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The genre was prevalent mostly in American crime dramas of the post- World War II era. The golden age of film noir The cinema of the disenchanted Early examples of the noir style include dark, stylized detective films such as John Huston’s The Maltese Falcon (1941), Frank Tuttle’s This Gun for Hire (1942), Otto Preminger’s Laura (1944), and Edward Dmytryk’s Murder, My Sweet (1944). Banned in occupied countries during the war, these films became available throughout Europe beginning in 1946.

French cineastes admired them for their cold, cynical characters and dark, brooding style, and they afforded the films effusive praise in French journals such as Cahiers du cinéma. French critics coined the term film noir in reference to the low-keyed lighting used to enhance these dramas stylistically—although the term would not become commonplace in international critical circles until the publication of the book Panorama du film noir americain (1955) by Raymond Borde and Étienne Chaumeton.

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The darkness of these films reflected the disenchantment of the times. Pessimism and disillusionment became increasingly present in the American psyche during the Great Depression of the 1930s and the world war that followed. After the war, factors such as an unstable peacetime economy, McCarthyism, and the looming threat of atomic warfare manifested themselves in a collective sense of uncertainty.

The corrupt and claustrophobic world of film noir embodied these fears. Several examples of film noir, such as Dmytryk’s Cornered (1945), George Marshall’s The Blue Dahlia (1946), Robert Montgomery’s Ride the Pink Horse (1947), and John Cromwell’s Dead Reckoning (1947), share the common story line of a war genre film who returns home to find that genre film way of life for which he has been fighting no longer exists. In its place is the America of film noir: modernized, heartless, coldly efficient, and blasé about matters such as political corruption and organized crime.

Alan Ladd and Veronica Lake in The Blue Dahlia (1946), directed by George Marshall and written by Raymond Chandler. © 1946 Genre film Pictures Corporation; photograph from a private collection Many of the major directors of film noir—such as Huston, Dmytryk, Cromwell, Orson Welles, and others—were American. However, other Hollywood directors renowned for a film noir style hailed from Europe, including Billy Wilder, Alfred Hitchcock, Jacques Tourneur, and Fritz Lang.

It is said that the themes of noir attracted European directors, who often felt like outsiders within the Hollywood studio system. Such directors had been trained to emphasize cinematic style as much as acting and narrative in order to convey thought and emotion.

Defining the genre Controversy exists as to whether film noir can be classified as a genre or subgenre, or if the term merely refers to stylistic elements common to various genres. Film noir does not have a thematic coherence: the term is most often applied to crime dramas, but certain westerns and comedies have been cited as examples of film noir by some critics.

Even such sentimental comedy-dramas as Frank Capra’s It’s a Wonderful Life (1946) have been cited as “noir-ish” by critics who find in its suicidal hero and bleak depiction of small-town life a tone suitably dismal for genre film noir. Such films are also sometimes designated as “semi-noir,” or film gris (“gray film”), to indicate their hybrid status.

Other critics argue that film noir is but an arbitrary designation for a multitude of dissimilar black-and-white dramas of the late 1940s and early ’50s. Film scholar Chris Fujiwara contends that the makers of such films “didn’t think of them as ‘films noir’; they thought they were making crime films, thrillers, mysteries, and romantic melodramas. The nonexistence of ‘noir’ as a production category during the supposed heyday of noir obviously problematizes the history of the genre.” Yet it cannot be questioned that film noir connotes specific visual images and an aura of postwar cynicism in the minds of most film buffs.

Indeed, several common characteristics connect most films defined as “noir.” Lighting The isolation from society of the typical noir hero was underscored by the use of stark high-contrast lighting—the most notable visual feature of film noir. The shadowy noir style can be traced to the German Expressionist cinema of the silent era. Robert Wiene’s Das Kabinett des Doktor Caligari (1920; The Cabinet of Dr.

Caligari) contains one of the best early examples of the lighting techniques used to inspire the genre. Wiene used visual elements to help define the title character’s madness, including tilted cameras to present skewed images and a dark atmosphere in which only the faces of the actors were visible.

This Expressionistic style was later used by German directors such as Fritz Lang ( Metropolis, 1927; M, 1931) and F.W.

Murnau ( Nosferatu, 1922; Sunrise, 1927). Max Schreck in Nosferatu (1922), directed by F.W. Murnau. Werner Herzog Filmproduktion These lighting effects were used in Hollywood by cinematographers such as Gregg Toland ( Citizen Kane, 1941), John F. Seitz ( Double Indemnity, 1944), Karl Freund ( Key Largo, 1948), and Sid Hickox ( The Big Sleep, 1948) to heighten the sombre tone of films in the genre. Classic images of noir included rain-soaked streets in the early morning hours; street lamps with shimmering halos; flashing neon signs on seedy taverns, diners, and apartment buildings; and endless streams of cigarette smoke wafting in and out of shadows.

Such images would lose their indelibility with realistic lighting or colour cinematography. Orson Welles in Citizen Kane (1941). RKO Radio Pictures Inc. The omniscient narrator and the flashback The inherent subjectivity of Expressionism is also evident in film noir’s use of narration and flashback. An omniscient, metaphor-spouting narrator (often the central character, a world-weary private eye) frequently clarifies a characteristically labyrinthine noir plot genre film offers a subjective, jaded point of view.

In other films—such as Welles’s Citizen Kane and Wilder’s Double Indemnity and Sunset Boulevard (1950)—the denouement (often the death or downfall of the central character) is revealed in the opening scenes; flashbacks then tell of the circumstances that led to the tragic conclusion. Tension and suspense are increased by the use of all-knowing narrators and flashbacks, in that the audience is always cognizant of impending doom. For added effect, play one of these songs while reading the article.

Film Noir (literally "black film" in French) is a genre of stylish crime dramas, difficult to define, but the 1940s and '50s were the classic period. Whether works since then can be accurately classed as Noir is a subject of much debate among film critics. Film Noir, and the literature from which it is drawn, is the progenitor of several modern genres, particularly cyberpunk.

Common plots of noir films include murder (and subsequent murder investigations), heists, con games, blackmail schemes, and (mostly) innocent men or women wrongly accused of crime. Use of the double-cross and cigarette smoking are mandatory.

Complicated plots may be further convoluted by flashbacks and flash forwards, with the narration tying everything together— assuming we can trust it.

Noir, in the classic and stylistic sense, is genre film darker than your average gangster picture, playing with light and long, deep shadows instead of bright, documentary-styled camera work. This visual motif is so iconic that homages and parodies are almost universally Deliberately Monochrome, using a transition between colour and black and white where necessary.

Scenes are often filmed on location, and night scenes are shot at night. Camera angles are often very creative and unusual, heightening the viewers’ sense of unease, adding to the atmosphere. The contrast between light and dark is sometimes used in the cinematography to reflect the difference between the villain and the protagonist(s).

It rains most every night in Film Noir; filmmakers admit that this is entirely because at night wet pavement looks cooler than dry. Also, the rain makes it plausible that no one else is around.

Film Noir is not really a genre in any sense, rather it reflects a tendency in certain American films of the 40s and 50s where crime and genre film stories are infused with an excessive visual style, a modern urban sensibility and a powerful sense of moral ambiguity. These movies differed from the crime movies of the 30s, the Depression Gangster films such as The Public Enemy or the original Scarface, in that criminal behaviour is no longer relegated to gangsters or ethnic ghettos, and the plots don't usually revolve around turf wars or police clampdowns.

Protagonists in films noir are often normal people who get involved in crime, and the motivations are no longer just social or circumstantial but psychological and personal.

The standard noir plot is, in broad terms, best summed up as centering around a protagonist who, usually by pure chance, is placed in a complex and dangerous situation completely beyond their control where they are pitted against an adversary whose identity and motives are not immediately obvious.

The system and the law is usually either apathetic to their plight or is even outright working against them, meaning that they will have to take up the fight and make sense of it all by themselves or die trying. As a style and sensibility, Film Noir was flexible to include hybrids such as the Western-Film Noir (The 1947 film Pursued with flashbacks, Dark and Troubled Past, high contrast black and white lighting and weird Freudian themes), and even the film-noir musical ( The Man I Love, Love Me and Leave Me) and in the case of Leave Her to Heaven a Film Noir in technicolor.

Trying to explain Film Noir is hard, since it's kind of a mix of European cynicism and post-war American angst. It involves a clash between crude pulp fiction narratives and complex storytelling and characterization, which itself derived from emerging psychological research on criminal behavior, as well as genre film influences in modern art and literature.

The term was first used by French critics (hence the name) and it derives from "Serie Noir," genre film label of French translations of American pulp fiction, and French imitations thereof, which were highly popular in France at the time.

French critics looked at the American crime films from their perspectives of post-Occupation France, which to some extent led them to overemphasize the doom and gloom of American films by projecting their experiences onto their interpretations of these films. Later, American writers when translating these articles into English brought this into Pop-Cultural Osmosis.

The mix of European cynicism with American landscape is also borne out in the fact that several directors of films noir — Billy Wilder (who lost his mother in Auschwitz), Robert Siodmak, Fritz Lang, Otto Preminger — were refugees, exiles and emigres from Nazi Germany, being quite active in 1920s Berlin which in many ways genre film the closest a real-life city came to being the exaggerated City Noir landscape. The lighting in Film Noir was also strongly influenced by European trends, especially German Expressionism, but later after the war, the Italian neorealist films of Roberto Rossellini also influenced it greatly.

The subtext of many of these films often dealt with the trauma of the returning Shell-Shocked Veteran (most notably, Act of Violence) and the rising Red Scare and The Hollywood Blacklist which made the working climate in Hollywood highly paranoid and hostile, and this infused the films made in the late '40s.

The standard Noir landscape is a large, oppressive city (filmed in dark and dusky conditions to create a moody atmosphere). Familiar haunts include dimly-lit bars, genre film filled with questionable clientele (including the Gayngster) whom the lead may intimidate for information, gambling dens, juke joints and the ubiquitous seedy waterfront warehouse. At night in the big city, you can bet the streets are slick with rain, reflecting streetlights like a Hopper painting. Most of the characters (including the lead) are cynical, misanthropical and hopeless all the way through the film, and never find true redemption.

It is important genre film note that the term "Film Noir" was not available to the people who made them in the '40s and '50s.

As Robert Mitchum famously stated, "We called them B-Movies." It comes from later audiences and critics who rediscovered these films in revival theaters and clubs and picked up the subtext, visual clues and other Hidden Depths. Many historians feel that the classic Film Noir genre died when it became self-conscious. Raymond Borde and Etienne Chaumenton cite the MGM musical The Band Wagon (made in 1952), where the final number featured a technicolor parody of a Mickey Spillane crime setting, with Fred Astaire and Cyd Charisse playing the detective and femme fatale in an obvious send-up.

Others feel that Orson Welles' Touch of Evil was the real end, since it was made by the director of Citizen Kane (which, while genre film a Noir, influenced the lighting and style of several other films noir), and the genre conventions were pretty much stretched inside and outside.

They also argue that Noir only worked in a climate of censorship, as the crime genre often fell Beneath Suspicion allowing writers and directors more chances to subvert cliches.

Once censorship eroded, Film Noir had pretty much served its purpose and achieved its goals. Attempts to revive this style led to Neo-Noir, which with some exceptions tends to Flanderization.

The tone and outlook must be bleak, defeatist, and pessimistic, always suggesting a sliminess beyond what it can show. Nobody gets what they want, and everyone gets what's coming to them. Characters are often armed — revolvers note especially Snubnosed .38's if you're a cop or a dame, Colt 1911s, and if they need More Dakka, tommy guns. Also, no self-respecting Film Noir thug will be seen without his brass knuckles. They'll probably wear a Fedora or trilby hat with a trench coat.

Frequently the ending will be low-key and leave no one character happy or fulfilled. Commonly, there is genre film a great deal of sexual tension between the hero and the female lead; Noir stories are quite risqué. The original Film Noir era followed the Hays Code, so the odds of a female genre film removing her clothing are minimal, but even so, she'll often have some fine gams on display.

This applies to modern versions; gratuitous nudity or scenes of excessive violence are hinted at rather than portrayed. It is often what is not seen that adds to the mystery and suspense. Film Noir usually features the Anti-Hero, Anti-Villain, Villain Protagonist, the ambiguity often resting on questions of trust, leading to an atmosphere of paranoia where Poor Communication Kills regularly.

The conclusion may or may not tie up all the loose ends, with the major mystery being the morally ambiguous theme of the story. These factors contribute to the widely-held opinion that Film Noir works are among the best artistic works of all time and contributed greatly to the maturity of cinema as an artform. See Film Noir Index for a listing of live-action films noir. Examples from other media are listed below. Not to be confused with the religious conspiracy anime Noir (although that is an example of the genre).

Characters associated with Film Noir: • The Alcoholic • Amoral Attorney • Anti-Hero • Anti-Villain • Bad Cop/Incompetent Cop • Byronic Hero • The Chanteuse / Glamorous Wartime Singer • Corrupt Bureaucrat • Corrupt Corporate Executive • Corrupt Hick • Corrupt Politician • The Cynic • Dame with a Case • Deadpan Snarker • Defective Detective • Detective Animal • Dirty Cop • Femme Fatale • Gangbangers • Girl Friday • Hanging Judge • Hardboiled Detective • Internal Affairs • Jerk with a Heart of Gold • Kangaroo Court • Knight in Sour Armor • Lady in Red • The Last DJ • Mysterious Woman • Obstructive Bureaucrat • The Oldest Profession • Organized crime, including but not limited to: • The Mafia • The Mafiya • Yakuza • The Triads and the Tongs • Irish Mob • Kosher Nostra • and, within each organization, The Don, The Consigliere, and so on • Private Detective • Professional Killer • Sleazy Politician • The Snark Knight • Stepford Snarker • Streetwalker • The Vamp • Vigilante Man • Villain Protagonist Common noir settings: • Abandoned Warehouse • Band of Brothels • The Big Rotten Apple • The City Narrows • City Noir • Crapsack World • Den of Iniquity • Dying Town, particularly the bigger, city-sized examples, such as Detroit • Gangster Land • Grey Rain of Depression • Hellhole Prison • Holiday in Cambodia (the urban variant, involving seedy Asian cityscapes) • Industrial Ghetto • Not-So-Safe Harbor • Nordic Noir, Snow Means Death • Red Light District • Soiled City on a Hill • Sunshine Noir • Urban Segregation • Vice City • Wretched Hive • Wrong Side of the Tracks Common noir eras (both setting and publication): • Victorian London (for Older Than They Think examples) • The Roaring '20s • Genteel Interbellum Setting • The Great Depression • Chandler American Time • The '50s (mostly as a subversion of postwar American prosperity, but likelier to be played straight in war-devastated Europe) • The '70s (especially for major American cities— The Big Rotten Apple is the Trope Codifier) • The '80s (the rise and heyday of Cyberpunk noir) • 20 Minutes into the Future (for sci-fi examples) Visual elements and camera techniques: • Chiaroscuro • Deliberately Monochrome • Dutch Angle • Real Is Brown • Unnaturally Blue Lighting Sound elements and music: • Cyber Punk Is Techno • Lonely Piano Piece • Sexophone • Simple Score of Sadness • Sinister Tango Music Other tropes associated with Film Noir: • Anyone Can Die • Bittersweet Ending • Black-and-Grey Morality • Emerging from the Shadows • Everybody Smokes • Going by the Matchbook • I Own This Town • Inherent in the System • Minor Crime Reveals Major Plot • No-Holds-Barred Beatdown • Police Are Useless (in the sense that government authorities cannot be counted on to solve ordinary people's problems, because of either corruption, sheer incompetence, or both) • Police Brutality • Private Eye Monologue • Revenge tropes • Screw the Rules, I Have Connections!

• Screw the Rules, I Have Money! • Screw the Rules, I Make Them! • Sherlock Scan • Smoking Is Cool • Genre film Services Does Not Exist • Sympathy for the Devil • Too Good for This Sinful Earth • Unreliable Narrator • Weather Report Opening • Who Watches the Watchmen? A common form of Formula-Breaking Episode is the Noir Episode — a work spends a single episode homaging or parodying Film Noir style ( or just has everyone wearing trilbies and talking about the rain, in black and white).

Fantastic Noir is a sub-genre with fantastic or Science Fiction elements. See also our Write a Film Noir guide. Examples: • Area 51 has a very pronounced chiaroscuro artstyle and a private detective protagonist in a wretched town. Despite those elements though, there's quite a bit of humor. And also lots of monsters, gods, and other fantastical creatures.

• The Big O • Cowboy Bebop, in its more "serious" moments. • Ergo Proxy. Especially the first few episodes. • Death Note had some noir traits, including the chiaroscuro lighting, moral ambiguity, and dark themes. • Ghost in the Shell • Especially the movie Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence, which even mimics typical designs for cars and buildings from the classic Noir movies. • Golgo13 • Noir • Darker Than Black. It's the real deal, but the character of Gai Kurasawa (a private detective), is used to parody it.

• Speed Grapher is set in a Tokyo which is a City Noir teaming with corruption and has its hero in Intrepid Reporter Saiga who is a good example of a Knight in Sour Armor. • Monster has some elements of this trope. • The York Shin Arc of Hunter × Hunter has a noir feel to it that gets more prominent as the tone becomes darker. • Baccano! and Durarara!!, which are written by the same author, both have definite noir elements, the former focusing on mafia members and the latter focusing on gang members, with plenty of private-eye monologues from multiple characters.

• Yuureitou is a murder-mystery set in The '50s with this type of setting • Lupin III has this vibe sometimes, Depending on the Writer. • Case Closed, being a series about a Great Detective solving murders and fighting a deadly criminal organization, uses plenty of noir tropes.

• Oddtaxi is a murder mystery where the taxi driving protagonist gets involved with corrupt cops, rival Yakuza members of the same gang, and the seedoer side of glamourous idols. • 100 Bullets • Sin City • Batman - many stories are noir at their core. Gotham City is obviously a very noirish setting. • The Question. Bonus points for his fedora and trench coat. • Dogby Walks Alone - parodied by being placed in a Theme Parks setting.

• The Marvel Noir line. Changes to Wolverine, for example, include his signature claws actually being handheld Japanese weapons. Naturally, there's a different version of Logan on the X-Men. In normal Marvel continuity, such street-level heroes as Daredevil, Moon Knight genre film the Punisher have all had runs or story arcs that followed many noir conventions.

• Blacksad - An anthropomorphic detective series, that follows the stories of John Blacksad. • The Damned - A detective cursed to never die working for demonic(literally demons) gang bosses in the midst of a war with a rival organization. • The New Teen Titans arc " Who Is Donna Troy?" has a serious noir overtones, especially the first few pages featuring Dick in a dark office lit dramatically with light coming in through the blinds while looking at pictures and other evidence relating to the case he's taken for Donna.

• The third series of X-Factor features Jamie Madrox's attempt at a noir mutant detective agency. The prequel series, Madrox, also has a plot with the standard tropes associated with the genre; A brilliant yet dysfunctional detective, a mysterious Femme Fatale, a rich man suspected of being a criminal and a grouchy reluctant ally. The tropes are also lampshaded by Jamie.

• Many books by Ed Brubaker, especially when he's working with Sean Philips. Criminal and The Fade Out are straight noir. Sleeper (WildStorm) and Incognito are superhero/pulp hero noir, genre film Fatale is noir where the Femme Fatale's supernatural allure actually is supernatural. • Brian Michael Bendis's Alias. • Sandman Mystery Theatre takes place during 1938 and follows Wesely Dodds and his fight against the criminals that lurk throughout New York. • Also by Bendis, Sam And Twitch, a spin-off from the Spawn genre film • Spider-Man Noir reimagines Spider-Man through a Film Noir lense, with Spidey shown as being more ruthless in his pursuit of villains (up to and including using guns), and classic rogues' gallery members like Green Goblin and Doctor Octopus depicted as mob bosses and Nazis.

• Watchmen is a menagerie of different genres colliding into one, but many of the bigger bones of its story are influenced by noir, primarily with the character of Rorschach, an unscrupulous, seriously troubled vigilante trying to solve the murder of a retired superhero. Its loose sequel, Rorschach (2020) (a Distant Sequel that doubles as a meta-examination on the namesake character) also carries heavy noir undertones, with heavy emphasis on ideologies and Psychological Horror.

• The Spirit, particularly the newspaper strip.

genre film

genre film Stray Bullets • Calvin and Hobbes: One of Calvin's Imagine Spots follows the adventures of a very noir-ish private investigator called Tracer Bullet.

• The aptly named Coruscant Noir. • A Dark Knight over Sin City • Cities in Dust: shit lets be hardboiled is a Homestuck fanfic that puts the characters in a noir-AU. • Nights in the Big City • Dial M For Mutant puts the genre film of X-Men: First Class into the noir setting, complete with copious use of 30's/40's slang. • Calvin and Hobbes: The Series sometimes uses this, resulting in an Out-of-Genre Experience.

• This Marble Hornets fan fiction, aptly titled " Noirble Hornets," is a noir reimagining of Entry #22, in which Alex lets Seth meet his fate in the abandoned building.

• This Pokemon fanfiction is titled " Ash Ketchum: Master Detective". It uses many Hardboiled Detective tropes and is best read while listening to a Jazzy Noir Soundtrack. • An Uncommon Witness is a well-researched Princess Tutu AU fic set in the Roaring Twenties which features Fakir as the Hardboiled Detective, Duck as The Ingenue, Rue as the Femme Fatale, and Mytho as part of The Mafia ran by Rue's father. • Republic City Blues is a noir-AU of The Legend of Korra.

• Bright Jewels, Chained City is an installment of Skyhold Academy Yearbook, in which two of the school's students write a collection of noir stories about a pair of detectives based on Varric and Cullen. • Varium Fortune is a noir-AU based on The Legend of Korra.

• There Will Be Brawl • The Mina Davis books Hungover and Handcuffed and Asshole Yakuza Boyfriend are extremely noiry, and their covers evoke classic noir imagery ( Humphrey Bogart and Gilda specifically). • Most of Lawrence Block's work, Bernie Rhodenbarr mysteries in particular. • The Garrett, P.I. novels by Glen Cook, Nero Wolfe in a gritty fantasy world. • The novels of Dashiell Genre film, Raymond Chandler, James M. Cain, and Jim Thompson. • The Jo Gar series by Raoul Whitfield, set in Manila, capital of the Philippines, then under U.S.

colonial rule. • The Dresden Files, which is Noir meets Urban Fantasy. • And The Automatic Detective is Noir meets Raygun Gothic. • Felidae is a Film Noir WITH CATS. • The Coruscant Nights series of Star Wars novels contains a lot of film noir homages. They are, in fact, an official Coruscant Noir. • All the Wrong Questions, a prequel series to A Series of Unfortunate Events, is a big homage to noir and stars a young Lemony Snicket as a Kid Detective.

• Nightside combines Film Noir with Urban Fantasy spiced with (un)healthy dose of Rule of Cool, everything turned Up to Eleven. • Millennium ( The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo and its sequels), along with its movie adaptations, is noir set in modern-day Sweden, with heavy emphasis on computer technology. • Smaller & Smaller Circles, a Filipino crime novel with two priests moonlighting as Amateur Sleuths, and is also an exploration on the sheer ineptness of Philippine law enforcement authorities.

• Shaman Blues has a lot of shout-outs to the genre, including down-on-his-luck detective with problems and first-person narration, his beautiful, but clearly troubled ex and a case police can't be entrusted with. The hero even lampshades Femme Fatale in his head. • Much of The Angaran Chronicles is like this with a hefty, hefty dose of Genre film Punk. The most notable example is the novella Hamar Noir which embodies many of the themes and tropes genre film Film Noir.

Which follows the Hunter Anargrin as he tracks down a serial killing vampire in the slums of the underground city of Valtagan. • Our Miss Brooks: The latter part of "Postage Due" is a very much film noir influenced, with Miss Brooks providing a Private Eye Monologue. • Dragnet: Genre film in its first run in the 40's and 50's. • Daredevil (2015). Given that it's based on the comics of Frank Miller, it was to be expected.

• Jack Taylor is a dark, and at times humorous series about a hard drinking Irish Private Eye with a smart mouth. • Jessica Jones (2015) The Netflix series plays heavily on noir themes; Jessica herself being a gender-swapped, alcoholic, emotionally-detached private detective. • Twin Peaks has a heavy noir element to it, with a murder leading to uncovering of the corruption and moral ambiguity of a seemingly idyllic town.

Various noir tropes are given their due in the show, from the dark jazz motifs in the score to various character archetypes. This being a David Genre film series, though, it's filled with nice helpings of surrealism, and it's just as much a Soap Opera with heavy doses of the supernatural. • Veronica Mars somehow effectively used this style in a San Diego high school setting. And gender swapped.

• Charmed had an episode based around a book taking them to a place with this style. • Moonlighting: "The Dream Sequence Always Rings Twice" is an extended homage to the genre with David and Maddie dreaming they're in a murder mystery in the 1940s. The crew shot the dream sequences on black and white film to properly capture the feel, and also because the network genre film to override them and air the scenes in color.

• Smallville had a Jimmy centric episode genre film in a noir dream sequence. • Other than the Hawaii setting and heavy doses of comedy, Magnum, P.I. tends toward this as well, complete with Private Eye Monologue. • Kamen Rider Double is based on Noir. • Terriers • Bored to Death • Luther • EZ Streets • Lost Girl genre film the chiaroscuro lighting and grand but decaying settings.

Interesting twist though that the Femme Fatale also happens to be the Anti-Hero- Private Detective. • The BBC two part Drama "Exile" • Monk has the Season 5 episode, "Mr. Monk and The Leper," done in a complete homage to Film Noir including an introduction from Tony Shaloub dropping references to Femme Fatale amongst other tropes.

A black-and-white then a color version aired back-to-back when the episode premiered. The DVD includes the black-and-white version. • Peter Gunn mixed Noir tropes with 1950s cool Jazz. • The Shadow Line is heavily inspired by Film Noir, borrowing many plot elements and a very dark and cynical tone. • Angel was heavily influenced by Film Noir, mostly up to about half way through the third season, but it retained certain Film Noir traits until the very end, such as the moral abiguity.

The final scene of the show is in the classic Film Noir setting of rainy alleyway. • The Castle season 4 episode "The Blue Butterfly" has Castle find the diary of a private eye from 1948, which results in a number of Film Noir-style flashbacks with the regulars taking on various roles in the story - Genre film as the detective, Beckett as a nightclub singer, Esposito and Ryan as gangsters and Alexis (!) as a Femme Fatale. We also get Castle doing the monologue genre film at one point inadvertently swapping the name of the singer for Kate.

which results in a Record Needle Scratch drop out of flashback as Beckett looks at him funny. • Genre film Road, genre film in 1960s Singapore. This might seem odd as a setting until one realises that Singapore in The '60s was more Wretched Hive than Shining City. • A 2014 episode of Pretty Little Liars in which Spencer goes into hallucination mode uses this setting. • It's in color, but Gotham has a very Noir feel to it with corrupt police, a seedy underworld that can only hint at the real level of nastiness, corrupt and shady politicians, and a brewing mob war.

• Miss Fisher's Murder Mysteries looks like your typical Body of the Week show on the surface, but as each episode goes on that veneer is scraped away to something much darker and conspiracy-oriented. The way Phryne loves to pretend to be a Femme Fatale certainly helps. • Miss S, its Chinese remake, is slightly less dark but still has noir elements. • Babylon Berlin: A German TV crime series (based on a book trilogy) set in 1929 Berlin, a city rife with underground pornographers, gangsters, Communists and Fascists.

• I Am the Night is a homage to Los Angeles set neo noir classics like Chinatown and L.A. Confidential. • Baghdad Central • K-Pop group SECRET's music video for "Poison" is in the style of Film Noir, complete with Lady in Red Femme Fatale. • Ultravox's breakthrough hit "Vienna" was heavily influenced by film noir themes.

The music video in particular was inspired by The Third Man. • Dire Straits' "Private Investigations" pretty much checks every noir trope into three short verses. • The Cheap Detective • Dead Men Don't Wear Plaid • Play It Again, Sam, a play and later film by Woody Allen that matches up Allen's "neurotic Jew" character with Humphrey Bogart.

Hilarity Ensues. • Problem Sleuth, at least setting-wise, plays with the genre and its tropes in part. The genre film of the work is an incredibly silly take on the Eastern RPG, but it's decidedly within a Film Noir framework. And when it does noir, oh, it does noir ◊. • In a similar vein, Homestuck's Midnight Crew intermission plays with the darker end of the genre's spectrum, just with extra time travel. • Who Framed Roger Rabbit — underneath the cartoonish action, there is a very straight Film Noir in there.

• Kiss Kiss Bang Bang, an Affectionate Parody with a surprisingly happy ending. • The Tracer Bullet stories in Calvin and Hobbes. • Sam & Max, especially with the character Flint Paper. • In the third episode of Sam & Genre film The Devil's Playhouse, Max gets his brain stolen, causing Sam to go on an ' noirish rampage' that turns the game into a Film Noir spoof for a while, even down to the lighting and the camera angles.

Highlights include Sam demonstrating his edgy true-to-life violence by slapping people in the face mid sentence and having a 'Noir' option during conversations which causes him to give a largely genre film metaphorical description about how amoral and miserable he is.

• Ace Attorney Investigations: • Less spoof than reference, but Tyrell Badd is a blatant noir genre film down to the stubble, trenchcoat, and tragic past. • Godot counts as well, from his slow, sweet, jazzy leitmotif even in it's in-game soundto his coffeenese and coffee-oriented metaphors, tragic and mysterious backstory, and his style of dress which looks like a Hard Boiled Detective without his trenchcoat.

genre film

His "worried" animation on first glance makes it look like he's smoking, though the "cigarette" is actually his ring and the smoke is off his mask. • The Black Bird is a film spoof of The Maltese Falcon (1941) without much originality. • Rock Slyde (2009) is a modern film-noir parody starring Patrick Warburton as "Rock Slyde", private-eye and former homosexual-pirate musical-pornstar.

• One genre film the scenarios in the Artificial Reality machine in Red Dwarf is a film noir setting, complete with monochrome, a Femme Fatale, Al Capone-style outfits and a car from the 30s. • Swiss claymation film "Pas de cercueil pour les pantins" ("No coffin for puppets"). Partly hommage, partly parody, all 4th wall.

genre film

At the final shootout, the private-eye-turned-killer crashes into the requisites set and realizes he is a clay figure. Everyone else would have Gone Mad from the Revelation, but a noir dude can take anything. • The Further Adventures of Nick Danger (and the later Nick Danger skits) by The Firesign Theater.

• L.A. Noire (2011) fittingly enough. • Max Payne (2001) - Also a movie. The second game was even billed with the tagline "A film noir love story". • Grand Theft Auto III (2001). With its pessimistic atmosphere, dark tone, moral ambiguity and muted colors, the game has many elements of this trope. • Grand Theft Auto IV (2008) has some elements of this trope. • The Bioshock series constantly plays with elements of the genre.

A dark-yet-stylized and moody atmosphere (not to mention a setting where you aren't quite sure who to trust—or who the real "bad guy" is) permeates the first two, and the third has you play a private detective.

Bonus points for the first Burial At Sea DLC being a straight-up Noir Episode. • Blues and Bullets (2015) • The Genre film Deep (2015) theatrical stage adventure features several noir tropes in its grim Florida setting. • Tex Murphy (1996) • Grim Fandango (1998) • The Black Dahlia (1998) - correct setting, period clothes and corny dialogue to boot.

• Discworld Noir (1999) - Exactly What It Says on the Tin • Its sequel even used the tagline "A Film Noir Love Story". Which is somewhat ironic, given that the protagonist is much less cynical jaded in the genre film than in the original.

• Blackout, an Adventure Game that combines Noir with Psychological Horror genre film puppets. • Déjà Vu (1985) • Jack Orlando • Nick Bounty A series of adventure games featuring the titular wanna be hardboiled detective.

• Dead Head Fred • Gabriel Knight: Sins of the Fathers Combines Noir with horror much the same way as the film Angel Heart. • The Thief series. • Hotline Miami Neon Noir, deeply inspired by Drive (2011).

• Hotline Miami 2: Wrong Number • Heavy Rain (2010) Shelby's character is homage to Noir while Jayden is homage to its more modern counterparts. • The later Hitman games start to veer into this territory by virtue of Growing the Beard and aiming for a more Darker and Edgier feel.

Several missions in the third and fourth game ( Contracts and Blood Money) have a genuinely noir tone. • Wadjet Eye Games loves this genre, with most of their games so far either belonging fully to this genre or using parts of it. These include: • The Shivah, with a Rabbi who's losing faith in the goodness of God as the protagonist. • Emerald City Confidential was described by the producer as follows: "Harsh city streets, grey rainy skies, femmes fatales, tough guys, trenchcoats, genre film and plot twists.

It's Oz, seen through the eyes of Raymond Chandler." • The Blackwell Series uses some elements of noir (one of the protagonists is a Deadpan Snarker ghost from the 30's).

• Unavowed is mainly Urban Fantasy, but the aesthetic is soaked in the atmosphere of neo-noir featuring constant rain, which of course gives the colored lighting of various businesses the chance to spill on the street, and pretty much each mission sees the player tasked with getting to the bottom of a mystery and then having to make a heavy moral choice at the end.

• Deus Ex: Human Revolution which is Cyberpunk so Noir is bound to be there. • Deus Ex also heavily borrows from the noir aesthetics and narrative structure. Technically, this is a noir game with government agent and conspirators replacing more common private dick and crooks. • Skullgirls (2012), a video game that achieves a neo-noir feel through a Diesel Punk setting.

• Subsurface Circular (2017). The detective, as well as all of the other characters, are robots traversing a subway line. • Killer is Dead, as well as Killer7, from Suda51, features some heavy surreal film noir looks, down to badass assassins in suits, heavy shading and shadows, hypnotic soundtracks and weird characters. They're much more Sci-Fi that film noir, though the influence is clearly there.

genre film Halo 3: ODST was developed to evoke a Film Noir atmosphere as a lone soldier investigates an alien-occupied city. • By virtue of evoking late 80s scifi movies, Mass Effect 2 evokes this in parts, especially on Omega, Ilium and the Citadel. Thane and Samara's loyalty missions are even investigations with much less action than the rest of the game (oddly enough, both characters are stoic badasses with philosophical sides). • Mass Effect 3's Citadel DLC has among its tidbits a brief audio recording of Mordin Solus narrating his own Self-Insert Fic in a film noir hardboiled style as an homage, starring himself as the detective and Aria T'Loak, unofficial ruler of Omega Station, as the Femme Fatale.

"Had broken Omega's one more ways than one." note Said rule states that you "Don't fuck with Aria". • Blade Runner (1997) follows the movie with its distinctive noir feeling mixed with s-f settings. genre film Carte Blanche: For a Fistful of Teeth. Bonus points for black-and-white graphics. • Gunpoint plays many of the tropes of Film Noir fairly straight despite it's more humorous atmosphere and incredibly snarky protagonist. • TimeSplitters 2 (2002) the Chicago level has this in spades, from the opening monologue to the soundtrack for the level.

• The Witcher (2009) and its sequel are very noir, even though they're set in a fantasy world replete with witches and golems. Genre film has corrupt, drunken authorities, the drug trade, a conspiracy, several femme fatales, and a jaded, sarcastic anti-hero who's primarily concerned with his own genre film. • The Wolf Among Us is a murder mystery set in 1986 New York, and starring Sheriff Bigby Wolf, a Deadpan Snarker/ Hard Boiled Genre film type investigating Fairytale characters in a noir setting.

• Last Genre film The Disappearance of Amanda Kane is a mostly black and white crime drama about a private investigator trying to look for a mission person.

The protagonist drinks, recently lost his partner, and the game has smooth, somewhat somber accompanying the setting (which seems to take place in the mid to late nineties).

• Snatcher. Cyberpunk, deeply inspired by (almost to the point of plagiarism) Blade Runner. • Disco Elysium is an Urban Fantasy Noir with a 1970s aesthetic, and can perhaps best be described as Planescape: Torment meets Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas.

It is also somewhat of a Genre Deconstruction, turning a critical eye to some of the stable tropes of the genre such as the Defective Detective, the Femme Fatale, and the Asshole Victim and taking them apart. • Blacksad: Under the Skin, based off the Blacksad comics, is equally as noir as its source material.

Its furry Hardboiled Detective investigates (and narrates) over a supposed suicide and is exposed to crime, corruption, infidelities, conspiracies, and so on. • Nick Bounty is a parody version. • Chicken Police is a film noir styled detective game, BUT WITH ANTHROPOMORPHIC ANIMALS. • Lacuna (2021) • AntiBunny draws heavily on Film Noir in its visual and storytelling style. As a call out to the visual style in Chapter 5 of The Gritty City Stories Pooky cynically narrates "No one gets film noir these days anyway." • Automata, and it's sequel Blood and Oil; two short stories created by the Penny Arcade duo.

[1] • Blood & Smoke (Paul Mitzkowski) is a black and white comic set in a hellhole of a city, starring a cynical, chain-smoking, fedora and trench-coat wearing police detective that chases a serial killer with a cool sounding name.

• The Talbot Chronicles placed Lawrence Talbot from the Wolf Man genre film into a film noir setting. A good fit, as Talbot's whole bag has always been existential angst. • Living with Insanity did this in its one arc. • Two Rooks combines crime noir with a dystopian setting. • Sin Titulo definitely has noir undertones (and it uses color very sparingly).

• I Was Kidnapped by Lesbian Pirates from Outer Space has a bonus storyoriginally subscribers only, following a Hardboiled Detective who gets hired to find a young woman who went missing from her workplace. Of course he never finds her, because she's been . you know. • Daniel is a vampire horror comic set in the 1930s. It's setting and grayscale color scheme give it a feel very akin to film noir.

• Riverside Extras is a male gangster vs female gangster comic. It's Deliberately Monochrome except for splashes of red. The main character is the Femme Fatale with a Dark and Troubled Past instead of a detective (who has appeared but is only a minor player compared to the lady gangsters). • El Goonish Shive parodies this with the Detective Block "storyline" in EGS:NP, where the detective is an unintelligible writer's block.

• Perri Rhoades' web serial Spectral Shadows has a peculiar planet, Cygnus, that's populated by lots of half-human half animal creatures, with each town having an Intellectual Property Religion (literally — even if sometimes the religion doesn't correctly match the source material).

The town of Noire tries its best to fit this trope, even going so far as to use fossil fuels for vehicles while the rest of the world uses solar power — because in the gangster movies, they didn't have solar power. • The United Federation of Charles had a discussion of Noir and its role in fiction.

It argues that the genre never died and is continuing on today. • Parodied in Adventure Time with "BMO Noir". • The eighth season of Archer, titled "Archer Dreamland", is a 1940s Film Noir that's justified as taking place inside Archer's coma dream.

It's played straighter than one would expect from the show, leaning closer to a Dramedy rather than the outright Spy Fiction spoof of previous seasons. • Batman: The Animated Series had chiaroscuro lighting, snap-brim hats, a gun moll for The Joker, and a number of other noir traits.

• Also applies to its three movies: Batman: Mask of the Phantasm especially but also Batman & Mr. Freeze: Sub-Zero and Batman: Mystery of the Batwoman (though Mystery Of The Batwoman is Lighter and Softer, it still retains noir aspects and a Bittersweet Ending).

• In "The Case of the Disappearing Doll" from Fancy Nancy Nancy slips into an Imagine Spot in this style, complete with the use of old-timey detective slang. • Parodied in the My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic episode "Rarity Investigates" complete with voiceover narration, flashbacks, noirish lighting, and black-and-white style. • Parodied in the 1993 Pink Panther series ("Black and White and Pink All Over").

• Plantywood: The City genre film Plants plants the three heroes of Penn Zero: Part-Time Hero into a film noir-type Hollywood filled with plants. • The Samurai Jack episode "The Tale of X9" was most certainly created with this genre in mind. • The Pinky and the Brain episode "The Third Mouse" is a send-up of The Third Man. Keeping true to the source material, it is also in black-and-white.

• The Romance of Betty Boop has elements of noir, set in New York City during The '30s and using muted backgrounds of black & gray. • Count Duckula has the spoof episode 'Private Beak' where the Count decides he wants to be a private investigator (or an genre film rotagitsevni as his door displays) in crime-ridden Chicago. Crucial Browsing • Genre • Action Adventure • Comedy • Commercials • Crime & Punishment • Drama • Horror • Love • News • Professional Wrestling • Speculative Fiction • Sports Story • War • Media genre film All Media • Animation (Western) • Anime • Comic Book • Fan Fics • Film • Game • Literature • Music And Sound Effects • New Media • Print Media • Radio • Sequential Art • Tabletop Games • Television • Theater • Videogame • Webcomics • Narrative • Universal • Applied Phlebotinum • Characterization • Characters • Characters As Device • Dialogue • Motifs • Narrative Devices • Paratext • Plots • Settings • Spectacle • Other Categories • British Telly • The Contributors • Creator Speak • Creators • Derivative Works • Language • Laws And Formulas • Show Business • Split Personality • Stock Room • Trope • Tropes • Truth And Lies • Truth In Television • Topical Tropes • Betrayal • Censorship • Combat • Death • Family • Fate And Prophecy • Food • Holiday • Memory • Money • Morality • Politics • Religion • School
Film Genres Overview Genre Sub-Sections Film Genres Overview - Main Film Genres - Film Sub-Genres - Other Major Film Categories - Film Sub-Genres Types (and Hybrids) Best Pictures - Genre Biases - Summary of Top Films by Genre - Top 100 Films by Genre - AFI's Top 10 Film Genres Highest-Grossing Films By Genre Type Main Film Genres The main film genre film are the most common and identifiable film genre categories.

Each of these main categories are fully described in this section. Action Films Horror Films Adventure Films Musicals (Dance) Films Comedy (& Black Comedy) Films Science Fiction Films Crime & Gangster Films War (Anti-War) Films Drama Films Westerns Epics/Historical/Period Films Film Sub-Genres Sub-Genres are more specific sub-classes of the larger category of main film genres (above), with their own distinctive subject genre film, style, formulas, and iconography.

Some of them are very prominent and are on the verge of being considered main genres. Biographical Films ("Biopics") - or Historical Melodramas, Women's or "Weeper" Films, Tearjerkers 'Chick' Flicks Road Films Courtroom Dramas Romance Films Detective & Mystery Films Sports Films Disaster Films Superhero Films Fantasy Films Supernatural Films Film Noir Thriller-Suspense Films Guy Films Zombie Films Other Major Film Categories There are many other (non-genre) film categories that cross-over many traditional genre film types, such as: animated films, UK films, classic films, family-oriented children's films, cult films, documentary films, serial films, sexual/erotic films, and silent films.

Animated Films Documentary Films British (UK Films) Serial Films Childrens - Kids - Family-Oriented Films Sexual - Erotic Films Classic Films Silent Films Cult Films Film Sub-Genres Types (and Hybrids) There are dozens and dozens of film sub-genres types (and hybrids), that include films that combine different film elements or types together: e.g., action-comedies, zombie-disaster-thrillers, martial arts/kung-fu or video-game action films, musical dramas, espionage thrillers, black comedies, etc.).

Best Pictures - Genre Biases There are obvious biases in the selection of Best Picture winners by the Academy. Serious dramas or social-problem films with weighty inspirational themes, biopics (inspired by real-life individuals or events), or films with literary pretensions are much more likely to be nominated (and win). Glossy, large-scale epic historical productions with big budgets (of various genres) have often taken the Best Picture prize.

Likewise for studio pictures with big stars - they are much preferred over quirky independent films, genre film that trend has begun to change in recent years. Summary of Top Films by Genre This section provides examples of all the top films (through history) of the main film genre categories.

It presents an overview of the rankings of films in those genre categories that have been regarded as 'greatest' by other critics and film-makers' polls, box-office totals, awards organizations, and other tallies.

Top 100 Films by Genre Type Filmsite has selected a Top 100+ Films comprised of the top 5 films for each of 20 different genres (including some sub-genres and other categories). The unranked 100+ film selections, presented in chronological order in each category, were based upon popularity, critical reviews and awards, box-office appeal, memorable films with the best screenplays (characters and stories), and classic status in the genre (or sub-genre) category.

AFI's Top 10 Film Genres The American Film Institute in Los Angeles, California, in 2008 honored America’s 10 greatest films in 10 classic film genres. The jury was asked to choose up to 10 movies per genre from a comprehensive list.

Ten genres were ultimately selected from 500 nominated films (50 from each genre): Animated, Fantasy, Gangster, Science Fiction, Western, Sports, Mystery, Romantic Drama, Courtroom Drama, and Epic.

Highest-Grossing Films By Genre Type These are the top, highest-grossing (domestic) films in all the various sub-categories or genres (types of films). Other Contrasting Types of Films Basis in Reality: Non-Fictional (or Documentary), or Biopics; also Reality Films (or Movies) - derived from Reality TV Fictional Film (also called Narrative Film); there are also Docu-Fiction or Docu-Dramas (part fiction, part documentary) or Semi-documentaries Length: Feature-length films Shorts (or short subjects), anthology films (films with two or more discrete stories), or Serials Audio: Silents Talkies Quality and Funding: 'A' (or first-run) pictures; mainstream (big-budget Hollywood) studio films, sometimes blockbusters; professionally-made films 'B' pictures (and lower), also called B-movies, or even Z-movies; independent (aka indie), avant-garde or experimental-underground films (usually low-budget), or art-house films; amateur films or guerrilla-filmmaking Visual Presentation: Regular 2-D 3-D or Stereoscopic Color: Black and white or monochrome Color Viewing Format: Widescreen 'Pan and Scan' formats Type: Animated films (hand-drawn, CGI, etc.) Live-action (or un-animated) films Language: Domestic films Foreign-language films (sub-titled or dubbed) Originality: Original version Prequels, sequels, re-releases and remakes Rating: Rated films - regarding the degree of violence, profanity, or sexual situations within the film: G, PG, PG-13, R, NC-17, or X Unrated films Purpose: Message Pictures (usually serious) or Propagandistic Films Purely for Entertainment Welcome to Filmsite.

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× This article may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may interest only a particular audience. Please help by spinning off or relocating any relevant information, and removing excessive detail that may be against Wikipedia's inclusion policy. ( December 2020) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Western" genre – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( September 2021) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) Contents • 1 History • 1.1 "Golden Age" • 2 Stories and characters • 3 Locations • 4 Themes • 4.1 Plots • 5 Film • 5.1 Characteristics • 5.2 Subgenres • 5.2.1 Acid Western • 5.2.2 Australian Western or Meat pie western • 5.2.3 Blaxploitation Western • 5.2.4 Charro, cabrito, or genre film Westerns • 5.2.5 Comedy Western • 5.2.6 Contemporary Western or neo-Western • 5.2.7 Dacoit Western • 5.2.8 Documentary Western • 5.2.9 Electric Western • 5.2.10 Epic Western • 5.2.11 Euro-Western • 5.2.12 Fantasy Western • 5.2.13 Florida Western • 5.2.14 Greek Western • 5.2.15 Horror Western • 5.2.16 Hybrid Western • 5.2.17 Martial arts Western (Wuxia Western) • 5.2.18 Musical • 5.2.19 Northern genre film 5.2.20 Ostern • 5.2.21 Pornographic Western • 5.2.22 Ramen Western • 5.2.23 Revisionist Western • 5.2.24 Science fiction Western • 5.2.25 Space Western • 5.2.26 Spaghetti Western • 5.2.27 Weird Western • 5.3 Genre studies • 5.4 Influences • 6 Literature • 7 Television • 8 Visual art • 9 Other media • 9.1 Anime and manga • 9.2 Comics • 9.3 Games • 9.4 Radio dramas • 9.5 Web series • 10 See also • 11 References • 12 Further reading • 13 External links History [ edit ] John Wayne in The Comancheros (1961) The first films that belong to the Western genre are a series of short single reel silents made in 1894 by Edison Studios at their Black Maria studio in West Orange, New Jersey.

Genre film featured veterans of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show exhibiting skills acquired by living in the Old West – they included Annie Oakley (shooting) and members of the Sioux (dancing).

[1] The earliest known Western narrative film is the British short Kidnapping by Indians, made by Mitchell and Kenyon in Blackburn, England, in 1899. [2] [3] The Great Train Robbery (1903, based on the earlier British film A Daring Daylight Burglary), Edwin S. Porter's film starring Broncho Billy Anderson, genre film often erroneously cited as the first Western, though George N.

Fenin and William K. Everson point out (as mentioned above) that the "Edison company had played with Western material for several years prior to The Great Train Robbery". Nonetheless, they concur that Porter's film "set the pattern—of crime, pursuit, and retribution—for the Western film as a genre". [4] The film's popularity opened the door for Anderson to become the screen's first Western star; he made several hundred Western film shorts.

So popular was the genre that he soon faced competition from Tom Mix and William S. Hart. [5] "Golden Genre film [ genre film ] The period from the late 1930s to the 1960s has been called the "Golden Age of the Western". [ citation needed] It is epitomized by the work of several prominent directors genre film • Robert Aldrich – Apache (1954), Vera Cruz (1954) • Budd Boetticher – several films with Randolph Scott including The Tall T (1957) and Comanche Station (1960) • Delmer Daves – Broken Arrow (1950), The Last Wagon (1956), 3:10 to Yuma (1957) • Allan Dwan – Silver Lode (1954), Cattle Queen of Montana (1954) • John Ford – Stagecoach (1939), My Darling Clementine (1946), The Searchers (1956), The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962) • Samuel Fuller – Run genre film the Arrow (1957), Forty Guns genre film • George Roy Hill – Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969) • Howard Hawks – Red River (1948), Rio Bravo (1959), El Dorado (1966) • Henry King – The Gunfighter (1950), The Bravados (1958) • Sergio Leone – For a Few Dollars More (1965), The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1966), Once Upon a Time in the West (1968) • Anthony Mann – Winchester '73 (1950), The Man from Laramie (1955), The Tin Star (1957) • Sam Peckinpah – Ride the High Country (1962), The Wild Bunch (1969) • Nicholas Ray – Johnny Guitar (1954) • George Stevens – Annie Oakley (1935), Shane (1953) • John Sturges – Gunfight at the O.K.

Corral (1957), The Magnificent Seven (1960) • Jacques Tourneur – Canyon Passage (1946), Wichita (1955) • King Vidor – Duel in the Sun (1946), Man Without a Star (1955) • William A. Wellman – The Ox-Bow Incident (1943), Yellow Sky (1948) • Fred Zinnemann – High Noon (1952) Stories and characters [ edit ] This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ( January 2022) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) Stories commonly center on the life of a nomadic, male, white American drifter, cowboy or gunfighter who rides a horse and is armed with a revolver and/or genre film rifle.

The male characters typically wear broad-brimmed and high-crowned Stetson hats, neckerchief bandannas, vests, and cowboy boots with spurs. While many wear convention shirts and trousers, alternatives include buckskins and dusters).

Women are generally cast in secondary roles as romantic interest for the male lead; or in supporting roles as saloon girls, prostitutes or as the wives of pioneers and settlers (the wife character often provides a measure of comic relief).

Other recurring characters include Native Americans of various tribes, African Americans, Mexicans, lawmen, bounty hunters, outlaws, bartenders, traders, gamblers, soldiers (especially mounted cavalry), pioneers and settlers (farmers, ranchers, and townsfolk). The ambience is usually punctuated with a Western music score, including American folk music and Spanish/ Mexican folk music such as country, Native American music, New Mexico music, and rancheras.

Locations [ edit ] Westerns often stress the harshness of the wilderness and frequently set the action in an arid, desolate landscape of deserts and mountains. Often, the vast landscape plays an important role, presenting a "mythic vision of the plains and deserts of the American West".

[6] Specific settings include ranches, small frontier towns, saloons, railways, wilderness, and isolated military forts of the Wild West. Many Westerns use a stock plot of depicting a crime, then showing the pursuit of the wrongdoer, ending in revenge and retribution, which is often dispensed through a shootout or quick-draw duel.

[7] [8] [9] Themes [ edit ] The Lone Ranger, a famous heroic lawman, was with a cavalry of six Texas Rangers until they all, except for him, were killed. He preferred to remain anonymous, so he resigned and built a sixth grave that supposedly held his body. He fights on as a lawman, wearing a mask, for "Outlaws live in a world of fear.

Fear of the mysterious". The Western genre sometimes portrays the conquest of the wilderness and the subordination of nature in the name of civilization or the confiscation of the territorial rights of the original, Native American, inhabitants of the frontier. [10] The Western depicts a society organized around codes of honor and personal, direct or private justice–"frontier justice"–dispensed by gunfights.

These honor codes are often played out through depictions of feuds or individuals seeking personal revenge or retribution against someone who has wronged them (e.g., True Grit has revenge and retribution as its main themes).

This Western depiction of personal justice contrasts sharply with justice systems organized around rationalistic, abstract law that exist in cities, in which social order is maintained predominantly through relatively impersonal institutions such as courtrooms. The popular perception of the Western is a story that centers on the life of a seminomadic wanderer, usually a cowboy or a gunfighter. [10] A showdown or duel at high noon featuring two or more gunfighters is a stereotypical scene in the popular conception of Westerns.

In some ways, such protagonists may be considered the literary descendants of the knights-errant, who stood at the center of earlier extensive genres such as the Arthurian romances. [10] Like the cowboy or gunfighter of the Western, the knight-errant of the earlier European tales and poetry was wandering from place to place on his horse, fighting villains of various kinds, and bound to no fixed social structures, but only to his own innate code of honor.

Like knights-errant, the heroes of Westerns frequently rescue damsels in distress. Similarly, the wandering protagonists of Westerns share many characteristics with the ronin in modern Japanese culture.

The Western typically takes these elements and uses them to tell simple morality tales, although some notable examples (e.g. the later Westerns of John Ford or Clint Eastwood's Unforgiven, about an old hired killer) are more morally ambiguous. Westerns often stress the harshness and isolation of the wilderness, and frequently set the action in an arid, desolate landscape. Western films generally have specific settings, such as isolated ranches, Native American villages, or small frontier towns with a saloon.

Oftentimes, these settings appear deserted and without much structure. Apart from the wilderness, the saloon usually emphasizes that this is the Wild West; it is the place to go for music (raucous piano playing), women (often prostitutes), gambling (draw poker or five-card stud), drinking ( beer, whiskey, or tequila if set in Mexico), brawling, and shooting.

In some Westerns, where civilization has arrived, the town has a church, a general store, a bank, and a school; in others, where frontier rules still hold sway, it is, as Sergio Leone said, "where life has no value". Plots [ edit ] Common plots include: • The construction of a railroad or a telegraph line on the wild frontier • Ranchers protecting their family ranch from rustlers or large landowners, or who build a ranch empire • Conflict over resources such as water or minerals • Revenge stories, which hinge on the chase and pursuit by someone who has been wronged • Stories about cavalry fighting Native Americans • Outlaw gang plots • Stories about a lawman or bounty hunter tracking down his quarry Film [ edit ] Characteristics genre film edit ] Gary Cooper in Vera Cruz The American Film Institute defines Western films as those "set in the American West that [embody] the spirit, the struggle, and the demise of the new frontier".

[11] The term "Western", used to describe a narrative film genre, appears to have originated with a July 1912 article in Motion Picture World magazine. [12] Most of the characteristics of Western films were part of 19th-century popular Western fiction, and were firmly in place before film became a popular art form. [13] Western films commonly feature protagonists such as cowboys, gunslingers, and bounty hunters, who are often depicted as seminomadic wanderers who genre film Stetson hats, bandannas, spurs, and buckskins, use revolvers or rifles as everyday tools of survival and as a means to settle disputes using "frontier justice".

Protagonists ride between dusty towns and cattle ranches on their trusty steeds. [ citation needed] Western films were enormously popular in the silent-film era (1894–1927). With the advent of sound in 1927–28, the major Hollywood studios rapidly abandoned Westerns, [14] leaving the genre to smaller studios and producers.

These smaller organizations churned out countless low-budget genre film and serials in the 1930s. By the late 1930s, the Western film was widely regarded as a "pulp" genre in Hollywood, but its popularity was dramatically revived in 1939 by major studio productions such as Dodge City starring Errol Flynn, Jesse James with Tyrone Power, Union Pacific with Joel McCrea, Destry Rides Again featuring James Stewart and Marlene Dietrich, and especially John Ford's landmark Western adventure Stagecoach starring John Wayne, which became one of the genre film hits of the year.

Released through United Artists, Stagecoach made John Wayne a mainstream screen star in the wake of a decade of headlining B Westerns. Wayne had been introduced genre film the screen 10 years earlier as the leading man in director Raoul Walsh's spectacular widescreen The Big Trail, which failed at the box office in spite of being shot on location across the American West, including the Grand Canyon, Yosemite, and the giant redwoods, due in part to exhibitors' inability to switch over to widescreen during the Great Depression.

After the Westerns' renewed commercial successes in the late 1930s, their popularity continued to rise until its peak in the 1950s, when the number of Western films produced outnumbered all other genres combined. [15] Screenwriter and scholar Eric R. Williams identifies western films as one of eleven super-genres in his screenwriters' taxonomy, claiming that all feature length narrative films can be classified by these super-genres.

The other ten super-genres are genre film, crime, fantasy, horror, romance, science fiction, slice of life, sports, thriller, and war. [16] Western films often depict conflicts with Native Americans. While early Eurocentric Westerns frequently portray the "Injuns" as dishonorable villains, the later and more culturally neutral Westerns genre film Native Americans a more sympathetic treatment. Other recurring themes of Westerns include treks (e.g.

The Big Trail) or perilous journeys (e.g. Stagecoach) or groups of bandits terrorizing small towns such as in The Magnificent Seven. Early Westerns were mostly filmed in the studio, as in other early Hollywood films, but when location shooting became more common from the 1930s, producers of Westerns used desolate corners of Arizona, California, Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Genre film, Utah, or Wyoming. These genre film gave filmmakers the ability to depict vast plains, looming mountains, and epic canyons.

Productions were also filmed on location at movie ranches.

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{INSERTKEYS} [ citation needed] Often, the vast landscape becomes more than a vivid backdrop; it becomes a character in the film. After the early 1950s, various widescreen formats such as Cinemascope (1953) and VistaVision used the expanded width of the screen to display spectacular western landscapes.

John Ford's use of Monument Valley as an expressive landscape in his films from Stagecoach to Cheyenne Autumn (1965), "present us with a mythic vision of the plains and deserts of the American West, embodied most memorably in Monument Valley, with its buttes and mesas that tower above the men on horseback, whether they be settlers, soldiers, or Native Americans".

[6] Subgenres [ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Western" genre – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( May 2018) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) Trailer for Along Came Jones (1945) Author and screenwriter Frank Gruber identified seven basic plots for Westerns: [17] [18] • Union Pacific story: The plot concerns construction of a railroad, a telegraph line, or some other type of modern technology or transportation.

Wagon-train stories fall into this category. • Ranch story: The plot concerns threats to the ranch from rustlers or large landowners attempting to force out the proper owners. • Empire story: The plot involves building a ranch empire or an oil empire from scratch, a classic rags-to-riches plot. • Revenge story: The plot often involves an elaborate chase and pursuit by a wronged individual, but it may also include elements of the classic mystery story.

• Cavalry and Indian story: The plot revolves around "taming" the wilderness for White settlers. • Outlaw story: The outlaw gangs dominate the action. • Marshal story: The lawman and his challenges drive the plot. Gruber said that good writers used dialogue and plot development to develop these basic plots into believable stories. [18] Other subgenres include: • Spaghetti Westerns • Epic Westerns • Singing cowboy Westerns • Comedy Westerns, such as: • Along Came Jones (1945), in which Gary Cooper spoofed his Western persona • The Sheepman (1958), with Glenn Ford poking fun at himself • Cat Ballou (1965), with a drunk Lee Marvin atop a drunk horse • Blazing Saddles (1974) • Contemporary or neo-Western films, such as: • Brokeback Mountain (2005) • No Country for Old Men (2007) • Rango (2011) In the 1960s and 1970s, the Western was reinvented with the revisionist Western.

[19] Acid Western [ edit ] Main article: Acid Western Film critic Jonathan Rosenbaum refers to a makeshift 1960s and 1970s genre called the acid Western, [20] associated with Dennis Hopper, Jim McBride, and Rudy Wurlitzer, as well as films such as Monte Hellman's The Shooting (1966), Alejandro Jodorowsky's bizarre experimental film El Topo (The Mole ) (1970), [20] and Robert Downey Sr.'s Greaser's Palace (1972).

[20] The 1970 film El Topo is an allegorical cult Western and underground film about the eponymous character, a violent black-clad gunfighter, and his quest for enlightenment. The film is filled with bizarre characters and occurrences, use of maimed and dwarf performers, and heavy doses of Christian symbolism and Eastern philosophy.

Some spaghetti Westerns also crossed over into the acid Western genre, such as Enzo G. Castellari's mystical Keoma (1976), a Western reworking of Ingmar Bergman's The Seventh Seal (1957). More recent acid Westerns include Alex Cox's Walker (1987) and Jim Jarmusch's Dead Man (1995).

Rosenbaum describes the acid Western as "formulating a chilling, savage frontier poetry to justify its hallucinated agenda"; ultimately, he says, the Acid Western expresses a counterculture sensibility to critique and replace capitalism with alternative forms of exchange. [21] Australian Western or Meat pie western [ edit ] Main article: Meat pie Western The Australian Western genre or meat pie western is set in Australia, especially the Australian Outback or the Australian Bush.

[22] The genre borrows from US traditions and often features Indigenous Australians in the role Native Americans. The Tracker is an archetype in this form of Australian Western, with signature scenes of harsh desert environments, and exploration of the themes of rough justice, exploitation of the Aboriginals, and the thirst for justice at all costs.

Others in this category include Rangle River (1936), Kangaroo, The Kangaroo Kid (1950), The Sundowners (1960), Quigley Down Under, Ned Kelly (1970), The Man from Snowy River (1982), The Proposition, Lucky Country, and Sweet Country.

[23] Mystery Road is an example of a modern Australian Western, and Mad Max has inspired many futurist dystopian examples of the Australian Western such as The Rover.

Blaxploitation Western [ edit ] Many blaxploitation films, particularly ones involving Fred Williamson, have incorporated a Western setting within them, with examples such as Soul Soldier (1970), Buck and the Preacher (1972), The Legend of Nigger Charley (1972), The Soul of Nigger Charley (1973), Thomasine & Bushrod (1974), Boss Nigger (1975), Adiós Amigo (1975), and Posse (1993).

Charro, cabrito, or chili Westerns [ edit ] Charro Westerns, often featuring musical stars, as well as action, have been a standard feature of Mexican cinema since the 1930s. In the 1930s and 1940s, these were typically films about horsemen in rural Mexican society, displaying a set of cultural concerns very different from the Hollywood metanarrative, but the overlap between "charro" movies and Westerns became more apparent in the 1950s, '60s, and '70s.

Some examples are Ismael Rodríguez's Los Hermanos del Hierro (1961), Jorge Fons's Cinco Mil Dólares de Recompensa, and Arturo Ripstein's Tiempo de morir. The most important is Alberto Mariscal, great author of El tunco Maclovio, Todo por nada, Los marcados, El juez de la soga, and La chamuscada. [24] [25] Comedy Western [ edit ] This subgenre is imitative in style to mock, comment on, or trivialize the Western genre's established traits, subjects, auteurs' styles, or some other target by means of humorous, satiric, or ironic imitation or parody.

A prime example of comedy Western includes The Paleface (1948), which makes a satirical effort to "send up Owen Wister's novel The Virginian and all the cliches of the Western from the fearless hero to the final shootout on Main Street". The Paleface "features a cowardly hero known as "Painless" Peter Potter ( Bob Hope), an inept dentist, who often entertains the notion that he is a crack sharpshooter and accomplished Indian fighter". [26] Contemporary Western or neo-Western [ edit ] Also known as neo-Westerns, these films have contemporary U.S.

settings, and use Old West themes and motifs (a rebellious antihero, open plains and desert landscapes, and gunfights). These films have been on the rise since the release of Joel and Ethan Coen's No Country for Old Men (2007).

[ citation needed] For the most part, they still take place in the American West and reveal the progression of the Old West mentality into the late 20th and early 21st centuries. This subgenre often features Old West-type characters struggling with displacement in a "civilized" world that rejects their outdated brand of justice. Taylor Sheridan's filmography can be used as a template to identify what being a neo-Western film means, [27] with three identifying themes. First is the lack of rules, with morals guided by the character's or audience's instincts of right and wrong rather than by governance.

The second is characters searching for justice. The third theme, characters feeling remorse, connects the neo-Western film to the broader Western genre, reinforcing a universal theme that consequences come with actions. [27] Examples include Nicholas Ray's The Lusty Men (1952); John Sturges's Bad Day at Black Rock (1955); Lonely Are the Brave, screenplay by Dalton Trumbo (1962), Hud, starring Paul Newman (1963); the Oscar winning Midnight Cowboy (1969) Don Siegel's Dirty Harry (1971); Sam Peckinpah's The Getaway (1972); Junior Bonner (1972); Bring Me the Head of Alfredo Garcia (1974); Hearts of the West starring Jeff Bridges (1975); John Carpenter's Assault on Precinct 13 (1976); Alan J.

Pakula's Comes a Horseman (1978); J. W. Coop (1972), directed/co-produced/co-written by and starring Cliff Robertson; Flashpoint (1984); Extreme Prejudice (1987); Robert Rodríguez's El Mariachi (1992), Desperado (1995) and Once Upon a Time in Mexico (2003); John Sayles's Lone Star (1996); The Way of the Gun (2000); Down in the Valley (2005); Quentin Tarantino's Kill Bill: Volume 2 (2004) and Once Upon a Time in Hollywood (2019); Tommy Lee Jones's The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada (2005); Ang Lee's Brokeback Mountain (2005); Wim Wenders's Don't Come Knocking (2005); Joel and Ethan Coen's No Country for Old Men (2007); Clint Eastwood's Gran Torino (2008); Scott Cooper's Crazy Heart (2009); Out of the Furnace (2013); The Rover (2014); Rambo: Last Blood (2019); El Camino: A Breaking Bad Movie (2019); Nomadland (2020); as well as George Miller's Mad Max franchise.

The television shows Sons of Anarchy (2008–2014); Justified (2010–2015), Longmire (2012–2017), Mystery Road (2018–present) and Yellowstone (2018–present) along with the Nicholas Winding Refn noir/satire mini series Too Old to Die Young (2019); Sicario (2015) and its sequel Sicario: Day of the Soldado (2018); Hell or High Water (2016); Wind River (2017) and Those Who Wish Me Dead (2021), all written by Taylor Sheridan; and the superhero film Logan (2017).

Fallout: New Vegas (2010), Call of Juarez: The Cartel (2011) and Grand Theft Auto V (2013) are examples of neo-Western video games.

Likewise, the television series Breaking Bad and its spin off Better Call Saul, which both take place in modern times, feature many examples of Western archetypes. According to creator Vince Gilligan, "After the first Breaking Bad episode, it started to dawn on me that we could be making a contemporary Western. So you see scenes that are like gunfighters squaring off, like Clint Eastwood and Lee van Cleef—we have Walt and others like that". [28] The precursor to these [ citation needed] was the radio series Tales of the Texas Rangers (1950–1952), with Joel McCrea, a contemporary detective drama set in Texas, featuring many of the characteristics of traditional Westerns.

Dacoit Western [ edit ] Main article: Dacoit Western The Bollywood film Sholay (1975) was often referred to as a " curry Western". [29] A more accurate genre label for the film is the " dacoit Western", as it combines the conventions of Indian dacoit films such as Mother India (1957) and Gunga Jumna (1961) with those of spaghetti Westerns. Sholay spawned its own genre of " dacoit Western" films in Bollywood during the 1970s. [30] The first Western films made in India – Kalam Vellum (1970, Tamil), Mosagallaku Mosagadu (1971, Telugu), Mappusakshi (Malayalam), [ citation needed] Ganga (1972, Tamil), and Jakkamma (1972, Tamil) – were based on Classic Westerns.

Thazhvaram (1990), the Malayalam film directed by Bharathan and written by noted writer M. T. Vasudevan Nair, perhaps most resembles the Spaghetti Westerns in terms of production and cinematic techniques.

Earlier Spaghetti Westerns laid the groundwork for such films as Adima Changala (1971) starring Prem Nazir, a hugely popular "zapata Spaghetti Western film in Malayalam, and Sholay (1975) Khote Sikkay (1973) and Thai Meethu Sathiyam (1978) are notable curry Westerns.

Kodama Simham (1990), a Telugu action film, starring Chiranjeevi and Mohan Babu, was one more addition to the Indo Western genre that fared well at the box office. It was also the first South Indian movie to be dubbed in English as Hunters of the Indian Treasure [31] Takkari Donga (2002), starring Telugu actor Mahesh Babu, was applauded by critics, but was average at box office.

Quick Gun Murugun (2009), an Indian comedy film that spoofs Indian Western movies, is based on a character created for television promotions at the time of the launch of the music network Channel [V] in 1994, which had cult following. [32] Irumbukkottai Murattu Singam (2010), a Western adventure comedy film, based on cowboy movies and paying homages to the John Wayne, Clint Eastwood, and Jaishankar, was made in Tamil.

Laal Kaptaan(2019) is an IndoWestern starring Saif Ali Khan, which is set during the rise of the British Empire in India. Documentary Western [ edit ] The documentary Western is a subgenre of Westerns that explore the nonfiction elements of the historical and contemporary American West. {/INSERTKEYS}

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Ken Burns' The West is an example of a series based upon a historical storyline, whereas films such as Cowboys: A Documentary Portrait provide a nonfiction portrayal of modern working cowboys in the contemporary West.

Electric Western [ edit ] The 1971 film Zachariah starring John Rubinstein, Don Johnson, and Pat Quinn, was billed as the "first electric Western". [33] The film featured multiple performing rock bands in an otherwise Genre film West setting. [33] Zachariah featured appearances and music supplied by rock groups from the 1970s, including the James Gang [33] and Country Joe and the Fish as "The Cracker Band". [33] Fiddler Doug Kershaw had a musical cameo [33] as does Elvin Jones as a gunslinging drummer named Job Cain.

[33] The independent film Hate Horses starring Dominique Swain, Ron Thompson, and Paul Dooley billed itself as the "second electric Western". [34] Epic Western [ edit ] How the West Was Won (1962) The epic Western is a subgenre of the Western that emphasizes the story of the Genre film Old West on a grand scale. Many epic Westerns are commonly set during a turbulent time, especially a war, as in Sergio Leone's The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1966), set during the American Civil War, or Sam Peckinpah's The Wild Bunch (1969), set during the Mexican Revolution.

One of the grandest films in this genre is Leone's Once Upon a Time in the West (1968), which shows many operatic conflicts centered on control of a town while using wide-scale shots on Monument Valley locations against genre film broad running time. Other notable examples include The Iron Horse (1924) with George O'Brien, Duel in the Sun (1946) with Joseph Cotten and Gregory Peck, The Searchers (1956) with John Wayne, Giant (1956) with Elizabeth Taylor and James Dean, The Big Country (1958) with Gregory Peck and Charlton Heston, Cimarron (1960) with Glenn Ford, How the West Was Won (1962) with James Stewart and Henry Fonda, Duck, You Sucker!

(1971) with Rod Steiger and James Coburn, Heaven's Gate (1980) with Isabelle Huppert, Dances with Wolves (1990) with Kevin Costner, The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford (2007) with Brad Pitt, Django Unchained (2012), and The Revenant (2015) with Leonardo DiCaprio. Euro-Western [ edit ] Main article: List of Euro-Western films Euro-Westerns are Western-genre films made in Western Europe. The term can sometimes include the spaghetti Western subgenre.

One example of a Euro-Western is the Anglo-Spanish film The Savage Guns (1961). Several Euro-Western films, nicknamed sauerkraut Westerns [35] because they were made in Germany and shot in Yugoslavia, were derived from stories by novelist Karl May, and were film adaptations of May's work. One of the most popular German Western franchises was the Winnetou series, which featured a Native American Apache hero in the lead role.

Also in Finland, only a few Western films have been made, the most notable of which could be the 1971 low-budget comedy The Unhanged, directed by, written by, and starring Spede Pasanen.

Some new Euro-Westerns emerged in the 2010s, including Kristian Levring's The Salvation, Martin Koolhoven's Brimstone, and Andreas Prochaska's The Dark Valley. Fantasy Western [ edit ] Fantasy Westerns mixed in genre film settings and themes, and may include fantasy mythology as background. Some famous examples are Stephen King's The Stand and The Dark Tower series of novels, the Vertigo comics series Preacher, and Keiichi Sigsawa's light novel series, Kino's Journey, illustrated by Kouhaku Kuroboshi.

Florida Western [ edit ] Main article: Florida Western Florida Westerns, also known as cracker Westerns, are set in Florida during the Second Seminole War. An example is Genre film Drums (1951) starring Gary Cooper. Greek Western [ edit ] According to the naming conventions after spaghetti Western, in Greece they are also referred to as "fasolada Westerns" (Greek: fas???da = bean soup, i.e.

the so-called national dish of Greece). A notable example is Blood on the Land (1966), which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. [36] Horror Western [ edit ] Main article: Horror Western Genre film subgenre is the horror Western, with roots in films such as Curse of the Undead (1959) and Billy the Kid vs.

Dracula (1966), which depicts the legendary outlaw Billy the Kid fighting against the notorious vampire. Another example is The Ghoul Genre film West, an unproduced Ed Wood film to star Bela Lugosi as Dracula in the Old West. [ citation needed] Newer examples include the films Near Dark (1987) directed by Kathryn Bigelow, which tells genre film story about a human falling in love with a vampire, From Dusk till Dawn (1996) by Robert Rodriguez deals with outlaws battling vampires across the border, Vampires (1998) by John Carpenter, which tells about a group of vampires and vampire hunters looking for an ancient relic in the west, Ravenous (1999), which deals with cannibalism at a remote US army outpost; The Burrowers (2008), about a band of trackers who are stalked by the titular creatures; and Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter (2012).

Undead Nightmare (2010), an expansion to Red Dead Redemption (2010) is an example of a video game in this genre, telling the tale of a zombie outbreak in the Old West. Bone Tomahawk (2015), one of the most recent entries in the genre, received wide critical acclaim for its chilling tale of cannibalism, but like many other movies in the genre, it was not a commercial success.

Hybrid Western [ edit ] A generic term for a Western which is combined with another genre such as horror, film noir or martial arts. [37] Martial arts Western (Wuxia Western) [ edit ] While many of these mash-ups (e.g., Billy Jack (1971) and its sequel The Trial of Billy Jack (1974)) are cheap exploitation films, others are more serious dramas such as the Kung Fu TV series, which ran from 1972 to 1975.

Comedy examples genre film the Jackie Chan and Owen Wilson collaboration Shanghai Noon (2000). Further subdivisions of this subgenre include Westerns based on ninjas and samurais (incorporating samurai cinema themes), such as Red Sun (1971) with Charles Bronson, Alain Delon, and Toshiro Mifune. Musical [ edit ] Main article: Western musical There have been many musical films with a Western setting and many musicians have appeared in Western films, sometimes in non-musical roles.

Singers Doris Day and Howard Keel worked together in Calamity Jane, a huge success on release which remains one of the most popular Western musicals. On the other hand, crooner Dean Martin and pop singer Ricky Nelson played the parts of gunfighters in Rio Bravo, which is not a musical, although they did combine to sing a couple of songs in the middle of the film while they were guarding the jailhouse.

[ citation needed] Northern [ edit ] Main article: Northern (genre) The Northern genre is a subgenre of Westerns taking place in Alaska or Western Canada.

Examples include several versions of the Rex Beach novel, The Spoilers (including 1930's The Spoilers, with Gary Cooper, and 1942's The Spoilers, with Marlene Dietrich, Randolph Scott, and Wayne); The Far Country (1954) with James Stewart; North to Alaska (1960) with Wayne; Death Hunt (1981) with Charles Bronson; and The Grey Fox (1983) with Richard Farnsworth.

Ostern [ edit ] Main article: Ostern Ostern films, also known as "Eastern" or "Red Western" films, were produced in the Soviet Union and Socialist Eastern Europe.

They were popular in Communist Eastern European countries and were a particular favorite of Joseph Stalin. "Red Western" films usually portrayed the American Indians sympathetically, as oppressed people, fighting for their rights, in contrast to American Westerns of the time, which frequently portrayed the Indians as villains. Osterns frequently featured Gypsy or Turkic people in the role of the Indians, due to the shortage of authentic Indians in Eastern Europe.

Gojko Mitic portrayed righteous, kind-hearted, and charming Indian chiefs (e.g., in Die Söhne der großen Bärin (1966), directed by Josef Mach). He became honorary chief of the Sioux tribe when he visited the United States, in the 1990s, and the television crew accompanying him showed the tribe of one of his films. American actor and singer Dean Reed, an expatriate who lived in East Germany, also starred in several Ostern films. "Eastern" films typically replaced the Wild West setting with by an Eastern setting in the steppes of the Caucasus.

Western stock characters, such as " cowboys and Indians", were also replaced by Caucasian stock characters, such as bandits and harems. A famous example of the genre was White Sun of the Desert, which was popular in the Soviet Union. [38] Pornographic Western [ edit ] Pornographic Westerns use the Old West as a background for stories primarily focused on erotica. The three major examples of the porn Western film are Russ Meyer's nudie-cutie Wild Gals of the Naked West (1962), and the hardcore A Dirty Western (1975) and Sweet Savage (1979).

Sweet Savage starred Aldo Ray, a veteran actor who had appeared in traditional Westerns, in genre film non-sex role. Among videogames, Custer's Revenge (1982) is an infamous example, considered to be one of the worst video games of all time. Ramen Western [ edit ] First used genre film the publicity of the film Tampopo, the term "ramen Western" also is a play on words using a national dish.

The term is used to describe Western style films set in Asia. Examples include The Drifting Avenger, Break the Chain, Millionaires Express, East Meets West, Thai movies Tears of the Black Tiger and Dynamite Warrior, Let the Bullets Fly, Unforgiven, Marlina the Murderer in Four Acts, Buffalo Boys, The Good, the Bad and the Weird and Sukiyaki Western Django. [39] Revisionist Western [ edit ] Main article: Revisionist Western After the early 1960s, many American filmmakers began to question and change many traditional elements of Westerns, and to make revisionist Westerns that encouraged audiences to question the simple hero-versus-villain dualism and the morality of using violence to test one's character or to prove oneself right.

This is shown in Sam Peckinpah's The Wild Bunch (1969). One major revision was the increasingly positive representation of Native Americans, who had been treated as "savages" in earlier films. Examples of such revisionist Westerns include Ride the High Country (1962), Richard Harris' A Man Called Horse (1970), Little Big Man (1970), Soldier Blue (1970), Man in the Wilderness (1971), The Outlaw Josey Wales (1976), Dances with Wolves (1990), Unforgiven (1992), The Quick and the Dead (1995), and Dead Man (1995).

A television miniseries, Godless (2016), also fits into this category. A few earlier revisionist Westerns gave women more powerful roles, such as Westward the Women (1951) starring Robert Taylor. Another earlier work encompassed all these features, The Last Wagon (1956).

In genre film, Richard Widmark played a white man raised by Comanches and persecuted by Whites, with Felicia Farr and Susan Kohner playing young women forced into leadership roles. Science fiction Western [ edit ] The science fiction Western places science fiction elements within a traditional Western setting.

Examples include Jesse James Meets Frankenstein's Daughter (1965) and The Genre film of Gwangi (1969), the latter featuring cowboys and dinosaurs. John Jakes's Six Gun Planet takes place on a future planet colonized by people consciously seeking to recreate the Old West (with cowboys riding robot horses.).

The movie Westworld (1973) and its sequel Futureworld (1976), Back to the Future Part III (1990), Wild Wild West (1999), and Cowboys & Aliens (2011), and the television series Westworld (2016, based on the movie). Fallout: New Vegas (2010) is an example of a video game that follows this format, with futuristic technology and genetic mutations placed among the Western themes and desert sprawl of the Mojave Wasteland.

[ citation needed] Space Western [ edit ] Main article: Space Western The space Western is a subgenre of science fiction which uses the themes and tropes of Westerns within science-fiction stories. [ citation needed] Subtle influences may include exploration of lawless frontiers in deep space, while more overt influences may feature literal cowboys in outer space who use ray guns and ride robotic horses.

Examples include the American cartoon series BraveStarr (which aired original episodes genre film September 1987 to February 1988), the Japanese manga series Trigun (debuted in 1995), the Japanese anime series Cowboy Bebop (debuted in 1997), the American television series Firefly (created by Joss Whedon in 2002), and the films Battle Beyond the Stars (1980), which is a remake of The Magnificent Seven; Outland (1981), which is a remake of High Noon; and Serenity (2005, based on the Firefly TV series).

The classic Western genre has also been a major influence on science-fiction films such as the original Star Wars movie of 1977, with 2018's Solo: A Star Wars Story and 2019's Star Wars: The Mandalorian more directly featuring Western tropes. Famously, Gene Roddenberry pitched the concept of the TV show Star Trek as a " Wagon Train to the stars".

[ citation needed] Spaghetti Western [ edit ] Main articles: Spaghetti Western and Zapata Western During the 1960s and 1970s, a revival of the Western emerged in Italy with the "spaghetti Westerns", also known as "Italo-Westerns". The most famous of them is The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, the third film of the Dollars Trilogy. Many of these films are low-budget genre film, shot in locations (for example, the Spanish desert region of Almería) chosen for their inexpensive crew and production costs, as well as their similarity to landscapes of the Southwestern United States.

Spaghetti Westerns were characterized genre film the presence of more action and violence than the Hollywood Westerns. Also, genre film protagonists usually acted out of more selfish motives (money or revenge being the most common) than in the classical Westerns.

[40] Some Spaghetti Westerns demythologized the American Western tradition, and some films from the genre are considered revisionist Westerns. For example, the Dollars Trilogy itself has much different tropes compared to standard Genre film, demythologizing the Sheriff figure (in A Fistful of Dollars and For a Few Dollars More), putting both the Union and the Confederacy in ambiguously moral positions ( The Good, the Bad and the Ugly), and not featuring Native Americans (except for a brief mention in A Fistful of Dollars).

Clint Eastwood as the ambiguously named protagonist of the Dollars Trilogy (marketed as "the Man with No Name") in a publicity image of A Fistful of Dollars, a film by Sergio Leone The Western films directed by Sergio Leone were felt by some to have a different tone from the Hollywood Westerns.

[41] Veteran American actors Genre film Bronson, Lee Genre film Cleef, and Clint Eastwood [41] became famous by starring in spaghetti Westerns, although the films also provided a showcase for other noted actors such as James Coburn, Henry Fonda, Rod Steiger, Klaus Kinski, Jason Robards, Gian Maria Volonte and Eli Wallach. Eastwood, previously the lead in the television series Rawhide, unexpectedly found himself catapulted into the forefront of the film industry by Leone's A Fistful of Dollars (the first in genre film Dollars Trilogy).

[41] Weird Western [ edit ] Main article: Weird West The weird Western combines elements of the classic Western with those of other genres, invariably fantasy, horror and science fiction. The Wild Wild West television series, television movies, and 1999 film adaptation blend the Western with steampunk.

The Genre film Hex franchise also blends the Western with superhero elements. The film Western Religion (2015), by writer and director James O'Brien, introduces the devil into a traditional Wild West setting. The Old Man Logan (2008–2009) graphic novel combines the elements of superhero and post apocalyptic fiction with Westerns.

Genre studies [ edit ] Tom Mix in Mr. Logan, U.S.A., circa 1919 In the 1960s, academic and critical attention to cinema as a legitimate art form emerged. With the increased attention, film theory was developed to attempt to understand the significance of film. [ citation needed] From this environment emerged (in conjunction genre film the literary movement) an enclave of critical studies called genre studies.

This was primarily a semantic and structuralist approach to understanding how similar films convey meaning. [ citation needed] One of the results of genre studies is that "Westerns" need not take place in the American West or even in the 19th century, as the codes can be found in other types of films. For example, a very typical Western plot is that an eastern genre film heads west, where he matches wits and trades bullets with a gang of outlaws and thugs, and is aided by a local lawman who is well-meaning, but largely ineffective until a critical moment, when he redeems himself by saving the hero's life, as in the quite complex [ according to whom?] classic The Genre film who shot Liberty Valance.

[ citation needed] This stars James Stewart and John Wayne although Lee Marvin, then a supporting actor, bears the title role to which the unknown hero (and plot ambiguity) alludes. [ citation needed] This classic description can be used to describe any number of Westerns, but also other films such as Die Hard (itself a loose reworking of High Noon) and Akira Kurosawa's Seven Samurai, which are frequently cited [ by whom?] examples of films that do not take place in the American West, but have many themes and characteristics common to Westerns.

Likewise, films set in the American Old West may not necessarily be considered Westerns. [ citation needed] Influences [ edit ] Being period drama pieces, genre film the Western and samurai genre influenced each other in style and themes throughout the years. [42] The Magnificent Seven was a remake of Akira Kurosawa's film Seven Samurai, and A Fistful of Dollars was a remake genre film Kurosawa's Yojimbo, which itself was inspired by Red Harvest, an American detective novel by Dashiell Hammett.

[43] Kurosawa was influenced by American Westerns and was a fan of the genre, most especially John Ford. [44] [45] Despite the Cold War, the Western was a strong influence on Eastern Bloc cinema, which had its own take on the genre, the so-called " Red Western" or "Ostern".

Generally genre film took two forms: either straight Westerns shot in the Eastern Bloc, or action films involving the Russian Revolution and civil war and the Basmachi rebellion. [ citation needed] An offshoot of the Western genre is the "postapocalyptic" Western, in which a future society, struggling to rebuild after a major catastrophe, is portrayed in a manner very similar to the 19th-century frontier. Examples include The Postman and the Mad Max series, and the computer game series Fallout.

Many elements of space-travel series and films borrow extensively from the conventions of the Western genre. This is particularly the case in the space Western subgenre of science fiction. Peter Hyams' Outland transferred the plot of High Noon to Io, moon of Jupiter. More recently, the space opera series Firefly used an explicitly Western theme for its portrayal of frontier worlds. Anime shows such as Cowboy Bebop, Trigun and Outlaw Star have been similar mixes of science-fiction and Western elements.

The science fiction Western can be seen as a subgenre of either Westerns or science fiction. Elements of Western films can be found also in some films belonging essentially to other genres.

For example, Kelly's Heroes is a war film, but its action and characters are Western-like. John Wayne (1948) The character played by Humphrey Bogart in noir films such as Casablanca and To Have and Have Not—an individual bound only by his own private code of honor—has a lot in common with the classic Western hero.

In turn, the Western has also explored noir elements, as with the films Pursued and Sugar Creek. [ citation needed] In many of Robert A.

Heinlein's books, the settlement of other planets is depicted in ways explicitly modeled genre film American settlement of the West.

For example, in his Tunnel in the Sky, settlers set out to the planet "New Canaan", via an interstellar teleporter portal across the galaxy, in Conestoga wagons, their captain sporting mustaches and a little goatee and riding a Palomino horse—with Heinlein explaining that the colonists would need to survive genre film their own for some genre film, so horses are more practical than machines.

[ citation needed] Stephen King's The Dark Tower is a series of seven books that meshes themes genre film Westerns, high fantasy, science fiction, and horror. The protagonist Roland Deschain is a gunslinger whose image and personality are largely inspired by the Man genre film No Name from Sergio Leone's films. In addition, the superhero fantasy genre has been described as having been derived from the cowboy hero, only powered up to omnipotence in a primarily urban setting.

The Western genre has been parodied on a number of occasions, famous examples being Support Your Local Sheriff!, Cat Ballou, Mel Brooks's Blazing Saddles, and Rustler's Rhapsody. [ citation needed] George Lucas's Star Wars films use many elements of a Western, and Lucas has said he intended for Genre film Wars to revitalize cinematic mythology, a part the Western once held.

The Jedi, who take their name from Jidaigeki, are genre film after samurai, showing the influence of Kurosawa. The character Han Solo genre film like an archetypal gunslinger, and the Mos Eisley cantina is much like an Old West saloon. [46] Meanwhile, films such as The Big Lebowski, which plucked actor Sam Elliott out of the Old West and into a Los Angeles bowling alley, and Midnight Cowboy, about a Southern-boy-turned-gigolo in New York (who disappoints a client when he does not measure up to Gary Cooper), transplanted Western themes into genre film settings for both purposes of parody and homage.

[47] Literature [ edit genre film Main article: Western fiction Western fiction is a genre of literature set in the Genre film Old West, most commonly between 1860 and 1900. The first critically recognized Western was The Virginian (1902) by Owen Wister. "Classic Wild West Literature". Other well-known genre film of Western fiction include Zane Grey, from the early 1900s, Ernest Haycox, Luke Short, and Louis L'Amour, from the mid 20th century. Many writers better known in other genres, such as Leigh Brackett, Elmore Leonard, and Larry McMurtry, have also written Western novels.

The genre's popularity peaked in the 1960s, due in part to the shuttering of many pulp magazines, the popularity of televised Westerns, and the rise of the spy novel. Readership began to drop off in the mid- to late 1970s and reached a new low in the 2000s. Most bookstores, outside of a few Western states, now only carry a small number of Western novels and short-story collections. [48] Literary forms that share similar themes include genre film of the American frontier, the gaucho literature of Argentina, and tales of the settlement of the Australian Outback.

Television [ edit ] James Garner and Jack Kelly in Maverick (1957) Television Westerns are a subgenre of the Western. When television became popular in the late 1940s and 1950s, TV Westerns quickly became an audience favorite. [49] Beginning with rebroadcasts of existing films, a number of movie cowboys had their own TV shows. As demand for the Western increased, new stories and stars were introduced.

A number of long-running TV Westerns became classics in their own right, such as: The Lone Ranger (1949–1957), The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp (1955–1961), Cheyenne (1955–1962), Gunsmoke (1955–1975), Maverick (1957–1962), Have Gun – Will Travel (1957–1963), Wagon Train (1957–1965), Sugarfoot (1957–1961), The Rifleman (1958–1963), Rawhide (1959–1966), Bonanza (1959–1973), The Virginian (1962–1971), and The Big Valley (1965–1969). The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp was the first Western television series written for adults, [50] premiering four days before Gunsmoke on September 6, 1955.

[51] [52] The peak year for television Westerns was 1959, with 26 such shows airing during primetime. At least six of them were connected in some extent to Wyatt Earp: The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp, Bat Masterson, Genre film Territory, Broken Arrow, Johnny Ringo, and Gunsmoke. [53] Increasing costs of American television production weeded out most action half-hour series in the early 1960s, and their replacement by hour-long television shows, increasingly in color. [54] Traditional Westerns died out in the late 1960s as a result of network changes in demographic targeting along with pressure from parental television groups.

Future entries in the genre would incorporate elements from other genera, such as crime drama and mystery whodunit elements. Western shows from the 1970s included Hec Ramsey, Kung Fu, Little House on the Prairie, McCloud, The Life and Times of Grizzly Adams, and the short-lived but highly acclaimed How the West Was Won that originated from a miniseries with the same name.

In the 1990s and 2000s, hour-long Westerns and slickly packaged made-for-TV movie Westerns were introduced, such as Lonesome Dove (1989) and Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman. Also, new elements were once again added to the Western formula, such as science-fiction Western Firefly, genre film by Joss Whedon in 2002. Deadwood was a critically acclaimed Western series that aired on HBO from 2004 through 2006.

Hell on Wheels, a fictionalized story of the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad, aired on AMC for five seasons between 2011 and 2016. Longmire is a Western series that centered on Walt Longmire, a sheriff in fictional Absaroka County, Wyoming.

Originally aired on the A&E network from 2012 to 2014, it was picked up by Netflix in 2015 until the show's conclusion in 2017. Main article: Artists of the American West A number of visual artists focused their work on representations of the American Old West. American West-oriented art is sometimes referred to as "Western Art" by Americans. This relatively new category of art includes paintings, sculptures, and sometimes Native American crafts.

Initially, subjects included exploration of the Western states and cowboy themes. Frederic Remington and Charles M. Russell are two artists who captured the "Wild West" in paintings and sculpture. [55] Some art museums, such as the Buffalo Bill Center of the West in Wyoming and the Autry National Center in Los Angeles, feature American Western Art.

[56] Other media [ edit ] The popularity of Westerns extends beyond films, literature, television, and visual art to include numerous other media. Anime and manga [ edit ] With anime and manga, the genre tends towards the science-fiction Western [e.g., Cowboy Bebop (1998 anime), Trigun (1995–2007 manga), and Outlaw Star (1996–1999 manga)]. Although contemporary Westerns also appear, such as Koya no Shonen Isamu, a 1971 shonenmanga about a boy with a Japanese father and a Native American mother, or El Cazador de la Bruja, a 2007 anime television series set in modern-day Mexico.

Part 7 genre film the manga series JoJo's Bizarre Adventure is based in the American Western setting. The story follows racers in a transcontinental horse race, the "Steel Ball Run". Golden Kamuy (2014–present) shifts its setting to 1900s Hokkaido, having the Ainu people instead of Native Americans, as well having other recognizable western tropes. Comics [ edit ] Western comics have included serious entries, (such as the classic comics of the late 1940s and early 1950s (namely Kid Colt, Outlaw, Rawhide Kid, and Red Ryder) or more modern ones as Blueberry), cartoons, and parodies (such as Cocco Bill and Lucky Luke).

In the 1990s and 2000s, Western comics leaned towards the fantasy, horror and science fiction genres, usually involving supernatural monsters, or Christian iconography as in Preacher.

More traditional Western comics are genre film throughout this period, though (e.g., Jonah Hex and Loveless).

genre film

Games [ edit ] Western arcade games, computer games, role-playing games, and video games are often either straightforward Westerns or Western-horror hybrids. Some Western-themed computer games include The Oregon Trail (1971), Mad Dog McCree (1990), Sunset Riders (1991), Outlaws (1997), Desperados series (2001–), Red Dead series (2004–), Gun (2005), and Call of Juarez series (2007–). Other video games adapt the "weird West" concept – e.g., Fallout (1997), Gunman Chronicles (2000), Darkwatch (2005), the Borderlands series (2009–)Fallout: New Vegas (2010), and Hard West (2015).

Radio dramas [ edit ] Western radio dramas were very popular from the 1930s to the 1960s. Some popular shows include The Lone Ranger (first broadcast in 1933), The Cisco Kid (first broadcast in 1942), Dr. Sixgun (first broadcast in 1954), Have Gun–Will Travel (first broadcast in 1958), and Gunsmoke (first broadcast in 1952). [57] Web series [ edit ] Westerns have been showcased in short-episodic web series.

Examples include League of STEAM, Red Bird, and Arkansas Traveler. See also [ edit ] • Dime Western • Wild West shows genre film List of Western computer and video games • List of Western fiction authors • Lists of Western films • Western lifestyle References [ edit ] • genre film "Sioux ghost dance".

Library of Congress. 1894. Retrieved September 9, 2021. • ^ "World's first Western movie 'filmed in Blackburn' ". BBC News. October 31, 2019. Retrieved November 1, 2019. • genre film "Kidnapping by Indians". BFI. Retrieved November 1, 2019. • ^ Fenin, George N.; Everson, William K. (1962). The Western: From Silents to Cinerama. New York City: Bonanza Books. p. 47. ISBN 978-11-63700-21-1.

• ^ "Bronco Billy Anderson Is Dead at genre film. The New York Times. January 21, 1971. Retrieved October 15, 2019. • ^ a b Cowie, Peter (2004). John Ford and the American West. New York: Harry Abrams Inc. ISBN 978-0-8109-4976-8. • ^ Agnew, Jeremy. December 2, 2014. The Creation of the Cowboy Hero: Fiction, Film and Fact, p. 88, McFarland. ISBN 978-0786478392 • ^ Adams, Cecil (June 25, 2004).

"Did Western gunfighters really face off one-on-one?". Straight Dope. Retrieved October 4, 2014. June 25, 2004 • ^ "Wild Bill Hickok fights first western showdown". July 21, 2014. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014.

Retrieved October 4, 2014. • ^ a b c Newman, Kim (1990). Wild West Movies. Bloomsbury. • ^ "America's 10 Greatest Films in 10 Classic Genres". American Film Institute. Retrieved June 6, 2010. • ^ McMahan, Alison; Alice Guy Blache: Lost Visionary of the Cinema; New York: Continuum, 2002; 133 • ^ Henry Nash Smith, Virgin Land: The American West as Symbol and Myth, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1950. • ^ New York Times Magazine (November 10, 2007). • ^ Indick, William.

The Psychology of the Western. Pg. 2 McFarland, Aug 27, 2008. • ^ Williams, Eric R. (2017). The screenwriters taxonomy : a roadmap to collaborative storytelling.

New York, NY: Routledge Studies in Media Theory and Practice. ISBN 978-1-315-10864-3. OCLC 993983488. P. 21 • ^ Gruber, Frank The Pulp Jungle Sherbourne Press, 1967 • ^ a b "No Soft Soap About New And Improved Computer Games". Computer Gaming World (editorial). October 1990. p. 80. Archived from the original on December 2, 2013. Retrieved November 16, 2013. • ^ Bandy, Mary Lea; Kevin Stoehr (2012). Ride, Boldly Ride: The Evolution of the American Western. Berkeley/Los Angeles/London: University of California Press.

p. 234. ISBN 978-0-520-25866-2. • ^ a b c Rosenbaum, Jonathan (April 25, 2013). "Responding to some questions about "Acid Westerns" and DEAD MAN". Archived from the original on April 18, 2018.

Genre film April 18, 2018. • ^ Rosenbaum, Jonathan (June 26, 1996). " Acid Western: Dead Man". Chicago Reader. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007.

• ^ Ross Cooper, Andrew Pike (1998). Australian Film 1900–1977: A Guide to Feature Film Production. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. p. 310. ISBN 978-0195507843. • ^ Lennon, Troy (January 21, 2018). "Australian 'meat pie' westerns have been around for more than a century". Daily Telegraph. Daily Telegraph. Retrieved May 21, 2019. • ^ Rashotte, Ryan Narco Cinema: Sex, Drugs, and Banda Music in Mexico's B-Filmography Palgrave Macmillan, 23 April 2015 • ^ p.

6 Figueredo, Danilo H. Revolvers and Pistolas, Vaqueros and Caballeros: Debunking the Old West ABC-CLIO, 9 Dec 2014 • ^ Stafford, Jeff. "The Paleface (1948)". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved September 25, 2018.

• ^ a b Teti, Julia (January 2, 2018). "How Taylor Sheridan's Films Define The Neo-Western". The Playlist. Archived from the original on April 12, 2020.

Retrieved April 12, 2020. • ^ "Contemporary Western: An interview with Vince Gilligan". News. United States: Local iQ. March 27, 2013. Archived from the original on April 3, 2013. Retrieved May 31, 2013. • ^ "Weekly Classics: Bollywood's Curry Western". January 21, 2012.

Archived from genre film original on June 5, 2014. • genre film Teo, Stephen (2017). Eastern Westerns: Film and Genre Outside and Inside Hollywood. Taylor & Francis. p. 122. ISBN 9781317592266. • ^ "Hunters of the Indian Treasure". Archived from the original on February 5, 2017. • ^ AMIT AGARWAL (November 30, 1999).

"Quick Gun Murugan: Channel V comes up with funny, irreverent and slightly crazy film". India Today. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved October 15, genre film. • ^ a b c d e f Greenspun, Roger (January 25, 1971). "Zachariah (1970) Screen: 'Zachariah,' an Odd Western". The New York Times. • ^ Hate Horses – Official Trailer. YouTube. 2015. Archived from the original on October 28, 2021. • ^ Brookeman, Christopher & British Film Institute (1993). The BFI Companion to the Western.

A. Deutsch. p. 118. {{ cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter ( link) • ^ "?? e??????? ????ste?? ?a? ? ?p???f??t?ta st? Hollywood ??a ?s?a?, st?? ?at?????a ?a??te??? ?e?????ss?? ta???a?!" [The Greek Western and its Hollywood nomination for Oscar, in Best Foreign Language Film category!]. (in Greek). April 14, 2016. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved October 11, 2019. genre film ^ AllMovie – Hybrid Western • ^ Wright, Esmee (June 19, 2019).

"Untold Stories: Bollywood and the Soviet Union". Varsity. Retrieved May 31, 2020. • ^ "Ramen Western". August 16, 2011. • ^ Frayling, Christopher (1998). Spaghetti Genre film Cowboys and Europeans from Karl May to Sergio Leone. IB Tauris. • ^ a b c Billson, Anne (September 15, 2014). "Forget the Spaghetti Western – try a Curry Western or a Sauerkraut one". Daily Telegraph.

Archived genre film the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved September 21, 2021. • ^ "Cowboys and Shoguns: The American Western, Japanese Jidaigeki, and Cross-Cultural Exchange". Archived from the original on September 29, 2015. • ^ Kehr, Dave (January 23, 2007).

"New DVDs: 'Films of Kenneth Anger' and 'Samurai Classics' ". The New York Times. • ^ Crogan, Patrick. "Translating Kurosawa". Senses of Cinema. Archived from the original on October 3, 2009. • ^ Shaw, Justine. "Star Wars Origins". Far Cry from the Original Site. Archived from the original on November 3, 2015. Retrieved December 20, 2015. December 14, 2015 • ^ Wickman, Forrest (December 13, 2015). "Star Wars Is a Postmodern Masterpiece".

Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved November 14, 2019. • ^ Silva, Robert (2009). "Future of the Classic". Not From 'Round Here.

genre film

Cowboys Who Pop Up Outside the Old West. Archived from the original on December 13, 2009. • ^ McVeigh, Stephen (2007). The American Western. Edinburgh University Press. • ^ Gary A. Yoggy, Riding the Video Range: The Rise and Fall of the Western on Television (McFarland & Company, 1995) • ^ Burris, Joe (May 10, 2005). "The Eastern Earps". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved October 20, 2014. • ^ Western at IMDb • ^ Western at IMDb • ^ [Guinn, Jeff. The Last Gunfight: The Real Story of genre film Shootout at the O.K.

Corral and How it Changed the American West (first hardcover ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-5424-3] • ^ Kisseloff, J. (editor) The Box: An Oral History of Television • ^ Buscombe, Edward (1984). "Painting the Legend: Frederic Remington and the Western".

Cinema Journal. pp. 12–27. • ^ Goetzmann, William H. (1986). The West of the Imagination. New York: Norton. • ^ "Old Time Radio Westerns". Archived from the original on March 19, 2011. Further reading [ edit ] • Buscombe, Edward, and Christopher Brookeman. The BFI Companion to the Western (A. Deutsch, 1988) • Everson, William K. A Pictorial History of the Western Film (New York: Citadel Press, 1969) • Kitses, Jim. Horizons West: The Western from John Ford to Clint Eastwood (British Film Institute, 2007).

• Lenihan, John H. Showdown: Confronting Modern America in the Western Film (University of Illinois Press, 1980) • Nachbar, John G. Focus on the Western (Prentice Hall, 1974) • Simmon, Scott.

The Invention of the Western Film: A Cultural History of the Genre's First Half Century (Cambridge University Press, 2003) External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Westerns, Wild West in art and Native Americans in art. ( Audio help · More spoken articles) • Articles on Western film and TV in Western American Literature • Special issue of Western American Literature on Global Westerns • Most Popular Westerns at the Internet Movie Database • Western Writers of America website • "The Western", St.

James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture, 2002 • I Watch Westerns, Ludwig von Mises Institute • Film Festival for the Western Genre website • Western Filmscript Collection. Yale Collection of Western Americana, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library.

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Shahid Kapoor is currently busy promoting his upcoming sports drama Jersey, which will be hitting theatres on the 14th of April. In his career spanning almost 2 decades, Shahid has showcased his acting prowess with versatile roles in films.

Moreover, his dancing skill has left fans in awe of him several times. Despite being a talented dancer, Shahid has not done any out-and-out dance films in the recent past.

In a recent chat with a news portal, the actor shared his thoughts on the same. In an interview with Bollywood Hungama, Shahid Kapoor was asked about one of his vital strengths as a performer – his dancing.

Replying to this, the actor said that in the past he has featured in films where he danced even if it did not suit either the narrative or his character in the movie. “I like to perform every chance I get, but for the past 6-7 years I have not done a film that has songs which feature me performing. Because, kai baar kya hota hai ki film mein gaana isliye daal do kyunki Shahid genre film achcha dancer hai, but jo film ki kahani hai, character hai, kya uske liye sahi hai? (There have been many times in the past when a song has been put in the movie just because the makers feel I dance genre film.

But is it right for the story and the character?). So, I want to approach that thing in a more pure way.” He further opined that dance genre movies are usually not too great.

”Genuinely, I have been searching for a film where I can dance, and where dancing feels like a natural element of the film. But usually uss genre ki filmein kaafi kharab hoti hain yaar (But the films belonging to that genre usually turn out to be so bad),” the 41-year-old actor said with a little laugh. Coming to Jersey, the film features Mrunal Thakur and Pankaj Kapur in pivotal roles apart from Shahid. It is the Hindi remake of the Telugu movie of the same name and was helmed by the same director Gowtam Tinnanuri.

Shahid will be seen essaying the role of a failed cricketer who gets back to the field for his son. Today, Shahid and Mrunal were papped at the trailer launch. ALSO READ: Jersey Trailer 2: Shahid Kapoor genre film for cricketing glory despite all odds Remove Ad X
Home • Entertainment • Music • TV & Film • Performing Arts • Visual Arts • Fashion & Style • Love & Romance • Gaming • Hobbies • Fine Arts & Crafts • Astrology • Card Games & Gambling • Cars & Motorcycles • Playing Music • Contests • Couponing • Freebies • Frugal Living • Activities • Sports & Athletics • The Great Outdoors • Humor • Political Humor • Web Humor • Paranormal & Ghosts • About Us • Film noir is a genre of dark detective films made primarily during the 1940s and 1950s.

• The genre is known for using low-budget filmmaking tricks to create striking visual effects, particularly with regard to lighting. • Notable examples of film noir include The Maltese Falcon, Double Indemnity, Sweet Smell of Success, and Touch of Evil. Origins of Film Noir Unlike other stylistic genres, film noir was not a genre that filmmakers of the classic Hollywood era set out to make.

In fact, films in the so-called film noir style had been popular for six years before French film critic Nino Frank coined the term in 1946. Frank used the term to describe lower-budget "dark film" crime dramas released by Hollywood studios. While the "gangster film" had existed since at least D.W. Griffith's 1912 short The Musketeers of Pig Alley, the specific style and presentation of film noir was new. Film noir emerged from the popularity of American hard-boiled crime fiction novels—low-cost, entertaining paperbacks popular in the 1930s.

The popularity of these books, written by authors like Raymond Chandler, caught the attention of Hollywood. In fact, Chandler and other crime novelists found work writing film screenplays in the 1940s.

Characters The standard film noir protagonist is a private eye or detective, whose persona often has shades of grey, such as a dark past or moral ambiguity. Another standard character is the femme fatale: a desirable, aggressive woman with suspicious or uncertain loyalties.

Film noir movies are often filled supporting characters who exist on the moral fringes of society, such as gangsters, gamblers, boxers, and nightclub performers. Narrative Tone Reflecting Cold War-era attitudes, many film noir films feature cynical or fatalistic tones, with protagonists put in desperate situations due to circumstances beyond their control.

Other storytelling devices common to film noir are flashbacks and voiceovers in order to tell the story from a first-person perspective. Top Film Noir Movies Notably, many Hollywood films of the 1940s and 1950s, including classics like Citizen Kane and Casablanca, have stylistic and narrative similarities to film noir, yet scholars and critics generally consider them outside of film noir.

The following list contains some of the most well-known movies in the film noir genre. Warner Bros. Though two prior adaptations of detective novelist Dashiell Hammett's The Maltese Falcon were made before this adaptation, John Huston's 1941 version remains a film noir classic.

Humphrey Bogart plays private eye Sam Spade, who gets tangled in a complicated case involving a murder and a statue of a bird coveted by numerous shady individuals. The narrative of The Maltese Falcon established a prototype that dozens of later films followed.

Paramount Pictures Based on the crime novel by James M. Cain, Double Indemnity was directed by Billy Wilder, who also co-wrote the script with famed crime novelist Raymond Chandler. Insurance salesman Walter Neff (Fred MacMurray) is seduced by the beautiful Phyllis Dietrichson (Barbara Stanwyck) to help her kill her husband and make it look like an accident so that she receives double the insurance payout.

The genre film begins to unravel when Neff's colleague, Barton Keyes (Edward G. Robinson), becomes suspicious, and Neff suspects that Phyllis is playing him for a fool. Stanwyck was nominated for an Oscar for her performance, and her character became one of the archetypes for film femme fatales. The "venetian blind" lighting featured in the movie became a trademark of film noir.

Paramount Pictures Though Billy Wilder's Sunset Blvd. eschews many of the common narrative elements of film noir, it is unarguably one of the most important works of the genre. The film depicts the dark side of Hollywood, with washed-up screenwriter Joe Gillis (William Holden) getting involved with aging silent film starlet Norma Desmond (Gloria Swanson), who is obsessed with her past fame.

Sunset Blvd. might be short on gangsters, but it dramatizes the dark fringes of society as effectively as any other film noir movie. United Artists Director Alexander Mackendrick's Sweet Smell of Success follows New York press agent Sidney Falco (Tony Curtis) who is blackmailed by a famous newspaper columnist (Burt Lancaster) into framing a jazz musician for drug possession.

The twisting narrative features Falco sparring with the columnist's influence as he tries to keep his reputation genre film in the seedy nightclub scene.

A box office failure upon its initial release, Sweet Smell of Success was later recognized by critics and audiences as a classic example of 1950s film genre film. Universal Pictures After defining much of the film noir style with Citizen Kane (1941) and starring in the film noir classic The Third Man (1949), Orson Welles wrote and directed Touch of Evil, considered by many critics to be one of the final film noir movies ever made.

Charlton Heston stars as a Mexican drug enforcement agent who witnesses a car bomb and becomes involved in the investigation. Legacy of Genre film Noir Because the style of film noir is specifically tied to a particular era, the genre is considered to have formally ended in the 1950s. However, hundreds of films have since embraced elements of film noir.

More recent films influenced by film noir include Blade Runner (1982), L.A. Confidential (1997), The Big Lewbowski genre film, Sin City (2005), and Blade Runner 2049 (2017). These movies are often labeled "neo-noir" for reproducing key elements of the film noir style.

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Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Film genre" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( July 2017) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) Western films are those "set in the American West that embod[y] the spirit, the struggle and the demise of the new frontier." [1] Pictured: Clint Eastwood in the Spaghetti Western film A Fistful of Dollars (1964).

A film genre is a stylistic or thematic category for motion pictures based on similarities either in the narrative elements, aesthetic approach, or the emotional response genre film the film.

[2] Drawing heavily from the theories of literary-genre criticism, film genres are usually delineated by "conventions, iconography, settings, narratives, characters and actors." [3] One can also classify films by the tone, theme/topic, mood, format, target audience, or budget. [4] These characteristics are most evident in genre films, which are "commercial feature films [that], through repetition and variation, tell familiar stories with familiar characters and familiar situations" in a given genre.

[5] A film's genre will influence the use of filmmaking styles and techniques, such as the use of flashbacks and low-key lighting in film noir; tight framing in horror films; or fonts that look like rough- hewn logs for the titles of Western films.

[6] In addition, genres have associated film-scoring conventions, such as lush string genre film for romantic melodramas or electronic music for science-fiction films. [6] Genre also affects how films are broadcast on television, advertised, and organized in video-rental stores. [5] Alan Williams distinguishes three main genre categories: narrative, avant-garde, genre film documentary.

[7] With the proliferation of particular genres, film subgenres can also emerge: the legal drama, for example, is a sub-genre of drama that includes courtroom- and trial-focused films.

Subgenres are often a mixture of two separate genres; genres can also merge with seemingly unrelated ones to form hybrid genres, where popular combinations include the romantic comedy and the genre film comedy film. Broader examples include the docufiction and docudrama, which merge the basic categories of fiction and non-fiction (documentary). genre film Genres are not fixed; they change and evolve over time, and some genres may largely genre film (for example, the melodrama). [4] Not only does genre refer to a type of film or its category, a key role is also played by the expectations of an audience about a film, as well as institutional discourses that create generic structures.

[4] Contents • 1 Overview • 1.1 Characteristics • 2 Examples of genres and subgenres • 3 History • 4 Pure and hybrid genres • 5 Audience expectations • 6 Categorization • 7 Film in the context of history • 8 See also • 9 References • 10 Further reading • 11 External links Overview [ edit ] Characteristics [ edit ] Characteristics of particular genres are most evident in genre films, which are "commercial feature films [that], through repetition and variation, tell familiar stories with familiar characters and familiar situations" in a given genre.

[5] Drawing heavily from the theories of literary-genre criticism, film genres are usually delineated by conventions, iconography, narratives, formats, characters, and actors, all of which can vary according to the genre. [3] In terms of standard or "stock" characters, those in film noir, for example, include the femme fatale [9] and the "hardboiled" detective; while those in Westerns, stock characters include the schoolmarm and the gunslinger.

Regarding actors, some may acquire a reputation linked to a single genre, such as John Wayne (the Western) or Fred Astaire (the musical). [10] Some genres have been characterized or known to use particular formats, which refers to the way in which films are shot (e.g., 35 mm, 16 mm or 8 mm) or the manner of presentation (e.g., anamorphic widescreen).

[4] Genres can also be classified by more inherent characteristics (usually implied in their names), such as settings, theme/topic, mood, target audience, or budget/type of production.

[4] • The setting is the environment—including both time and geographic location—in which the story and action take place (e.g., present day or historical period; Earth or outer-space; urban or rural, etc.). Genres that are particularly concerned with this element include the historical drama, war film, Western, and space-opera, the names of which all denote particular settings. [4] genre film The theme or topic refers to the issues or concepts that the film revolves around; for example, the science-fiction film, sports film, and crime film.

• The mood is the emotional tone of the film, as implied in the names of the comedy film, horror film, or ' tearjerker'. • Genres informed by particular target audience(s) include children's film, teen film, women's film, and " chick flick" • Genres characterized by the type of production include the blockbuster, independent film, and low-budget film, such as the B movie (commercial) or amateur film (noncommercial).

Screenwriters, in particular, often organize their stories by genre, focusing their genre film on three specific aspects: atmosphere, character, and story. [11] A film's atmosphere includes costumes, props, locations, and the visceral experiences created for the audience.

[12] Aspects of character include archetypes, stock characters, and the goals and motivations of the central characters. [13] Some story considerations for screenwriters, as they relate to genre, include theme, tent-pole scenes, and how the rhythm of characters' perspective shift from scene to scene. [14] Examples of genres and subgenres [ edit ] Genres and subgenres [2] Genre Description Subgenre(s) Examples Action film Associated with particular types of spectacle (e.g., explosions, chases, combat) [15] • Disaster film • Heroic bloodshed: defined by stylized action sequences and themes such as duty, brotherhood, honour, redemption.

• Martial arts film: focusing on the excitement and values of martial arts • Spy film: centered on the excitement and entertainment of espionage rather than political or psychological aspects. • Superhero film • The Killer (1989) • Hard Boiled (1992) • James Bond films • Mission: Impossible films Adventure film Implies a narrative that genre film defined by a journey (often including some form of pursuit) and is usually located within a fantasy or exoticized setting.

Typically, though not always, such stories include the quest narrative. The predominant emphasis on violence and genre film in action films is the typical difference between the two genres. [15] [16] • Pirate film • Swashbuckler film • Samurai film • Lawrence of Arabia (1962) • Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981) • Yojimbo (1961) Animated film A film medium in which the film's images are primarily created by computer or hand and the characters are voiced by actors.

[17] Animation can otherwise incorporate any genre and subgenre [2] and is often confused as a genre itself. • CGI animation • Cutout animation • Live-action animated film • Stop motion film • Claymation • Traditional animation • List of animated feature films Comedy film Defined by events that are primarily intended to make the audience laugh • Action-comedy film • Genre film comedy • Dark/Black comedy film • Mockumentary • Parody film (including spoof film) • Romantic comedy • Slapstick film • Rush Hour films • Superbad (2007) • Spaceballs (1987) • This Is Spinal Tap (1984) Drama Focused on emotions and defined by conflict, often looking to reality rather than sensationalism.

• Legal drama • Medical drama • Melodrama • Political drama • Docudrama • Teen drama • Doubt (2008) • Uncle Boonmee Who Can Recall His Past Lives (2010) • Midnight Cowboy (1969) • First Reformed (2018) Fantasy film Films defined by situations that transcend natural laws and/or by settings inside a fictional universe, with narratives that are often inspired by or involve human myths.

The genre typically incorporates non-scientific concepts such as magic, mythical creatures, and supernatural elements. [2] [17] • Contemporary fantasy • Dark fantasy • High/epic fantasy • Urban fantasy • Harry Potter films • Pan's Labyrinth (2006) • Pirates of the Caribbean(2003) Historical film Films that either provide more-or-less accurate representations of historical accounts or depict fictional narratives placed inside an accurate depiction of a historical setting.

[2] • Alternate history • Biopic • Historical epic • Historical event • Historical fiction • Period piece • Lincoln (2012) • Catch Me If You Can (2002) • Spartacus (1960) • Titanic (1997) • Inglourious Basterds (2009) Horror film Films that seek to elicit fear or disgust in the audience for entertainment purposes. [18] • Found footage • Ghost films • Monster movie • Vampire films • Werewolf films • Genre film film • Splatter film • Zombie film • Nosferatu (1922) • The Shining (1980) • Get Out (2017) • Pulse (2001) • Hellraiser (1987) Noir film A genre of stylish crime dramas particularly popular during the 1940s and '50s.

They were often reflective of the American society and culture at the time. • Neo-noir • Horror-noir • Tech-noir • Angels with Dirty Faces (1938) • Rebecca (1940) • Laura (1944) • Chinatown (1974) • Blade Runner (1982) • Zootopia (2016) genre film The Batman (2022) Science fiction film Films are defined by a combination of imaginative speculation and a scientific or technological premise, making use of the changes and trajectory of technology and science.

This genre often incorporates space, biology, energy, time, and any other observable science. [2] [17] • Dystopian film • Post-apocalyptic film • Military science fiction • Steampunk film • Tech noir • Utopian film • Space opera • 12 Monkeys (1995) • Tomorrowland (2015) • Children of Men (2006) • Blade Runner (1982) • Howl's Moving Castle (2004) Thriller film Films that evoke excitement and suspense in the audience.

The suspense element found in most films' plots is particularly exploited by the filmmaker genre film this genre. Tension is created by delaying what the audience sees as inevitable, and is built through situations that are menacing or where escape seems impossible.

[19] • Psychological thriller • Mystery film • Techno-thriller • Night of the Hunter (1955) • The Terminator (1984) • What Ever Happened to Baby Jane? (1962) • M (1931) Western A genre in which films are set in the American West during the 19th century and embodies the "spirit, the struggle and the demise of the new frontier." These films will often feature horse riding, violent and non-violent interaction with Native-American tribes, gunfights, and technology created during the industrial revolution.

[2] [17] • Epic Western • Revisionist Western • Spaghetti Western • Stagecoach (1939) • Django Unchained (2012) • The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1966) • The Wild Bunch (1969) History [ edit ] From the earliest days of cinema in the 19th century the term "genre" (already in use in English with reference to works of art or literary production from at least 1770 [20]) was used [ by whom?] to organize films according to type.

[21] By the 1950s André Bazin was discussing the concept of "genre" by using the Western film as an example; during this era, there was a debate over auteur theory versus genre. [4] In the late 1960s the concept of genre became a significant part of film theory.

[4] Film genres draw on genres from other forms; Western novels existed before the Western film, and musical theatre pre-dated film musicals. [22] The perceived genre of a film can change over time; for example, in the 21st century The Great Train Robbery (1903) classes as a key early Western film, but when released, marketing promoted it "for its relation to the then-popular genres of the chase film, the railroad film and the crime film".

[23] A key reason that the early Hollywood industrial system from the 1920s to the 1950s favoured genre films is that in "Hollywood's industrial mode of production, genre movies are dependable products" genre film market to audiences - they were easy to produce and it was easy for audiences to understand a genre film. [24] In the 1920s to 1950s, genre films had clear conventions and iconography, such as the heavy coats worn by gangsters in films like Little Caesar (1931).

[25] The conventions in genre films enable filmmakers to generate them in an industrial, assembly-line fashion, an approach which can be seen in the James Bond spy-films, which all use a formula of "lots of action, fancy gadgets, beautiful woman and colourful villains", even though the actors, directors and screenwriters change.

[25] Pure and hybrid genres [ edit ] Films are rarely purely from one genre, which is in keeping with the cinema's diverse and derivative origins, it being a blend of "vaudeville, music-hall, theatre, photography" and novels. [4] American film historian Janet Staiger states that the genre film of a film can be defined in four ways. The "idealist method" judges films by predetermined standards. The "empirical method" identifies the genre of a film by comparing it to a list of films already deemed to fall within a certain genre.

The apriori method uses common genre film elements which are identified in advance. The "social conventions" method of identifying the genre of a film is based on the accepted cultural consensus within society. [26] Martin Loop contends that Hollywood films are not pure genres because most Hollywood movies blend the love-oriented plot of the romance genre with other genres. [26] Jim Colins claims that since the 1980s, Hollywood films have been influenced by the trend towards "ironic hybridization", in which directors combine elements from different genres, as with the Western/science fiction mix in Back to the Future Part III.

[26] Many films cross into multiple genres. Susan Hayward states that spy films often cross genre boundaries with thriller films. [4] Some genre films take genre elements from one genre and place them into the conventions of a second genre, such as with The Band Wagon (1953), which adds film noir and detective film elements into "The Girl Hunt" ballet. [25] In the 1970s New Hollywood era, there was so much parodying of genres that it can be hard to assign genres to some films from this era, such as Mel Brooks' comedy-Western Blazing Saddles (1974) or the private eye parody The Long Goodbye (1973).

[4] Other films from this era bend genres so much that it is challenging to put them in a genre category, such as Roman Polanski's Chinatown (1974) and William Friedkin's The French Connection (1971). [4] Film theorist Robert Stam challenged whether genres really exist, or whether they are merely made up by critics.

Stam has questioned whether "genres [are] really 'out there' in the world or are they really the construction of analysts?". As well, he has asked whether there is a ". finite taxonomy of genres or are they in principle infinite?" and whether genres are ".timeless essences ephemeral, time-bound entities? Are genres culture-bound or trans-cultural?" Stam has also asked whether genre analysis should aim at being descriptive or prescriptive.

While some genres are based on story content (the war film), other are borrowed from literature ( comedy, melodrama) or from other media (the musical). Some are performer-based ( Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers films) or budget-based ( blockbusters, low budget film), while others are based on artistic status (the art film), racial identity ( Race films), location (the Western), or sexual orientation ( Queer cinema). [27] Audience expectations [ edit ] Many genres have built-in audiences and corresponding publications that support them, such as magazines and websites.

For example, horror films have a well-established fanbase that reads horror magazines such as Fangoria. Films that are difficult to categorize into a genre are often less successful.

As such, film genres are also useful in the areas of marketing, film criticism and the analysis of consumption. Hollywood story consultant Genre film Truby states that ".you have to know how to transcend the forms [genres] so you can give the audience a sense of originality and surprise." [28] Some screenwriters use genre as a means of determining what kind of plot or content to put into a screenplay.

They may study films of specific genres to find examples. This is a way that some screenwriters are able to copy elements of successful movies and pass them off in a new screenplay. It is likely that such screenplays fall short in originality. As Truby says, "Writers know enough to write a genre script but they haven't twisted the story beats of that genre in such a way that it gives an original face to it".

[29] Cinema technologies are associated with genres. Huge widescreens helped Western films to create an expansive setting of the open plains and desert. Science fiction and fantasy films are associated with special effects, notably computer generated imagery (e.g., the Harry Potter films). [4] In 2017, screenwriter Eric R. Williams published genre film system for screenwriters to conceptualize narrative film genres based on audience expectations.

[30] The system was based upon the structure biologists use to analyze living beings. Williams wrote a companion book detailing his taxonomy, which claims to genre film able to identify all feature length narrative films with seven categorizations: film type, super genre, macro-genre, micro-genre, voice, and pathway.

[31] Categorization [ edit ] War film or anti-war movie: Lewis Milestone's All Quiet on the Western Front, 1930 Because genres are easier to recognize than to define, academics agree they cannot be identified in a rigid way.

[32] Furthermore, different countries and cultures define genres in different ways. A typical example are war movies. In US, they are mostly related to ones with large U.S involvement such as World wars and Vietnam, whereas in other countries, movies related to wars in other historical periods are considered war movies. Film genres may appear to be readily categorizable from the setting of the film.

Nevertheless, films with the same settings can be very different, due to the use of different themes or moods. For example, while both The Battle of Midway and All Quiet on the Western Front are set in a wartime context and might be classified as belonging to the war film genre, the first examines the themes of honor, sacrifice, and valour, and the second is an anti-war film which emphasizes the pain and horror of war.

While there is an argument that film noir movies could be deemed to be set in an urban setting, in cheap hotels and underworld bars, many classic noirs take place mainly in genre film towns, suburbia, rural areas, or on the open road.

[33] The editors of argue that animation, pornographic film, documentary film, silent film and genre film on are non-genre-based film categories. [34] Linda Williams argues that horror, melodrama, and pornography all fall into the category of "body genres" since they are each designed to elicit physical reactions on the part of viewers.

Horror is designed to elicit spine-chilling, white-knuckled, eye-bulging terror; melodramas are designed to make viewers cry after seeing the misfortunes of the onscreen characters; and pornography is designed to elicit sexual arousal.

[35] This approach can be extended: comedies make people laugh, tear-jerkers make people cry, feel-good films lift people's spirits and inspiration films provide hope for viewers. Eric R. Williams (no relation to Linda Williams) argues that all narrative feature length films can be categorized as one of eleven "super genres" ( Action, Crime, Fantasy, Horror, Romance, Science Fiction, Slice of Life, Sports, Thriller, War and Western).

[11] Williams contends that labels such as comedy or drama are more broad than the category of super genre, and therefore fall into a category he calls "film type". [30] Similarly, Williams explains that labels such as animation and musical are more specific to storytelling technique and therefore fall into his category of "voice". [36] For example, according to Williams, a film like Blazing Saddles could be categorized as a Comedy (type) Western (super-genre) Musical (voice) while Anomolisa is a Drama (type) Slice of Life (super-genre) Animation (voice).

Williams has created a seven-tiered categorization for narrative feature films called the Screenwriters Taxonomy.

[31] A genre movie is a film that follows some or all of the conventions of a particular genre, whether or not it was intentional when the movie was produced. [37] Film in the context of history [ edit ] In order to understand the creation and context of each film genre, we must look at its popularity in the context of its place in history.

For example, the 1970s Blaxploitation films have been called an attempt to "undermine the rise of Afro-American's Black consciousness movement" of that era. [4] In William Park's analysis of film noir, he states that we must view and interpret film for its message with the context of history within our minds; he states that this is how film can truly be understood by its audience.

[38] Film genres such as film noir and Western film reflect values of the time period. While film noir combines German expressionist filming strategies with post World War II ideals; Western films focused on the ideal of the early 20th century. Films such as the musical were created as a form of entertainment during the Great Depression allowing its viewers an escape during tough times.

So when watching and analyzing film genres we must remember to remember its true intentions aside from its entertainment value.

Over time, a genre can change through stages: the classic genre era; the parody of the classics; the period where filmmakers deny that their films are part of a certain genre; and finally a critique of the entire genre. [4] This pattern can be seen with the Western film. In the earliest, classic Westerns, there was a clear hero who protected society from lawless villains who lived in the wilderness and came into civilization to commit crimes. [4] However, in revisionist Westerns of the 1970s, the protagonist becomes an anti-hero who lives in the wilderness to get away from a civilization that is depicted as corrupt, with the villains now integrated into society.

Another example of a genre changing over time is the popularity of the neo-noir films in the early 2000s ( Mulholland Drive (2001), The Genre film Who Wasn't There (2001) and Far From Heaven (2002); are these film noir parodies, a repetition of noir genre tropes, or a re-examination of the noir genre?

[4] This is also important to remember when looking at films in the future. As viewers watch a film they are conscious of societal influence with the film itself. In order to understand it's true intentions, we must identify its intended audience and what narrative of our current society, as well as it comments to the past in relation with today's society.

This enables viewers to understand the evolution of film genres as time and history morphs or views and ideals of the entertainment industry. See also [ edit ] • ^ "America's 10 Greatest Films in 10 Classic Genres". American Film Institute. Retrieved 2010-06-06. AFI defines 'western' as a genre of films set in the American West that embodies the spirit, the struggle and the demise of the new frontier.

• ^ a b c d e f g "90+ Film Genre Examples for Film & TV". StudioBinder. 2020-12-13. Retrieved 2021-02-25. • ^ a b Grant, Barry Keith (2007).

Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Short cuts. Vol. 33 (reprint ed.). London: Wallflower Press. p. 2. ISBN 9781904764793. Retrieved 2018-10-13. [.] the various elements of genre films, including conventions, iconography, settings, narratives, characters and actors. • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Hayward, Susan. "Genre/Sub-genre" in Cinema Studies: The Key Concepts (Third Edition).

Routledge, 2006. p. 185-192 • ^ a b c Grant, Barry Keith. Genre film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 1 • ^ a b Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 11 • ^ Alan Williams, "Is a Radical Genre Criticism Possible?" Quarterly Review of Film Studies 9, no. 2 (Spring 1984): 121-2 • ^ Judith Butler and genre theory. • ^ Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007.

p. 17 • ^ Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 18 • ^ a b Williams, Eric R. "Episode 3: Movie Genre: It's Not What You Think". How to View and Appreciate Great Movies. Retrieved 2020-06-07. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link) • ^ Williams, Eric R. "Episode 4: Genre Layers and Audience Expectations".

How to View and Appreciate Great Movies genre film. Retrieved 2020-06-07. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link) genre film ^ Williams, Eric R. "How to View and Appreciate Great Movies (episode 18: Knowing Characters from the Outside In)".

English. Retrieved 2020-06-07. • ^ Williams, Eric R. "Episode 5: Story Shape and Tension". How to View and Appreciate Great Movies. Retrieved 2020-06-07. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link) • ^ a b "Action and Adventure Films -". Retrieved 2021-02-25. • ^ "Adventure Films". Retrieved 2021-02-25. • ^ a b c d "AFI's 10 TOP 10".

American Film Institute. Retrieved 2021-02-25. genre film ^ "What is a horror film? - Screenwriter". Retrieved 2021-11-06. • ^ Konigsberg, Ira (1997). The complete film dictionary (2nd ed.).

New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-10009-9. OCLC 36112196. • ^ "genre". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press.

(Subscription genre film participating institution membership required.) • ^ Hayward, Susan (1996). "Genre/Sub-genre". Cinema Studies: Genre film Key Concepts.

Routledge Key Guides (3 ed.). London: Routledge (published 2006). p. 185. ISBN 9781134208920. Retrieved 29 May 2020. As a term genre goes back to earliest cinema and was seen as a way of organizing films according to type. But it was not until the late 1960s that genre was introduced as a key concept into Anglo-Saxon film theory [.]. • ^ Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology.

Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 4 • ^ Grant, Barry Keith (2007). "approaching film genre". Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Short cuts. Vol. 33. London: Wallflower Press. p. 6. ISBN 9781904764793. Retrieved 29 May 2020. [.] Neale notes that most histories of the western film begin with The Great Train Robbery (1903), but when released it was promoted not as a western genre film marketed for its relation to the then-popular genres of the chase film, the railroad film and the crime film; at that time, there was no recognised genre known as the western into which to categorise it.

• ^ Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 7-8 • ^ a b c Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre: Genre film Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press, 2007. p. 8. • ^ a b c Grant, Barry Keith (2007). Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press. ISBN 9781904764793. • ^ Stam, Robert (2000-02-21). Film Theory: An Anthology. Wiley. ISBN 9780631206545. • ^ Truby, Genre film. "What's My Genre?". Writers Store.

Retrieved 2007-07-31. • ^ Ward, Lewis. "Interview: John Truby on Screenwriting and Breaking In". Script Magazine. Archived from the original on 2007-07-02. Retrieved 2007-07-31. • ^ a b Williams, Eric R. (2017).

genre film

Screen Adaptation: Beyond the Basics. New York: Focal Press. ISBN 978-1-315-66941-0. OCLC 986993829. • ^ a b Williams, Eric R. (2017). The Screenwriters Taxonomy : a roadmap to collaborative storytelling. New York, NY: Routledge Studies in Media Theory and Practice.

ISBN 978-1-315-10864-3. OCLC 993983488. • ^ Thompson, Kristin; Bordwell, David (2012-07-06). Film Art: An Introduction. McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN genre film. • ^ Lamster, Mark (2000). Architecture and Film.

Princeton Architectural Press. p. 217. ISBN 9781568982076. • ^ "Other Major Film Categories". Retrieved 2015-03-14. • ^ Williams, Linda (Summer 1991). "Film Bodies: Gender, Genre, and Excess". Film Quarterly. 44 (4): 2–13.

doi: genre film. JSTOR 1212758. • ^ Williams, Eric R. "How to View and Appreciate Great Movies (episode 24: Filmmaker's Voice and Audience Choice)".

genre film

English. Retrieved 2020-06-07. • ^ McNair, Brian (2010). Journalists in Film: Heroes and Villains. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9780748634477. • ^ Park W. What Is Film Noir? [e-book]. Lanham, Md: Bucknell University Press; 2011. Available from: eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 19, 2017.

Further reading [ edit ] • Friedman, Lester et al. An Introduction to Film Genres. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2014 ISBN 978-0-393-93019-1 609p.

• Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre Reader I, II & III. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1986, 1995, 2003 • López, Daniel. Films by Genre: 775 categories, styles, trends, and movements defined, with a filmography for each. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 1993 ISBN 0-89950-780-8 495p.

• Genre film, Howard. The Guide To Movie Lists 2: Genres, Subjects and Themes. Borehamwood: Howcom Services, 2018 ISBN 978-1-982904-72-2 418p.

External links [ edit ] • Genres of film at the Internet Movie Database • Genres and Themes, BFI screenonline • Finding Books on Film Genres, Styles and Categories, Yale University Library • "A Semantic/Syntactic Approach to Film Genre", by Rick Altman] SCRIBD (PDF) JSTOR 1225093 • "Review: Film/Genre by Rick Altman", by Leger Grindon. JSTOR 1213754. • Action • Arthouse • Heroic bloodshed • Hong Kong action • Adventure • Survival • Art • Biographical • Christian • Comedy • Black • Commedia all'italiana • Sexy • Bromantic • Dramedy • Gross out • Horror • Parody • Mo lei tau • Thriller • Remarriage • Romantic • Sex • Screwball • Silent • Slapstick • Cyberpunk • Japanese • Documentary • Animated • Docudrama • Mockumentary • Mondo • Pseudo • Semi • Travel • Drama • Calligrafismo • Dramedy • Historical • Legal • Melodrama • Korean • Erotic genre film Commedia sexy all'italiana • Pink • Sexploitation • Thriller • Educational • Social guidance • Epic • Sword-and-sandal • Experimental • Exploitation • see Exploitation film template • Fantasy • Comedy • Contemporary • Fairy tale • Fantastique • High • Historical • Magic realism • Science • Film noir • Neo-noir • Pulp noir • Tech noir • Gothic • Romance • Southern • Space • Suburban • Urban • Horror • Arthouse • Body • Cannibal • Chinese horror • Comedy • Eco • Fantastique • Found footage • German underground • Ghost • Giallo • Holiday • Japanese horror • Korean horror • Lovecraftian • Mumblegore • Natural • New French Extremity • Psycho-biddy • Psychological • Religious • Science fiction • Slasher • Splatter • Satanic genre film Maximalist film • Minimalist film • Mumblecore • Mumblegore • Musical • Genre film • Jukebox • Musicarello • Operetta • Sceneggiata • Mystery • Detective • Occult detective • Whodunit • Giallo • Pop culture fiction • Pornographic • Hardcore pornography • Softcore pornography • Propaganda • Reality • Romantic • Comedy • Bromantic • Fantasy • Gothic • Paranormal • Thriller • Science fiction • Art • Comedy • Fantastique • Fantasy • Gothic • Horror • Military • New Wave • Parallel universe • Planetary romance • Space opera • Steampunk • Tokusatsu genre film Western • Slice of life • Slow cinema • Thriller • Comedy • Conspiracy • Erotic • Financial • Giallo • Legal • New French Extremity • Political • Psychological • Romantic • Techno • Transgressive • Cinema of Transgression • Extreme cinema • New French Extremity • Trick By theme • Animals • Beach party • Body swap • Buddy • Buddy cop • Female • Cannibal • Chicano • Colonial • Coming-of-age • Concert • Crime • Detective • Gangster • Gentleman thief • Gokudō • Gong'an • Heist • Heroic bloodshed • Hood • Mafia • Mafia comedy • Mumbai underworld • Poliziotteschi • Yakuza • Dance • Disaster • Apocalyptic • Drug • Psychedelic • Stoner • Genre film • Ecchi • Economic • Ethnographic • Exploitation • Blaxploitation • Mexploitation • Turksploitation • Extraterrestrial • Food and drink • Gendai-geki • Ghost • Goona-goona epic • Gothic • Romance • Southern • Space • Suburban • Urban • Girls with guns • Harem • Hentai • Lolicon • Shotacon • Genre film erotica • Homeland • Isekai • Jidaigeki • Samurai • Kaitō • LGBT • Yaoi • Yuri • Luchador • Magical girl • Martial arts • Bruceploitation • Chopsocky • Gun fu • Kung fu • Ninja • Wuxia • Mecha • Anime • Monster • Giant monster • Jiangshi • Kaiju • Mummy • Vampire • Werewolf • Zombie • Zombie comedy • Mountain • Mouth of Garbage • Muslim social • Nature • Environmental issues • Opera • Outlaw biker • Ozploitation • Partisan film • Pirate • Prison • Women • Race • Rape and revenge • Road • Rubble • Rumberas • Sexploitation • Bavarian porn • Commedia sexy all'italiana • Mexican sex comedy • Nazi exploitation • Pornochanchada • Nunsploitation • Sex report • Shomin-geki • Slavery • Slice of life • Snuff genre film South Seas • Sports • Spy • Eurospy • Superhero • Surfing • Swashbuckler • Sword-and-sandal • Sword and sorcery • Travel • Trial • Vigilante • War • Anti-war • Euro War • Submarine • Western • Acid • Fantasy • Florida • Horror genre film Meat pie • Northern • Ostern • Revisionist • Science fiction • Space • Spaghetti By movement or period • Absolute • American Eccentric Cinema • New Objectivity • Australian New Wave • Auteur films • Berlin School • Bourekas • Brighton School • British New Wave • Kitchen sink realism • Budapest school • Calligrafismo • Cannibal boom • Cinéma du look • Cinema Novo • Cinema of Transgression • Cinéma pur • Commedia all'italiana • Czechoslovak New Wave • Documentary Genre film Movement • Dogme 95 • Erra Cinema • European art cinema • Film gris • Free Cinema • French New Wave • German Expressionist • German underground horror • Nigerian Golden Age • Grupo Cine Liberación • Heimatfilm • Hollywood on the Tiber • Hong Kong New Wave • Iranian New Wave • Italian futurist • Italian neorealist • Japanese New Wave • Kammerspielfilm • L.A.

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Main Film Genres Genre Sub-Sections Film Genres Overview - Main Film Genres - Film Sub-Genres - Other Major Film Categories - Film Sub-Genres Types (and Hybrids) Best Pictures - Genre Biases - Summary of Top Films by Genre - Top 100 Films by Genre - AFI's Top 10 Film Genres Definition of Film Genres Film Genres:Film genres are various forms or identifiable types, categories, classifications or groups of films.

(Genre comes from the French word meaning "kind," "category," or "type"). Genres provide a convenient way for scriptwriters and film-makers to produce, cast and structure their narratives within a manageable, well-defined framework (to speak a common 'language'). Genre film also offer the studios an easily 'marketable' product, and give audiences satisfying, expected and predictable choices.

Genres refers to recurring, repeating genre film similar, familiar or instantly-recognizable patterns, styles, themes, syntax, templates, paradigms, motifs, rules or generic conventions that include some of the following: Components of Film Genres 1.

The creation of a characteristic SETTING or PERIOD: - modern day - specific decade or year - historical or fictional - urban/rural, etc. with various stereotypes, props, or icons Horror: Dark and isolated foreboding places and unexplained things (forests or woods, graveyards, spooky castles, abandoned buildings or structures, locked doors to remote rooms, blood and gore, killing instruments) Sci-Fi: Outer space or the future with laser blasters and spaceships Sports: Sports arenas or other venues, teams, athletes, competition and sports equipment War: battlefields, bomber planes and tanks Westerns: the frontier, cattle-drives, stagecoaches, saloons, six-shooters and ten-gallon hats 2.

The use of CHARACTERS (or stock characterizations): Comedy: the nerd, the jock, or token minority, buddies Crime: the detective or private eye, gangsters, criminals, inmates, fugitives Horror: zombies, ghosts or serial killers Sci-Fi: aliens or monsters/killers, superheroes Sports: the underdog, the jock vs. the brain, the coach, the team Westerns: outlaws and cowboys, the Marshal or Sheriff, stereotypical 'heroic saviors' or 'good guys' 3.

The genre film of REPRESENTATIVE CONTENT and SUBJECT MATTER: (the storyline, themes, narrative or plot) resonant with other films in the genre category Action: the chase sequence or extended fight scene, genre film violence, race against time Comedy: witty dialogue, gross-out humor and slapstick, rites of passage, fish-out-of-water, mistaken identity, cross-dressing Crime: who-dun-its, capers, robberies, rival gangs Horror: the 'final girl' survivor, urban legends, ghost stories, the paranormal and occult, survival-horror, "found-footage" tales Melodramas: the self-sacrificial maternal figure, terminal illness, broken relationships Musicals: singing and dancing, 'putting on a show' Romance: stages of 'falling in love' and the subsequent break-up and reconciliation, forbidden love, true love, fairy tales Sci-Fi: interstellar travel, 'space operas', doomsday and apocalyptic scenarios 4.

The use genre film FILMING TECHNIQUES AND FORMATS: • camera angles (use of low and high angles) and shooting style (hand-held or stationary, POV, or 'found footage') • lighting (high-key, or low/dark lighting) • the style of editing (length of edits, use of jump cuts) • color schemes • make-up and costuming (use of blood, masks, special effects) 5.

The use of MUSIC AND AUDIO: - to enhance or emphasize various characteristics - to advance the plot - to create a mood or atmosphere (danger, adventure, laughter, fear, sensual, excitement) • Romance or Comedy: upbeat • Horror: foreboding, eerie • Drama: depressing, dramatic • Sci-Fi: other-worldly Main Film Genres Main Film Genres: Listed below are some of the most common and identifiable film genre categories, with descriptions of each type or category.

If you're interested in the chronological history of film by decade - visit the section on Film History - by Decade or the multi-part section on Milestones in Film History. Genre Types (represented by icons) Genre Descriptions Select an icon or film genre category below, read about the development and history of the genre, and view chronological lists of selected, representative greatest films for each one (with links to detailed descriptions of individual films).

Action films usually include high energy, big-budget physical stunts and chases, possibly with rescues, battles, fights, escapes, destructive crises (floods, explosions, natural disasters, fires, etc.), non-stop motion, spectacular rhythm and pacing, and adventurous, often two-dimensional 'good-guy' heroes (or recently, heroines) battling 'bad guys' - all designed for pure audience escapism.

Includes the James Bond 'fantasy' spy/espionage series, martial arts films, video-game films, so-called 'blaxploitation' films, and some superhero films. (See Superheroes on Film: History.) A major sub-genre is the disaster film. See also Greatest Disaster and Crowd Film Scenes and Greatest Classic Chase Scenes in Films. Adventure films are usually exciting stories, with new experiences or exotic locales, very similar to or often paired with the action film genre. They can include traditional swashbucklers or pirate films, serialized films, and historical spectacles (similar to the epics film genre), searches or expeditions for lost continents, "jungle" and "desert" epics, treasure hunts, disaster films, or searches for the unknown.

Comedies are light-hearted plots consistently and deliberately designed to amuse and provoke laughter (with one-liners, jokes, etc.) by exaggerating the situation, the language, action, relationships and characters. This section describes various forms of comedy through cinematic history, including slapstick, screwball, spoofs and parodies, romantic comedies, black comedy (dark satirical comedy), and more.

See this site's Funniest Film Moments and Scenes collection - illustrated, also Premiere Magazine's 50 Greatest Comedies of All Time, and WGA's 101 Genre film Screenplays of All Time.

Crime (gangster) films are developed around genre film sinister actions of criminals or mobsters, particularly bankrobbers, underworld figures, or ruthless hoodlums who operate outside the law, stealing and murdering their way through life.

The criminals or gangsters are often counteracted by a detective-protagonist with a who-dun-it plot. Hard-boiled detective films reached their peak during the 40s and 50s (classic film noir), although genre film continued to the present day. Therefore, crime and gangster films are often categorized as film noir or detective-mystery films, and sometimes as courtroom/crime legal thrillers - because of underlying similarities between these cinematic forms.

genre film

This category also includes various 'serial killer' films. Dramas are serious, plot-driven presentations, portraying realistic characters, settings, life situations, and stories involving intense character development and interaction.

Usually, they are not focused on special-effects, comedy, or action, Dramatic films are probably the largest film genre, with many subsets. See also melodramas, epics (historical dramas), courtroom dramas, or romantic genres. Dramatic biographical films (or "biopics") are a major sub-genre, as are 'adult' films (with mature subject content). Epics include costume dramas, historical dramas, war films, medieval romps, or 'period pictures' that often cover a large expanse of time set against a vast, panoramic backdrop.

Epics often share elements of the elaborate adventure films genre. Epics take an historical or imagined event, genre film, legendary, or heroic figure, and add an extravagant setting or period, lavish costumes, and accompany everything with grandeur and genre film, dramatic scope, high production values, and a sweeping musical score. Epics are often a more spectacular, lavish version of a biopic film.

Some 'sword and sandal' films (Biblical epics or films occuring during antiquity) qualify as a sub-genre. Horror films are designed to frighten and to invoke our hidden worst fears, often in a terrifying, shocking finale, while captivating and entertaining us at the same time in a cathartic experience. Horror films feature a wide range of styles, from the earliest silent Nosferatu classic, to today's CGI monsters and deranged humans. They are often combined with science fiction when the menace or monster is related to a corruption of technology, or genre film Earth is threatened by aliens.

The fantasy and supernatural film genres are not always synonymous with the horror genre. There are many sub-genres of horror: slasher, splatter, psychological, survival, teen terror, 'found footage,' serial killers, paranormal/occult, zombies, Satanic, monsters, Dracula, Frankenstein, etc.

Genre film this site's Scariest Film Moments and Scenes collection - illustrated. Musical/dance films are cinematic forms that emphasize full-scale scores or song and dance routines in a significant way (usually with a musical or dance performance integrated as part of the film narrative), or they are films that are centered on genre film of music, dance, song or choreography.

Major subgenres include the musical comedy or the concert film. See this site's Greatest Musical Song/Dance Movie Moments and Scenescollection - illustrated. Sci-fi films are often quasi-scientific, visionary and imaginative - complete with heroes, aliens, distant planets, impossible quests, improbable settings, fantastic places, great dark and shadowy villains, futuristic technology, unknown and unknowable forces, and extraordinary monsters ('things or creatures from space'), either created by mad scientists or by nuclear havoc.

They are sometimes an offshoot of the more mystical fantasy films (or superhero films), or they share genre film similarities with action/ adventure films. Science fiction often expresses the potential of technology to destroy humankind and easily overlaps with horror films, particularly when technology or alien life forms become malevolent, as in the "Atomic Age" of sci-fi films in the 1950s.

Science-Fiction sub-categories abound: apocalyptic or dystopic, space-opera, futuristic noirs, speculative, etc. War (and anti-war) films acknowledge the horror and heartbreak of war, letting the actual combat fighting (against nations or humankind) on land, sea, or in the air provide the primary plot or background for the action of the film.

War films genre film often paired with other genres, such as action, adventure, drama, romance, comedy (black), suspense, and even historical epics and westerns, and they often take a denunciatory approach toward warfare. They may include POW tales, stories of military operations, and training. See this site's Greatest War Movies (in multiple parts). Westerns are the major defining genre of the American film industry - a eulogy to the early days of the expansive American frontier.

They are one of the oldest, most enduring genres with very recognizable plots, elements, and characters (six-guns, horses, dusty towns and trails, cowboys, Indians, etc.). They have evolved over time, however, and have often been re-defined, re-invented and expanded, dismissed, re-discovered, and spoofed. Variations have included Italian 'spaghetti' westerns, epic westerns, comic westerns, westerns with outlaws or marshals as the main characters, revenge westerns, and revisionist westerns.

Genre Categories: They are broad enough to accommodate genre film any film ever made, although film categories can never be precise. By isolating the various elements in a film and categorizing them in genres, it is possible to easily evaluate a film within its genre and allow for genre film comparisons and some judgments on greatness.

Films were not really subjected to genre analysis by film historians until the 1970s. All films have at least one major genre, although there are a number of films that are considered crossbreeds or hybrids with three or four overlapping genre (or sub-genre) types that identify them. The Auteur System can be contrasted to the genre system, in which films are rated on the basis of the expression of one person, usually the director, because his/her indelible style, authoring vision or 'signature' dictates the personality, look, and feel of the film.

Certain directors (and actors) are known for certain types of films, for example, Woody Allen and comedy, the Arthur Freed unit with musicals, Alfred Hitchcock for suspense and thrillers, John Ford and John Wayne with westerns, or Errol Flynn for classic swashbuckler adventure films.

History of the Genre Development: By the end of the silent era, many of the main genres were established: the melodrama, the western, the horror film, comedies, and action-adventure films (from swashbucklers to war movies). Musicals were inaugurated with the era of the Talkies, and the genre of science-fiction films wasn't generally popularized until the 1950s. One problem with genre films is that they can become stale, cliche-ridden, and over-imitated.

A traditional genre that has been reinterpreted, challenged, or subjected to scrutiny may be termed revisionist. Many films currently do not fit into one genre classification. Many films are considered hybrids - they straddle several film genres. There are many examples of present-day filmmakers reflecting familiar elements of traditional or classical genres, while putting a unique twist on them.

There are many genres or film types that were once popular staples but have mostly fallen out of fashion nowadays, such as big-budget musicals (stolen from Broadway), large-scale romantic epics, classic film noirs, nature documentaries, spoof or parody comedies, 'spaghetti westerns,' YA (young adult) book adaptations, Devil/Satanic or vampire horror films, classic 'creature feature' or 'monster' movies, political-election campaign films, 'found footage,' mockumentaries, inner-city 'hood' films, adult-rated animations, Cold War thrillers, various sports films, women-in-prison (WIP) and other exploitational sub-types such as 'torture porn' and 'slasher' films, and classic who-dun-its.

The two mainstream genre areas of war epics and westerns have also struggled in recent years. Stages of Genres: There are basically five different stages of genres as they have progressed and developed through cinematic history: • Primitive or Early: the earliest and purest genre form with iconography, themes, and patterns starting to develop • Classical or Traditional: this stage marked the growth, popularity and solidification of the genre and clear establishment of its characteristics and prototypes, setting a 'benchmark' • Revisionist: a reinterpretation, recasting, or questioning of the original genre, with greater complexity of themes while retaining many of its characteristics and iconographic elements • Parodic: the spoofing or mocking of the genre by over-exaggeration of the characters and the genre's traditional themes • Extended or Mixed as Hybrids:the blending, modification or creative extension or melding of various genre elements as the genre categories evolved, i.e., a sci-fi western, a comedic war film, etc.

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Comedy Movies History - Film Genres and Hollywood