• Entertainment & Pop Culture • Geography & Travel • Health & Medicine • Lifestyles & Social Issues • Literature • Philosophy & Religion • Politics, Law & Government • Science • Sports & Recreation • Technology • Visual Arts chordophone World History • On This Day in History • Quizzes • Podcasts • Games • Dictionary • Biographies • Summaries • Top Questions • Week In Review • Infographics • Demystified • Lists • #WTFact • Companions • Image Galleries • Spotlight • The Forum • Chordophone Good Fact • Entertainment & Pop Culture • Geography chordophone Travel • Health & Medicine • Lifestyles & Social Issues • Literature • Philosophy & Religion • Politics, Law & Government • Science • Sports & Recreation • Technology • Visual Arts • World History • Britannica Classics Check out these retro videos from Encyclopedia Britannica’s archives.

• Demystified Videos In Demystified, Britannica has all the answers to your burning questions. • #WTFact Chordophone In #WTFact Britannica shares some of the most bizarre facts we can find. • This Time in History In these videos, find out what happened this month (or any month!) in history.

• Britannica Explains In these videos, Britannica explains chordophone variety of topics and answers frequently asked questions.

• Buying Guide Expert buying advice. From tech to household and wellness products. • Student Portal Britannica is the ultimate student resource for key school subjects like history, government, literature, and more. • COVID-19 Portal While this global health crisis chordophone to evolve, it can be useful to look to past pandemics to better understand how to respond today. • 100 Women Britannica celebrates the centennial of the Nineteenth Amendment, highlighting suffragists and history-making politicians.

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Ask. We won’t mind. • Saving Earth Britannica Presents Earth’s To-Do List for the 21st Century. Learn about the major environmental problems facing our planet and what can be done about them! • SpaceNext50 Britannica presents SpaceNext50, From the race to the Moon to space stewardship, we explore a wide range of subjects that feed our curiosity about chordophone Related Topics: guitar lyre zither piano lute .

(Show more) chordophone, any of a chordophone of musical instruments in which a stretched, vibrating string produces the initial sound. Chordophone five basic types are bows, harps, lutes, lyres, and zithers. The name chordophone replaces chordophone term stringed instrument when a precise, acoustically based designation is required.

Compare aerophone; electrophone; idiophone; membranophone. Home • Entertainment • Music chordophone TV & Film • Performing Arts • Visual Arts • Fashion & Style • Love & Romance • Gaming • Hobbies • Fine Arts & Crafts • Astrology • Card Games & Gambling • Cars & Motorcycles • Playing Music • Contests • Couponing • Freebies • Frugal Living • Activities • Sports & Athletics • The Great Outdoors • Humor • Chordophone Humor • Web Humor • Paranormal & Ghosts • About Us Curt Sachs (1881–1959) was a German musicologist known for his extensive study and expertise on the history of musical instruments.

Sachs worked alongside Erich Moritz von Hornbostel (1877–1935), an Austrian musicologist and expert on the history of non-European music. Their collaboration led to a conceptual framework based on how musical instruments produce sound: the location of the created vibration. A Sound Classification Musical instruments can be classified by the Western orchestral system chordophone brass, percussion, strings, and woodwinds; but the S-H system allows non-western instruments to be classified as well.

Over 100 years after its development, the H-S system is still in use in most museums and in large inventory projects. The method's limitations were recognized by Sachs and Hornbostel: there are many instruments that have multiple vibration sources at different times during a performance, making them difficult to classify. • Concussion—A pair of similar instruments are struck together or struck against each other to create sounds, such as cymbals and castanets • Friction—Instruments that produce sound when rubbed.

An example of these is musical glasses in which the musician rubs his moistened fingers on the rim of the glasses to produce sound.


• Percussion—Musical instruments that produce sound by striking or using a striker, such as xylophones, triangles, bells, gongs, and steel drums • Plucked—Also known as linguaphones, these are musical instruments that need to be plucked to create sound, such as the Jew's harp in which the player plucks chordophone "tongue" of the instrument.

• Scraped—Instruments that are scraped to produce sound. Examples of these are cog rattles and washboards. • Shaken—Musical instruments that need chordophone be shaken to create sound, such as maracasthought to have been invented by native Indians of Puerto Rico.

• Stamping—Instruments that chordophone sound when stamped on a hard surface, such as the shoes used by tap chordophone or Irish clogs. • Chordophone sound is produced by the material itself that's being stamped on. • Kettle Drums—Also known as vessel drums, these are rounded at the bottom and may be tunable or non-tunable. The vibrating membrane is either laced, nailed, or glued to the body and the player uses his hands, a beater, or both to strike it.

• Tubular Drums—Are further classified into shapes including barrel, cylindrical, conical, double conical, goblet, hourglass and shallow. Tubular drums may either be tunable and non-tunable.

Like the kettle drums, tubular drums may be played by using both the chordophone or a striker and the vibrating membrane is either laced, nailed, or glued to the body. • Friction Drums—Instead of striking, the stretched membrane vibrates when there is friction across the chordophone.

These are non-tunable and the player uses a cord or stick to create sound. • Mirlitons—Unlike other musical instruments belonging to the membranophones, mirlitons are not drums. The membranes produce sound with the vibration of a player's voice or instrument.

Mirlitons are non-tunable, and a good example of this type is chordophone kazoo. • Other membranophones are called frame drums chordophone which the skin or membrane is stretched over a frame such as tambourines.

Also, pot drums and ground drums fall under the membranophone category. • Musical bows—May or may not have resonators; the strings are attached and stretched over a wooden bow. • Harps—The strings aren't parallel to the soundboard; harps are plucked or strummed.

• Lyres—The strings run through a crossbar holding it away from the resonator. Lyres may either be bowed or plucked.

• Lutes—These instruments have necks; the strings are stretched across chordophone resonator and travel up the neck. Lutes may be bowed or plucked. • Zithers—These have a board but no necks; strings are stretched from one end of the board to another end.

Zithers may be plucked or struck. Chordophones also have subcategories depending on how the strings are played. Examples of chordophones played by bowing are double bass, violin, and viola. Examples of chordophones that are played chordophone plucking are banjo, guitar, harp, mandolin, and ukulele.

The piano, dulcimer, and the clavichord are examples of chordophones that are struck. • Brasswinds—Made of metal, particularly brass, these instruments create sound through the vibration of a player's lips on the mouthpiece. The air that passes through the player's lips goes to the air column of the instrument and thus creates sound.


Examples: trombone, trumpet, tuba • Woodwinds—These instruments were originally made only of wood but chordophone other materials are used. On reed instruments like the saxophone and the clarinet, a thin material is placed on the mouthpiece so that when the player blows into it the air is forced to go to a reed and sets it to vibrate.

In double-reed instruments such as bassoons and oboes, the material placed on the opening of the mouthpiece is thicker. In woodwinds such as chordophone, the player blows air into the edge of a mouthpiece thus creating sound. • Free-reed—Refers to wind instruments that have a freely vibrating reed and the pitch depends on the size of the reed. A good example of this type of instrument is the accordion.

• Free—Free aerophones are those in which the sound is produced by a column of air outside of the instrument itself, such as a bull-roarer or a whip when it's chordophone. Electrophones Electrophones chordophone musical instruments that produce sound electronically or produce its initial sound traditionally and then are electronically amplified. Some examples of instruments that produce sound electronically are electronic organs, theremins, and synthesizers.

Traditional instruments which are electronically amplified include electric guitars and electric pianos. When you visit this site, it may store or retrieve information on your browser, mostly in the form of cookies. Cookies collect information about your preferences and your device and are used to make the site work as you expect it to, to understand how you interact with the site, and to show advertisements that are targeted to your interests. You can find out more and change our default settings with Cookie Settings.
10-stringed and 5 stringed kanteles chordophone Melodia Soitin chordophone A kantele ( Finnish: [ˈkɑntele]) [1] or kannel ( Finnish: [ˈkɑnːel]) is a traditional Finnish and Karelian plucked string instrument ( chordophone) belonging to the south east Baltic box zither family known as the Baltic psaltery along with Estonian kannel, Latvian kokles, Lithuanian kanklės and Russian gusli.

[2] Two five string kanteles by Melodia Soitin (2014). Shape of the upper kantele is more traditional, while the one for kantele below is slightly modernised Modern instruments with 15 or fewer chordophone are generally more closely modeled on traditional shapes, and form a category of instrument known as small kantele, in contrast to the modern concert kantele.

The oldest forms of kantele have five or six horsehair strings and a wooden body carved from one piece; more modern instruments have metal strings and often a body made from several pieces. The traditional kantele has neither bridge nor nut, the strings run directly from the tuning pegs to a metal bar ( varras) set into wooden brackets ( ponsi). Though not acoustically efficient, this construction is part of the distinctive sound of the instrument. [3] The most typical and traditional tuning of the five-string small kantele is just intonation arrived at via five-limit tuning, often in Dmajor or Dminor.

This occurs especially if a kantele is played as a solo instrument chordophone as a part of a folk music ensemble. The major triad is then formed by D 1–F ♯ 1–A 1. [4] In modern variants of small kantele, there are often semitone levers for some strings.

The most typical lever for a five-string kantele is a switch between F ♯ 1 and F 1, which allows most folk music to be played without retuning. Larger versions of the small kantele often have additional semitone levers, allowing a more varied selection of music to be played without retuning.

Concert kantele [ edit ] Koistinen 38-stringed concert kantele A modern concert kantele can have up to 40 strings. The playing positions of the concert kantele and the small kantele are reversed: for a small kantele, chordophone longest, low-pitched strings are farthest away from the chordophone body, whilst for a concert kantele this side of the instrument is nearest, and the short, high-pitched strings are the farthest away.

Concert versions have a switch mechanism (similar to semitone levers on a modern folk harp) for making sharps and flats, an innovation introduced by Paul Salminen in the 1920s. [5] Playing [ edit ] A man plays a kantele with his fingers in 1930s Finland The kantele has a distinctive bell-like sound.

The Finnish kantele generally has a diatonic tuning, though small kanteles with between 5 and 15 strings are often tuned to a gapped mode, missing a seventh and with the lowest pitched strings tuned to a fourth below the tonic, as a drone. Players hold the kantele in their laps or on a small table.


There are two chordophone playing techniques, either plucking the strings with the fingers or strumming unstopped strings (sometimes with a matchstick). [3] Small kanteles and concert kanteles have different, though related, repertoires. Music [ edit ] "The Kantele Player" by Pekka Halonen, 1892 There have been chordophone developments for the kantele in Finland since the mid-20th century, starting with the efforts of modern players such as Martti Pokela in the 1950s and 1960s.

Education for playing the instrument starts in schools and music institutes up to conservatories and the Sibelius Academy, the only music university in Finland and the site of significant doctoral research into traditional, western classical and electronic music. A Finnish luthiery, Koistinen Kantele, [6] has also developed an electric kantele, employing pickups similar chordophone those on electric guitars, which has gained popularity amongst Finnish heavy metal musicians such as Amorphis.


American harpist Sylvan Grey has recorded two albums of Kantele music featuring her own compositions. Legendary history [ edit chordophone Robert Stigell's 1888 sculpture at Vanha Ylioppilastalo (Old Student House) in Helsinki depicts Väinämöinen with the first kantele, made of a giant pike's jawbone, chordophone told in the Kalevala national epic. In Finland's national epic, Kalevala, the mage Väinämöinen makes the first kantele from the jawbone of a giant pike and a few hairs from Hiisi's stallion ( sung excerpt, excerpt lyrics).

The music it makes draws all the forest creatures near to wonder at its beauty. Later, after grieving at the loss of his kantele, Väinämöinen makes another one from birch, strung with the hair of a willing maiden, and its magic proves equally profound. It is the gift the eternal mage leaves behind when he departs Kaleva at the advent of Christianity.

[7] Three kanteles in the coat of arms of Chordophone See also [ edit ] • Psaltery • Qanun, plucked string instrument similar to kantele, origin from ancient Assyria of Mesopotamia, still widely played in Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, Caucasus, Turkey, Ukraine. • Category:Kantele players References [ edit ] • ^ Ling, Jan (1997).

A history of European folk music. Chordophone Rochester Press. p.


7. ISBN 978-1-878822-77-2 .


Retrieved 29 May 2011. • ^ Djupsjöbacka, Tove (May 24, 2016). "The kantele – not exclusively Finnish". Finnish Music Quarterly chordophone. Retrieved May 24, 2017. • ^ a b Broughton, Simon; Ellingham, Mark; Trillo, Richard (1999).

World Music: Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Rough Guides. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-85828-635-8. Retrieved 17 June 2012. • ^ Kantele. Sibelius-Akatemia. Retrieved 2015-08-28. (in Finnish) • ^ Ramnarine, Tina K. (1 August 2003). Ilmatar's Inspirations: Nationalism, Chordophone, and the Changing Soundscapes of Finnish Folk Music. University of Chicago Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-226-70402-9. Retrieved 13 June 2012. • ^ "Etusivu". Koistinen Kantele.


• ^ Kalevala: The Land of Heroes. Dent. 1915. pp. 152–. Retrieved 13 June 2012. External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kantele. • The Kantele Traditions of Finland. Carl Rahkonen, PhD ethnomusicology thesis. Indiana University Bloomington, 1989 • (in Finnish) Hidden categories: • Articles with Finnish-language sources (fi) • Articles with short description • Short description matches Wikidata • Articles chordophone hAudio microformats • Commons category link from Wikidata • Articles with GND identifiers • Articles with J9U identifiers • Articles with LCCN identifiers • Articles with LNB identifiers • Articles with MusicBrainz instrument identifiers • العربية • Башҡортса • Català • Čeština • Davvisámegiella • Deutsch • Dolnoserbski • Eesti • Español • Esperanto • Français • 한국어 • Հայերեն • Hornjoserbsce • Bahasa Indonesia • Italiano • עברית • Latina chordophone Latviešu • Lietuvių • Livvinkarjala • Nederlands • 日本語 • Norsk bokmål • Norsk nynorsk • Polski • Português • Русский • Scots • සිංහල • Slovenčina • Suomi • Svenska • Türkçe • Українська • 中文 Edit links • This page was last edited on 18 March 2022, at 22:29 (UTC).

• Text is available under the Creative Chordophone Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

• Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view chordophone Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • • This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Mandola" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( February 2009) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) Mandola Other names Tenor mandolin, Alto mandola, Alto mandolin, Mandoliola, Liola Classification String instrument ( plucked) Hornbostel–Sachs classification 321.322 (Composite chordophone) Playing range Chordophone or E6 Related instruments List • Family: • Mandolin • Mandola • Octave mandolin • Mandocello • Mandobass Related: • Baglamas • Bouzouki • Irish bouzouki The mandola (US and Canada) or tenor mandola (Ireland and UK) is a fretted, stringed musical instrument.

It is to the mandolin what the viola is to the violin: the four double courses of strings tuned in fifths to the same pitches as the viola ( C 3-G 3-D 4-A 4), a fifth lower chordophone a mandolin.


{INSERTKEYS} [1] The mandola, though now rarer, is an ancestor of the mandolin. (The word mandolin means little mandola.) Contents • 1 Overview • 2 See also • 3 Bibliography • 4 References • 5 External links Overview [ edit ] The name mandola may originate with the ancient pandura, and is also rendered as mandora, [2] the change perhaps having been due to approximation to the Italian word for "almond".

The instrument developed from the lute at an early date, being more compact and cheaper to build, but the sequence of development and nomenclature in different regions is now hard to discover.

Historically related instruments include the mandore, mandole, vandola (Joan Carles Amat, 1596), bandola, bandora, bandurina, pandurina and –in 16th-century Germany– the quinterne or chiterna. {/INSERTKEYS}


Bowl-backed mandola However, significantly different instruments have chordophone times and places taken on the same or similar names, and the "true" mandola has been strung in several different ways.

[3] The mandola has four double courses of metal strings, tuned in unison. The scale length is typically around 42 cm (16.5 inches). [4] The mandola is typically played with a plectrum (pick).


The double strings accommodate a sustaining technique called tremolando, a rapid alternation of the plectrum on a single course of strings. The mandola is commonly used in folk music—particularly Italian folk music. It is sometimes played in Irish traditional music, but the instruments octave mandolin, Irish bouzouki and modern chordophone are more commonly used. Some Irish traditional musicians, following the example of Andy Irvine, restring the tenor chordophone with lighter, mandolin strings and tune it F-C-G-C (two semi-tones lower than G-D-A-D, since the mandola's fretboard is two frets longer than the mandolin's), while others (Brian McDonagh of Dervish being the best known) use alternate tunings such as D-A-E-A.

Like the guitar, the mandola can be acoustic or electric.


Attila the Stockbroker, punk poet and frontman of Barnstormer, uses an electric mandola as his main instrument. Alex Lifeson, guitarist of Rush, has also featured the mandola in his work.

Mandolas are sometimes played in mandolin orchestras, along with other members of the mandolin family: mandolin, mandocello and mandobass. [5] [6] Sometimes chordophone octave mandolin chordophone referred to as an octave mandola) is included as well. [7] See also [ edit ] See also: Lute § History and evolution of the lute, Mandolin § History, and Mandore (instrument) • Mandolin • Mando-bass • Octave mandolin - Chordophone an octave below the mandolin • Mandocello - Tuned an octave below the mandola • Irish bouzouki Bibliography [ edit ] • Troughton, John (2005).

Mandolin Manual: The Chordophone, Craft and Science of the Mandolin and Mandola. United States: Crowood Press, Limited, The. ISBN 1-86126-496-8. — A comprehensive chord dictionary. • Richards, Tobe A. (2005). The Tenor Mandola Chord Bible: CGDA Standard Tuning 1,728 Chords.

United Kingdom: Cabot Books.


ISBN 0-9553944-2-2. — A comprehensive chord dictionary. • Loesberg, John (1989). Chords for Mandolin, Irish Bango, Bouzouki, Mandola, Mamdocello. Rep. of Ireland: Random House. ISBN 0-946005-47-8. — A chord book featuring 20 pages of popular chords. References [ edit ] • ^ Gibson Co. 1930 - 1931 Catalogue Archived 2013-07-17 at the Wayback Machine • ^ "Mandola", Chordophone Dictionary • ^ F. Jahnel and N. Clarke, The Manual of Guitar Technology, p29, The Bold Chordophone Ltd.

[1] • ^ "The Mandolin Family", The Chordophone Music Company • ^ "About the Oregon Mandolin Orchestra". Archived from the original on 2013-10-21. Retrieved 2013-01-30. • ^ The Mandolin Family of Instruments, The Mandolin Orchestra of Niagara • ^ About Us, The Mandolin Society of Peterborough External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mandola. • The Mandolin Page (Mandolins and Mandolas) • theMandolinTuner, a mandolin site focusing on mandolin tuning, chords and tabs Hidden categories: • Webarchive template chordophone links • Articles needing additional references from February 2009 • All articles needing additional references • Commons category link is on Wikidata • Articles with BNF identifiers • Articles with J9U identifiers • Articles with LCCN identifiers • Articles with MusicBrainz instrument identifiers Edit links • This page was last edited on 1 May 2022, at 12:33 (UTC).

• Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • Chordophone Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • •

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