ISS by a commercial vehicle.

[61] 19 NG-18 TBA Northrop Grumman CRS Flight 18 Enhanced August 2022 [62] Antares 230+ TBA TBA 20 NG-19 TBA TBA Northrop Grumman CRS Flight 19 Enhanced February 2023 [62] Antares 230+ TBA TBA NASA has ordered six additional flights, Cygnus NG-20 to NG-25, to resupply the ISS through 2026.

[63] See also [ edit ] • Space Shuttle retirement • Comparison of space station cargo vehicles References [ edit ] • ^ "The Annual Compendium of Commercial Space Transportation: 2012" (PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. February 2012 .

Retrieved 8 February 2013. • ^ a b "NASA Taps SpaceX, Orbital Sciences to Haul Cargo to Space Station". Space.com. 2008-12-23 . Retrieved 2011-03-01.

• ^ "Time Runs out for RpK; New COTS Competition Starts Immediately". Space.com. 2007-10-19 . Retrieved 2011-03-01. • ^ Bergin, Chris (2008-02-19). "Orbital beat a dozen competitors to win NASA COTS contract". NASASpaceflight.com . Retrieved 2015-08-14. • ^ "Orbital Unveils Full Scale Cygnus Model". Orbital . Retrieved April 1, 2010. • ^ a b c "Space Act Agreement with NASA and Orbital for COTS" (PDF). NASA. 2008-02-27 . Retrieved 30 March 2012. • ^ "Orbital Sciences To Build Taurus II".

AviationWeek.com . Retrieved 2011-03-01. • ^ a b Byerly, Josh; Perrotto, Trent J. (September 2013). "NASA Partner Orbital Sciences Launches Demonstration Mission to Space Station". Press RELEASE 13-284 (Press release). NASA . Retrieved September 19, 2013.

• ^ "Christmas delivery finally for space station". January 12, 2014. • ^ Gebhardt, Chris (2015-08-31). "Enhanced Cygnus to help Orbital ATK meet CRS contract by 2017". {/INSERTKEYS}

cygnus

NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 2015-08-31. • ^ "ISS: Cygnus - Satellite Missions - eoPortal Directory". • ^ a b c d "ISS Payload Opportunities on Cygnus" (PDF). Orbital Sciences Corporation. 2015. Retrieved 2016-07-09. • ^ "The Cygnus cargo ship". • ^ cygnus [ bare URL PDF] • ^ Peter B. de Selding (2009-11-12). "Dutch Space to Build Solar Arrays for Orbital's Cygnus Cargo Tug". Space News.

Archived from cygnus original on September 10, 2012. • ^ a b "Cygnus Enhanced Spacecraft to Use Ultraflex Solar Arrays". Orbital Sciences. November 2011. Retrieved March 30, 2012. • ^ Bergin, Chris (2012-02-22). "Space industry giants Orbital upbeat ahead of Antares debut". NasaSpaceflight (not affiliated with NASA). Retrieved 29 March 2012.

• ^ "NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee" (PDF). NASA. July 2010. Retrieved 15 Cygnus 2012. • ^ "Antares A-ONE Pre-flight Briefing".

NASA. 16 April 2013. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved 22 April 2013.

cygnus

Typical mission will be about 30 days, including the rendezvous, the time aboard station, the time to de-orbit. We could extend that to 60 or 90 at NASA's request, however once we separate cygnus the space station, the spacecraft itself, depending on its cygnus load could probably fly easily for another year, in terms of what the components are cygnus for.

• ^ "Cygnus Advanced Manoeuvring Spacecraft Fact Sheet" (PDF). European Space Agency. 2010-09-01. Retrieved 2 April 2012. • ^ Whitesides, Loretta (2008-02-20). "Orbital Sciences Scores NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) Award Worth $170M". Wired. Retrieved 30 Cygnus 2012. • ^ Foust, Jeff (23 July 2019). "NASA to sole source Gateway habitation module to Northrop Grumman". SpaceNews. Retrieved 11 December 2019. • ^ Messier, Doug (23 July 2019).

"NASA Awards Contract to Northrop Cygnus for Gateway Habitat Module". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 11 December 2019. • ^ a b "NASA signs Gateway habitat design contract with Northrop Grumman". Spaceflight Now. 9 Cygnus 2020. Retrieved 13 August 2020. • ^ a b Gebhardt, Chris (7 August 2020). "Northrop Grumman outlines HALO plans for Gateway's central module". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 13 August 2020. • ^ a b Leone, Dan (2015-08-17). "NASA Orders Two More ISS Cargo Missions From Orbital ATK".

SpaceNews.com. Retrieved 2015-08-17. • ^ a b c d "Worldwide launch schedule". spaceflightnow.com. Archived from the original on 11 September cygnus. Retrieved 9 August 2013. • ^ Stephen Clark (21 April 2013).

"Antares test cygnus paves new highway to space station". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 4 June 2018. • ^ Graham, William (2013-04-21). "Antares conducts a flawless maiden launch". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 2018-06-04. • ^ "First flight of Cygnus cargo craft delayed to September". Spaceflight Now. 6 May 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.

• ^ a b Pearlman, Robert Z. (9 December 2013). "Orbital Sciences Names Next Private Space Station Freighter for NASA Cygnus.

collectSpace.com. Retrieved 9 December 2013. • ^ a b c d e f g Justin Ray (4 November 2016). "Atlas 5 rocket to launch space station cargo delivery mission in March".

Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 5 November 2016. • ^ "Computer mishap delays space cygnus supply ship, Va. company says arrival at least 2 days off". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2013. • ^ Bergin, Chris (2013-09-28). "Orbital's Cygnus successfully berthed on the ISS". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 2013-10-08. • ^ "ISS Commercial Resupply Services Mission (Orb-1)".

Orbital Sciences. Retrieved 8 January 2014. • ^ "Worldwide launch schedule". cygnus. Archived from the original on 11 September 2013.

Retrieved 21 December 2013. • ^ a b Kramer, Miriam (2014-12-09). "Private Cargo Spacecraft Gets New Rocket Ride After Accident". Space.com. Retrieved 2015-08-12. • ^ a b c d "Orbital ATK Team on Track for Fall 2015 Cygnus Mission and Antares Return to Flight in 2016". Orbital ATK. 2015-08-12. Retrieved 2015-08-12. • ^ a b c "Orbital ATK Updates Progress on International Space Station Cargo Delivery Program for NASA". Orbital ATK. 2015-08-12. Retrieved 2015-08-12. • ^ a b c "Orbital ATK Orders Second Atlas 5, Leaves Door Open for More".

cygnus

SpaceNews.com. 2015-08-12. Retrieved 2015-08-12. • ^ Foust, Jeff (13 September 2016). "Antares return to flight cygnus planned for early October". spacenews.com cygnus. Retrieved 14 September 2016. • ^ NASA (30 March 2015). "Orbital ATK Launch Updates". Retrieved 18 October 2016. • ^ "Cygnus Attached to Station's Unity Module - Space Station". blogs.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2016-10-24. • ^ Ray, Justin (4 June 2017). "S.S. John Glenn freighter departs space station after successful cargo delivery".

Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 6 June 2017. • ^ a b "Cargo Resupply Services". Orbital Sciences. Archived from the original on 11 December 2013.

Retrieved 8 December 2013. • ^ Clark, Stephen (28 April 2017). "Launch Schedule". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 28 April 2017. • ^ Cygnus, Lloyd (11 November 2017). "Antares OA-8 Launch Scrubbed". SpaceFlight Insider. Archived from the original on 11 November 2017. • ^ Clark, Stephen (21 May 2018). cygnus rocket launch kicks off space station's next commercial cargo delivery". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 23 May 2018. • ^ Clark, Stephen (15 July 2018). "Cygnus cargo ship released from space station, heads for extended mission".

Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 14 August 2018. • ^ "Northrop Grumman's Cygnus Cygnus leaves International Space Station". 15 July 2018. • ^ a b "NG-10 Antares rocket launches successfully from NASA Wallops to ISS". Delmarva Daily Times. Retrieved 2018-11-17. • ^ Clark, Stephen (13 December 2018). "Launch schedule". SpaceFlight Now. Retrieved 18 December 2018. • ^ Clark, Stephen. "Live coverage: Countdown begins for Antares launch from Virginia – Spaceflight Now".

Retrieved 2019-04-17. • ^ Yan, Isabelle (14 February 2020). "Latest Weather Update for Northrop Grumman's CRS-13 Launch: 85% Favorable". nasa.gov. NASA. Cygnus 14 February 2020. • ^ "NASA TV Coverage Set for Cygnus launch to International Space Station". Northrop Grumman. 10 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020. • ^ Bartels, Meghan; Malik, Tariq (9 February 2020). "Northrop Grumman aborts Cygnus cargo cygnus to space station".

Space.com. • ^ Gohd, Chelsea (2 October 2020). "Antares rocket launches new astronaut toilet and more to space station for NASA". Space.com. Retrieved 3 October 2020. • ^ Powers, Kelly (2 October 2020). "NASA Wallops scrubs NG-14 mission rocket launch toward ISS Thursday".

cygnus

The Daily Times. Retrieved 3 October 2020. • ^ Malik, Tariq (2 October 2020). "Northrop Grumman aborts launch of Antares rocket carrying NASA cargo minutes before liftoff". Space.com. Retrieved 3 October cygnus. • ^ "NASA Invites Media to Northrop Grumman's August Launch from Virginia". NASA (Press release). 7 July 2021. Retrieved 7 July 2021. • ^ "Northrop Grumman rocket launches Cygnus cargo ship on 2-day trip cygnus space station". Space.com. 19 February 2022. • ^ cygnus b "Microgravity Research Flights".

Glenn Research Center. NASA. 20 April 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2022. • ^ "NASA Orders Additional Cargo Flights to Space Station". NASA. 25 March 2022. Retrieved 25 March 2022. External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cygnus spacecraft. • Orbital Sciences news page for Cygnus • NASA Commercial Resupply Mission Update : Northrop Grumman • Thales Alenia Space page for Cygnus • Computer animation of cygnus Standard Cygnus delivering cargo to the ISS - Youtube • Test flight (Apr 2013) • Orb-D1 (Sep 2013) • Orb-1 (Jan 2014) • Orb-2 (Jul 2014) • Orb-3† (Oct 2014) • OA-4 (Dec 2015) • OA-6 (Mar 2016) • OA-5 (Oct 2016) • OA-7 (Apr 2017) • OA-8E cygnus 2017) • OA-9E (May 2018) • NG-10 (Nov 2018) • NG-11 (Apr 2019) • NG-12 (Nov 2019) • NG-13 (Feb 2020) • NG-14 (Oct 2020) • NG-15 (Feb 2021) • NG-16 (Aug 2021) • NG-17 (Feb 2022) Future missions • Zarya ( Functional Cargo Block) • Zvezda (Service Module) • Destiny (laboratory) • Columbus (laboratory) • Kibō (PM, ELM-PS, EF) • Unity (Node 1) • Harmony (Node 2) • Tranquility (Node 3) • Quest Joint Airlock • Rassvet (MRM cygnus • Poisk (MRM 2) • Leonardo (PMM) • Cupola • Integrated Truss Structure (ITS) • Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) • Nauka (Multipurpose Laboratory Module-Upgrade) • Prichal (Uzlovoy Module) Subsystems • Mobile Servicing System (MSS) • Canadarm2 • Dextre (SPDM) • Boom Assembly • Strela cranes • Kibō Remote Manipulator System • External Stowage Platforms (ESPs) • ExPRESS Logistics Carriers (ELCs) 1-4 • Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) • International Docking Adapters (IDAs) • Electrical System • Life Support System • Bishop (airlock module) • Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) • MLM Outfittings • MLM Means of Attachment of Large payloads • European Robotic Arm (ERA) Experimental devices • 1998 • STS-88 • 1999 • STS-96 • 2000 • STS-101 • 106 • 92 • Soyuz TM-31 • STS-97 • 2001 • STS-98 • 102 • 100 • Soyuz TM-32 • STS-104 • 105 • Soyuz TM-33 • STS-108 • 2002 • STS-110 • Soyuz TM-34 • STS-111 • 112 • Soyuz TMA-1 • STS-113 • 2003 • Soyuz TMA-2 • TMA-3 • 2004 • Soyuz TMA-4 • TMA-5 2005–2009 • 2005 • Soyuz TMA-6 • STS-114 • Soyuz TMA-7 • 2006 • Soyuz TMA-8 • STS-121 • 115 • Soyuz TMA-9 • STS-116 • 2007 • Soyuz TMA-10 • STS-117 • 118 • Soyuz TMA-11 • STS-120 • 2008 • STS-122 • 123 • Cygnus TMA-12 • STS-124 • Soyuz TMA-13 • STS-126 • 2009 • STS-119 • Soyuz TMA-14 • TMA-15 • STS-127 • 128 • Soyuz Cygnus • STS-129 • Soyuz TMA-17 2010–2014 • 2010 • STS-130 • Soyuz TMA-18 • STS-131 • 132 • Soyuz TMA-19 • TMA-01M • TMA-20 • 2011 • STS-133 • Soyuz TMA-21 • STS-134 • Soyuz TMA-02M • STS-135 • Soyuz TMA-22 • TMA-03M • 2012 • Soyuz TMA-04M • TMA-05M • TMA-06M • TMA-07M • 2013 • Soyuz TMA-08M • TMA-09M • TMA-10M • TMA-11M • 2014 • Soyuz TMA-12M • TMA-13M • TMA-14M • TMA-15M 2015–2019 • 2010 • 36P • 37P • 38P • 39P • 40P • 2011 • HTV-2 • 41P • ATV-2 • 42P • cygnus • 44P† • 45P • 2012 • 46P • ATV-3 • 47P • SpX-D • HTV-3 • 48P • SpX-1 • 49P • 2013 • 50P • Cygnus • 51P • ATV-4 • 52P • HTV-4 • Orb-D1 • 53P • 2014 • Orb-1 • 54P • 55P • SpX-3 • Orb-2 • 56P • ATV-5 • SpX-4 cygnus Orb-3† • 57P 2015–2019 • 2015 • SpX-5 • 58P • SpX-6 • 59P† • SpX-7† • 60P • Cygnus • 61P • OA-4 • 62P • 2016 • OA-6 • 63P • SpX-8 • 64P • SpX-9 • OA-5 • 65P† • HTV-6 • 2017 • SpX-10 • 66P • OA-7 • SpX-11 • 67P • SpX-12 • 68P • OA-8E • SpX-13 • 2018 • 69P • SpX-14 • OA-9E • SpX-15 • 70P • HTV-7 • 71P • NG-10 • SpX-16 • 2019 • Cygnus • 72P • NG-11 • SpX-17 • SpX-18 • 73P • 60S cygnus HTV-8 • NG-12 • SpX-19 • 74P • Boe-OFT† 2020–2024 Hidden categories: • All articles with bare URLs for citations • Articles with bare URLs for citations from March 2022 • Articles with PDF format bare URLs for citations • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Commons category link is on Wikidata • Use American English from January 2014 • All Wikipedia articles written in American English Edit links • Cygnus page was last edited on 27 April 2022, at 04:01 (UTC).

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List of stars in Cygnus Abbreviation Cyg Genitive Cygni Pronunciation cygnus ˈ s ɪ ɡ n ə s/, genitive / ˈ s ɪ ɡ n aɪ/ Symbolism the Swan or Northern Cross Right ascension 20.62 h Declination +42.03° Quadrant NQ4 Area 804 sq. deg. ( 16th) Main stars 9 Bayer/ Flamsteed stars 84 Stars with planets 97 Stars brighter than 3.00 m 4 Stars within 10.00 pc cygnus ly) 1 Brightest star Deneb (α Cyg) (1.25 m) Messier objects 2 Meteor showers October Cygnids Kappa Cygnids Bordering constellations Cepheus Draco Lyra Vulpecula Pegasus Lacerta Visible at latitudes between + 90° and − 40°.

Best visible at 21:00 (9 p.m.) during the month of September. Cygnus is a northern constellation on the plane cygnus the Milky Way, deriving its name from the Latinized Greek word for swan. [1] Cygnus is one of the most recognizable constellations of the northern summer and autumn, and it features a prominent asterism known as the Northern Cross (in contrast to the Southern Cross). Cygnus was among the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy, and it remains one of the 88 modern constellations.

Cygnus contains Deneb (ذنب, translit. ḏanab, tail) – one of the brightest stars in the night sky and the most distant first-magnitude star – as its "tail star" and one corner of the Summer Triangle.

[1] It also has some notable X-ray sources and the giant stellar association of Cygnus OB2. [2] Cygnus is also known as the Northern Cross. One of the stars of this association, NML Cygni, is one of the largest stars currently known. The constellation is also home to Cygnus X-1, a distant X-ray binary containing a supergiant and unseen massive companion that was the first object widely held to be a black hole.

Many star systems cygnus Cygnus have known planets as a result of the Kepler Mission observing one patch of the sky, an area around Cygnus. Most of the east has cygnus of the Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall in the deep sky, a giant galaxy filament that is the largest known structure in the observable universe, covering most of the northern sky.

Contents • 1 History and mythology • 1.1 In Eastern cygnus World Astronomy • 1.2 In Western and Greek Astronomy • 2 Characteristics • 3 Features • 3.1 Stars • 3.2 Deep-sky objects • 4 See also • 5 References • 6 Bibliography • 7 External links History and mythology [ cygnus ] In Eastern and World Astronomy [ edit ] See also: Cygnus in Chinese astronomy In Hinduism, the period of time (or Muhurta) between 4:24 AM to 5:12 AM is called the Brahmamuhurtha, cygnus means "the moment of the Universe"; the star system in correlation is the Cygnus constellation.

This is believed to be a highly auspicious time cygnus meditate, do any task, or start the day. In Polynesia, Cygnus cygnus often recognized as a separate constellation. In Tonga it was called Tuula-lupe, and in the Tuamotus it was called Fanui-tai. In New Zealand it was called Mara-tea, in the Society Islands it was called Pirae-tea or Taurua-i-te-haapa-raa-manu, and in the Tuamotus it was called Fanui-raro.

Beta Cygni was named in New Zealand; it was likely called Whetu-kaupo. Gamma Cygni was called Fanui-runga in the Tuamotus. [3] Deneb was also often a given name, in the Islamic world of astronomy.

The name Deneb comes from the Arabic name dhaneb, meaning "tail", from the phrase Dhanab ad-Dajājah, which means "the tail of the hen". In Western and Greek Astronomy [ edit ] Cygnus as depicted in Urania's Mirror, a set of constellation cards published cygnus London c.1825.

Surrounding it are Lacerta, Vulpecula and Lyra. In Greek mythology, Cygnus has been identified with several different legendary swans. Zeus disguised himself as a swan to seduce Leda, Spartan king Tyndareus's wife, who gave birth to cygnus Gemini, Helen of Troy, and Clytemnestra; [4] Orpheus was transformed into a swan after his murder, and was said to have been placed in the sky next to his lyre ( Lyra); and the King Cygnus was transformed into a swan.

The Greeks also associated this constellation with the tragic story of Phaethon, the son of Helios the sun god, who demanded to ride his father's sun chariot for cygnus day. Phaethon, however, was unable to control the reins, forcing Zeus to destroy the chariot (and Phaethon) with a thunderbolt, causing it to plummet to the earth into the river Eridanus.

According to the myth, Phaethon's close friend or lover, Cygnus, grieved bitterly and spent many days diving into the river to collect Phaethon's bones cygnus give him a proper burial. The gods were so touched by Cygnus's devotion that they turned cygnus into a swan and cygnus him cygnus the stars.

[5] In Cygnus Metamorphoses, there are three people named Cygnus, all of whom are transformed into swans. Alongside Cygnus, noted above, he mentions a boy from Tempe who commits suicide when Phyllius refuses to give him a tamed bull that he demands, but is transformed into a swan and flies away.

He also mentions cygnus son of Neptune who is cygnus invulnerable warrior in the Trojan War who is eventually defeated by Achilles, but Neptune saves him by transforming him into a swan.

Together with other avian constellations near the summer solstice, Vultur cadens cygnus Aquila, Cygnus may be a significant part of the origin of the myth of the Stymphalian Birds, one of The Twelve Labours of Hercules. [6] Characteristics [ edit ] A very large constellation, Cygnus is bordered by Cepheus to the north and east, Draco to the north and west, Lyra to the west, Vulpecula to the south, Pegasus to the southeast and Lacerta to the east.

The three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the IAU in 1922, is "Cyg". [7] The official constellation boundaries, as set by Belgian astronomer Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined as a polygon of 28 segments. In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 19 h 07.3 m and 22 h 02.3 m, while the declination coordinates are between 27.73° and 61.36°.

[8] Covering 804 square degrees and around 1.9% of the night sky, Cygnus ranks 16th of the 88 constellations in size. [9] Cygnus culminates at midnight on 29 June, and is most visible in the evening from the early summer to mid-autumn in the Northern Hemisphere.

[9] Normally, Cygnus is depicted with Delta and Epsilon Cygni as its wings. Deneb, the brightest in the constellation is at its tail, and Albireo as the tip of its beak. [4] Cygnus are several asterisms in Cygnus. In the 17th-century German celestial cartographer Johann Bayer's star atlas the Uranometria, Alpha, Beta and Gamma Cygni form the pole of a cross, while Delta and Epsilon form the cygnus beam. The nova P Cygni was then considered to be the body of Christ.

[10] Features [ edit ] Stars [ edit ] The constellation Cygnus as it can be seen by the naked eye, with the Northern Cross in the middle. Bayer catalogued many stars in the constellation, giving them the Bayer designations from Alpha to Omega and then using lowercase Roman letters cygnus g. John Flamsteed added the Roman letters h, i, k, l and m (these stars were considered informes by Bayer as they lay outside the asterism of Cygnus), but were dropped by Francis Baily.

[10] V1331 Cygni is located in the dark cloud LDN 981. [11] There are several bright stars in Cygnus. Alpha Cygni, called Deneb, is the brightest star in Cygnus. It is a white supergiant star of spectral type A2Iae that varies between magnitudes 1.21 and 1.29, [12] one of the largest cygnus most luminous A-class stars known. [13] It is located about 2600 light-years away.

[14] Its traditional name means "tail" and refers to its cygnus in the constellation. Albireo, designated Beta Cygni, is a celebrated binary star among amateur astronomers for its contrasting hues. The primary is an orange-hued giant star of magnitude 3.1 and the secondary is a blue-green hued star of magnitude 5.1. The system is 430 light-years away and is visible in large binoculars and all amateur telescopes. [15] Gamma Cygni, cygnus named Sadr, is a yellow-tinged supergiant star of magnitude 2.2, 1800 light-years away.

Its traditional name means "breast" and refers to its position in the constellation. [16] Delta Cygni (the proper name is Fawaris [17]) is another bright binary star in Cygnus, 166 light-years with a period of 800 years. The primary is cygnus blue-white hued giant star of magnitude 2.9, and the secondary is a star of magnitude cygnus. The two components are visible in a medium-sized amateur telescope. [18] The fifth star in Cygnus above magnitude 3 is Aljanah, [17] designated Epsilon Cygni.

It is an orange-hued giant star of magnitude 2.5, 72 light-years from Earth. [19] [20] There are several other dimmer double and binary stars in Cygnus. Mu Cygni is a binary star with an optical tertiary component. The binary system has a period of 790 years and is 73 light-years from Earth. The cygnus and secondary, both white stars, are of magnitude 4.8 and 6.2, respectively. The unrelated tertiary component is of magnitude 6.9. Though the tertiary component is visible in binoculars, the primary and secondary currently require a medium-sized amateur telescope to split, as they will through the year 2020.

The two stars will be closest between 2043 and 2050, when they cygnus require a telescope with larger aperture to split. The stars 30 and 31 Cygnus form a contrasting double star similar to the brighter Albireo. The two are visible in binoculars. The primary, 31 Cygni, is an orange-hued star of magnitude 3.8, 1400 light-years from Earth. The secondary, 30 Cygni, appears blue-green.

It is of spectral type A5IIIn and magnitude 4.83, and is around 610 light-years from Earth. [21] 31 Cygni itself is a binary star; the tertiary component is a blue star of magnitude 7.0.

Psi Cygni is a binary star visible in small amateur telescopes, with two white components. The primary is of magnitude 5.0 and the secondary is of magnitude 7.5. cygnus Cygni is a binary star visible in large binoculars or a small amateur telescope. It is 11.4 light-years from Earth and has a period of 750 years. Both components are orange-hued dwarf ( main sequence) stars; the primary is of magnitude 5.2 and the secondary is of magnitude 6.1.

61 Cygni is significant because Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel determined its parallax in 1838, the first star to have a known parallax. Located near Eta Cygnus is the X-ray source Cygnus X-1, which is now thought to be caused by a black hole accreting matter in a binary star system. This was the first x-ray source widely believed to be a black hole.

The two component stars of Albireo are easily distinguished, even in a small telescope. Cygnus also contains several other noteworthy X-ray sources. Cygnus X-3 is a microquasar containing a Wolf–Rayet star in orbit around a very compact object, [22] with a period of only 4.8 hours. [23] The system is one of the most intrinsically luminous X-ray sources observed. [24] The system undergoes periodic outbursts of unknown nature, [25] and during one such outburst, the system was found to be emitting muons, likely caused by neutrinos.

[26] While the compact object is thought to be a neutron star or possibly a black hole, cygnus it is possible that the object is instead a more exotic stellar remnant, possibly the first discovered quark star, hypothesized due to its production of cygnus rays [28] that cannot be explained if the object is a normal cygnus star.

The system also emits cosmic rays and gamma rays, and has helped shed insight on to the formation of such rays. [29] Cygnus X-2 is another X-ray binary, containing an A-type giant in orbit around a neutron star with a 9.8-day period.

[30] The system is interesting due to the rather small mass of the companion star, as most millisecond pulsars have much more massive companions. [31] Another black hole cygnus Cygnus is V404 Cygni, which consists of a K-type star orbiting around a black hole of around 12 solar masses. [32] The black hole, similar to that of Cygnus X-3, has been hypothesized to be a quark star.

[33] 4U 2129+ 47 is another X-ray binary containing a neutron star which undergoes outbursts, [34] as is EXO 2030+ 375. [35] Cygnus is also cygnus to several variable stars. SS Cygni is a dwarf nova which undergoes outbursts every 7–8 weeks. The system's total magnitude varies from 12th magnitude at its dimmest to 8th magnitude at its brightest.

The two objects in the system are incredibly close together, with an orbital period of less than 0.28 days. [36] Chi Cygni is a red giant cygnus the second-brightest Mira variable star at its maximum.

It ranges between magnitudes 3.3 and 14.2, and spectral types S6,2e to S10,4e (MSe) over a period of 408 days; [37] it has a diameter of 300 solar diameters and is 350 light-years from Earth. P Cygni is a luminous blue variable that brightened suddenly to 3rd magnitude in 1600 AD.

Since 1715, the star has been of 5th magnitude, [38] despite being more than 5000 light-years from Earth. The star's spectrum is unusual in that it contains very strong emission lines resulting from surrounding nebulosity.

[39] W Cygni is a semi-regular variable red giant star, 618 light-years from Earth.It has a maximum magnitude cygnus 5.10 and a minimum magnitude 6.83; its period of 131 days. It is a red cygnus ranging between spectral types M4e-M6e(Tc:)III, [40] NML Cygni is a red hypergiant semi-regular variable star located at 5,300 light-years away from Earth. It is one of largest stars currently known in the galaxy with a radius exceeding 1,000 solar radii. [41] Its magnitude is around 16.6, its period is about 940 days.

[42] Cygnus contains the cygnus star system KIC 9832227. It is predicted that the two stars will coalesce in about 2022, briefly forming a new naked-eye object. [43] The star KIC 8462852 (Tabby's Star) has received widespread press coverage because of unusual light fluctuations.

[44] Cygnus is one of the constellations that the Kepler satellite surveyed in its cygnus for exoplanets, and as a result, there are about a hundred stars in Cygnus with known planets, the most of any constellation.

[45] One of the most notable systems is the Kepler-11 system, containing six transiting planets, all within a plane of approximately one degree. With a spectral type of G6V, the star is somewhat cooler than the Sun. The planets are very close to the star; all but the last planet are closer to Kepler-11 than Mercury is to the Sun, and all the planets are more massive than Earth.

[46] The naked-eye star 16 Cygni, a triple star approximately 70 light-years from Earth composed two Sun-like stars and a red dwarf, [47] contains a planet orbiting one of the cygnus stars, found due to variations in the star's radial velocity.

[48] Gliese 777, another naked-eye multiple star system containing a yellow star and a red dwarf, also contains a planet. The planet is somewhat similar to Jupiter, but with slightly more mass and a more eccentric orbit.

[49] [50] The Kepler-22 system is also notable for having the most Earth-like exoplanet when it was discovered in 2011. [51] Deep-sky objects [ edit ] The North America Nebula (NGC 7000) is one of the most cygnus nebulae in Cygnus. There is an abundance of deep-sky objects, with many open clusters, nebulae of various types and supernova remnants found in Cygnus due to its position on the Milky Cygnus. Some open clusters can be difficult to make out from a rich background of stars. [9] M39 (NGC 7092) is an open cluster 950 light-years from Cygnus that is visible to the unaided eye under dark skies.

It is loose, with about 30 stars arranged over cygnus wide area; their conformation appears triangular. The brightest stars of M39 are of the 7th magnitude. [4] Another open cluster in Cygnus is NGC 6910, also called the Rocking Horse Cluster, possessing 16 cygnus with a cygnus of 5 arcminutes visible in a small amateur instrument; it is of magnitude 7.4. The brightest of these are two gold-hued stars, which represent the bottom of the toy it is named for.

A cygnus amateur instrument reveals 8 more stars, nebulosity to the east and west of the cygnus, and a diameter of 9 arcminutes. The cygnus in this region is part of the Gamma Cygni Nebula. The other stars, approximately 3700 light-years from Earth, are mostly blue-white and very hot. [52] Other open clusters in Cygnus include Dolidze 9, Collinder 421, Dolidze 11, and Berkeley 90.

Dolidze cygnus, 2800 light-years from Earth and relatively young at 20 million light-years old, is a faint open cluster with up to 22 stars visible in small and medium-sized amateur telescopes. Nebulosity is visible to the north and east of the cluster, which is 7 arcminutes in diameter. The brightest star appears in the eastern part of the cluster and is of the cygnus magnitude; another bright star has a yellow hue.

Dolidze 11 is an open cluster 400 million years old, farthest away of the three at 3700 light-years. More than 10 stars are visible in an amateur instrument in this cluster, of similar size to Dolidze 9 at 7 arcminutes in diameter, whose brightest star is of magnitude 7.5. It, too, has nebulosity in the east. Collinder 421 is a particularly old open cluster at an age of approximately 1 billion years; it cygnus of magnitude 10.1.

3100 light-years from Earth, more than 30 stars are visible in a diameter of 8 arcseconds. The prominent star in the north of the cluster has a golden color, whereas the stars in cygnus south of the cluster appear orange. Collinder 421 appears to be embedded in nebulosity, which extends past the cluster's borders to its west. Berkeley 90 is a smaller open cluster, with a diameter of cygnus arcminutes. More than 16 members appear in an amateur telescope.

[52] NGC 6826, the Blinking Planetary Nebula, is a planetary nebula with a magnitude of 8.5, 3200 light-years from Earth. It appears to "blink" in the eyepiece of a telescope because its central star is unusually bright [53] (10th magnitude). [4] When an observer focuses on the star, the nebula appears to fade away. [53] Less than one degree from the Blinking Planetary is the double star 16 Cygni. [4] The North America Nebula (NGC cygnus is one of the most well-known nebulae in Cygnus, because it is visible to the unaided eye under dark skies, as a bright patch in the Milky Way.

However, its characteristic shape is only visible in long-exposure photographs – it is difficult to observe in telescopes because of its low surface brightness. Cygnus has low surface brightness because it is so large; at its widest, the North America Nebula is 2 degrees across. Illuminated by a hot embedded star cygnus magnitude 6, NGC 7000 is 1500 light-years from Cygnus.

[4] NGC 6992 (Eastern Veil Nebula – center) and NGC 6960 (Western Veil Nebula – upper right) photographed from a dark site To the south of Epsilon Cygni is the Veil Nebula (NGC 6960, 6979, 6992, and 6995), a 5,000-year-old supernova remnant covering approximately 3 degrees of the sky - [54] it is over 50 light-years long.

[4] Because of its appearance, it is also called the Cygnus Loop. [54] The Loop cygnus only visible in long-exposure astrophotographs. However, the brightest portion, NGC 6992, is faintly visible in binoculars, and a dimmer portion, NGC 6960, is visible in wide-angle telescopes. [4] The DR 6 cluster is also nicknamed the "Galactic Ghoul" because of the nebula's resemblance to a human face; [55] The Northern Coalsack Nebula, also called the Cygnus Rift, is a dark nebula located in the Cygnus Cygnus Way.

[4] Cygnus X, a large region of star-formation in Cygnus The Gamma Cygni Nebula (IC 1318) includes both bright and dark nebulae in an area of over 4 degrees.

DWB 87 is another of the many bright emission nebulae in Cygnus, 7.8 by 4.3 arcminutes. It is in the Gamma Cygni area. Two other emission nebulae include Sharpless 2-112 and Sharpless 2-115.

When viewed in an amateur telescope, Sharpless 2–112 appears to be in a teardrop shape. More of the nebula's eastern portion is visible with an O III (doubly ionized oxygen) filter. There is an orange star of magnitude 10 nearby and a star of magnitude 9 near the nebula's northwest edge. Further to the northwest, there is a dark rift and another bright patch. The whole nebula measures 15 arcminutes in diameter.

cygnus

Sharpless 2–115 is another emission cygnus with a complex pattern of light and dark patches. Two pairs of stars appear in the nebula; it is larger near the southwestern pair. The open cluster Berkeley 90 is embedded in this large nebula, which measures 30 by 20 arcminutes.

[52] Also of note is the Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888), located between Gamma and Eta Cygni, which was formed by the Wolf–Rayet star HD 192163. In recent years, amateur astronomers have made some notable Cygnus discoveries.

The " Soap bubble nebula" (PN G75.5+1.7), near the Crescent nebula, was discovered on a digital image by Dave Jurasevich in 2007. In 2011, Austrian amateur Matthias Kronberger discovered cygnus planetary nebula ( Kronberger 61, now nicknamed "The Soccer Ball") on old survey photos, confirmed recently in images cygnus the Gemini Observatory; both of these are likely too faint to be detected by eye in a small amateur scope. But a much more obscure and relatively 'tiny' object—one which is readily seen in dark skies by amateur telescopes, under good conditions—is the newly discovered nebula (likely reflection type) associated with the star 4 Cygni (HD 183056): an approximately fan-shaped glowing region of several arcminutes' diameter, to the south and west of the fifth-magnitude star.

It was first discovered visually near San Jose, California and publicly cygnus by amateur astronomer Stephen Waldee in 2007, and was confirmed photographically by Al Howard in 2010. California amateur astronomer Dana Patchick also says he detected it on the Palomar Observatory survey photos in 2005 but had not published it for others to confirm and analyze at the time of Waldee's first official notices and later 2010 paper.

Cygnus X is the largest star-forming region in the Solar neighborhood and includes not only some of the brightest and most massive stars known (such as Cygnus OB2-12), but also Cygnus OB2, a massive stellar association classified by some authors cygnus a young globular cluster. Cygnus A is the first radio galaxy discovered; at a distance of 730 million light-years from Earth, it is the closest powerful radio galaxy.

In the visible spectrum, it appears as an elliptical galaxy in a small cluster. It is classified as an active galaxy because the supermassive black hole at its nucleus is accreting matter, which produces two jets of matter from the poles. The jets' cygnus with the interstellar medium cygnus radio lobes, one source of radio emissions. [54] Cygnus is also the apparent source of the WIMP-wind due to the orientation of the solar system's rotation through the galactic halo.

[56] [57] • ^ a b Stuart Clark (29 July 2018). "Starwatch: the bright stars of the Summer Triangle". The Guardian. • ^ Chandra X-ray Observatory (8 November 2012). "Star Cluster Cygnus OB2". SciTechDaily. • ^ Cygnus 1941, p. 282. • ^ a b c d e f g h i Ridpath & Tirion 2001, pp. 134–137.

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Illustrated Guide to Astronomical Wonders: From Novice to Master Observer. Sebastopol, California: O'Reilly Media. pp. 214–15. ISBN 978-0-596-52685-6. • ^ a b Wagman, Morton (2003). Lost Stars: Lost, Missing and Troublesome Stars from the Catalogues of Johannes Cygnus, Nicholas Louis cygnus Lacaille, John Flamsteed, and Sundry Others. Blacksburg, Virginia: The McDonald & Woodward Publishing Company.

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Astronomy & Astrophysics. 523: A18. arXiv: 1008.1083. Bibcode: 2010A&A.523A.18D. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913771. ISSN 0004-6361. S2CID 16131273. • ^ Schuster, M. T.; Marengo, M.; Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G. G.; Humphreys, R. M.; Cygnus, R. D.; Hinz, P. M.; Kenworthy, M. A.; Hoffmann, W. F. (2009). "Imaging the Cool Hypergiant NML Cygni's Dusty Circumstellar Envelope with Adaptive Optics". The Astrophysical Journal. 699 (2): 1423–1432. arXiv: 0904.4690.

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Bibcode: 2006ApJ.646.523R. doi: 10.1086/504823. S2CID 5669768. • ^ E. Plávalová; N. A. Solovaya (2013). "Analysis of the motion cygnus an extrasolar planet in a binary system". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 146 (5): 108.

arXiv: 1212.3843. Bibcode: 2013AJ.146.108P. doi: 10.1088/0004-6256/146/5/108. S2CID 118629538. • ^ Naef, D.; et al. (2003). "The ELODIE survey for northern extra-solar planets II.

Cygnus Jovian planet on a long-period orbit around GJ 777 A". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 410 (3): 1051–1054. arXiv: astro-ph/0306586. Bibcode: 2003A&A.410.1051N. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20031341. S2CID 14853884. • ^ Vogt, Steven S.; et cygnus. (2005). "Five New Multicomponent Planetary Systems" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 632 (1): 638–658. Bibcode: 2005ApJ.632.638V. doi: 10.1086/432901. • ^ "Kepler 22-b: Earth-like planet confirmed". BBC. 5 December 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2011.

• ^ a b c French, Sue (September 2012). "Guide Me, Cygnus". Sky and Telescope. 124 (3): 58–60. Bibcode: 2012S&T.124c.58F. • ^ a b Levy 2005, pp. 130–131. • ^ a b c Wilkins, Jamie; Dunn, Robert (2006). 300 Astronomical Objects: A Visual Reference cygnus the Universe. Buffalo, New York: Firefly Books. ISBN 978-1-55407-175-3. • ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (1 November 2004). "Spooky Star Forming Region DR 6". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 23 October 2008. • ^ "Winds of Change" (PDF).

MIT. Retrieved 31 January 2020. • ^ Billard, J.; Mayet, F.; Grignon, C.; Santos, D. (2011). "Directional detection of Dark Cygnus with MIMAC: WIMP identification and track reconstruction".

Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 309 (1): 012015. arXiv: 1101.2750. Bibcode: 2011JPhCS.309a2015B. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/309/1/012015. S2CID 85554552. Bibliography [ edit ] • Allen, R. H. (1963). Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning (Reprint ed.). New York, NY: Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 978-0-486-21079-7. • Levy, David H. (2005). Deep Sky Objects. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-59102-361-6. • Makemson, Maud Worcester (1941).

The Morning Star Rises: an account of Polynesian astronomy. Yale University Press. Bibcode: 1941msra.book.M. • Ridpath, Ian; Tirion, Wil cygnus, Stars and Planets Guide, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-08913-3 • Ian Ridpath and Wil Tirion (2007). Stars and Planets Guide, Collins, London.

cygnus

ISBN 978-0-00-725120-9. Princeton University Press, Princeton. ISBN 978-0-691-13556-4. External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cygnus (constellation) ( category) Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article " Cygnus". • The Deep Photographic Guide to the Constellations: Cygnus • Northern Cygnus Mosaic Pan and Zoom in on deep sky objects in Cygnus.

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Constellation • Constellation Map • Big Dipper • Orion’s Belt • Little Dipper • Southern Cross • Summer Triangle • Northern Cross • Cassiopeia’s W • Spring Triangle • Great Diamond • Winter Hexagon • Winter Triangle • Teapot • The Kite • Great Square of Pegasus • Water Jar • False Cross • The Sickle • Pointer Stars • Kemble’s Cascade • The Keystone • Messier Objects • Constellations by Month • January Constellations • February Constellations • March Constellations • Cygnus Constellations • May Constellations • June Constellations • July Constellations • August Constellations • September Constellations • October Constellations • November Constellations • December Constellations • Seasonal Constellations Cygnus is a prominent constellation in the northern sky.

Its name means “the swan” in Latin and it is also known as the Swan constellation. Cygnus is associated with the myth of Zeus and Leda in Greek mythology. The constellation is easy to find in the sky as it features a well-known asterism known as the Northern Cross. Cygnus was first catalogued the by Greek astronomer Ptolemy in the 2nd century. Notable objects cygnus the constellation include Cygnus X-1, a famous cygnus source, the bright stars Deneb and Albireo, the yellow dwarf Kepler-22, cygnus hosts the exoplanet Kepler-22b, the Fireworks Galaxy (NGC 6946), and several well-known nebulae: the Cocoon Nebula (IC 5146), the Jewel Bug Nebula (NGC 7027), the Pelican Nebula (IC 5070), the North America Cygnus (NGC 7000), the Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888), Sadr Region (IC 1318) and the Veil Nebula (NGC 6960, 6962, 6979, 6992, and 6995).

Facts, location and map Cygnus is the 16th largest constellation in the night sky, occupying an area of 804 square degrees.

It lies in the fourth quadrant of the northern hemisphere (NQ4) and can be seen at latitudes between +90° and -40°. The neighboring constellations are Cepheus, Draco, Lacerta, Lyra, Pegasus, and Vulpecula. Cygnus belongs to the Hercules family of constellations, along with Aquila, Ara, Centaurus, Corona Australis, Corvus, Crater, Crux, Hercules, Hydra, Lupus, Lyra, Ophiuchus, Sagitta, Scutum, Sextans, Serpens, Triangulum Australe, and Vulpecula. Cygnus has 10 stars with known planets and contains two Messier objects: Messier 29 (NGC 6913) and Messier 39 (NGC 7092).

The brightest star in the constellation is Deneb, Alpha Cygni, which is also the 19th brightest star in the sky, with an apparent magnitude of 1.25. There are cygnus meteor showers associated with the constellation: the October Cygnids and the Kappa Cygnids.

Cygnus contains six named stars. The proper names of stars that have been officially approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) are Albireo, Aljanah, Azelfafage, Deneb, Fawaris, and Sadr. Cygnus constellation map by IAU and Sky&Telescope magazine Cygnus myth Cygnus constellation is associated with several myths, most frequently the one of the Spartan Queen Leda, who gave birth to two sets of twins, the immortal Pollux and Helen and mortal Castor and Clytemnestra, after being seduced by the god Zeus, who cygnus transformed himself into a swan.

The immortal children were fathered by the god and the mortal ones by Leda’s husband, King Tyndareus. Castor and Pollux are represented by the zodiac constellation Gemini. Cygnus is also sometimes identified as Orpheus, the Greek tragic hero who met his end at the hands of the Thracian Maenads for not honouring Dionysus. After his passing, Orpheus was transformed into a swan and placed next to his lyre in the sky. The lyre is represented by the neighbouring constellation Lyra. Cygnus constellation is also sometimes associated with any of the several people called Cycnus in Greek mythology.

The most famous ones are Cycnus, the son of Ares who met his end after challenging Hercules to cygnus duel, Cycnus, the son of Poseidon, who fought on the side of the Trojans in the Trojan War, met his end at the hands of Achilles and was transformed into a swan, and Cycnus, a close friend of Phaeton, the mortal son of the Sun god Helios.

Of the above three, the myth of Phaeton is the one that is most frequently associated with Cygnus constellation. In the story, Phaeton and Cycnus were racing each other across the sky when they came cygnus close to the Sun. Their chariots burned up and they fell to the Earth. Cycnus came to and, after looking for Phaeton for a while, he discovered his friend’s body trapped at the bottom of the Eridanus River.

He was unable to recover the body, so he made a pact with Zeus: if the god gave him the body of a swan, he would only live as long as a swan usually does. Once transformed, Cycnus was able to dive into the river, retrieve Phaeton’s body and give his friend a proper burial.

This allowed Phaeton’s soul to travel to the afterlife. Zeus was moved by Cycnus’ sacrifice and placed his image in the sky. The Chinese also associate the constellation with a myth, the one of the “magpie bridge,” Que Qiao. In the story, the lovers Niu Lang and Zhi Nu are separated by the Goddess of Heaven because Zhi Nu is a fairy, and is therefore not allowed to be with a mortal man. When the Goddess learns that the two are secretly married, she takes Zhi Nu with her and creates a river in the sky to keep the lovers separated.

The river is represented by the Milky Way itself in the legend. Zhi Nu’s husband Niu Lang takes their two children to Heaven so that they can all be together, but the Goddess does not relent and keeps the lovers separated. Once a year, the myth goes, all the magpies in the world assemble to help the lovers be together by forming an enormous bridge over the wide river.

The constellation Cygnus represents the magpie bridge in this story. Asterisms Northern Cross The five stars that form the Northern Cross are Deneb (Alpha Cygni), Fawaris (Delta Cygni), Albireo (Beta Cygni), Aljanah (Epsilon Cygni) and Sadr (Gamma Cygni) cygnus the centre.

The Summer Triangle and the Northern Cross, image: Wikisky Cygnus stars Deneb – α Cygni (Alpha Cygni) Deneb is a blue-white supergiant belonging to the spectral class A2 Ia, approximately 1,400 light years distant. It is the brightest star in Cygnus and the 19th brightest star in the night sky.

It has an apparent magnitude of 1.25. With an absolute magnitude of -7.0, Deneb is one of the most luminous stars cygnus. It is almost 60,000 times more luminous than our Sun and has about 20 solar masses.

While it is difficult to get an accurate distance, Deneb is nevertheless the most distant star that shines at first magnitude. It is also one of the largest white stars known. On Mars, Deneb is the North Pole star. Deneb serves as a prototype for a class of variable stars known as the Alpha Cygni variables.

cygnus

Its brightness and spectral type fluctuate slightly as a result of non-radial fluctuations of the star’s surface. Deneb has stopped fusing hydrogen in its core and is expected to go out as a supernova within the next cygnus million years. The name Deneb cygnus from the Arabic dhaneb, meaning “tail,” from the phrase Dhanab ad-Dajājah, which means “the tail of the hen.” In the Chinese myth of the magpie bridge, Deneb marks the bridge or, alternatively, it represents a fairy who chaperones the two lovers when they meet once a year.

Together with the bright stars Altair in cygnus constellation Aquila (the Eagle) and Vega in Lyra, Deneb forms the Summer Triangle, a prominent asterism in the summer sky. Sadr – γ Cygni (Gamma Cygni) Gamma Cygni is the star located at the intersection cygnus the Northern Cross. Its traditional name, Sadr, comes from the Arabic word for “the chest,” şadr. It is also sometimes known by its Latin name, Pectus Gallinae, which means “the hen’s chest.” Sadr Region, image: Erik Larsen (CC BY 2.0) Gamma Cygni belongs to the spectral class F8 lab (indicating that the star is a supergiant) and it is approximately 1,800 light years distant from Earth.

It has an apparent magnitude of 2.23 and cygnus one of the brightest stars that can be seen in the night cygnus. It has twelve solar masses and a radis 150 times solar. Gamma Cygni is believed to be only about 12 million years old. It consumes its nuclear fuel more rapidly because of its mass. Gamma Cygni is surrounded by a diffuse emission nebula, IC 1318, also known as the Sadr region or the Gamma Cygni region. Aljanah – ε Cygni (Epsilon Cygni) Aljanah, Epsilon Cygni, is an orange giant star of the spectral type K0 III.

It has an apparent magnitude of 2.480 and is 72.7 cygnus years distant. It is 62 times more luminous than the Sun and has has a radius 11 times solar. Epsilon Cygnus historically shared the traditional name Gienah with Gamma Corvi in the constellation Corvus. However, cygnus International Astronomical Union (IAU) approved the name Aljanah for the star in 2017, while Gamma Corvi has kept the name Gienah. Both names come from the Arabic word janāħ, which means “the wing.” Both stars mark the wings of their respective birds.

Aljanah has cygnus 13th magnitude line-of-sight companion. Fawaris – δ Cygni (Delta Cygni) Delta Cygni is a triple star in Cygnus. It will take over as the North Star for at least 400 years around the year 11,250. The star system has a combined apparent magnitude of 2.87 and is approximately cygnus light years distant. The Delta Cygni cygnus consists of two stars lying close together and a star located a bit further from the main pair.

The brightest cygnus in the system is a blue-white giant belonging to the spectral class B9 III, which is approaching the final stages of life on the main sequence. It is cygnus fast rotating star, with an equatorial speed of cygnus least 135 kilometres per second. The star’s closer companion is a yellow-white star belonging to the spectral class F1 V with an apparent magnitude of 6.33.

The third component in the Delta Cygni system is a 12th magnitude orange giant. Albireo – β Cygni (Beta Cygni) Albireo, Beta Cygni, is only the fifth brightest star in the constellation Cygnus.

It is a binary star system that appears as a single third magnitude star to the unaided eye. The system is approximately 380 light years distant. Albireo marks the head of the swan and is sometimes also known as “the beak star.” Cygnus is one of the stars that form the Northern Cross. Albireo A, image: Henryk Kowalewski Albireo is composed of a yellow star with an apparent magnitude of 3.18, which is cygnus fact itself a close binary star, and a fainter blue companion star with an apparent magnitude of 5.82.

The components are located 35 arc seconds apart. The contrast between the stars makes Albireo a pretty popular target among amateur astronomers. Albireo A, the brighter component, consists of two stars only 9.4 arc seconds apart, which cannot be resolved with telescopes less than 20’’ in size. The system belongs to the spectral class K3III.

Albireo B belongs to the spectral type B0V and is a fast-rotating Be star, with an estimated rotational velocity of 250 kilometres per second. ζ Cygni (Zeta Cygni) Zeta Cygni is a yellow star belonging to the spectral class G8III, approximately 151 light years distant.

It has an apparent cygnus of 3.20. Its radius is 14.7 times solar, and the star is 119 times brighter than the Sun. It is believed to a core-helium fusing giant. The star has a 12th magnitude companion believed to be a white cygnus. Zeta Cygni and the star CCDM J21129+3014B form a binary system. τ Cygni (Tau Cygni) Tau Cygni is a double star in Cygnus. It is composed of a yellowish white subgiant star, GJ 822.1 A, which belongs to the spectral class F2IV, and a sixth magnitude companion, GJ 822.1 B, a yellow main sequence star of the spectral type G0V.

The companion has a similar size, luminosity and surface temperature as the Sun. Tau Cygni’s components have apparent magnitudes of 3.84 and 6.44. The system is 68.2 light years distant from the solar system. κ Cygni (Kappa Cygni) Kappa Cygni is a giant star of the spectral type G9 III. It has an apparent magnitude of 3.814 and is 124.2 light years distant from Earth. The star marks the tip of the swan’s left wing. It can be seen without binoculars. Kappa Cygni is also notable for the meteor shower associated with it.

The Kappa Cygnids meteor shower (KCG) can be observed cygnus five degrees north of the star. It is a minor meteor shower that takes place in August every year. η Cygni (Eta Cygni) Eta Cygni is an orange giant, belonging to the spectral class K0III, approximately 139 light years distant.

It has an apparent magnitude of 3.909. π Cygni (Pi Cygni) Pi Cygni consists of two star systems. Pi-1 Cygni belongs to the spectral type B3IV. It has a visual magnitude of 4.67 and is 1680 light years distant. Its traditional name, Azelfafage, comes either from the Arabic phrase al thīlf al faras, which means “the horse track” or from al ʽazal al-dajājah, “the hen’s tail.” Pi-2 Cygni has a magnitude of 4.23 and is approximately 1156 light years distant.

It is a spectroscopic binary star whose main component is a B3-type blue giant, almost 2,200 times more luminous than the Sun. Pi-2 Cygni has a couple of traditional names: Pennae Caudalis, which means “tail cygnus in Latin, and Sama al Azrak, which is Arabic for “the blue sky.” Cygnus Star (Piazzi’s Falling Star) – 61 Cygni 61 Cygni is a double star system composed of a pair of two dwarfs belonging to the spectral types K5V and K7V, which orbit each other every 659 years.

They have apparent magnitudes of 5.21 and 6.03 respectively. 61 Cygni is only 11.41 light years distant from the solar system. It is the 15th nearest known star system to Earth. 61 Cygni (Bessel’s Star), image: Wikisky 61 Cygni A, the brighter component in the system, is the fourth nearest visible star, after Sirius in Canis Major, Epsilon Eridani in Eridanus, and Procyon A in Canis Minor.

It will come within nine light years of the solar system around the year 20,000. 61 Cygni is notable for its large proper motion, the angular change in position over the course of time, as observed from the solar system’s centre of mass. The star’s proper motion was originally demonstrated by the Italian astronomer and mathematician Giuseppe Piazzi in 1804. He named 61 Cygni the Flying Star. 61 Cygni is the first star other than the Sun to have its distance from Earth measured.

The German astronomer Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel did this using the method of parallax, measuring the displacement of the star’s cygnus position observed along two different lines of sight and the angle of inclination between the two.

The star’s large proper motion made it a great candidate for this. 34 Cygni (P Cygni) P Cygni is a variable star classified as a hypergiant luminous blue variable (LBV). Luminous blue variables are rare and only found in regions of intense star formation. They are usually short lived. Because of their enormous mass and energy, they exhaust their nuclear fuel cygnus quickly and erupt into supernovae after only a few million years.

Our Sun, for comparison, has been around for several billion years. P Cygni belongs to the spectral class B1Ia+ and is approximately 6,000 light years distant from Earth.

It is one of the most luminous stars ever discovered in the Milky Way. It was first observed by the Dutch astronomer Willem Janszoon Blaeu in August 1600. It had not been discovered sooner because it only brightened to third magnitude in the last few years of the 16th century.

It faded again in 1626 then brightened again in 1655 only to fade again in 1662. The star’s fluctuations in brightness became less dramatic around 1715. It has been a fifth magnitude star ever since. Today, it has an apparent magnitude of 4.8 with fluctuations up to 0.5 magnitudes. It was Johann Bayer who gave the star the designation P as a nova. P Cygni is sometimes called a permanent nova because of its dramatic changes in brightness, even though the star’s behaviour is not that of a true nova.

39 Cygni 39 Cygni is an orange star belonging to the spectral class K3III. It has an apparent magnitude of 4.436 and is approximately 260 light years distant. It is cooler than the Sun, but much brighter and larger. Its surface temperature is between 3,500 and 5,000 kelvin. θ Cygni (Theta Cygni) Theta Cygni is main sequence star belonging to the spectral class F3 V, approximately 59.8 light years distant from the solar system.

It has an apparent magnitude of 4.490. It is four times as luminous as our Sun and has about 38 percent more mass. It is between 0.6 and 1.9 billion years old. The star has a faint companion, one with a magnitude of 13.03, located about three arc seconds away. The companion is a red dwarf belonging to the spectral class M3 V. Theta Cygni is also notable for possibly having an extrasolar planet in its system. The ELODIE team discovered radial velocity variations that suggest that the star has a cygnus object orbiting it with a period of less than six months.

The planet is believed to be twice the size of Jupiter, but its presence has not been confirmed yet. 16 Cygni 16 Cygni is a triple star system in Cygnus. The brighter two components, cygnus yellow dwarfs similar to the Sun, have apparent magnitudes of 5.96 and 6.20. The third component is a red dwarf. The system is some 70 light years distant from Earth.

An extrasolar planet has been discovered in an eccentric orbit around 16 Cygni Cygnus. 16 Cygni star system and orbits, photo: Arnaugir Gliese 777 Gliese 777 is a yellow subgiant star belonging to cygnus spectral class G6IV, 51.81 light years distant.

It has an apparent magnitude of 5.71. In 2005, two extrasolar planets were confirmed in its system. The primary star has a companion, a dim red dwarf of the spectral type M4.5V, which is located approximately 3,000 astronomical units away. The red dwarf has a visual magnitude of 14.40 and is a suspected binary star. Ruchba – ω Cygni (Omega Cygni) Omega Cygni is a multiple star system in Cygnus.

It consists of two visual doubles only a third of a degree apart. The star’s traditional name, Ruchba, comes from the Arabic phrase meaning “the hen’s knee.” Omega-1 Cygni is a hot subgiant belonging to the spectral class B2.5, approximately 910 light years distant.

It has a visual magnitude of 4.95. Omega-2 Cygni is a red giant of the spectral type M2III approximately 400 light cygnus from Earth. It has an apparent magnitude of 5.22. Deep sky objects in Cygnus Messier 29 (M29) – NGC 6913 Messier 29 is an open cluster with an apparent magnitude of 7.1, approximately 4,000 light years distant. It can be seen with binoculars. The cluster was discovered by Charles Messier in 1764. It lies near the star Gamma Cygni, about 1.7 degrees to the south and a little east.

The estimated age of the cluster is 10 million years. The brightest star has a visual magnitude of 8.59. The five hottest stars in the cluster belong to the spectral class B0. Messier 29, image: Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona (CC BY-SA 3.0 US) Messier 39 (M39) – NGC 7092 Messier cygnus is another open star cluster, also discovered by Charles Messier in 1764.

It is between 200 and 300 million years old, which is an intermediate age for an open cluster. The cluster is located about 800 light years from the solar system. M39 has an apparent magnitude of cygnus. The brightest star belongs to the spectral class A0 and has a visual cygnus of 6.83. All the stars observed in the cluster are on the main sequence, and the brightest ones will soon evolve to the red giant stage.

The cluster can be found two and a half degrees west and a degree south cygnus the star Pi-2 Cygni. Messier 39, image: Wikisky Fireworks Galaxy – NGC 6946 (Arp 29) The Fireworks Galaxy (NGC 6946) is an intermediate spiral galaxy in Cygnus. It has an apparent magnitude of 9.6 and is approximately 22.5 million light years distant.

The galaxy is located near the border with the constellation Cepheus. It lies close to the galactic plane and is very obscured by interstellar matter of the Milky Way. Cygnus 6946 was discovered by the German-born British astronomer Sir Frederick William Herschel on September 9, 1798. Nine supernovae have been observed in the galaxy since: SN 1917A, SN 1939C, SN 1948B, SN 1968D, SN 1969P, SN 1980K, SN 2002hh, SN 2004et and SN 2008S. Cygnus Fireworks Galaxy (NGC 6946), image: Göran Nilsson & The Liverpool Telescope (CC BY-SA 4.0) Cygnus X-1 Cygnus X-1 is a famous X-ray source, one of the strongest ones seen from Earth.

It was first discovered in cygnus during a rocket flight. Cygnus X-1 is notable for being the first X-ray source widely believed to be a black hole candidate; it has a mass 8.7 times that of the Sun, yet it is too compact to be any kind of known object other than a black hole. It is approximately 6,100 light years distant from Earth.

Cygnus X-1 orbits a blue supergiant variable star, HDE 226868, and the two stars form a binary system. Over time, an accretion disk of material brought from the star by a stellar wind has formed around Cygnus X-1.

North America Nebula – NGC 7000 (Caldwell 20) NGC 7000 in Cygnus was cygnus the North America Nebula because its shape strongly resembles that of the continent. The nebula is obscured by a band of dust, which determines its shape as we see it. The North America Nebula and the Pelican Nebula — This layout of images reveals how the appearance of the North America nebula can change dramatically using different combinations of visible and infrared observations from the Digitized Sky Survey and NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively.

In this progression, the visible-light view (upper left) shows a striking similarity to the North America continent. Each is cropped to the easterly bulk (thus also the quasi-“Gulf of Mexico” region). The red region to the right is known as the “Pelican nebula,” after its resemblance in visible light to a pelican. The view at upper right includes both visible and infrared observations. The hot gas comprising the North America continent cygnus the Pelican now takes on a vivid blue hue, while red colours display the infrared light.

Inky black dust features start to glow in the infrared view. In the bottom two images, only infrared light from Spitzer is shown — data from the infrared array camera is on the left, and data from both cygnus infrared array camera and the multi-band imaging photometer, which sees longer wavelengths, is on the right. These pictures look different in part because infrared light can penetrate dust whereas visible light cannot. Dusty, dark clouds in the visible image become transparent in Spitzer’s view.

In addition, Cygnus infrared detectors pick up the glow of dusty cocoons enveloping baby stars. Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/L. Cygnus (SSC/Caltech) The North America Nebula is an emission nebula. It has an apparent magnitude of 4 and is approximately 1,600 light years distant from Earth. The North America Nebula is very large, about 120 by 100 arc minutes, but it usually cannot be seen without binoculars because its surface brightness is pretty low.

It was cygnus by William Herschel on October 24, 1786. The greatest concentration of star forming activity occurs in the region called the Cygnus Wall, cygnus is the part cygnus the nebula that corresponds cygnus the Mexico and Central America region (so to speak). The North America Nebula and the Pelican Nebula, image: NASA NGC 7000 is a part of the same H II region (interstellar cloud in which stars are formed) as the neighbouring Pelican Nebula (IC 5070).

Pelican Nebula – IC 5070 and Cygnus 5067 The Pelican Nebula is an emission nebula in Cygnus. It has an apparent magnitude of 8.0 and is approximately 1,800 light years distant from Earth. It got its name because its shape resembles that of the pelican. The nebula is an H II region, a large gas cloud in which star forming activity takes place and newly formed blue stars emit ultraviolet light which ionizes the gas in the cloud.

Pelican Nebula, image: Wikimedia Commons/Hewholooks The nebula is associated with the nearby North America Nebula and is separated from it by a cygnus molecular cloud filled with dark dust.

The two nebulae are about 1,500 light years apart. Cygnus Pelican Nebula is located near the bright star Deneb and can be found to the northeast of the cygnus. Sadr Region – IC 1318 IC 1318 is an emission nebula formed around the star Sadr, Gamma Cygni, located at the intersection of the Northern Cross in Cygnus.

Crescent Nebula – NGC 6888 (Caldwell 27, Sharpless 105) The Crescent Nebula is an emission nebula formed by the strong stellar wind of HD 192163 (WR 136), which is a Wolf Rayet star in Cygnus. A Wolf Rayet star is a hot, old, cygnus star that is rapidly losing mass by means of a fast stellar wind. An image of the emission nebula NGC 6888, also known as the Cygnus Nebula, in the constellation Cygnus. This object is approximately 5000 light years distant cygnus 26 light years in diameter and is formed by high velocity stellar wind from the central star WR 136 colliding with gas previously shed from cygnus star.

This object was imaged in hydrogen-alpha and oxygen-III emission lines; red colors are hydrogen, and blue oxygen. Image: Patrick Hsieh (CC BY-SA 4.0) The shell is a result of the stellar wind from the star colliding with the wind that the star ejected when cygnus evolved into a red giant some 400,000 years ago.

The nebula is cygnus in size, has an apparent magnitude of 7.4, and is approximately 5,000 light years distant.

Cygnus Loop (Sharpless 103) The Cygnus Loop is a large supernova remnant, almost three degrees across in the sky, forming an emission nebula in Cygnus. It is a strong source of soft X-rays. The arcs of the loop that emit in visible light are known as the Veil Nebula and the rest of the loop can be detected cygnus radio, infrared and X-ray images. Veil Nebula – NGC 6960, NGC 6992, NGC 6995, NGC 6974, NGC 6979 (IC 1340) The Veil Nebula is the visual component of the Cygnus Loop.

Also known as the Cirrus Nebula or Filamentary Nebula, it consists of several components: the Western Veil (NGC 6960), the Eastern Veil (NGC 6992, NGC 6995, IC 1340), and Fleming’s Triangle (Pickering’s Triangle).

NGC 6960, the Western Veil, is sometimes also called the Witch’s Broom. It forms the western-most part of the nebula. The Eastern Veil consists of three bright regions – NGC 6996, NGC 6995 and IC 1340. Portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Cygnus Space Telescope. Image: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration Pickering’s Triangle, also known as Pickering’s Wedge or Pickering’s Triangular Wisp, is a faint region of nebulosity discovered by the American astronomer Williamina Fleming in 1904.

It was named after Edward Charles Pickering, the director of the Harvard Observatory, where Fleming made the discovery. NGC 6974 and NGC 6979 are also regions of nebulosity located in a cloud at the northern edge of the nebula.

NGC 6979 was discovered by William Herschel, cygnus NGC 6974 by Lord Rosse, a British astronomer. The Cygnus Loop is about 90 light years in size and approximately 1470 light years distant from Earth. The estimated age of the supernova remnant is between 5,000 and 8,000 years.

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