Model busana muslim 2021

model busana muslim 2021

Tumbuh 16%, Segini Total Aset LPS pada 2021 Total aset yang dimiliki Lembaga Penjamin Simpanan (LPS) tumbuh 16% secara tahunan (year-on-year/yoy) menjadi Rp162 triliun di Desember 2021. • Bisnis • 26 April 2022 11:35:14 WIB • Penulis: Bayu Jatmiko Adi/Rika Anggraeni - Editor: Anik Sulistyawati • • • •, JAKARTA – Mencatatkan kenaikan aset, total aset yang dimiliki Lembaga Penjamin Simpanan ( LPS) tumbuh 16% secara tahunan ( year-on-year/yoy) menjadi Rp162 triliun di Desember 2021.

Pada periode yang sama di tahun 2020, total asetnya sekitar Rp140 triliun Diketahui, LPS mempunyai tugas menjamin simpanan, melakukan resolusi bank, melakukan tindakan antisipasi dalam menjaga stabilitas sistem keuangan, dan menyelenggarakan restrukturisasi perbankan pada masa krisis sistem keuangan.

LPS memiliki liabilitas sebesar Rp864,7 miliar per 31 Desember 2021. Liabilitas yang dimiliki LPS turun 12% yoy, dari sebelumnya Rp982,8 miliar pada posisi 31 Desember 2020. Promosi Gapura Pintu Masuk Solo dan Margi Tri Gapuraning Ratu Namun, ekuitas yang dimiliki LPS tumbuh 16% yoy, dari Rp139,1 triliun menjadi Rp161,1 triliun.

Dengan begitu, LPS mencatat total liabilitas dan ekuitas sebesar Rp162 triliun. Nilai tersebut tumbuh 16% yoy, dari semula Rp140 triliun per Desember 2020. “Laporan keuangan ini merupakan bagian dari laporan keuangan LPS tahun 2021 dan 2020 yang telah diaudit oleh Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan Republik Indonesia dengan opini Wajar dalam semua hal yang material sesuai dengan Standar Akuntansi Keuangan di Indonesia,” jelas LPS.

Baca Juga: LPS Raih Penghargaan Kehumasan Beralih ke penghasilan komprehensif, total pendapatan yang dimiliki LPS juga naik 11% yoy, dari Rp22,3 triliun menjadi Rp24,6 triliun.

Sementara itu, total beban menyusut 11% yoy, dari Rp2,4 triliun menjadi Rp2,1 triliun per Desember 2021. LPS mencatat pertumbuhan surplus sebesar 13% yoy. Surplus yang dimiliki LPS naik dari Rp19,35 triliun menjadi Rp21,96 triliun per Desember 2021. Sedangkan, surplus sebelum pajak naik dari Rp19,92 triliun menjadi Rp22,53 triliun per Desember 2021. • v • t • e Part of a series on Islamic culture Architecture • Azerbaijani • Bangladeshi • Indo-Islamic • Indonesian • Moorish • Moroccan • Mughal • Ottoman • Pakistani • Persian • Somali • Sudano-Sahelian • Tatar • Swahili Art • Arab carpet • Azerbaijani carpet • Batik • Calligraphy • Damask • Embroidery • Ikat • Iznik pottery • Khatam • Kilim • Miniature • Oriental rug • Paan dan • Persian carpet • Soumak • Suzani • Tapis • Turkmen rug • Turkish carpet • Zardozi Clothing • Abaya • Agal • Boubou • Burqa • Chador • Hijab • Headscarf • Jilbab • Jellabiya • Kameez • Keffiyeh • Kupiah • Niqāb • Salwar • Songkok • Taqiya • Thawb Holidays • Arba'een • al-Ghadeer • Chaand Raat • al-Fitr • al-Adha • Imamat Day • New Year • al-Qadr • Mawlid • Ramadan • Bara’at • Raghaib Literature • Arabic • Azerbaijani • Bengali • Indonesian • Javanese • Kashmiri • Kurdish • Malay • Pashto • Persian • Punjabi • Sindhi • Somali • South Asian • Turkish • Turkmen • Uyghur • Urdu Music • Ashik • Daf • Dastgah • Gamelan • Gendang beleq • Ghazal • Haḍra • Hamd • Jari • Madih nabawi • Mappilappattu • Maqam • Mugam • Naat • Nasheed • Noha • Qawwali • Sufi • Talempong • Tambourine Theatre • Bangsawan • Jem • Karagöz and Hacivat • Sama • Ta'zieh • Wayang • Islam portal Modern Muslim (Sudan, 2011 year) Islamic clothing is clothing that is interpreted as being in accordance with the teachings of Islam.

Muslims wear a wide variety of clothing, which is influenced not only by religious considerations, but also practical, cultural, social, and political factors. [1] [2] In modern times, some Muslims have adopted clothing based on Western traditions, while others wear modern forms of traditional Muslim dress, which over the centuries has typically included long, flowing garments. Besides its practical advantages in the climate of the Middle East, loose-fitting clothing is also generally regarded as conforming to Islamic teachings, which stipulate that body areas which are sexual in nature must be hidden from public view.

Traditional dress for Muslim men has typically covered at least the head and the area between the waist and model busana muslim 2021 knees, while traditional women's dress conceals the hair and the body from the ankles to the neck. [3] Some Muslim women also cover their face. [1] Islamic dress is influenced by two scriptural sources, the Quran and hadith.

The Quran provides guiding principles believed to have come from God, while the body of hadith describes a human role model through the traditions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. [4] The branch of fashion industry influenced by Islamic model busana muslim 2021 is known as Islamic fashion. Contents • 1 Common practice • 2 Islamic dress in Europe • 3 Muslim women's views on hijab • 3.1 Pro-hijab • 3.2 Anti-hijab • 4 Hijab by country • 4.1 Austria • 4.2 Belgium • 4.3 Bulgaria • 4.4 France • 4.5 Latvia • 4.6 Netherlands • 4.7 Turkey • 4.8 Syria • 4.9 Pakistan • 4.10 Egypt • 4.11 Saudi Arabia • 4.12 Somalia • 4.13 Hijab in the Americas • 4.13.1 United States • 4.13.2 Canada • 4.13.3 South Model busana muslim 2021 • Argentina • Chile • 5 See also • 6 References • 7 Further reading • 8 External links Common practice [ edit ] This section needs expansion.

You can help by adding to it. ( April 2022) Islamic clothing requirements are governed model busana muslim 2021 Islamic precepts related to chastity and modesty, known as haya, that apply to both men and women. Adherents of Islam believe that it is the religious duty of adult Muslim men and women to dress modestly, as an obligatory ruling agreed upon by community consensus. [5] [6] According to the traditional model busana muslim 2021 in Sunni Islam, men must cover from their belly buttons to their knees, though they differ on whether this includes covering the navel and knees or only what is between them.

[7] [8] [9] Women are meanwhile traditionally been encourage to cover most of their body except for their hands and faces. [10] [11] An Arabic word strongly associated with Islamic clothing and haya is khimar ( حجاب), which translates into English as " veil". [12] The veil re-emerged as a topic of conversation in the 1990s when there was concern regarding potential western infiltration of Muslim practices in Islamic countries. [13] Islamic dress in Europe [ edit ] Main article: Islamic dress in Europe Islamic dress in Europe, notably the variety of headdresses worn by Muslim women, has become a prominent symbol of the presence of Islam in western Europe.

In several countries the adherence to hijab (an Arabic noun meaning "to cover") has led to political controversies and proposals for a legal ban. The Netherlands government has decided to introduce a ban on face-covering clothing, popularly described as the "burqa ban", although it does not only apply to the Afghan-model burqa. Other countries, such as France and Australia are debating similar legislation, or have more limited prohibitions.

Some of them apply only to face-covering clothing such as the burqa, chador, boushiya, or niqab; some apply to any clothing with an Islamic religious symbolism such as the khimar, a type of headscarf ( some countries already have laws banning the wearing of masks in public, which can be applied to veils that conceal the face).

The issue has different names in different countries, and "the veil" or " hijab" may be used as general terms for the debate, representing more than just the veil itself, or the concept of modesty embodied in hijab.

Although the Balkans and Eastern Europe have indigenous Muslim populations, most Muslims in western Europe are members of immigrant communities. The issue of Islamic dress is linked with issues of migration and the position of Islam in western society. European Commissioner Franco Frattini said in November 2006, that he did not favour a ban on the burqa.

[14] This is apparently the first official statement on the issue of prohibition of Islamic dress from the European Commission, the model busana muslim 2021 of the European Union.

The reasons given for model busana muslim 2021 vary. Legal bans on face-covering clothing are often justified on security grounds, as an anti- terrorism measure.

[15] [16] Ayaan Hirsi Ali sees Islam as incompatible with Western values, at least in its present form. She advocates the values of ' Enlightenment liberalism', including secularism and equality of women. For her, the burqa or chador are both a symbol of religious obscurantism and the oppression of women.

Western Enlightenment values, in her view, require prohibition, regardless of whether a woman has freely chosen Islamic dress. Islamic dress is also seen as a symbol of the existence of parallel societies, and the failure of integration: in 2006 British Prime Minister Tony Blair described it as a "mark of separation".

[17] Visible symbols of a non-Christian culture conflict with the national identity in European states, which assumes a shared (non-religious) culture. Proposals for a ban may be linked to other related cultural prohibitions: the Dutch politician Geert Wilders proposed a ban on hijabs, in Islamic schools, in new mosques, and in non-western immigration. In France and Turkey, the emphasis is on the secular nature of the state, and the symbolic nature of the Islamic dress.

In Turkey, bans apply at state institutions (courts, civil service) and in state-funded education. In model busana muslim 2021, France passed a law banning "symbols or clothes through which students conspicuously display their religious affiliation" (including hijab) in public primary schools, middle schools, and secondary schools, [18] but this law does not concern universities (in French universities, applicable legislation grants students freedom of expression as long as public order is preserved [19]).

These bans also cover Islamic headscarves, which in some other countries are seen as less controversial, although law court staff in the Netherlands are also forbidden to wear Islamic headscarves on grounds of 'state neutrality'. An apparently less politicized argument is that in specific professions (teaching), a ban on "veils" ( niqab) is justified, since face-to-face communication and eye contact is required. This argument has featured prominently in judgements in Britain and the Netherlands, after students or teachers were banned from wearing face-covering clothing.

Public and political response to such prohibition proposals is complex, since by definition they mean that the government decides on individual clothing. Some non-Muslims, who would not be affected by a ban, see it as an issue of civil liberties, as a slippery slope leading to further restrictions on private life.

A public opinion poll in London showed that 75 percent of Londoners support "the right of all persons to dress in accordance with their religious beliefs".

[20] In another poll in the United Kingdom by Ipsos MORI, 61 percent agreed that "Muslim women are segregating themselves" by wearing a veil, yet 77 percent thought they should have the right to wear it.

[21] Muslim women's views on hijab [ edit ] This section is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal model busana muslim 2021 or presents an original argument about a topic.

Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. ( February 2020) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) There are many different views of Muslim women regarding the hijab. Some [22] women believe that the hijab is too constraining, but accept other Muslim women's donning of the garment, whereas other women [22] are against both themselves and other women wearing the hijab due to its "oppressive" nature.

Furthermore, some women [22] embrace the hijab as a way to celebrate their religion and feel that it helps them maintain their intellectuality rather than becoming a sex object in society. Some Muslim women [22] wear the hijab because it has been part model busana muslim 2021 their family tradition, and they do not want to give up something that is sacred to their family.

There are women [22] who wear the hijab who do not judge those that do not, and believe it is in all Muslim women's best interest to choose for themselves whether they will don the veil or not. Pro-hijab [ edit ] Muslim women do not necessarily view the hijab as an oppressive garment that is forced upon them. Syima Aslam, a Muslim businesswoman from England, feels a special place for the hijab in her heart and feels that it directly connects her to Islam.

Although she garners some disdain and disapproval of her choice to wear the hijab from some business partners, she stands firmly by her choice to don the hijab. [23] Another young woman, Rowaida Abdelaziz, explains that the hijab is something that she has decided to wear herself and she "does not wear it because [she] is submissive".

[24] Sarah Hekmati says that the hijab gives her a sense of freedom and that she likes the idea that a man should know a woman through her intellectual prowess rather than her looks. [24] Interviewing "one of the Muslim hipster trailblazers" Hana Tajima for Vision magazine, writer Suzanne Elliott states that "fashion-conscious Muslims are proving that you can be cool and modest, stylish and individual without compromising faith". Tajima started her own fashion label Maysaa in 2011, and blogs about her far-reaching influences and inspirations.

According to Elliott, 26-year-old Tajima "epitomises the new Muslim hipster, glamorous yet edgy, elegant yet quirky. The trend straddles the big cities of the world from London's Dalston to New York's Williamsburg – or the glitz of Dubai." [25] Anti-hijab [ edit ] There are some Muslim women who believe that the hijab indeed hinders their personal freedom as a woman.

A Muslim woman by the name of Rasmieyh Abdelnabi explains that she decided to stop wearing the hijab because she felt that it was putting too much pressure on her to "represent an entire community".

[26] She further explains that she feels that hijab is not representative of Islam but more so of the Arab culture.

model busana muslim 2021

{INSERTKEYS} [27] [28] Another belief of some women that wear the hijab is that it could potentially "strip them of their individuality" [27] and turn them into a figurehead for their religion. Some women do not want to have to deal with this on a daily basis, and it is another reason that some Muslim women have decided to un-veil themselves. In an article written in September 2013, Nesrine Malik explains her discontent with being forced to wear the niqab, a kind of dress that only exposes the eyes, saying, "I would rather no one wore a niqab.

I would rather that no woman had effectively to disappear, from a young age, because that is the norm in her family. [...] I would rather that Islam be purged of the niqab and all its permutations." Malik is among the Muslim women who feel as though the act of veiling hides women; she would like to ban the niqab from Islam. [29] The former Muslim, Ayaan Hirsi Ali, wrote in her book Nomad about the veil: "(...) deliberately marks women as private and restricted property, nonpersons.

The veil sets women apart from men and apart from the world; it restrains them, confines them, grooms them for docility. A mind can be cramped just as a body may be, and a Muslim veil blinkers and conditions both your vision and your destiny. It is the mark of a kind of apartheid, not the domination of a race but of a sex." [30] A recent incident in Germany reflects the extent of the issue on an international scale: "An administrative court in the southern German city of Munich has banned a female Muslim student from wearing a facial veil in class." [31] Although Germany does not have an official ban on the hijab, according to the nation's highest courts federal states have permission to ban Muslim state employees wearing clothing they deem inappropriate.

This rule leaves flexibility for German legislators to essentially make their own rules concerning clothing/dress in the country.

Iran is another country with strict [32] rules on the hijab, and many women feel pressured from the government to dress in a certain style. One Iranian woman, Hengameh Golestan, decided to protest the Iranian government through her own artistic display. [33] Hijab by country [ edit ] Muslim girls at Istiqlal Mosque in Jakarta The legal and cultural status of the hijab is different in different countries. Some have banned the wearing of all overt religious symbols, including the hijab (a Muslim headscarf, from the Arabic "to cover"), in public schools or universities or government buildings.

Austria [ edit ] In 2017, a legal ban on covering one's face in public (primarily targeting Islamic clothing such as burqa and niqab) was adopted by the Austrian parliament. [34] Additionally, on 16 May 2019, the Austrian parliament placed a ban on "ideologically or religiously influenced clothing which is associated with the covering of the head" in primary schools. [35] [36] This ban directly bans traditional headscarves worn by Muslim women worldwide. Belgium [ edit ] On 31 March 2010 the Belgian Chamber Committee on the Interior unanimously approved legislation instating a nationwide ban on wearing the burqa in public.

[37] The proposal was accepted by the Chamber of Representatives on 27 April 2010 with only two abstentions from Flemish Socialist MPs. [38] Bulgaria [ edit ] In 2016, a legal ban on face-covering Islamic clothing was adopted by the Bulgarian parliament.

[39] France [ edit ] Main articles: Islamic scarf controversy in France and French ban on face covering In April 2011, France became the first European nation to ban face covering in public space. Balaclavas, face-covering niqabs, full-body burqas and carnival masks (outside carnival season) are prohibited, [40] [41] [42] though hijab is permitted in public space, because it doesn't hide the face.

The law was passed unanimously asserting that face-covering, including Muslim veils are contrary to the principles of security on which France is founded. [43] Sharp criticism had accompanied France's nearly year-long debate on banning burqa-style veils, with those opposed saying, among other things, that the entire process has stigmatized the nation's estimated 5 million Muslims – the largest Muslim population in western Europe.

They also claim it is a political ploy because only an estimated 1,900 women wear veils that hide the face. [43] Latvia [ edit ] In 2015 Latvia started debates to forbid face-covering clothing with proposed fines till 150 euro for covering face in public and till 350 euro for forcing someone to cover face in public.

[44] Government of Latvia agreed on the law only in 2017, [45] and forwarded it to Saeima for final confirmation. Since 2018 process hasn't moved forward and law isn't confirmed and operational yet. [46] There are almost no women in Latvia who cover their face and many have pointed out that such law would be redundant.

Netherlands [ edit ] The Dutch government parliament in January 2012 enacted a ban on face-covering clothing, popularly described as the "burqa ban". [47] Offenders can be fined up to 390 euro.

The prohibition does not apply to face covering that is necessary for the health, safety or the exercise of a profession or practicing a sport. Excluded from the ban are also events such as Sinterklaas, Carnival, Halloween or when a mayor granted an exemption for a particular event. Also excluded from prohibition are places and buildings intended for religious purposes.

The prohibition does not apply to passengers in airplanes and airports who are traveling through the Netherlands to their final destination. [48] Turkey [ edit ] Main articles: Yashmak and Headscarf controversy in Turkey Turkish women who want to wear the hijab – the traditional Islamic headscarf covering the head and hair, but not the face – to civil service jobs and government offices will be able to do so now that the Turkish government has relaxed its decades-long restriction on wearing the headscarf in state institutions.

[49] The new rules, which don't apply to workers in the military or judiciary, came into effect in 2013, and were put into place to address concerns that the restrictions on hijab were discouraging women from conservative backgrounds from seeking government jobs or higher education.

[49] "A dark time eventually comes to an end," Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan said in a speech to the parliament. "Headscarf-wearing women are full members of the republic, as well as those who do not wear it." [49] Syria [ edit ] In 2011, Syrian President Bashar Assad reversed a decision that bans teachers from wearing the niqab.

The move was seen as an attempt to appease Salafis as he faced down the uprising challenging his secular rule. As a symbol of political Islam, the government had banned the niqab in July 2010. Syria was the latest in a string of nations from Europe to the Middle East to weigh in on the niqab, perhaps the most visible symbol of fundamentalist Sunni Islam.

[50] Pakistan [ edit ] In Pakistan, the topic of the hijab is extraordinarily controversial. The veil is constantly a topic of debate and has been for decades now. The Pew Research Center gathered information on several countries, including Pakistan, and came back with results on how people's perceptions of the veil differ across the world: "In Pakistan, there is an even split (31% vs. 32%) between woman #3 and woman #2, who is wearing a niqab that exposes only her eyes, while nearly a quarter (24%) choose woman #4." [51] The results show that there is still a lot of debate about what type of dress women perceive to be most appropriate, and it seems that the debate will continue to go on for many years to come.

Egypt [ edit ] Reem, an Egyptian young lady wearing the Egyptian style of the Hijab, in 2010. On 8 January 2014, the Pew Research Center conducted a survey of Muslim women in various countries. [52] An overwhelming eighty-nine percent of Egyptian women who responded to the survey believed that women should show their face in public. Ten percent of the survey participants believed that women should be fully veiled when in public. Compared to other countries, Egypt is not as conservative as others, but only fourteen percent of the women surveyed believed that Egyptian women should be able to choose their own clothing.

Compared to six other countries, Egypt was last in this category; the statistic (eighty-four percent) suggests that Egyptian women (according to that single survey), do not believe that women should have freedom to choose their clothing. Meanwhile, in Egyptian media, women have always spoken about their freedom and right to wear whatever they want and that no one should be judged based on their outfits.

Saudi Arabia [ edit ] Main article: Women's rights in Saudi Arabia § Hijab and dress code Saudi Arabia is one of the few Muslim countries in which women are forced to cover in most parts of the country. [53] While opinion surveys in Saudi Arabia suggests a strong belief that women should be covered, paradoxically there is also a strong belief that women should have the right to choose what they wear. [54] A survey done in 2011 by the Pew Research Center asked women of different Muslim countries to choose which of several dresses they think are most appropriate for their country.

Among Saudi women, 11% of women said a fully headed burqa is most appropriate, 63% of women said the niqab that only exposes the eyes is appropriate, only 8% said a black hijab covering the hair and ears is appropriate, 10% said a less conservative white hijab covering the hair and ears is appropriate, a small 5% said an even less conservative hijab that is brown and shows some hair is appropriate and a mere 3% said not wearing any covering was appropriate.

The niqab is the dress that the highest percent of Saudi women felt was appropriate dress for women in Saudi Arabia. In accordance with these statistics, the Saudi woman that is used in the video, cited above, to show the popular view of Saudi women was wearing this niqab that only exposed her eyes.

[52] Somalia [ edit ] Young Somali women wearing the hijab. During regular, day-to-day activities, Somali women usually wear the guntiino, a long stretch of cloth tied over the shoulder and draped around the waist. In more formal settings such as weddings or religious celebrations like Eid, women wear the dirac, which is a long, light, diaphanous voile dress made of cotton or polyester that is worn over a full-length half-slip and a brassiere.

Married women tend to sport head-scarves referred to as shash, and also often cover their upper body with a shawl known as garbasaar. Unmarried or young women, however, do not always cover their heads.

Traditional Arabian garb such as the hijab and the jilbab is also commonly worn. [55] Hijab in the Americas [ edit ] See also: Islam in Canada In 2011, the Canadian government made it illegal for women to wear face-covering garments at citizenship ceremonies, because the judge must be able to see each person's face reciting their oath.

In 2012, the Supreme Court issued a rare split decision on whether women could cover their faces on the witness stand. Four judges said it depended on the circumstances, two said witnesses should never cover their face, and one said a Muslim witness should never be ordered to remove her veil. Canada is considering a wider ban on veils in government offices, schools, and hospitals. [57] On June 16, 2019, the provincial government of French-speaking Quebec enacted the Act respecting the laicity of the State.

The Act prohibits certain public servants from wearing religious regalia – including Muslim scarves and veils, turbans, Jewish skullcaps and Christian crucifixes.

[58] South America [ edit ] See also: Latin American Muslims Argentina [ edit ] In 2011 Argentinian President Cristina Fernández pushed for legislation which allowed for Muslim women to wear hijab in public places. According to the new law Argentine Muslim women can wear a hijab while being photographed for their national id cards.

The law was created in order to help promote freedom of religion and expression in the country, and help the Muslim population, which is estimated to be between 450,000 and one million, feel more integrated into society. [59] Chile [ edit ] Chile has a minority Muslim population. Fuad Mussa, the President of the Islamic Cultural Centre, is quoted as saying that "there is a general ignorance among Chileans about Islam.

[60] This was after a Chilean citizen was refused service at a bank because of her hijab in 2010, and would not be served until she removed her hijab. See also [ edit ] • ^ a b John L. Esposito, ed. (2019). "Clothing". The Islamic World: Past and Present. Oxford University Press. • ^ "LibGuides: Women in Islam and Muslim Realms: Dress Code". • ^ Marzel, Shoshana-Rose; Stiebel, Guy D.

(18 December 2014). Dress and Ideology: Fashioning Identity from Antiquity to the Present. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-4725-5809-1. A believing Muslim woman will not wear pants ( bantalon) for two reasons. Firstly, pants might reflect the contours of limbs that are supposed to remain hidden. Secondly, items of clothing associated with men are off limits, just as men are forbidden to wear women's clothing.

According to the Prophet, Allah curses the woman who dresses in clothing meant for men, and the man who wears clothing meant for women. • ^ Underst, Huda Huda is the author of "The Everything; Complete, ing Islam Book: A.; Beliefs, Easy to Read Guide to Muslim; Practices; Traditions; Culture.".

"What Muslims Should Know About How to Dress". Learn Religions . Retrieved 9 November 2019. {{ cite web}}: -first1= has generic name ( help) • ^ "Denying the Obligation of Wearing Hijab". 10 December 2012. • ^ "Is Hijab Obligatory?". 14 February 2015. • ^ "Praying Salah in shorts". Askimam. 25 July 2008 . Retrieved 17 July 2021. • ^ "Covering the Nakedness for a Man: Answers".

27 May 2014. • ^ Ali, Abdul Samad. "(PDF) Maliki Fiqh: Matn al-'Ashmāwiyyah (English Translation) - 'Abdulqadir M A N D L A Nkosi and Abdul Samad Ali -". {{ cite web}}: Missing -author1= ( help) • ^ "A Detailed Exposition of the Fiqh of Covering One's Nakedness (Awra)".

19 September 2010. • ^ "Can You Clarify the Standard Explanation of the Verse of Hijab? [Shafi'i]". 11 April 2016. • ^ "Islam and Hijab". BBC . Retrieved 30 April 2014. • ^ Mernissi, Fatima (1991). The Veil and the Male Elite.

Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. pp. 99–100. ISBN 9780201523218. • ^ Reformatorisch dagblad: Brussel tegen boerkaverbod Archived 3 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine, 30 November 2006. • ^ Dutch Consider Ban on Burqas in Public GREGORY CROUCH, New York Times (18 November 2006) • ^ Minister says burka is 'alien', prompting applause from Libs DEBBIE GUEST, JODIE MINUS, THE AUSTRALIAN, (11 APRIL 2011) • ^ Blair's concerns over face veils BBC News Online. 17 October 2006.

• ^ French MPs back headscarf ban BBC News (BBC). Retrieved on 13 February 2009. • ^ "Education Code. L811-1 §2" (in French). 26 January 1984 .

Retrieved 16 September 2010. • ^ Guardian: Livingstone decries vilification of Islam, 20 November 2006. • ^ Ipsos MORI Muslim Women Wearing Veils Archived 2 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.

• ^ a b c d e (un)Veiled: Muslim Women Talk About Hijab. Directed by Ines Hofmann Kanna. Produced by Ines Hoffmann Kanna. Documentary Educational Resources (DER), 2007. Accessed 5 August 2016. • ^ Aslam, Syima. "To hijab or not to hijab- A Muslim Businesswoman's View". The Guardian .

Retrieved 20 April 2014. • ^ a b Blake, John. "Muslim women uncover myths about the hijab". CNN . Retrieved 22 April 2014. • ^ Suzanne Elliott (March 2013). "Style trailblazers: Muslim fashion". Archived from the original on 13 July 2015 . Retrieved 26 July 2015. • ^ Khalid, Asma. "Muslim Women Explain Their Choice". NPR. • ^ a b Khalid, Asma. "Muslim Women Explain Their Choice". NPR. • ^ Hanzaee, Kambiz Heidarzadeh, and Shahrzad Chitsaz.

"A review of influencing factors and constructs on the Iranian women’s Islamic fashion market." Interdisciplinary Journal of Research in Business 1.4 (2011): 94-100.

• ^ Malik, Nesrine. "I was forced to wear the veil and I wish no other woman had to suffer it". The Telegraph . Retrieved 30 April 2014. • ^ Ali, Ayaan Hirsi (2010). Nomad: From Islam to America: A Personal Journey Through the Clash of Civilizations.

Atria. p. 16. • ^ Haider, Jaan. "German court bans facial veil in class" . Retrieved 30 April 2014. • ^ "Why Iran's Hardliners Are Tightening Enforcement of Hijab?". RFE/RL . Retrieved 12 September 2019. {/INSERTKEYS}

model busana muslim 2021

• ^ "An artistic woman's protest to imposed forced hijab by Iranian Islamic regime". 25 March 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2015.

• ^ WELT, DIE (16 May 2017). "Integration: Österreich stellt Tragen von Burka und Nikab unter Strafe". Die Welt. Retrieved 3 April 2018 – via • ^ "How will Austria's new headscarf ban affect Muslims?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 3 June 2019. • ^ "Austria approves headscarf ban in primary schools". The Guardian. • ^ Kamercommissie keurt verbod op dragen boerka's goed (in Dutch).

De Morgen, 31 March 2010. • ^ Edward Cody. Belgian lawmakers vote to ban full-face veils in public. The Washington Post, 30 April 2010. • ^ Bulgaria the latest European country to ban the burqa and niqab in public places, accessed 5 December 2016. • ^ "Are prohibited, without being exhaustive, wearing balaclava,veils (burqa, niqab .), masks or any other accessories or clothes that have the effect, in isolation or in combination with others, to hide the face".

Circulaire du 2 mars 2011 relative à la mise en œuvre de la loi model busana muslim 2021 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public. "JORF n°0052 du 3 mars 2011 page 4128". (in French). • ^ "LOI n° 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public – Legifrance". (in French).

Model busana muslim 2021 26 July 2015. • ^ "Circulaire du model busana muslim 2021 mars 2011 relative à la mise en œuvre de la loi n° 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public – Legifrance". (in French). Retrieved 26 July 2015. • ^ a b "Veil Ban in France". Huffington Post. Retrieved 21 April 2014.

• ^ "". 17 September 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2020. • ^ " model busana muslim 2021 in Latvian". 22 August 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2020. • ^ "A European government has banned Islamic face veils despite them being worn by just three women". 18 March 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2020. • ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2020. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link) • ^ (in Dutch) Kabinet akkoord met verbod gelaatsbedekkende kleding, Rijksoverheid.

Retrieved 5 June 2012 • ^ a b c "Why Turkey Lifted its Ban on Islamic Headscarf". National Geographic News. Retrieved 21 April 2014. • ^ "Syria Bans Full Islamic Veil". The World Post. Retrieved 21 April 2014. • ^ Poushter, Jacob. "How people in Muslim countries prefer women to dress in public".

Retrieved 30 April 2014. • ^ a b Poushter, Jacob. "How people in Muslim countries prefer women to dress in public". PewResearchCenter. Retrieved 29 April 2014. • ^ "Saudi: OK to uncover face in anti-burqa countries". The Associated Press. Retrieved 30 April 2014. • ^ Greene, Richard (10 January 2014). "No burqa required: Muslim world weighs in on women's dress".

CNN. Retrieved 29 October 2014. • ^ Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi, Culture and Customs of Somalia, (Greenwood Press: 2001), p.117-118. • ^ "Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Abercrombie & Fitch Stores, Inc" (PDF). Supreme Court of the United States. October 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2015. • ^ "Canada Bans Veils at Citizenship Oath". BBC News. Retrieved 21 April 2014.

• ^ "Bill 21: Quebec passes secularism law after marathon session". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 18 April 2022. • ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2014". United States Department of State. Retrieved 3 January 2016. • ^ Rivera de La Fuente, Vanessa (28 June 2012). "Should Chilean banks force 'no hijab' on Muslim women customers?". Women's News Network. Further reading [ edit ] • Soravia, Bruna, "Dress", in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C.

Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol I, pp. 153–156. • Theodore Gabriel; Rabiha Hannan (21 April 2011). Islam and the Veil: Theoretical and Regional Contexts. A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-4411-8225-8. External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related model busana muslim 2021 Islamic male dress.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Islamic female dress. • Islam101: Hijab In The Workplace Q&A • Traditional Islamic Clothing • BBC News: Graphic of the different styles of Muslim headscarf • Islamic Clothing Article • Islam Abaya Guide Hidden categories: • CS1 errors: generic name • CS1 errors: missing name • Webarchive template wayback links • CS1 French-language sources (fr) • Articles with Dutch-language sources (nl) • CS1 maint: archived copy as title • Articles with short description • Short description matches Wikidata • Articles needing more viewpoints from December 2015 • Use dmy dates from October 2021 • Articles to be expanded from April 2022 • All articles to be expanded • Articles using small message boxes • Wikipedia articles with style issues from February 2020 • All articles with style issues • Commons category link is locally defined Edit links • This page was last edited on 4 May 2022, at 17:51 (UTC).

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Foto: dok. Instagram - Lindsay Lohan pada November 2021 lalu mengumumkan pertunangannya dengan pria Arab bernama Bader Shammas.

Bertunangan dengan pria muslim yang berdomisili di Dubai, Lindsay pun tinggal di kota calon suaminya itu. Baru-baru ini, keduanya merayakan pertunangan mereka di Kuwait.

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Di Instagramnya, Lindsay membagikan momen bahagia tersebut. Di depan mereka ada kue bertingkat yang bagian atasnya terpanjang cincin pertunangan. Di kue tersebut pun ada tulisan 'she said yes'.

"My forever," begitu tulis Lindsay Lohan di keterangan foto Instagramnya yang diunggah belum lama ini. Sejak 2017, Lindsay Lohan menetap di Tanah Arab, tepatnya di Dubai. Dia mengaku bahwa tinggal di Dubai membawa ketenangan baginya. "Aku pikir itu karena paparazzi ilegal di sana," ucap aktris 35 tahun itu kepada Vogue. "Aku menemukan kehidupan privat, dan aku bisa memberikan waktu untuk diriku sendiri.

Aku memutuskan untuk tinggal di sana karena aku belajar untuk mengapresiasi apa yang terjadi, melakukan pekerjaanku, dan meninggalkannya, dan menjalani kehidupan normal," tambah Lindsay. Lindsay juga menuturkan bahwa semenjak tinggal di Dubai dia lebih menghargai dirinya sendiri. Dia pun merasa menjadi pribadi yang lebih bijaksana. "Aku belajar untuk mengatakan tidak, dan benar-benar mengutamakan diriku sendiri, dan memilih hal-hal yang ingin aku lakukan, dan menjadi bijaksana," ungkap Lindsay Lohan.

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TEMPO.CO, Jakarta - Hailey Bieber bekum berencana tampil kembali di runway dalam waktu dekat.

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Untuk langkah karier terbarunya, putri aktor Stephen Baldwin itu akan debut merek perawatan kulitnya Rhode Juni ini. Dia mengatakan bahwa produk perdananya akan fokus pada menjaga penghalang kelembapan kulit. Model tersebut membuka tentang prosesnya menciptakan produk, termasuk mengambil kelas dermatologi online dan berbicara dengan pendiri kecantikan lainnya termasuk Hyram Yarbro, Charlotte Palermino, dan Kim Kardashian.

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A Tunisian woman wearing a headscarf In modern usage, hijab ( Arabic: حجاب, romanized: ḥijāb, pronounced [ħɪˈdʒaːb]) refers to headcoverings worn by Muslim women.

While Islamic headcoverings can come in many forms, hijab often specifically refers to a cloth wrapped around the head and neck, covering the hair but leaving model busana muslim 2021 face visible. [1] The term ḥijāb was originally used to denote a partition, a curtain, or was used generally for the Islamic rules of modesty and dress for females. [1] [2] This is the usage in the verses of the Qur'an, in which the term hijab refers to a curtain separating visitors to Muhammad's main house from his wives' residential lodgings.

This has led some to claim that the mandate of the Qur'an applied only to the wives of Muhammad, and model busana muslim 2021 to entirety of women. [3] [4] Another interpretation can also refer to the seclusion of women from men in the public sphere, whereas a metaphysical dimension, may refer to "the veil which separates man, or the world, from God".

[5] The term for headscarf in the Quran is khimār ( Arabic: خِمار). [1] [6] [2] [7] [8] The Qur'an instructs Muslim women and men to dress modestly, [9] and for some, the hijab is worn by Muslim girls and women to maintain modesty and privacy from unrelated males. According to the Encyclopedia of Islam and Muslim World, model busana muslim 2021 concerns both model busana muslim 2021 and women's "gaze, gait, garments, and genitalia". [10] Some Islamic legal systems define this type of modest clothing as covering everything except the face and hands.

[5] [11] These guidelines are found in texts of hadith and fiqh developed after the revelation of the Qur'an. Some believe these are derived from the verses ( ayahs) referencing hijab in the Qur'an; [10] others believe that the Qur'an does not mandate that women need to wear a hijab. [12] [13] The hijab is currently required by law to be worn by women in Iran, Afghanistan, and the Indonesian province of Aceh.

[14] It is not required by law in Saudi Arabia, although Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman has stated that women must still wear "decent and respectful attire". [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] In Gaza, Palestinian jihadists belonging to the Unified Leadership (UNLU) have rejected a hijab policy for women.

[20] Other countries, both in Europe and in the Muslim world, have passed laws banning some or all types of hijab in public or in certain types of locales. Women in different parts of the world have also experienced unofficial pressure to wear or not wear a hijab. Contents • 1 In Islamic scripture • 1.1 Quran • 1.2 Hadith • 2 Dress code • 2.1 Sunni • 2.2 Shia • 2.3 Miscellaneous • 2.4 Quranists • 2.5 Alternative views • 3 Contemporary practice • 4 History • 4.1 Pre-Islamic veiling practices • 4.2 During Muhammad's lifetime • 4.3 Later pre-modern history • 4.4 Modern history • 4.4.1 Iran • 5 Around the world • 5.1 Legal enforcement • 5.2 Legal bans • 5.2.1 Muslim world • 5.2.2 Europe • 5.2.3 India • 5.3 Unofficial pressure to wear hijab • 5.4 Unofficial pressure against wearing hijab • 5.5 Workplace discrimination against hijab-wearing model busana muslim 2021 • 6 See also • 6.1 Covering variants • 6.2 Non-Muslim • 7 References • 7.1 Citations • 7.2 Sources • 8 External links In Islamic scripture [ edit ] Quran [ edit ] The Qur'an instructs both Muslim men and women to dress in a modest way, yet there is disagreement on how these instructions should be followed.

The verses relating to dress use the terms khimār (veil) and jilbāb (a dress or cloak) rather than ḥijāb. [2] Of the more than 6,000 verses in the Quran, about half a dozen refer specifically to the way a woman should dress and walk in public.

[21] The clearest verses on the requirement of modest dress are Surah 24:30–31, telling men and women to dress modestly. [22] [23] Say to the believing men that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts; that is purer for them; surely Allah is Aware of what they do. And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their private parts; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their khimār over their breasts and not display their beauty except to their husband, their fathers, their husband's fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or the slaves whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments.

— Quran 24:30 The word khimar, in the context of this verse, is commonly translated as "head coverings". [24] [25] Such head coverings were worn by women in Arabia at the advent of Islam. [26] In Surah 33:59, Muhammad is commanded to ask his family members and other Muslim women to wear outer garments when they go out, so that they are not harassed: [23] O Prophet!

Enjoin your wives, your daughters, and the believing women that they should cast their outer garments over their persons (when abroad): That is most convenient, that they may be distinguished and not be harassed. — Quran 33:59 The Islamic commentators generally agree this verse refers to sexual harassment of women of Medina.

It is also seen to refer to a free woman, for which Tabari cites Ibn Abbas. Ibn Kathir states that the jilbab distinguishes free Muslim women from those of Jahiliyyah, so other men know they are free women and not slaves or prostitutes, indicating covering oneself does not apply to non-Muslims. He cites Sufyan al-Thawri as commenting that while it may be seen as permitting looking upon non-Muslim women who adorn themselves, it is not allowed in order to avoid lust.

Al-Qurtubi concurs with Tabari about this ayah being for those who are free. He reports that the correct view is that a jilbab covers the whole body.

Model busana muslim 2021 also cites the Sahabah as saying it is no longer than a rida (a shawl or a wrapper that covers the upper body). He also reports a minority view which considers the niqab or head-covering as jilbab.

Ibn Arabi considered that excessive covering would make it impossible for a woman to be recognised which the verse mentions, though both Qurtubi and Tabari agree that the word recognition is about distinguishing free women. [27] Some scholars like Ibn Hayyan, Ibn Hazm and Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani questioned the ayah's common explanation. Hayyan believed that "believing women" referred to both free women and slaves as the latter are bound to more easily entice lust and their exclusion is not clearly indicated.

Hazm too believed that it covered Muslim slaves as it would violate the law of not molesting a slave or fornication with her like that with a free woman. He stated that anything not attributed to Muhammad should be disregarded.

[28] The word ḥijāb in the Quran refers not to women's clothing, but rather a spatial partition or curtain. [2] Sometimes its use is literal, as in the verse which refers to the screen that separated Muhammad's wives from the visitors to his house (33:53), while in other cases the word denotes separation between deity and mortals (42:51), wrongdoers and righteous (7:46, 41:5), believers and unbelievers (17:45), and light from darkness (38:32).

[2] The interpretations of the ḥijāb as separation can be classified into three types: as visual barrier, physical barrier, and ethical barrier. A visual barrier (for example, between Muhammad's family and the surrounding community) serves to hide from sight something, which places emphasis on a symbolic boundary.

A physical barrier is used to create a space that provides comfort and privacy for individuals, such as elite women. An ethical barrier, such as the expression purity of hearts in reference to Muhammad's wives and the Muslim men who visit them, makes something forbidden. [21] Hadith [ edit ] Main article: Woman prayer The hadith sources specify the details of hijab (Islamic rules of dress) for men and women, exegesis of the Qur'anic verses narrated by sahabah, and are a major source which Muslim legal scholars used to derive their rulings.

[29] [30] [31] • Narrated Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya, Ummul Mu'minin: "When the verse 'That they should cast their outer garments over their breasts' was revealed, the women model busana muslim 2021 Ansar came out as if they had crows hanging down over their heads by wearing outer garments." 32:4090.

Abū Dawud classed this hadith as authentic. • Narrated Safiya bint Shaiba: "Aisha used to say: 'When (the Verse): "They should draw their veils (khimaar) over their breasts (juyyub)," was revealed, (the ladies) cut their waist sheets at the edges and veiled themselves (Arabic: فَاخْتَمَرْنَ, lit.'to put on a hijab') with the cut pieces.'" Sahih al-Bukhari, 6:60:282, 32:4091.

This hadith is often translated as ".and covered their heads and faces with the cut pieces of cloth," [32] as the Arabic word used in the text (Arabic: فَاخْتَمَرْنَ) could include or exclude the face and there was ikhtilaf on whether covering the face is farḍ, or obligatory. The most prominent sharh, or explanation, of Sahih Bukhari is Fatḥ al-Bārī which states this included the face. • Yahya related to me from Malik from Muhammad ibn Zayd ibn Qunfudh that his mother asked Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "What clothes can a woman wear in prayer?" She said, "She can pray in the khimār (headscarf) and the diri' (Arabic: الدِّرْعِ, lit.'shield, armature', transl.

'a woman's garment') that reaches down and covers the top of her feet." Muwatta Imam Malik book 8 hadith 37. • Aishah narrated that Allah's Messenger said: "The Salat (prayer) of a woman who has reached the age of menstruation is not accepted without a khimār." Jami` at-Tirmidhi 377.

Dress code [ edit ] Women wearing tudongs (the Malay term for hijab) in Brunei The four major Sunni schools of thought ( Hanafi, Shafi'i, Maliki and Hanbali) hold by consensus that it is obligatory for women to cover their hair, [33] and the entire body except her hands and face, while in the presence of people of the opposite sex other than close family members.

[34] [35] [36] According to Hanafis and other scholars, these requirements extend to being around non-Muslim women as well, for fear that they may describe her physical features to unrelated men.

[37] The Sunni Permanent Committee for Islamic Research and Issuing Fatwas in Saudi Arabia, [38] and Muhammad ibn Adam Al-Kawthari [39] also believe women should cover their head. Men must cover from their belly buttons to their knees, though the schools differ on whether this includes covering the navel and knees or only what is between them. [40] [41] [42] [43] It is recommended that women wear clothing that is not form fitting to the body, model busana muslim 2021 as modest forms of Western clothing (long shirts and skirts), or the more traditional jilbāb, a high-necked, loose robe that covers the arms and legs.

A khimār or shaylah, a scarf or cowl that covers all but the face, is also worn in many different styles. [ citation needed] Shia [ edit ] Iranian-born Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani answers important questions about hijab on this website.

[44] The major and most important Shia hadith collections such as Nahj Al-Balagha and Kitab Al-Kafi for the most part do not give any details with regards to hijab requirements, however, in a quotation from Man La Yahduruhu al-Faqih Musa al-Kadhim when enquired by his brother solely makes reference to female hijab requirements during the salat (prayer), stating "She covers her body and head with it then prays.

And if her feet protrude from beneath, and she doesn't have the means to prevent that, there is no harm". [45] Miscellaneous [ edit ] In private, and in the presence of close relatives ( mahrams), rules on dress relax. However, in the presence of the husband, most scholars stress the importance of mutual freedom and pleasure of the husband and wife.

[46] Traditional scholars had differences of opinion on covering the hands and face. The majority adopted the opinion that the face and hands are not part of their nakedness. [ citation needed] Some held the opinion that covering the face is recommended if the woman's beauty is model busana muslim 2021 great that it is distracting and causes temptation or public discord. [ citation needed] Quranists [ edit ] Quranists are Muslims who view the Quran as the primary source of religious stipulation.

Some Quranist-oriented female Muslims observe the hijab and others do not. Queen Rania of Jordan once took a Quran-centric approach on why she does not observe model busana muslim 2021 hijab, although she has never self-identified as a Quranist. [47] Alternative views [ edit ] Along with scriptural arguments, Leila Ahmed argues that head covering should not be interpreted as being compulsory in Islam because the veil predates the revelation of the Qur'an.

Head-covering was introduced into Arabia long before Muhammad, primarily through Arab contacts with Syria and Iran, where the hijab was a sign of social status. After all, only a woman who need not work in the fields could afford to remain secluded and veiled. [3] [48] Among Ahmed's arguments is that while some Qur'anic verses enjoin women in general to model busana muslim 2021 their Jilbabs (overgarment or cloak) around them to be recognized as believers and so that no harm will come to them" [ Quran 33:58–59] and "guard their private parts .

and drape down khimar over their breasts [when in the presence of unrelated men]", [ Quran 24:31] they urge modesty. The word khimar refers to a piece of cloth that covers the head, or headscarf. [49] While the term "hijab" was originally anything that was used to conceal, [50] it became used to refer to concealing garments worn by women outside the house, specifically the headscarf or khimar. [51] According to at least three authors ( Karen Armstrong, Reza Aslan and Leila Ahmed), the stipulations of the hijab were originally meant only for Muhammad's wives, and were intended to maintain their inviolability.

This was because Muhammad conducted all religious and civic affairs in the mosque adjacent to his home: Afghan army and police officials wearing hijabs in Kandahar People were constantly coming in and out of this compound at all hours of the day. When delegations from other tribes came to speak with Prophet Muhammad, they would set up their tents for days at a time inside the open courtyard, just a few feet away from the apartments in which Prophet Muhammad's wives slept. And new emigrants who arrived in Yatrib would often stay within the mosque's walls until they could find suitable homes.

[3] According to Ahmed: By instituting seclusion Prophet Muhammad was creating a distance between his wives and this thronging community on their doorstep. [4] They argue that the term darabat al-hijab ('taking the veil') was used synonymously and interchangeably with "becoming Prophet Muhammad's wife", and that during Muhammad's life, no other Muslim woman wore the hijab. Aslan suggests that Muslim women started to wear the hijab to emulate Muhammad's wives, who are revered as "Mothers of the Believers" in Islam, [3] and states "there was no tradition of veiling until around 627 C.E." in the Muslim community.

[3] [4] Another interpretation differing from the traditional states that a veil is not compulsory in front of blind men and men lacking physical desire (i.e., asexuals and hyposexuals). [52] [53] Many scholars argue that these contemporary views and arguments, however, contradict the hadith sources, the classical scholars, exegesis sources, historical consensus, and interpretations of the companions (such as Aisha and Abdullah ibn Masud).

[ citation needed] Some traditionalist Muslim scholars accept the contemporary views and arguments as those hadith sources are not sahih and ijma would no longer be applicable if it is argued by scholars (even if it is argued by only one scholar). Notable examples of traditionalist Muslim scholars who accept these contemporary views include the Indonesian scholar Buya Hamka.

[ citation needed] Contemporary practice [ edit ] Further information: Types of hijab and Hijab by country The styles and practices model busana muslim 2021 hijab vary widely across the world. An opinion poll conducted in 2014 by The University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research asked residents of seven Muslim-majority countries (Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Tunisia, Turkey, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia) which style of women's dress they considered to be most appropriate in public.

[54] The survey found that the headscarf (in its tightly- or loosely-fitting form) was chosen by the majority of respondents in Egypt, Iraq, Tunisia and Turkey. [54] In Saudi Arabia 63% gave preference to the niqab face veil; in Pakistan the niqab, the full-length chador robe and the headscarf, received about a third of the votes each; while in Lebanon half of the respondents in the sample (which included Christians and Druze) opted for no head covering at all.

[54] [55] The survey found "no significant difference" in the preferences between surveyed men and women, except in Pakistan, where more men favored conservative women's dress. [55] However, women more strongly support women's right to choose how to dress. [55] People with university education are less conservative in their choice than those without one, and more supportive of women's right to decide their dress style, except in Saudi Arabia. [55] Muna AbuSulayman wearing a turban According to a Pew Research Center survey, among the roughly 1 million Muslim women living in the U.S., 43% regularly wear headscarves, while about a half do not cover their hair.

[58] In another Pew Research Center poll (2011), 36% of Muslim American women reported wearing hijab whenever they were in public, with an additional 24% saying they wear it most or some of the time, while 40% said they never wore the headcover. [59] Iranian woman in Isfahan wearing a hijab In Iran, where wearing the hijab is legally required, many women push the boundaries of the state-mandated dress code, risking a fine or a spell in detention.

[60] The Iranian president Hassan Rouhani had vowed to rein in the morality police and their presence on the streets has decreased since he took office, but the powerful conservative forces in the country have resisted his efforts, and the dress codes are still being enforced, especially during the summer months. [61] In Turkey the hijab was formerly banned in private and state universities and schools. The ban applied not to the scarf wrapped around the neck, traditionally worn by Anatolian peasant women, but to the head covering pinned neatly at the sides, called türban in Turkey, which has been adopted by a growing number of educated urban women since the 1980s.

As of the mid-2000s, over 60% of Turkish women covered their head outside home, though only 11% wore a türban. [62] [63] [64] [65] The ban was lifted from universities in 2008, [66] from government buildings in 2013, [67] and from schools in 2014. [68] History [ edit ] Pre-Islamic veiling practices [ edit ] Greek bronze statuette of a veiled and masked dancer, 2nd–3rd century BC.

Veiling did not originate with the advent of Islam. Statuettes depicting veiled priestesses date back as far as 2500 BC. [69] Elite women in ancient Mesopotamia and in the Byzantine, Greek, and Persian empires wore the veil as a sign of respectability and high status. [70] In ancient Mesopotamia, Assyria had explicit sumptuary laws detailing which women must veil and which women must not, depending upon the woman's class, rank, and occupation in society. [70] Female slaves and prostitutes were forbidden to veil and faced harsh penalties if they did so.

[2] Veiling was thus not only a marker of aristocratic rank, but also served to "differentiate between 'respectable' women and those who were publicly available". [2] [70] Strict seclusion and model busana muslim 2021 veiling of matrons were also customary in ancient Greece. Between 550 and 323 BCE, prior to Christianity, respectable women in classical Greek society were expected to seclude themselves and wear clothing that concealed them from the eyes of strange men.

[71] Roman pagan custom included the practice of the head covering worn by the priestesses of Vesta ( Vestal Virgins). [72] Pre-Islamic relief showing veiled women, Temple of Baal, Palmyra, Syria, 1st century CE. It is not clear whether the Hebrew Bible contains prescriptions with regard to veiling, but rabbinic literature presents it as a question of modesty ( tzniut). [72] Modesty became an important rabbinic virtue in the early Roman period, and it may have been intended to distinguish Jewish women from their non-Jewish counterparts in Babylonian and later in Greco-Roman society.

[72] According to rabbinical precepts, married Jewish women have to cover their hair (cf. Mitpaḥat). The surviving representations of veiled Jewish women may reflect general Roman customs rather than particular Jewish practices. [72] According to Fadwa El Guindi, at the inception of Christianity, Jewish women were veiling their heads and faces. [2] Roman statue of a Vestal Virgin The best-known view on Christian headcovering is delineated in the Bible within the passage in 1 Corinthians 11:4-7, which states that "every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her head".

[72] The early Church Fathers, including Tertullian of Carthage, Clement of Alexandria, Hippolytus of Rome, John Chrysostom and Augustine of Hippo attested in their writings that when praying, Christian women should cover their heads, while men should pray with their heads uncovered. [73] There is archeological evidence suggesting that early Christian women in Rome covered their heads, [72] and the practice of Christian headcovering continues among female adherents of many Christian denominations today, especially among Anabaptist Christians, Eastern Orthodox Christians, Oriental Orthodox Christians and Reformed Christians, as well as others.

[73] According to Leila Ahmed, the rigid norms pertaining to veiling and seclusion of women found in Christian Byzantine model busana muslim 2021 have been influenced by ancient Persian traditions, and there is evidence to suggest that they differed significantly from actual practice.

[74] In the Indian subcontinent, Hindu women cover their heads with a veil in a practice known as ghoonghat. [75] [76] Intermixing of populations resulted in a convergence of the cultural practices of Greek, Persian, and Mesopotamian empires and the Semitic peoples of the Middle East.

[2] Veiling and seclusion of women appear to have established themselves among Jews and Christians before spreading to urban Arabs of the upper classes and eventually among the urban masses. [2] In the rural areas it was common to cover the hair, but not the face. [2] Leila Ahmed argues that "Whatever the cultural source or sources, a fierce misogyny was a distinct ingredient of Mediterranean and eventually Christian thought in the centuries immediately preceding the rise of Islam." [77] Ahmed interprets veiling and segregation of sexes as an expression of a misogynistic view of shamefulness of sex which focused most intensely on shamefulness of the female body and danger of seeing it model busana muslim 2021.

[77] During Muhammad's lifetime [ edit ] Available evidence suggests that veiling was not introduced into Arabia by Muhammad, but already existed there, particularly in the towns, although it was probably not as widespread as in the neighboring countries such as Syria and Palestine.

[78] Similarly to the practice among Greeks, Romans, Jews, and Assyrians, its use was associated with high social status. [78] In the early Islamic texts, term hijab does not distinguish between veiling and seclusion, and can mean either "veil" or "curtain". [79] The only verses in the Qur'an that specifically reference women's clothing are those promoting modesty, instructing women to guard their private parts and draw their scarves over their breast area in the presence of men.

[80] The contemporary understanding of the hijab dates back to Hadith when the "verse of the hijab" descended model busana muslim 2021 the community in 627 CE. [81] Now documented in Sura 33:53, the verse states, "And when you ask [his wives] for something, ask them from behind a partition. That is purer for your hearts and their hearts".

[82] This verse, however, was not addressed to women in general, but exclusively to Muhammad's wives. As Muhammad's influence increased, he entertained model busana muslim 2021 and more visitors in the mosque, which was then his home. Often, these visitors stayed the night only feet away from his wives' apartments. It is commonly understood that this verse was intended to protect his wives from these strangers.

[83] During Muhammad's lifetime the term for donning the veil, darabat al-hijab, was used interchangeably with "being Muhammad's wife". [78] Later pre-modern history [ edit ] The practice of veiling was borrowed from the elites of the Byzantine and Persian empires, where it was a symbol of respectability and high social status, during the Arab conquests of those empires. [84] Reza Aslan argues that "The veil was neither compulsory nor widely adopted until generations after Muhammad's death, when a large body of male scriptural and legal scholars began using their religious and political authority to regain the dominance they had lost in society as a result of the Prophet's egalitarian reforms".

[83] Because Islam identified with the monotheistic religions of the conquered empires, the practice was adopted as an appropriate expression of Qur'anic ideals regarding modesty and piety. [85] Veiling gradually spread to upper-class Arab women, and eventually it became widespread among Muslim women in cities throughout the Middle East. Veiling of Arab Muslim women became especially pervasive under Ottoman rule as a mark of rank and exclusive lifestyle, and Istanbul of the 17th century witnessed differentiated dress styles that reflected geographical and occupational identities.

[2] Women in rural areas were much slower to adopt veiling because the garments interfered with their work in the model busana muslim 2021.

[86] Since wearing a veil was impractical for working women, "a veiled woman silently announced that her husband was rich enough to keep her idle." [87] By the 19th century, upper-class urban Muslim and Christian women in Egypt wore a garment which included a head cover and a burqa ( muslin cloth that covered the lower nose and the mouth).

model busana muslim 2021

{INSERTKEYS} [2] The name of this garment, harabah, derives from early Christian and Judaic religious vocabulary, which may indicate the origins of the garment itself. [2] Up to the first half of the twentieth century, rural women in the Maghreb and Egypt put on a form of niqab when they visited urban areas, "as a sign of civilization". [88] Modern history [ edit ] A model displaying a fashionable hijab at "Moslema In Style Fashion Show" in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Western clothing largely dominated in Muslim countries the 1960s and 1970s. [89] [90] For example, in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran, some women wore short skirts, flower printed hippie dresses, flared trousers, [91] and went out in public without the hijab. [ citation needed] This changed following the Soviet–Afghan War, [ citation needed] military dictatorship in Pakistan, and Iranian revolution of 1979, when traditional conservative attire including the abaya, jilbab and niqab made a comeback.

[92] [93] There were demonstrations in Iran in March 1979, after the hijab law was brought in, decreeing that women in Iran would have to wear scarves to leave the house. [94] However, this phenomenon did not happen in all countries with a significant Muslim population, in countries such as Turkey, there has been a decline on women wearing the hijab in recent years, [95] although under Erdoğan Turkey is becoming more conservative and Islamic, as Turkey repeals the Atatürk-era hijab ban, [96] [97] and the founding of new fashion companies catering to women who want to dress more conservatively.

[98] Gamal Abdel Nasser laughing at the Muslim Brotherhood for suggesting in 1953 that women should be required to wear the hijab. In 1953, Egyptian leader President Gamal Abdel Nasser claims that he was told by the leader of the Muslim Brotherhood organization that they wanted to enforce the wearing of the hijab, to which Nasser responded, "Sir, I know you have a daughter in college, and she doesn't wear a headscarf or anything!

Why don't you make her wear the headscarf? So you can't make one girl, your own daughter, wear it, and yet you want me to go and make ten million women wear it?" [ citation needed] The late-twentieth century saw a resurgence of the hijab in Egypt after a long period of decline as a result of westernization. Already in the mid-1970s some college aged Muslim men and women began a movement meant to reunite and rededicate themselves to the Islamic faith.

[99] [100] This movement was named the Sahwah, [101] or awakening, and sparked a period of heightened religiosity that began to be reflected in the dress code. [99] The uniform adopted by the young female pioneers of this movement was named al-Islāmī (Islamic dress) and was made up of an "al-jilbāb—an unfitted, long-sleeved, ankle-length gown in austere solid colors and thick opaque fabric—and al-khimār, a head cover resembling a nun's wimple that covers the hair low to the forehead, comes under the chin to conceal the neck, and falls down over the chest and back".

[99] In addition to the basic garments that were mostly universal within the movement, additional measures of modesty could be taken depending on how conservative the followers wished to be.

Some women choose to also utilize a face covering (al-niqāb) that leaves only eye slits for sight, as well as both gloves and socks in order to reveal no visible skin. [ citation needed] Soon this movement expanded outside of the youth realm and became a more widespread Muslim practice. Women viewed this way of dress as a way to both publicly announce their religious beliefs as well as a way to simultaneously reject western influences of dress and culture that were prevalent at the time.

Despite many criticisms of the practice of hijab being oppressive and detrimental to women's equality, [100] many Muslim women view the way of dress to be a positive thing.

It is seen as a way to avoid harassment and unwanted sexual advances in public and works to desexualize women in the public sphere in order to instead allow them to enjoy equal rights of complete legal, economic, and political status. This modesty was not only demonstrated by their chosen way of dress but also by their serious demeanor which worked to show their dedication to modesty and Islamic beliefs.

[99] Taekwondo medalists from Spain, Britain, Iran and Egypt at Rio Olympics, 2016 [102] Controversy erupted over the practice. Many people, both men and women from backgrounds of both Islamic and non-Islamic faith questioned the hijab and what it stood for in terms of women and their rights.

There was questioning of whether in practice the hijab was truly a female choice or if women were being coerced or pressured into wearing it. [99] Many instances, such as the Islamic Republic of Iran's current policy of forced veiling for women, have brought these issues to the forefront and generated great debate from both scholars and everyday people.

[ citation needed] As the awakening movement gained momentum, its goals matured and shifted from promoting modesty towards more of a political stance in terms of retaining support for Pan-Islamism and a symbolic rejection of Western culture and norms. Today the hijab means many different things for different people. For Islamic women who choose to wear the hijab it allows them to retain their modesty, morals and freedom of choice.

[100] They choose to cover because they believe it is liberating and allows them to avoid harassment. Many people (both Muslim and non-Muslim) [ who?] are against the wearing of the hijab and argue that the hijab causes issues with gender relations, works to silence and repress women both physically and metaphorically, and have many other problems with the practice.

[ citation needed] This difference in opinions has generated a plethora of discussion on the subject, both emotional and academic, which continues today. Ever since 11 September 2001, the discussion and discourse on the hijab has intensified. Many nations have attempted to put restrictions on the hijab, which has led to a new wave of rebellion by women who instead turn to covering and wearing the hijab in even greater numbers. [100] [103] Iran [ edit ] In Iran some women act to transform the hijab by challenging the regime subsequently reinventing culture and women's identity within Iran.

The female Iranian fashion designer, Naghmeh Kiumarsi, challenges the regime's notion of culture through publicly designing, marketing, and selling clothing pieces that feature tight fitting jeans, and a “skimpy” headscarf. [104] Kiumarsi embodies her own notion of culture and identity and utilizes fashion to value the differences among Iranian women, as opposed to a single identity under the Islamic dress code and welcomes the evolution of Iranian culture with the emergence of new style choices and fashion trends.

Women's resistance in Iran is gaining traction as an increasing number of women challenge the mandatory wearing of the hijab. Smith (2017) addressed the progress that Iranian women have made in her article, “Iran surprises by realizing Islamic dress code for women,” [105] published by The Times, a reputable news organization based in the UK.

The Iranian government has enforced their penal dress codes less strictly and instead of imprisonment as a punishment have implemented mandatory reform classes in the liberal capital, Tehran.

General Hossein Rahimi, the Tehran's police chief stated, “Those who do not observe the Islamic dress code will no longer be taken to detention centers, nor will judicial cases be filed against them” (Smith, 2017).

The remarks of Tehran's recent police chief in 2017 reflect political progress in contrast with the remarks of Tehran's 2006 police chief. [105] [106] Iranian women activists have made a headway since 1979 relying on fashion to enact cultural and political change. Critics of forcing women to wear a headscarf label this practice as Islamofascist. [107] Critics of the hijab such as Masih Alinejad also see it as discriminatory to women.

[108] Around the world [ edit ] Map showing prevalence of hijab wearing across the world and indicating countries where there are restrictions on wearing it. Some governments encourage and even oblige women to wear the hijab, while others have banned it in at least some public settings. In many parts of the world women also experience informal pressure for or against wearing hijab, including physical attacks.

Legal enforcement [ edit ] In Gaza, Palestinian Jihadists belonging to the Unified Leadership (UNLU) have rejected a hijab policy for women. [109] They have also targeted those who seek to impose the hijab. [110] Iran went from banning all types of veils in 1936, to making Islamic dress mandatory for women following the Islamic Revolution in 1979. [111] In April 1980, it was decided that women in government offices and educational institutions would be mandated to veil.

[111] The 1983 penal code prescribed punishment of 74 lashes for women appearing in public without Islamic hijab ( hijab shar'ee), leaving the definition of proper hijab ambiguous. [112] [113] The same period witnessed tensions around the definition of proper hijab, which sometimes resulted in vigilante harassment of women who were perceived to wear improper clothing. [111] [112] In 1984, Tehran's public prosecutor announced that a stricter dress-code should be observed in public establishments, while clothing in other places should correspond to standards observed by the majority of the people.

[111] A new regulation issued in 1988 by the Ministry of the Interior based on the 1983 law further specified what constituted violations of hijab. [114] Iran's current penal code stipulates a fine or 10 days to two months in prison as punishment for failure to observe hijab in public, without specifying its form. [115] [116] The dress code has been subject of alternating periods of relatively strict and relaxed enforcement over the years, with many women pushing its boundaries, and its compulsory aspect has been a point of contention between conservatives and the current president Hassan Rouhani.

[115] [117] [118] The United Nations Human Rights Council recently called on Iran to guarantee the rights of those human rights defenders and lawyers supporting anti-hijab protests. [119] In governmental and religious institutions, the dress code requires khimar-type headscarf and overcoat, while in other public places women commonly wear a loosely tied headscarf (rousari).

[ citation needed] The Iranian government endorses and officially promotes stricter types of veiling, praising it by invoking both Islamic religious principles and pre-Islamic Iranian culture.

[120] The Indonesian province of Aceh requires Muslim women to wear hijab in public. [121] Indonesia's central government granted Aceh's religious leaders the right to impose Sharia in 2001, in a deal aiming to put an end to the separatist movement in the province. [121] The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia formally requires Muslim women to cover their hair and all women to wear a full-body garment but it has not been enforced recently.

[122] [123] [124] Saudi women commonly wear the traditional abaya robe, while foreigners sometimes opt for a long coat. [125] These regulations are enforced by the religious police and vigilantes. [125] In 2002 the Saudi religious police were accused by Saudi and international press of hindering the rescue of schoolgirls from a fire because they were not wearing hijab, which resulted in 15 deaths.

[126] In 2018, the Saudi crown prince Mohammad bin Salman told CBS News that Saudi law requires women to wear "decent, respectful clothing", and that women are free to decide what form it should take. [124] Legal bans [ edit ] Muslim world [ edit ] The tradition of veiling hair in Persian culture has ancient pre-Islamic origins, [127] but the widespread custom was ended by Reza Shah's government in 1936, as hijab was considered to be incompatible with modernization and he ordered "unveiling" act or Kashf-e hijab.

In some cases the police arrested women who wore the veil and would forcibly remove it. These policies had popular support but outraged the Shi'a clerics, to whom appearing in public without their cover was tantamount to nakedness. Some women refused to leave the house out of fear of being assaulted by Reza Shah's police.

[128] In 1941, the compulsory element in the policy of unveiling was abandoned. Turkey had a ban on headscarves at universities until recently. In 2008, the Turkish government attempted to lift a ban on Muslim headscarves at universities, but were overturned by the country's Constitutional Court. [129] In December 2010, however, the Turkish government ended the headscarf ban in universities, government buildings and schools.

[130] In Tunisia, women were banned from wearing hijab in state offices in 1981 and in the 1980s and 1990s, more restrictions were put in place. [131] In 2017, Tajikistan banned hijabs. Minister of Culture, Shamsiddin Orumbekzoda, told Radio Free Europe Islamic dress was "really dangerous". Under existing laws, women wearing hijabs are already banned from entering the country's government offices. [132] [133] Europe [ edit ] A veil-burning ceremony in USSR as part of Soviet Hujum policies On 15 March 2004, France passed a law banning "symbols or clothes through which students conspicuously display their religious affiliation" in public primary schools, middle schools, and secondary schools.

In the Belgian city of Maaseik, the niqāb has been banned since 2006. [134] On 13 July 2010, France's lower house of parliament overwhelmingly approved a bill that would ban wearing the Islamic full veil in public.

It became the first European country to ban the full-face veil in public places, [135] followed by Belgium, Latvia, Bulgaria, Austria, Denmark and some cantons of Switzerland in the following years. Belgium banned the full-face veil in 2011 in places like parks and on the streets. In September 2013, the electors of the Swiss canton of Ticino voted in favour of a ban on face veils in public areas. [136] In 2016, Latvia and Bulgaria banned the burqa in public places.

[137] [138] In October 2017, wearing a face veil became also illegal in Austria. This ban also includes scarves, masks and clown paint that cover faces to avoid discriminating against Muslim dress. [135] In 2016, Bosnia-Herzegovina's supervising judicial authority upheld a ban on wearing Islamic headscarves in courts and legal institutions, despite protests from the Muslim community that constitutes 40% of the country. [139] [140] In 2017, the European Court of Justice ruled that companies were allowed to bar employees from wearing visible religious symbols, including the hijab.

However, if the company has no policy regarding the wearing of clothes that demonstrate religious and political ideas, a customer cannot ask employees to remove the clothing item. [141] In 2018, Danish parliament passed a law banning the full-face veil in public places. [142] In 2016, more than 20 French towns banned the use of the burqini, a style of swimwear intended to accord with rules of hijab.

[143] [144] [145] Dozens of women were subsequently issued fines, with some tickets citing not wearing "an outfit respecting good morals and secularism", and some were verbally attacked by bystanders when they were confronted by the police.

[143] [146] [147] [148] Enforcement of the ban also hit beachgoers wearing a wide range of modest attire besides the burqini. [143] [148] Media reported that in one case the police forced a woman to remove part of her clothing on a beach in Nice. [146] [147] [148] The Nice mayor's office denied that she was forced to do so and the mayor condemned what he called the "unacceptable provocation" of wearing such clothes in the aftermath of the Nice terrorist attack.

[143] [148] A team of psychologists in Belgium have investigated, in two studies of 166 and 147 participants, whether the Belgians' discomfort with the Islamic hijab, and the support of its ban from the country's public sphere, is motivated by the defense of the values of autonomy and universalism (which includes equality), or by xenophobia/ethnic prejudice and by anti-religious sentiments.

The studies have revealed the effects of subtle prejudice/racism, values (self-enhancement values and security versus universalism), and religious attitudes (literal anti-religious thinking versus spirituality), in predicting greater levels of anti-veil attitudes beyond the effects of other related variables such as age and political conservatism. [149] In 2019, Austria banned the hijab in schools for children up to ten years of age. The ban was motivated by the equality between men and women and improving social integration with respect to local customs.

Parents who send their child to school with a headscarf will be fined 440 euro. [150] The ban was overturned in 2020 by the Austrian Constitutional Court. [151] In 2019, Staffanstorp Municipality in Sweden banned all veils for school pupils up to sixth grade. [152] India [ edit ] See also: Karnataka hijab controversy In January 2022, a number of colleges in South-Indian state of Karnataka stopped female students wearing hijab from entering the campus following which the state government issued a circular banning 'religious clothes' in educational institutions where uniforms are prescribed.

[153] On 15 March 2022, the Karnataka High Court, in a highly controversial verdict, upheld the hijab ban in educational institutions arguing that the practice is non-essential in Islam. [154] Unofficial pressure to wear hijab [ edit ] See also: Honor killing and Islamization of the Gaza Strip Muslim girls and women have fallen victim to honor killings in both the Western world and elsewhere for refusing to wearing the hijab or for wearing it in a way considered to be improper by the perpetrators.

[155] Successful informal coercion of women by sectors of society to wear hijab has been reported in Gaza where Mujama' al-Islami, the predecessor of Hamas, reportedly used "a mixture of consent and coercion" to "'restore' hijab" on urban educated women in Gaza in the late 1970s and 1980s. [156] Similar behaviour was displayed by Hamas itself during the First Intifada in Palestinian territories.

Though a relatively small movement at this time, Hamas exploited the political vacuum left by perceived failures in strategy by the Palestinian factions to call for a "return" to Islam as a path to success, a campaign that focused on the role of women. [157] Hamas campaigned for the wearing of the hijab alongside other measures, including insisting women stay at home, segregation from men and the promotion of polygamy.

In the course of this campaign women who chose not to wear the hijab were verbally and physically harassed, with the result that the hijab was being worn "just to avoid problems on the streets". [158] Wearing of the hijab was enforced by the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.

The Taliban required women to cover not only their head but their face as well, because "the face of a woman is a source of corruption" for men not related to them. [159] In Srinagar, the capital of Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, a previously unknown militant group calling itself Lashkar-e-Jabbar claimed responsibility for a series of acid attacks on women who did not wear the burqa in 2001, threatening to punish women who do not adhere to their vision of Islamic dress.

Women of Kashmir, most of whom are not fully veiled, defied the warning, and the attacks were condemned by prominent militant and separatist groups of the region. [160] [161] In 2006, radicals in Gaza have been accused of attacking or threatening to attack the faces of women in an effort to intimidate them from wearing allegedly immodest dress. [163] In 2014 the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant was reported to have executed several women for not wearing niqab with gloves.

[164] In April 2019 in Norway, telecom company Telia received bomb threats after featuring a Muslim woman taking off her hijab in a commercial. Although the police did not evaluate the threat likely to be carried out, delivering threats is still a crime in Norway.

[165] Unofficial pressure against wearing hijab [ edit ] In recent years, women wearing the hijab have been subjected to verbal and physical attacks worldwide, particularly following terrorist attacks. [166] [167] [168] [169] Louis A.

Cainkar writes that the data suggest that women in hijab rather than men are the predominant target of anti-Muslim attacks not because they are more easily identifiable as Muslims, but because they are seen to represent a threat to the local moral order that the attackers are seeking to defend. [167] Some women stop wearing hijab out of fear or following perceived pressure from their acquaintances, but many refuse to stop wearing it out of religious conviction even when they are urged to do so for self-protection.

[167] Kazakhstan has no official ban on wearing hijab, but those who wear it have reported that authorities use a number of tactics to discriminate against them. [170] In 2015, authorities in Uzbekistan organized a "deveiling" campaign in the capital city Tashkent, during which women wearing hijab were detained and taken to a police station.

Those who agreed to remove their hijab were released "after a conversation", while those who refused were transferred to the counterterrorism department and given a lecture. Their husbands or fathers were then summoned to convince the women to obey the police. This followed an earlier campaign in the Fergana Valley. [171] After the election of Shavkat Mirziyoyev as President of Uzbekistan in December 2016, Muslims were given the opportunity to openly express their religious identity, which, manifested itself in the wider spread of hijabs in Uzbekistan.

In July 2021, the state allowed the wearing of the hijab in public places [172] In 2016 in Kyrgyzstan, the government has sponsored street banners aiming to dissuade women from wearing the hijab.

[173] Workplace discrimination against hijab-wearing women [ edit ] See also: Hijabophobia The issue of discrimination of Muslims is more prevalent among Muslim women due to the hijab being an observable declaration of faith. Particularly after the September 11 attacks and the coining of the term Islamophobia, some of Islamophobia's manifestations are seen within the workplace.

[174] Women wearing the hijab are at risk of discrimination in their workplace because the hijab helps identify them for anyone who may hold Islamophobic attitudes. [175] [176] Their association with the Islamic faith automatically projects any negative stereotyping of the religion onto them. [177] As a result of the heightened discrimination, some Muslim women in the workplace resort to taking off their hijab in hopes to prevent any further prejudice acts.

[178] A number of Muslim women who were interviewed expressed that perceived discrimination also poses a problem for them. [179] To be specific, Muslim women shared that they chose not to wear the headscarf out of fear of future discrimination.

[179] The discrimination Muslim women face goes beyond affecting their work experience, it also interferes with their decision to uphold religious obligations. In result of discrimination Muslim women in the United States have worries regarding their ability to follow their religion because it might mean they are rejected employment. [180] Ali, Yamada, and Mahmoud (2015) [181] state that women of color who also follow the religion of Islam are considered to be in what is called “triple jeopardy”, due to being a part of two minority groups subject to discrimination.

Ali et al. (2015) [181] study found a relationship between the discrimination Muslims face at work and their job satisfaction. In other words, the discrimination Muslim women face at work is associated with their overall feeling of contentment of their jobs, especially compared to other religious groups.

[182] Muslim women not only experience discrimination whilst in their job environment, they also experience discrimination in their attempts to get a job. An experimental study conducted on potential hiring discrimination among Muslims found that in terms of overt discrimination there were no differences between Muslim women who wore traditional Islamic clothing and those who did not.

However, covert discrimination was noted towards Muslim who wore the hijab, and as a result were dealt with in a hostile and rude manner. [183] While observing hiring practices among 4,000 employers in the U.S, experimenters found that employers who self-identified as Republican tended to avoid making interviews with candidates who appeared Muslim on their social network pages. [184] One instance that some view as hijab discrimination in the workplace that gained public attention and made it to the Supreme Court was EEOC v.

Abercrombie & Fitch. The U.S Equal Employment Opportunity Commission took advantage of its power granted by Title VII and made a case for a young hijabi female who applied for a job, but was rejected due to her wearing a headscarf which violated Abercrombie & Fitch's pre-existing and longstanding policy against head coverings and all black garments. [185] Discrimination levels differ depending on geographical location; for example, South Asian Muslims in the United Arab Emirates do not perceive as much discrimination as their South Asian counterparts in the U.S.

[186] Although, South Asian Muslim women in both locations are similar in describing discrimination experiences as subtle and indirect interactions. [186] The same study also reports differences among South Asian Muslim women who wear the hijab, and those who do not. For non-hijabis, they reported to have experienced more perceived discrimination when they were around other Muslims. [186] Perceived discrimination is detrimental to well-being, both mentally and physically.

[187] However, perceived discrimination may also be related to more positive well-being for the individual. [188] A study in New Zealand concluded that while Muslim women who wore the headscarf did in fact experience discrimination, these negative experiences were overcome by much higher feelings of religious pride, belonging, and centrality.

[188] See also [ edit ] • ^ a b c Mark Juergensmeyer, Wade Clark Roof, ed. (2012). "Hijab". Encyclopedia of Global Religion. Vol. 1. SAGE Publications. p. 516. doi: 10.4135/9781412997898. ISBN 9780761927297. • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n El Guindi, Fadwa; Sherifa Zahur (2009). Hijab. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. doi: 10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001.

ISBN 9780195305135. • ^ a b c d e Aslan, Reza, No God but God, Random House, (2005), p.65–6 • ^ a b c Ahmed, Leila (1992). Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. ISBN 9780300055832 . Retrieved 20 April 2013. • ^ a b c Glasse, Cyril (2001). "hijab". The New Encyclopedia of Islam. Altamira Press. pp. 179–180. • ^ Lane's Lexicon page 519 and 812 • ^ Contemporary Fatwas by Sheik Yusuf Al Qaradawi, vol. 1, pp. 453-455 • ^ Ruh Al Ma’ani by Shihaab Adeen Abi Athanaa’, vol.

18, pp. 309, 313 • ^ Martin et al. (2003), Encyclopedia of Islam & the Muslim World, Macmillan Reference, ISBN 978-0028656038 • ^ a b Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (2003), p. 721, New York: Macmillan Reference USA • ^ Fisher, Mary Pat.

Living Religions. New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2008. • ^ "unicornsorg". Archived from the original on 21 December 2015 . Retrieved 26 December 2015. • ^ "". Archived from the original on 27 December 2015 .

Retrieved 26 December 2015. • ^ " 'Why didn't you wear a hijab?' Taliban militants shoot 21-year-old Afghan girl". News Track. 5 August 2021 . Retrieved 15 August 2021. • ^ "9 Misconceptions about traveling to Saudi Arabia as a woman - Against the Compass". 9 January 2021 . Retrieved 6 February 2021. I did not cover my hair because, one, it’s not the law, and two, I didn’t have a scarf anyway. • ^ Abdulaziz, Donna (2 October 2019).

"Saudi Women Are Breaking Free From the Black Abaya". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660 . Retrieved 6 February 2021. Almost immediately, women became more comfortable wearing their headscarves loosely or not at all • ^ "Women in Saudi Arabia do not need to wear head cover, says crown prince". The Irish Times . Retrieved 6 February 2021. This, however, does not particularly specify a black abaya or a black head cover.

The decision is entirely left for women to decide what type of decent and respectful attire she chooses to wear. • ^ Nic Robertson (5 December 2020). "Saudi Arabia has changed beyond recognition. But will tourists want to visit?". CNN. • ^ Mail, Daily (15 September 2019).

"Rebel Saudi women appear in public without hijab, abaya; onlookers stunned - New Straits Times". NST Online . Retrieved 13 January 2021. • ^ "Women, the Hijab and the Intifada". 4 May 1990. • ^ a b Bucar, Elizabeth, The Islamic Veil. Oxford, England: Oneworld Publications , 2012.

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• Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512558-0. • Yurdakul, Gökce and Anna C. Korteweg. ' ' The Headscarf Debates: Conflicts of National Belonging (Stanford University Press; 2014) Media debates on stigmatizing Muslim women and how Muslim women respond to these critics for the country cases of Germany, Turkey, the Netherlands and France.

External links [ edit ] Wikiquote has quotations related to: Hijab Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hijab.

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Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • •Acara tersebut diselenggarakan Ubaya dalam rangka menyambut kedatangan mahasiswa kuliah tatap muka secara penuh dengan fashion show.

Ungkapan senang karena kembali berkuliah dilakukan dengan melambaikan tangan melihat fashion show di atas trotoar tersebut. BACA JUGA: Puluhan Ribu Orang Dukung Petisi Selamatkan Reog Dosen Fakultas Industri Kreatif Ubaya Hany Mustikasari S.Sn., mengatakan kegiatan tersebut dalam menyambut mahasiswa dikarenakan lebih interaktif dan kesan anak muda serta membawa aura semangat tertuang dalam setiap kostum.

Koleksi busana yang dipakai 10 model mahasiswa itu bertema Anemoia milik mahasiswa FIK Ubaya. BACA JUGA: RS Lapangan Indrapura, Surabaya Tutup, Kasus Covid-19 Turun "Koleksi ini merupakan karya mahasiswa FIK yang menjalani tugas akhir dan menempuh mata kuliah Local Content Design Project. Sehingga kegiatan ini bersifat dari mahasiswa untuk mahasiswa," ujarnya. Sementara itu, trotoar depan kampus Ubaya dipilih menjadi catwalk fashion show untuk membuat pesan sambutan lebih tertuju pada mahasiswa.

BACA JUGA: Mahasiswa Surabaya Ungkap Alasan Pilih Aksi Demo Tanggal 14 April Mahasiswa FIK Ubaya angkatan 2019, sekaligus koordinator catwalk fashion show Audrey Ernestina menjelaskan, koleksi Anemoia terdapat perpaduan warna yang harmonis dan selaras.
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Peragaan busana diharapkan mengatasi stereotip kelompok pribumi Brasil REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, BRASILIA -- Sebuah peragaan busana pribumi pertama yang diselenggarakan di Manaus, negara bagian Amazonas, Brasil, pada Sabtu (9/4) waktu setempat disebut sebagai upaya perlawanan atau cara mengatasi stereotip mengenai kelompok pribumi Brasil. Baca Juga • Pemkab Kulon Progo akan Atur Alokasi Solar pada Mudik Lebaran 2022 • Boyolali Belum PTM 100 Persen karena Status Masih Pandemi Covid-19 • 25 Burung Nuri Maluku Dilepasliarkan di Kawasan Suaka Alam Masbait Menurut Ferreira, banyak orang di Manaus merasa malu atau bahkan takut mengakui dirinya pribumi.

Ia mengatakan peragaan busana ini bertujuan untuk mendorong keterlibatan banyak orang dan menunjukkan budaya kepada semua orang melalui pakaian. Acara tersebut bagian dari Pameran Busana Pribumi Antarbudaya. Pertunjukan pada Sabtu (9/4) itu diadakan di Istana Rio Negro, sebuah bangunan awal abad ke-20 yang sekarang berfungsi sebagai pusat budaya. "Saya merasa bahagia model busana muslim 2021 bangga. Kami sangat ingin menunjukkan bakat kami, dalam menjahit, dalam kerajinan.

Untuk menunjukkan kepada dunia bahwa masyarakat adat juga bisa berhasil di bidang fesyen," kata Moan, seorang model berusia 19 tahun, kepada AFP. Peragaan busana menghadirkan tiga puluh tujuh model, termasuk perempuan dan laki-laki, yang mewakili 15 kelompok pribumi Brasil. Sepanjang April, acara ini akan menampilkan model busana muslim 2021 29 desainer pribumi. Para desainer menggunakan elemen alami dalam karya mereka, termasuk gigi tombak dari hewan pekari atau babi hutan, buah guarana merah, biji acai, dan tempurung kelapa.

Pola geometris yang tergambar di wajah atau bagian tubuh lainnya juga tampak dalam kain yang dikenakan para model. Saat pertunjukan berlangsung di atas panggung, seorang pembawa acara menyebutkan etnisitas masing-masing model serta menjelaskan simbolisme di balik pakaian dan aksesori yang mereka kenakan.

Dalam waktu yang bersamaan di lokasi lain, ribuan penduduk asli Brasil tengah berkumpul di ibu kota Brasilia untuk acara berkemah massal tahunan yang disebut Terra Livre (Free Land).

Pertemuan itu merupakan aksi unjuk rasa untuk hak-hak adat dan protes terhadap pemerintah sayap kanan Presiden Jair Bolsonaro yang mendukung pembukaan cagar alam model busana muslim 2021 perusahaan pertambangan dan pertanian.
• TAGs: • dimarahi keluarga • Fatehpur Uttar Prades • Juliane Koepcke • doa pagi setelah salat subuh • Caymi Studnicka • biaya hidup • dzikir pendek setiap hari • Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance • Bella Esmeralda • Zayden Kai Callisto • mas Bian • Wedding Agreement • George Perez • • Kenjeran Park • Park Jun • Vera Nanda Putri • Liang • Charn Janwatchkal • surat yang wajib dibaca setelah sholat Maklum, janda Adjie Massaid ini mulai kebanjiran pekerjaan.

Kini ibu Keanu Massaid itu mulai tampil di beberapa acara televisi juga jadi bintang tamu sejumlah channel Youtube, termasuk Maia Estianty. Bukan hanya itu, endorse juga mulai berdatangan pada Angelina Sondakh. Baca juga: Cari Duit Halal Jualan Kue, Angelina Sondakh Jadi Khawatir Keanu, Kepergok Lakukan Hal Terlarang Baca juga: Kedekatan dengan Aaliyah Tak Bisa Diungkapkan Lewat Kata-kata, Angelina Sondakh: Mami Selalu Ingat Angelina Sondakh (Harian Warta Kota/henry lopulalan) Lihat saja akun instagramnya, mulai banyak postingan endorse, mulai produk kecantikan, jasa psikolog, makanan hingga fashion.

Nah, baru-baru ini, Angie malah tampil jadi model di catwalk. Angie menunjukkan pesonanya di atas panggung saat menjadi model busana muslimah dari suatu brand. Memang, usai bebas dari penjara atas kasus korupsi yang menjeratnya, janda Adjie Massaid tersebut memutuskan untuk kembali menjadi artis. Putri Indonesia 2021 tersebut dulunya memang berkiprah di dunia entertainment selain menjadi politikus. Kini ia akhirnya kembali mencari rezeki sebagai artis bahkan sudah mulai wara-wiri di televisi.

Terbaru, dilansir melalui instagram stories @angelinasondakh terekam aktivitas ibunda Keanu Massaid itu sedang berlenggak-lenggok di atas panggung.

Angie digandeng menjadi model busana muslim SiSeSa.

Busana muslim terbaru 2021