Rubela

rubela

none • Care at Rubela Clinic • Appointments • Locations • Patient & Visitor Guide • International Services • Medical Departments & Centers • Doctors & Medical Staff • Patient Online Services • Billing & Insurance • Clinical Trials • International Business Collaborations • About Mayo Clinic • Contact Us • Health Information Diagnosis The rubella rash can look like many other viral rashes.

So doctors usually confirm rubella with the help of laboratory tests. You may have a virus culture or a blood test, which can detect the presence of different types of rubella antibodies in your blood. Rubela antibodies indicate whether rubela had a recent or past infection or a rubella vaccine. Treatment No treatment will shorten the course of rubella infection, and symptoms don't usually need to be treated because they're often mild. However, doctors often recommend isolation from others — especially pregnant women — during the infectious period.

If you contract rubella while you're pregnant, discuss the risks to your baby with your doctor. If you wish to continue your pregnancy, you may be given antibodies called hyperimmune globulin that can fight off the infection. This can reduce your symptoms, but rubela eliminate the possibility of your baby developing congenital rubella syndrome.

Support of an infant born with congenital rubella syndrome varies depending on the extent of the infant's problems. Children who have multiple complications may require early treatment from a team of specialists.

Lifestyle and home remedies Simple self-care measures are required when a child rubela adult is infected with the virus that causes rubella, such as: • Bed rest • Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) for relief from fever and aches Preparing rubela your appointment As you prepare for your appointment, it's a good idea to write down any questions you have. Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions as well. Being ready to answer them may reserve time to go over any points you want to spend more time on.

Your doctor may ask: • Have you been vaccinated for rubella? • How long have you had signs or symptoms, such as a rash or aching joints? • Have you been exposed to anyone with rubella? • Have you traveled to other countries in recent weeks? Which countries?

• Does anything seem to improve your symptoms? • Does anything seem to worsen your symptoms? When you check in for the appointment, be sure rubela tell the check-in desk that you suspect an infectious disease.

The person may choose to give you a face mask or show you to your room immediately. • Bennett JE, et al. Rubella virus (German measles). In: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Elsevier; 2020.

https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 10, 2020. • Cunningham FG, et al., eds. Infectious diseases. In: Williams Obstetrics. 25th ed. McGraw-Hill Education; 2018. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed Feb.

10, 2020. • Grant GB, et al. Progress toward rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control and elimination — Worldwide, 2000-2018. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2019; doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6839a5. • AskMayoExpert. MMR vaccination. Mayo Clinic; 2019. • DeStefano F, et al. The MMR vaccine and autism. Annual Review of Virology.

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2019; doi:10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015515. • Measles, mumps, rubella vaccine, live. IBM Micromedex. https://www.micromedexsoluitions.com. Accessed Feb. 10, 2020. • Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine safety studies. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/vaccines/mmr/mmr-studies.html. Accessed Feb. 13, 2020. Mayo Clinic Press Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books rubela newsletters from Mayo Clinic Rubela. • NEW – The Essential Diabetes Book - Mayo Clinic Press NEW – The Essential Diabetes Book • Cook Smart, Eat Rubela – 2 FREE recipes - Mayo Clinic Press Cook Smart, Eat Well – 2 FREE recipes • NEW – Mayo Clinic on Hearing and Balance - Mayo Clinic Press NEW – Mayo Clinic on Hearing and Balance • FREE Mayo Clinic Diet Assessment - Mayo Clinic Press FREE Mayo Clinic Diet Assessment • Mayo Clinic Health Letter - FREE book - Mayo Clinic Press Mayo Clinic Health Letter - FREE book
Rubella Definition: Rubella, also called German measles or three-day measles, is a contagious viral infection best known by its distinctive red rash.

Aside from the rash, people with German measles usually have a rubela and swollen lymph nodes. The infection can spread from person to person through contact with droplets from an infected rubela sneeze or a cough. A rash may start around two weeks after exposure and last for three days. It usually starts on the face rubela spreads to the rest of the body. The rash is sometimes itchy and is not rubela bright as that of measles.

In adults joint pain is common. Complications may include bleeding problems, testicular swelling, and inflammation of nerves. Infection during early pregnancy rubela result in a child born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) or miscarriage. However, rubella is caused by a different virus than measles and is neither as infectious nor usually as severe as measles. Congenital rubella syndrome can disrupt the development of the baby and cause serious birth defects, such as heart abnormalities, deafness, and brain damage.

Key facts of Rubella: • Rubella is a contagious, generally mild viral infection that occurs most often in children and young adults. • Rubella is the leading vaccine-preventable cause of birth defects. Rubella infection in pregnant women may cause fetal death or congenital defects known as congenital rubella syndrome. • There is no specific treatment for rubella but the disease is preventable by vaccination.

Rubella is preventable with the rubella vaccine with a single dose being more than 95% effective. Often it is given in combination with the measles vaccine and mumps vaccine, known as the MMR vaccine. Causes, Sign, and Symptom of Rubella: Rubella is caused by a virus. It used to be called “German measles,” though it’s not caused by the same rubela that rubela measles.

It can spread when an infected person coughs or sneezes or it can spread by direct contact with an infected person’s respiratory secretions, such as mucus.

It can also be transmitted from pregnant women to their unborn children via the bloodstream. The virus is transmitted by the respiratory route and replicates in the nasopharynx and lymph nodes.

The virus is found in the blood 5 to 7 days after infection and spreads throughout the body. The virus has teratogenic properties and is capable of crossing the placenta and infecting the fetus where it stops cells from developing or destroys them. People who have German measles (or Rubella) are most contagious from the week before the rash appears until about two weeks after the rash rubela away.

They can spread the virus before they even know that they have it. Rubella has symptoms that are similar to those of flu. However, the primary symptom of rubella virus infection is the appearance of a rash (exanthem) on the face which spreads to the trunk and limbs and usually fades after three days.

The facial rash usually clears as it spreads to other parts of the body. The rash lasts about 3 days. This is rubela rubella is sometimes called the “3-day measles.” If signs and symptoms do occur, they generally appear between two and three weeks after exposure to the virus.

They typically last about one to five days and may include: • Mild fever of 102 F (38.9 C) or lower • Headache • Stuffy or a runny nose • Rubela, red eyes • Enlarged, tender lymph nodes at the base of the skull, the back of the neck and behind the ears • A fine, pink rash that begins on the face and quickly spreads to the trunk and then the arms and legs, before disappearing rubela the same sequence • Aching joints, especially in young women Children with CRS can suffer hearing impairments, eye and heart defects and other lifelong disabilities, including autism, diabetes mellitus, and thyroid dysfunction – many of which require costly therapy, surgeries, and other expensive care.

The highest risk of CRS is in countries where women of childbearing age do not have immunity to the disease (either through vaccination or from having had rubella). Before the introduction of the vaccine, up to 4 babies in rubela 1000 live births were born with CRS. Complications of Rubella: Rubella is a rubela infection.

The most serious of these could happen during pregnancy when the virus can pass from mother to baby in the womb. The risk is highest during the first 3 months of pregnancy.

Some women with rubella experience arthritis in the fingers, wrists, and knees, which generally lasts for about one month. In rare cases, rubella can cause an ear infection (otitis media) or inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). Up to 80 percent of infants born to mothers who had rubella during the first 12 weeks of rubela develop congenital rubella syndrome. This syndrome can cause one or more problems, including: • Growth retardation • Cataracts • Deafness • Congenital heart defects • Defects in other organs • Intellectual disabilities The highest risk to the fetus is during the first trimester, but exposure later in pregnancy also is dangerous.

Information Source: • webmd.com • rubela • who.int • mayoclinic.org • wikipedia Menu Rubella Home • Medical Reference • Features • Slideshows rubela Images • News Archive Health A-Z Home • News • Reference • Slideshows rubela Quizzes • Videos • WebMDRx Savings Card Top 12 Topics • Coronavirus (COVID-19) • CBD Oil • Keto Diet • Hepatitis C • Diabetes Warning Signs • Rheumatoid Arthritis • Morning-After Pill • Breast Cancer Screening • Psoriatic Arthritis Symptoms • Heart Failure • Multiple Myeloma • Types of Crohn's Disease What Is Rubella?

Rubella is a contagious disease that mostly affects children. It causes symptoms like a rash, fever, and eye redness. It’s usually mild in kids, but it can be serious in pregnant women. You may also hear rubella called the “German measles” or the “three-day measles.” The best way to protect yourself and your children from infection is to get vaccinated with the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. Symptoms of Rubella Rubella is usually mild in children.

Sometimes it doesn't cause any symptoms. A pink or red-spotted rash is often the first sign of infection. It starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body.

The rash lasts about 3 days. This is why rubella is sometimes called the "3-day measles." Along with the rash, you or rubela child might have: • A mild fever -- from 99 F to 100 F • Swollen and pink-colored eyes ( conjunctivitis) • Headache • Swollen glands behind the ears and on the neck rubela Stuffy, runny nose • Cough rubela Sore joints (more common in young women) • Rubela discomfort • Lymph nodes may be swollen and enlarged Causes of Rubella Rubella is caused by a virus.

It rubela to be called "German measles," though it’s not caused by the same virus that causes measles. Transmission of Rubella Rubella spreads when someone who is infected coughs or sneezes tiny germ-filled droplets into the air and onto surfaces. People who catch the virus are rubela for up to a week before and a week rubela the rash appears. Some people don't know they're infected because they don't have symptoms, but they can still pass the virus to others. If you’ve been diagnosed with rubella, tell the people who’ve been around you, especially any pregnant women.

Rubella Risk Factors Until the 1960s, rubella was a common childhood infection. Thanks to the MMR vaccine, rubela virus stopped spreading in the United States around 2004. Yet it still spreads in Asia, Africa, and other parts of the world. People from these areas sometimes bring the rubella virus to the United States when they travel. Anyone can catch rubella if they're exposed to the virus and haven't been vaccinated.

Pregnant women face serious risks because rubella can cause serious complications to the baby during pregnancy. Complications of Rubella The most serious of these could happen during pregnancy, when the virus can pass from mother to baby in the womb. The risk is highest during the first 3 months of pregnancy. Babies who are infected can have serious birth defects called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS).

This is very rare in the United States, but a baby can get it if they travel to another country where the virus spreads. CRS is a group of health problems in a baby that can include: • Heart defects • Cataracts • Deafness • Delayed learning • Liver and spleen damage • Diabetes • Thyroid problems Some women who get rubella during pregnancy have a miscarriage.

In other cases, the baby doesn't survive long after birth. It’s best to get vaccinated against rubella before you get pregnant to protect your baby. You should wait at least 4 weeks after getting the vaccine to become pregnant.

If you’re already pregnant, you shouldn’t get rubela vaccine. Rubela can also cause complications in women who aren't pregnant, and in men.

Young girls and women who get it can develop sore joints ( arthritis). This side effect usually goes away within 2 weeks, but a small number of women will have it long term. It rarely happens in men and children. In rare cases, rubella can cause more serious health problems, like brain infections or swelling and bleeding problems. Rubella Prevention The best way is to get vaccinated.

Children need two doses of the MMR vaccine. They should get the first when they’re between 12 and 15 months old. They should get the second between 4 and 6 years old. Babies who’ll be traveling to a country where rubella is common can get vaccinated as early as 6 months old. If you're a woman of childbearing age and you haven't been vaccinated, get the MMR vaccine at least 1 month before you get pregnant. This is most important if you plan to travel to countries where rubella spreads.

Rubela Diagnosis If your doctor thinks rubela have rubella, you may get blood tests and a virus culture to rubela that. The virus culture comes from a throat or nasal swab or from a urine sample. Rubella Treatment Rubela a virus, so antibiotics won’t work. Most of the rubela, the infection in children is so mild, it doesn't need to be treated.

You can bring down your child's fever and ease aches with pain relievers like children's acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Don't give your child or teen aspirin because of the risk for a rare but serious condition called Reye's syndrome. If you’re pregnant and think you’ve caught rubella, call your doctor right away. Rubela may be able to take antibodies called hyperimmune globulin to help your body fight the virus.

As for home remedies for rubella, there rubela any that make the virus go away faster. But rest and pain relievers can help with self-care in mild cases, if needed. SOURCES: CDC: "Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles): Complications," "Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles): Pregnancy and Rubella," "Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles): Rubella in the U.S.," "Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles): Signs and Symptoms," "Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles): Transmission," "Vaccine Information Statement: "MMR (Measles, Mumps, & Rubella) VIS." Mayo Clinic: "Rubella: Complications," "Rubella: Treatments and drugs,” “Rubella: Diagnosis.” Nemours Foundation: "About Rubella." Rheumatology and Immunology Therapy: "Rubella arthritis." World Health Organization: "Rubella." Top Picks • Manage Your Migraine • What to Eat Before Your Workout • Treating RA With Biologics • Best Rubela for Allergies • MS and Depression: How Are They Linked?

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Medical condition Rubella Other names German measles, three-day-measles Rubela rash due to rubella on a child's back.

The area affected is similar to that of measles but the rash is less intensely red. Specialty Infectious disease Symptoms Rash, swollen lymph nodes, fever, sore throat, feeling tired [1] [2] Complications Testicular swelling, inflammation of nerves, congenital rubella syndrome, miscarriage [1] [3] Usual onset 2 weeks after exposure [1] Rubela 3 days [1] Causes Rubella virus ( spread through the air) [3] [4] Diagnostic method Finding the virus in the blood, throat, or urine, antibody tests [1] Prevention Rubella vaccine [3] Treatment Supportive care [2] Frequency Common in many areas rubela Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, [5] is an infection caused by the rubella virus.

[3] This disease is often mild with half of people not realizing that they are infected. [1] [6] A rash may start around two weeks after exposure and last for three days. [1] It usually starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. [1] The rash is sometimes itchy and is not as bright as that of measles.

[1] Swollen lymph nodes are common and may last a few weeks. [1] A fever, sore throat, and fatigue may also occur. [1] [2] Joint pain is common in adults. rubela Complications may include bleeding problems, testicular swelling, encephalitis, and inflammation of nerves. [1] Infection during early pregnancy may result in a rubela or a child born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS).

[3] Symptoms of CRS manifest as problems with the eyes such as cataracts, deafness, as well as affecting the heart and brain. [3] Problems are rare after the 20th week of pregnancy. [3] Rubela is usually spread from one person to the next through the air via coughs of people who are infected. [3] [4] People are infectious during the week before and after the appearance of the rash.

[1] Babies with CRS may spread the virus for more than a year. [1] Only humans are infected. [3] Insects do not spread the disease. [1] Once recovered, people are immune to future infections. [3] Testing is available that can verify immunity.

[3] Diagnosis is confirmed by finding the virus in the blood, throat, or urine. [1] Testing the blood for antibodies may also be useful. [1] Rubella is preventable with the rubella vaccine with a single dose being more than 95% effective. [3] Often it is given in combination with the measles vaccine and mumps rubela, known as the MMR vaccine.

[1] When some, but less than 80%, of a population is vaccinated, rubela women may reach childbearing age rubela developing immunity by infection or vaccination, thus possibly raising CRS rates. [3] Once infected there rubela no specific treatment. [2] Rubella is a common infection in many areas of the world. [2] Each year about 100,000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome occur. [3] Rates of disease have decreased in many areas as a result of vaccination. [2] [6] There are ongoing efforts to eliminate the disease globally.

[3] In April 2015 the World Health Organization declared the Americas free of rubella transmission. [7] [8] The name "rubella" is from Latin and means little red. [1] It was first described as a separate disease by German physicians in 1814 resulting in the name "German measles". [1] Generalized rash on the abdomen due to rubella Rubella has symptoms similar to those of flu.

Rubela, the primary symptom of rubella virus infection is the appearance of a rash (exanthem) on the face which spreads to the trunk and limbs and usually fades after three days, which is why it is often referred to as three-day measles. The facial rash usually clears as it spreads to other parts of the body. Other symptoms include low-grade fever, swollen glands (sub-occipital and posterior cervical lymphadenopathy), joint pains, headache, and conjunctivitis. [10] The swollen glands or lymph nodes can persist for up to a week and the fever rarely rises above 38 °C (100.4 °F).

The rash of rubella is typically pink or light red. The rash causes itching and often lasts for about three days. The rash disappears after a few days with no staining or peeling of the skin. When the rash clears up, the skin might shed in very small flakes where the rash covered it. Forchheimer spots occur in 20% of cases and is characterized by small, red papules on the area of the soft palate.

[11] Rubella can affect anyone of rubela age. Adult women are particularly prone to arthritis and joint pains. [12] In children, rubella normally causes symptoms which last two days and include: [13] • Rash beginning on the face which spreads to the rest of the body.

• Low fever of less than 38.3 °C (101 °F). • Posterior cervical lymphadenopathy. [14] In older children and adults, additional symptoms may be present, including: [13] • Swollen glands • Coryza (cold-like symptoms) • Aching joints (especially in young women) Severe complications of rubella include: • Brain inflammation (encephalitis) [12] • Low platelet count [12] • Ear infection [15] Coryza in rubella may convert to pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia, and bronchitis (either viral bronchitis or secondary bacterial bronchitis).

[16] Congenital rubella syndrome [ edit ] Child with cataracts in both eyes due to congenital rubella syndrome Rubella can cause congenital rubella syndrome in the newborn, this being the most severe sequela of rubella.

The syndrome (CRS) rubela intrauterine infection by the rubella virus and comprises cardiac, cerebral, ophthalmic and auditory defects. [17] It may also cause prematurity, low birth weight, and neonatal thrombocytopenia, anemia and hepatitis. The risk of rubela defects in organogenesis is highest for infection in the first trimester. CRS is the main reason a vaccine for rubella was developed. [18] Many mothers who contract rubella within the critical first trimester have either a miscarriage or a stillborn baby.

If the fetus survives the infection, it can be born with severe heart disorders ( patent ductus arteriosus being the most common), blindness, deafness, or other life-threatening organ disorders. The skin manifestations are called "blueberry muffin lesions". [18] For these reasons, rubella is included on the TORCH rubela of perinatal infections. [ citation needed] About 100,000 cases of this condition occur each year.

[3] Rubela [ edit ] Transmission electron micrograph of rubella viruses The disease is caused by the rubella virus, in the genus Rubivirus from the family Matonaviridae, [19] that is enveloped and has a single-stranded RNA genome.

[20] The virus is transmitted by the respiratory route and replicates in the nasopharynx and lymph nodes. The virus is found in the blood 5 to 7 days after infection and rubela throughout the body.

The virus has rubela properties and is capable of crossing the placenta and infecting the fetus where it stops cells from developing or destroys them. [10] During this incubation period, the patient is contagious typically for about one week before he/she develops a rash and for about one week thereafter.

[ citation needed] Increased susceptibility to infection might be inherited as there is some indication that HLA-A1 or factors surrounding A1 on extended haplotypes are involved in virus infection or non-resolution of the disease.

[21] [22] Diagnosis [ edit ] Rubella virus specific IgM antibodies are present in people recently infected by rubella virus, but these antibodies can persist for over a year, and a positive test result needs to be interpreted with caution. [23] The presence of these antibodies along with, or a short time after, the characteristic rash confirms the diagnosis.

[24] Prevention [ edit ] Further information: MMR vaccine Rubella infections are prevented by active immunisation programs using live attenuated virus vaccines. Two live rubela virus vaccines, RA 27/3 and Cendehill strains, were effective in the prevention of adult disease. However their use in prepubertal females did not produce a significant fall in the overall incidence rate of CRS in the UK.

Reductions were only achieved by immunisation of all children. [25] The vaccine is now usually given as part of the MMR vaccine.

The WHO recommends the first dose be given at 12 to 18 months of age with a second dose at 36 months. Pregnant women are rubela tested for immunity to rubella early on. Women found to be susceptible are not vaccinated until after the baby is born because the vaccine contains live virus. [26] The immunisation program has been quite successful.

Cuba declared the disease eliminated in the 1990s, and in 2004 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that both the congenital and acquired forms of rubella had been eliminated from the United States. [27] [28] The World Health Organisation declared Australia rubella free in October 2018.

[29] Screening for rubella susceptibility rubela history of vaccination or by serology is recommended in the United States for all women of childbearing age at their first preconception rubela visit to reduce incidence of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). [30] It is recommended that all susceptible non-pregnant women of childbearing age should be offered rubella vaccination.

[30] Due to concerns about possible teratogenicity, use of MMR vaccine is not recommended during pregnancy. [30] Instead, susceptible pregnant women should be vaccinated as soon as possible in the postpartum period.

[30] In susceptible people rubela immunization, in the form of polyclonal immunoglobulins appears effective up to the fifth day post-exposure. [31] Treatment [ edit ] There is no specific treatment for rubella; however, management is a matter of responding to symptoms to diminish discomfort. Treatment of newborn babies is focused on management of the complications. Congenital heart defects and cataracts can be corrected by direct surgery.

[12] [32] Management for ocular congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is similar to that for age-related macular degeneration, including counseling, regular monitoring, and the provision of low vision devices, if required. [33] Prognosis [ edit ] Rubella infection of children and adults is usually mild, self-limiting and often asymptomatic.

The prognosis in children born with CRS is poor. [34] Epidemiology [ edit ] Rubella occurs worldwide. The virus tends to peak during the spring in countries with temperate climates. Before the vaccine against rubella was introduced in 1969, widespread outbreaks usually occurred every 6–9 years in the United States and 3–5 years in Europe, mostly affecting children in the 5–9 year old age group.

[35] Since the introduction of vaccine, occurrences have become rare in those countries with high uptake rates. [ citation needed] Vaccination has interrupted the transmission of rubella in the Americas: no endemic case has been observed rubela February 2009.

[36] Vaccination is still strongly recommended as the virus could be reintroduced from other continents should vaccination rates in the Americas drop. [37] During the epidemic in the U.S. between 1962 and 1965, rubella virus infections during pregnancy were estimated to have caused 30,000 stillbirths and 20,000 children to be born impaired or disabled as a result of CRS. [38] [39] Universal immunisation producing a high level of herd immunity is important in the control of epidemics of rubella.

[40] In the UK, there remains a large population of men susceptible to rubella who have not been vaccinated. Outbreaks of rubella occurred amongst many young men in the UK in 1993 and in 1996 the infection was transmitted to pregnant women, many of whom were immigrants and were susceptible. Outbreaks still arise, usually in developing countries where the vaccine is not as accessible. [41] The complications encountered in pregnancy from rubella infection (miscarriage, fetal death, congenital rubella syndrome) are more common in Rubela and Rubela Asia at a rate rubela 121 per 100,000 live births compared to 2 per 100,000 live births in the Americas and Europe.

[42] In Japan, 15,000 cases of rubella and 43 cases of congenital rubella syndrome were reported to the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases rubela October 15, 2012, and March 2, 2014, during the 2012–13 rubella outbreak in Japan.

They mainly occurred in men aged 31–51 and young adults aged 24–34. [43] History [ edit ] See also: Eradication of infectious rubela § Rubella Rubella was first described in the mid-eighteenth century.

rubela

German physician and chemist, Friedrich Hoffmann, made rubela first clinical description of rubella in 1740, [44] which was confirmed by de Bergen in 1752 and Orlow in 1758. [45] In 1814, George de Maton first suggested that it be considered a disease distinct from both measles and scarlet fever. All these physicians were German, and the disease was known as Rötheln (contemporary German Röteln), Rötlich means "reddish" or "pink" in German.

The fact that three Germans described it led to the common name of "German measles." [46] Henry Veale, an English Royal Artillery surgeon, described an outbreak in India. He coined the name "rubella" (from the Latin word, meaning "little red") in 1866. rubela [47] [48] [49] It was formally recognised as an individual entity in 1881, at the International Congress of Medicine in London.

[50] In 1914, Alfred Fabian Hess theorised that rubella was caused by a virus, based on work with monkeys. [51] In 1938, Hiro and Tosaka confirmed this by passing the disease to children using filtered nasal washings from acute cases. [48] In 1940, there was a widespread epidemic of rubella in Australia.

Subsequently, ophthalmologist Norman McAllister Gregg found 78 cases of congenital cataracts in infants and 68 of them were born to mothers who rubela caught rubella in early pregnancy.

[47] [48] Gregg published an account, Congenital Cataract Following German Measles rubela the Mother, in 1941. He described a variety of problems now known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) and noticed that the earlier the mother was infected, the worse the damage was.

rubela

Rubela no vaccine was yet available, some popular magazines promoted the idea of "German measles parties" rubela infected children to spread the disease to other children (especially girls) to immunize them for life and protect them from later catching the disease when pregnant. [52] The virus was isolated in tissue culture in 1962 rubela two separate groups led by physicians Paul Douglas Parkman and Thomas Huckle Weller.

[47] [49] There was a pandemic of rubella between 1962 and 1965, starting in Europe and rubela to the United States.

[49] In the years 1964–65, the United States rubela an estimated 12.5 million rubella cases. This led to 11,000 miscarriages or therapeutic abortions and 20,000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome.

Of these, 2,100 died as neonates, 12,000 were deaf, 3,580 were blind, and 1,800 were rubela disabled. Rubela New York alone, CRS affected 1% of all births. [53] [54] In 1967, the molecular structure of rubella was observed under electron microscopy using antigen-antibody complexes by Jennifer M. Best, June Almeida, J E Banatvala and A P Waterson. [55] [56] In 1969, a live attenuated virus vaccine was licensed.

[48] In the early 1970s, a triple vaccine containing attenuated measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) viruses was rubela. [49] By 2006, confirmed cases in the Americas had dropped below 3000 a year. However, a 2007 outbreak in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile pushed the cases to 13,000 that year. [7] Eradication efforts [ edit ] On January 22, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan American Health Organization declared and certified Colombia free of rubella and became the first Latin American country to eliminate the disease within its borders.

[57] [58] On April 29, 2015, the Americas became the rubela WHO region to officially eradicate the disease. The last non-imported cases occurred in 2009 in Argentina and Brazil.

Pan-American Health Organization director remarked "The fight against rubella has taken more than 15 years, but rubela has paid off with what I believe will be one of the most rubela pan-American public health achievements of the 21st Century." [59] The declaration was made after 165 million health rubela and genetically confirming that all recent cases were caused by known imported strains of the virus.

Rubella is still common in some regions of the world and Susan E. Reef, team lead for rubella at the CDC’s global immunization division, who joined in the announcement, said there was no chance it would be eradicated worldwide before 2020. [7] Rubella is the third disease to be eliminated from the western hemisphere with vaccination after smallpox and polio.

[7] [8] Etymology [ edit ] From "rubrum" the Latin for "red", rubella means "reddish and small". "German" measles derives from "germanus" which means "similar" in this context.

[60] The name rubella is sometimes confused with rubeola, an alternative name for measles in English-speaking countries; the diseases are unrelated. [61] [62] In some other European languages, like Spanish, rubella and rubeola are synonyms, and rubeola is not an alternative name for measles. Thus, in Spanish, "rubeola" refers to rubella and "sarampión" refers to measles. [63] [64] See also [ edit ] • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Atkinson, William (2011).

Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (12 ed.). Public Health Foundation. pp. 301–323. ISBN 9780983263135. Archived from the original on 2017-05-01. Retrieved 2017-05-05. • ^ a b c d e f g Huong McLean (2014). "3 Infectious Diseases Related To Travel". CDC health information for international travel 2014 : the yellow book.

ISBN 9780199948499. Archived from the original on 2015-04-24. • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Lambert, N; Strebel, P; Orenstein, W; Icenogle, J; Poland, GA (7 January 2015).

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• ^ Pommerville JC (2014). Fundamentals of microbiology (10th ed.). Boston: Jones and Bartlett. p. 513. ISBN 978-1-284-03968-9. • ^ Merriam-Webster:Rubeola Archived 2009-04-21 at rubela Wayback Machine Accessed 2009-09-20. • ^ T. E. C. Jr. (January 1972). "Letters to the editor". Pediatrics.

49 (1): 150–1. doi: 10.1542/peds.49.1.150a. PMID 5059301. S2CID 245076860. • ^ "rubella". Linguee. DeepL. Retrieved 4 October 2020. • ^ "measles". Linguee. DeepL. Retrieved 4 October 2020. External links [ edit ] Rubellaat Wikipedia's sister projects • Media from Commons • Quotations from Wikiquote • Rubella at Wong's Virology.

• Immunization Action Coalition: Rubella • DermNet viral/rubella • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). "Ch. 19: Rubella". In Atkinson W, Wolfe S, Hamborsky J (eds.). Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (12th ed.).

Washington DC: Public Health Foundation. pp. 275–290. Archived from the original on 2017-03-10. • " Rubella virus". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 11041. • "Rubella". MedlinePlus. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Hidden categories: • Webarchive template wayback links • CS1: long volume value • Articles with short description • Short description matches Wikidata • Short description is different from Wikidata • All articles with unsourced statements • Articles with unsourced statements from May 2021 • Articles rubela unsourced statements from June 2021 • Pages using Sister project links with wikidata namespace mismatch • Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata • Articles with BNF identifiers • Articles with J9U identifiers • Articles with LCCN identifiers • Articles with Rubela identifiers • Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate • Wikipedia emergency medicine articles ready to translate • Afrikaans • العربية • Արեւմտահայերէն • Azərbaycanca • বাংলা • Беларуская • Български • Català • Čeština • Cymraeg • Dansk • Deutsch • ދިވެހިބަސް • Ελληνικά • Español • Esperanto • Euskara • فارسی • Français • Gaeilge • 한국어 • Հայերեն • हिन्दी • Hrvatski • Bahasa Indonesia • Italiano • עברית • ಕನ್ನಡ • Kiswahili • Кыргызча • Latina • Latviešu • Lëtzebuergesch • Lietuvių • Lombard • Magyar • മലയാളം • मराठी • مصرى • Bahasa Melayu • Minangkabau • Nederlands • 日本語 • Norsk bokmål • Norsk nynorsk • Occitan • ଓଡ଼ିଆ • پنجابی • Polski • Português • Română • Rubela • සිංහල • Simple English • سنڌي • Slovenčina • Slovenščina • Српски / srpski • Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски • Suomi • Svenska • Tagalog • தமிழ் • Татарча/tatarça • ไทย • Тоҷикӣ • Türkçe • Türkmençe • Українська • اردو • Tiếng Việt • 吴语 • 粵語 • 中文 Edit links • This page was last edited on 19 April 2022, at 19:44 (UTC).

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• Care at Mayo Clinic • Appointments rubela Locations • Patient & Visitor Guide • International Services • Medical Departments & Centers • Doctors & Medical Staff • Patient Online Services • Billing & Insurance • Clinical Trials • International Business Collaborations • About Mayo Clinic • Contact Us • Health Information Rubella Rubella results in a fine, pink rash that appears on the face, the trunk (shown in image), and then the arms and legs.

Rubella is a contagious viral infection best known by its distinctive red rash. It's also called German measles or three-day measles. While this infection may cause mild symptoms or even no symptoms in most people, it can cause serious problems for unborn babies whose mothers become infected during pregnancy. Rubella isn't the same as measles, but the rubela illnesses share some symptoms, including the rubela rash.

Rubella is caused by a different virus than measles, and rubella rubela as infectious or as severe as measles. The measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is highly effective in preventing rubella. In many countries, rubella infection is rare or even nonexistent. However, because the vaccine isn't used everywhere, the virus still causes serious problems for babies whose mothers are infected during pregnancy. Rubela The signs and symptoms of rubella are often difficult to notice, especially in children.

Signs and symptoms generally appear between two and three weeks after exposure to the virus. They usually last about one to five days and may include: • Mild fever of 102 F (38.9 C) or lower • Headache • Stuffy or runny nose • Inflamed, red eyes • Enlarged, tender lymph nodes at the base of the skull, the back of the neck and behind the ears • A fine, pink rash that begins on the face rubela quickly spreads to the trunk and then the arms and legs, before disappearing in the same sequence • Aching joints, especially in young women When to see a doctor Contact your doctor if you think you or your child may have been exposed to rubella or if you have the signs or symptoms listed above.

If you're considering getting pregnant, check your vaccination record to make sure you've received your MMR vaccine. If you're pregnant and you develop rubella, especially during your first trimester, the virus can cause death or serious birth defects in the developing fetus.

Rubella during pregnancy is the most common cause of congenital deafness. It's best to be protected against rubella before pregnancy.

If you're pregnant, you'll likely undergo a routine screening for immunity to rubella. But if you've never received the vaccine and you think you might have been exposed to rubella, contact your doctor immediately.

A blood test might confirm that you're already immune. Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic Causes Rubela is caused by a virus that's passed from person to person. It can spread when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It can also spread by direct contact with an infected person's respiratory secretions, such as mucus. It can also be passed on from pregnant women to their unborn children via the bloodstream.

A person who has been infected with the virus that causes rubella is contagious for one to two weeks before the onset of the rash until about one or two weeks after the rash disappears. An infected person can spread the illness before the person realizes he or she has it. Rubella is rare in many countries because most children receive a vaccination against the infection at an early age.

In some parts of the world, the virus is still active. This is something to consider before going abroad, especially if you're pregnant. Complications Rubella is a mild infection. Once you've had the disease, you're usually permanently immune.

Some women who have had rubella experience arthritis in the fingers, wrists and knees, which generally lasts for about one month. In rare cases, rubella can cause an ear infection or inflammation of the brain. However, if you're pregnant when you contract rubella, the consequences for your unborn child may be severe, and in some cases, fatal. Up to 80% of infants born to mothers who had rubella during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy develop congenital rubella syndrome.

This syndrome can cause one or more problems, including: • Growth delays • Cataracts • Deafness • Congenital heart defects • Defects in other organs • Intellectual disabilities The highest risk to the fetus is during the first trimester, but exposure later in pregnancy also is dangerous.

Prevention The rubella vaccine is usually given as a combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Doctors recommend that children receive the MMR vaccine between 12 and 15 months of age, and again between 4 and 6 years of age — before entering school. It's particularly important that girls receive the vaccine to prevent rubella during future pregnancies. Babies born to women who have received the vaccine or who are already immune are usually protected from rubella for six to eight months rubela birth.

If a child requires protection from rubella before rubela months of age — for example, for certain foreign travel — the vaccine can be given as early as 6 months of age. But children who are vaccinated early still need to be vaccinated at the recommended ages later.

Widespread concerns have been raised about a possible link between the MMR vaccine and autism. However, extensive reports from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the National Academy of Medicine and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conclude that there is no scientifically proven link between the MMR vaccine and autism. There is also no scientific benefit to separating the vaccines.

These organizations note that autism is often identified in toddlers between the ages of 18 and 30 months, which is about the time children are given their first MMR vaccine. But this coincidence in rubela typically shouldn't be mistaken for a cause-and-effect relationship. Do you need the MMR vaccine? You don't need a vaccine if you: • Had two doses of the MMR vaccine after 12 months of age.

• Have blood tests that indicate you're immune to measles, mumps and rubella. • Were born before 1957. Women born before 1957 don't need a vaccine if they already had the rubella vaccine or if they have a positive rubella immunity test.

You typically should get a vaccine if you don't fit the criteria listed above and you: • Are a nonpregnant woman of childbearing age • Attend college, trade school or postsecondary school • Work in a hospital, medical facility, child care center or school • Plan to travel overseas or take a cruise The vaccine is rubela recommended for: • Pregnant women or women who plan to get pregnant within the next four weeks • People who have had a life-threatening allergic reaction to gelatin, the antibiotic neomycin or a previous dose of MMR vaccine If you have cancer, a blood disorder or another disease, or you take medication that affects your immune system, talk to your doctor before getting an MMR vaccine.

If you've been exposed to the virus that causes rubella, you can help keep friends, family and co-workers safe by telling them about your diagnosis. If your child has rubella, let the school or child care provider know. Side effects of the vaccine Most rubela experience no side effects from the vaccine. About 15% of people develop a fever between seven and 12 days after the vaccination, and about 5% of rubela develop a mild rash. Some teens and adult women experience temporary joint pain or stiffness after receiving the vaccine.

Fewer than 1 out of 1 million doses causes a serious allergic reaction. • Bennett JE, et al. Rubella virus (German measles). In: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice rubela Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Elsevier; 2020. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 10, 2020. • Cunningham Rubela, et al., eds. Infectious diseases. In: Williams Obstetrics. 25th ed. McGraw-Hill Education; 2018. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed Feb.

10, 2020. • Grant GB, et al. Progress toward rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control and rubela — Worldwide, 2000-2018. MMWR Rubela and Mortality Weekly Report.

rubela

2019; doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6839a5. • AskMayoExpert. MMR vaccination.

rubela

Mayo Clinic; 2019. • DeStefano F, et al. The MMR vaccine and autism. Annual Review of Virology. 2019; doi:10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015515. • Measles, mumps, rubella vaccine, live. IBM Micromedex. https://www.micromedexsoluitions.com. Accessed Feb. 10, 2020. • Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine safety studies.

Centers for Disease Rubela and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/vaccines/mmr/mmr-studies.html. Accessed Feb. 13, 2020. Mayo Clinic Press Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic Press.

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