Rebirth for you sub indo

rebirth for you sub indo

Hinduism Philosophy of Religion Chapter 2. Religions of the World Section 2. Hinduism You should read enough of the materials presented in this section concerning the tradition of Hinduism in order to understand how this tradition displays the characteristics or elements that make a tradition one that would be termed a “religion.

The tradition presented in the materials below is one of the world’s living religions. You reading should indicate why this is so. · THE ABSOLUTE: what do the believers hold as most important?

What is rebirth for you sub indo ultimate source of value and significance? For many, but not rebirth for you sub indo religions, this is given some form of agency and portrayed as a deity (deities). It might be a concept or ideal as well as a figure. · THE WORLD: What does the belief system say about the world?

Its origin? its relation to the Absolute? Its future? · HUMANS: Where do they come from? How do they fit into the general scheme of things?

What is their destiny or future? · THE PROBLEM FOR HUMANS: What is the principle problem for humans that they must learn to deal with and solve? · THE SOLUTION FOR HUMANS: How are humans to solve or overcome the fundamental problems ? · COMMUNITY AND ETHICS: What is the moral code as promulgated by the religion? What is the idea of community and how humans are to live with one another?

· AN INTERPRETATION OF HISTORY: Does the religion offer an explanation for events occurring in time? Is there a single linear history with time coming to an end or does time recycle? Rebirth for you sub indo there a plan working itself out in time and detectable in the events of history? · RITUALS AND SYMBOLS: What are the major rituals, holy days, garments, ceremonies and symbols?

· LIFE AFTER DEATH: What is the explanation given for what occurs after death? Does he religion support a belief in souls rebirth for you sub indo spirits which survive the death of the body? What is the belief in what occurs afterwards?

Is there a resurrection of the body? Reincarnation? Dissolution? Extinction? · RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER RELIGIONS: What is the prescribed manner in which believers are to regard other religions and the followers of other religions?

********************************************************** For those who wish to listen to information on the world's religions here is a listing of PODCASTS on RELIGIONS by Cynthia Eller. If you have iTunes on your computer just click and you will be led to the listings. Here is a link to the site for the textbook REVEALING WORLD RELIGIONS related to which these podcasts were made. ************************************************************ Hinduism is a religion with various Gods and Goddesses. According to Hinduism, three Gods rule the world. Brahma: the creator; Vishnu: the preserver and Shiva: the destroyer. Lord Vishnu did his job of preserving the world by incarnating himself in different forms at times of crisis.

The three Lords that rule the world have consorts and they are goddesses too. Consort of Brahma is Sarasvati; goddess of learning. Vishnu's consort is Lakshmi; goddess of wealth and prosperity. Shiva's consort is Parvati who is worshipped as Kali or Durga. Besides these Gods and Goddesses there are a number of other Gods and Goddesses. To name a few of them, there is Ganesh; who has an elephant's head and he is also a son of Shiva and Parvati, Hanuman; who rebirth for you sub indo an ape, Surya; Lord of sun, Ganga Ma; Goddess of river Ganges; Samundra; Lord of the sea, Indra; king of the Gods ( but he isn't an important God), Prithvi; Goddess of earth, Shakti; Goddess of strength.

The Hindus call their Goddesses 'Ma' meaning mother. Some gods have more than one name. Shiva is also known as Shankar, Mahadev, Natraj, Mahesh and many other names. Ganesh is also called Ganpati. God Vishnu incarnated 9 times to do his job and in his every appearance he had a different form which are also worshipped as Gods.

Among his appearances, he appeared as Rama, Krishna, Narsimha, Parsuram and Buddha. Krishna also has different names, Gopal; Kishan; Shyam and other names. He also has other titles with meanings like 'Basuri Wala' which means the flute musician and 'Makhan Chor' which means the butter stealer. There are also Gods who can change their forms, for example: Parvati rebirth for you sub indo change into Kali or Durga.

Not all of these Gods are worshiped by all Hindus. Some Hindus worship only Vishnu. Others worship only Shiva. Others worship only the Goddesses and call these Goddesses collectively as Shakti meaning strength.

Many of these Goddess worshipers worship Parvati in her images as Kali or Durga. People who worship Shiva or Vishnu also worship characters and images connected with these Gods. Vishnu worshipers (Vaishnaites) also worship his appearances. Shiva's worshipers (Shaivites) also worship images of bull called Nandi, who was Shiva's carrier and a unique stone design connected to Shiva.

There are also Hindus who worship all the Gods. There are some Gods who are worshiped all over India like Rama and Krishna and other Gods who are worshiped more in one region than the other like Ganesh who is worshiped mainly in west India. Hindus also worship Gods according to their personal needs. People who engage in wrestling, body building and other physical sports worship Hanuman, who in Hindu legends was an ape with lot of physical strength.

Businessmen worship Lakshmi, Goddess of wealth. Though these Hindus worship different idols, there are many Hindus who believe in one God and perceive in these different Gods and Goddesses as different images of the same one God.

According to their beliefs idolatry is the wrong interpretation of Hinduism. Hindus believe in reincarnation. The basic belief is that a person's fate is determined according to his deeds.

These deeds in Hinduism are called 'Karma'. A soul who does good Karma in this life will be awarded with a better life in the next incarnation. Souls who do bad Karma will be punished for their sins, if not in this incarnation then in the next incarnation and will continue to be born in this world again and again.

The good souls will be liberated from the circle of rebirth and get redemption which is called 'Moksha' meaning freedom.

Hindus normally cremate their dead ones, so that the soul of the dead would go to heaven, except in a few cases of Hindu saints, who are believed to have attained 'Moksha'. The main Hindu rebirth for you sub indo are the four Vedas. They are Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda. The concluding portions of the Vedas are called Upanisads. There are also other holy books like Puranas, Ramayana, Mahabharta etc. The different Gods and Goddesses in the Hindu mythology are derived from these books.

Ramayana and Mahabharta are the most popular Hindu books. The main story of Ramayana is the story of Lord Rama. Rama was born in a royal family and was suppose to be the king, but because of his step- mother, he was forced to exile from his kingdom for fourteen years. During this period his consort Sita was kidnapped by a demon called Ravan, who was king of Lanka. Rama with the help of his brother, Lakshman, and an army of monkeys under the leadership of Hanuman, rescued Sita.

Many Indians believe that the present day Sri Lanka was then the kingdom of Lanka. Mahabharta is a family epic. In this epic the Pandva family and the Kaurav family who are cousins fight with each other for the control over a kingdom. Kaurav family, which consisted of 100 brothers rule an empire. The five Pandva brothers ask for a small kingdom which belongs to them. The Kauravs refuse to give the Pandvas the kingdom so there is a war between the Pandvas and the Kauravs in which it is believed that all the kingdoms of that period in India took part.

In this war the Pandvas, with the help of Lord Krishna win the war. Before the commencement of the war, while the two armies are facing each other, one of the Pandva brothers Arjun gets depressed. Arjun is depressed because he has to fight against people whom he knows, loves and respects. At this point Krishna, (who was also a king of a kingdom, and participated in this war only as the chariot driver for Arjun) convinces Arjun to fight.

Krishna lectures Arjun about life, human beings and their religious duties. He explains to Arjun that he belongs to a warrior caste and he has to fight for that's his destination in this incarnation. Those chapters in the Mahabharta which are Krishna's discourses on religious philosophy are called Bhagvad Gita.

Because of it's importance the Bhagvad Gita is considered as a separate holy book. Another Hindu holy book that deals with religious duties is 'Law of Manu' or the 'Dharma Shastra'. In the wars that occur in the holy books, as in Rebirth for you sub indo, the different sides had different war weapons which had characters similar to modern day war weapons.

In some stories the traveling vehicles were normally birds and animals. But these animals and birds had features similar to modern day aircrafts. There were even aircrafts with over velocity of light. The main war weapons were bows and arrows. But these arrows were more like modern missiles than simple arrows. These arrows were capable of carrying bombs with destructive power similar to modern day chemical, biological or even atom bombs. Other arrows could be targeted on specific human beings.

There were even arrows capable of neutralizing other arrows, similar to modern day anti-missiles. Hindus have many holy places. Badrinath, Puri, Dwarkha and Rameshwaram are four holiest places for the Hindus. Other holy places are Varanasi, Rishikesh, Nasik, Pushkar, Ujjain and other places. Some rivers are also holy to them. Among them are Godavri, Yamuna and above all Ganges which the Indians call Ganga. Another holy river is Sarasvati and it is invisible. Hindus also worship and respect some animals and birds like cobra, apes, peacocks and cow.

Hindus also respect some trees and bush trees. The famous and the most respected bush tree is Tulsi. Some of the Hindu customs, which exist or existed, do not have their bearing in Hindu scriptures but became part of Hinduism in different ways and fashion. For example, the Hindus see in cow a sacred animal. Religiously there is no reason to see cow as sacred and it is believed that cows were made 'sacred' to prevent their slaughter during periods of droughts and hunger.

Cobra worship also is not found in Hindu scripts. This custom became part of Hinduism when some Indian tribes who use to worship cobra adopted Hinduism. Burning of the widow on the dead husband's pyre also has no religious justification. This custom, outlawed in 1829, was probably brought to India by the Scythians invaders of India.

Among rebirth for you sub indo Scythians it was a custom to bury the dead king with his mistresses or wives, servants and other things so that they could continue to serve him in the next world. When these Scythians arrived in India, they adopted the Indian system of funeral, which was cremating the dead. And so instead of burying their kings and his servers they started cremating their dead with his surviving lovers.

The Scythians were warrior tribes and they were given a status of warrior castes in Hindu religious hierarchy. The different castes who claimed warrior status or higher also adopted this custom. There are four castes in Hindu religion arranged in a hierarchy.

The highest caste is Brahman, and they are the priest caste of Hinduism. After them are the Kshatria, who are the warrior castes. After them are the Vaishya castewho are business people. Rebirth for you sub indo after them are the Sudra, who are the common peasants and workers. Below these four castes there are casteless, the untouchables. The four castes were not allowed to have any physical contact with the untouchables. Each caste is divided into many sub-castes.

The religious word for caste is Varna and for sub-caste Jat or Jati. But sometimes in English the term caste is used in both cases. Religiously, people are born in a caste and it cannot be changed. Each caste has some compulsory duties, which its members must do. Each caste has professional limits which decides what profession each caste can follow. Each caste members can have social relations only with its caste members. Religiously this includes marraige and even eating only with caste members.

Please note that socially the caste system is different from the religious form of caste system. How did Hinduism originated is a difficult question. The accepted theory is that Hinduism was evolved after the historical meeting between the Aryans and Dravidians. Some claim that Hinduism is mainly an Aryan culture whereas the others claim that it is mainly a Dravidian culture.

Religiously the Vedas were given by Brahma. Before Hinduism there existed another religion in India called Brahmanism and its followers were called Brahmans. The Brahmans were the spiritual and moral guides of the Indian society.

The members of this religion were a close sect and others could not join rebirth for you sub indo. The Brahmans slowly started accepting others into their religion and so was created Hinduism which included in it the customs which aren't the part of the Vedas. One of the reasons the Brahmans accepted others to their religion was the fear to loose their status as moral guides to priests of a new religion that started in India, namely Buddhism.

The Brahmans even accepted Buddha as a Hindu God and part of his teachings and philosophy like non-violence into their religion. - © Aharon Daniel Israel 1999-2000 allowed to use On Hinduism: Introduction [] The Universe [] Ancient Gods [] Origin [] Sacrifice [] Death [] Social Order [] Charms [] Cow [] Brahman Crowning [] Motherland [] Crown of the Vedic Age rebirth for you sub indo New Sacrifice [] Search [] Atman [] Identity [] Karma [] Emancipation I.

Introduction Hinduism, religion that originated in India and is still practiced by most of its inhabitants, as well as by those whose families have migrated from India to other parts of the world (chiefly East Africa, South Africa, Southeast Asia, the East Indies, and England). The word Hindu is derived from rebirth for you sub indo Sanskrit word sindhu (“river”—more specifically, the Indus); the Persians in the 5th century BC called the Hindus by that name, identifying them as the people of the land of the Indus.

The Hindus define their community as “those who believe in the Vedas” ( see Veda) or “those who follow the way (dharma) of the four classes ( varnas) and stages of life ( ashramas).” Hinduism is a major world religion, not merely by virtue of its many followers (estimated at more than 700 million) but also because of its profound influence on many other religions during its long, unbroken history, which dates from about 1500 BC. The corresponding influence of these various religions on Hinduism (it has an extraordinary tendency to absorb foreign elements) has greatly contributed to the religion's syncretism—the wide variety of beliefs and practices that it encompasses.

Moreover, the geographic, rather than ideological, basis of the religion (the fact that it comprises whatever all the people of India have believed and done) has given Hinduism the character of a social and doctrinal system that extends to every aspect of human life. II. Fundamental Principles The canon of Hinduism is basically defined by what people do rather than what they think. Consequently, far more uniformity of behavior than of belief is found among Hindus, although very few practices or beliefs are shared by all.

A few usages are observed by almost all Hindus: reverence for Brahmans and cows; abstention from meat (especially beef); and marriage within rebirth for you sub indo caste ( jati), in the hope of producing male heirs.

Most Hindus chant the gayatri hymn to the sun at dawn, but little agreement exists as to what other prayers should be chanted. Most Hindus worship Shiva, Vishnu, or the Goddess (Devi), but they also worship hundreds of additional minor deities peculiar to a particular village or even to a particular family.

Although Hindus believe and do many apparently contradictory things—contradictory not merely from one Hindu to the next, but also within the daily religious life of a single Hindu—each individual perceives an orderly pattern that gives form and meaning to his or her own life.

No doctrinal or ecclesiastical hierarchy exists in Hinduism, but the intricate hierarchy of the social system (which is inseparable from the religion) gives each person a sense of place within the whole. A. Texts The ultimate canonical authority for all Hindus is the Vedas. The oldest of the four Vedas is the Rig-Veda, which was composed in an ancient form of the Sanskrit language in northwest India.

This text, probably composed between about 1500 and 1000 BC and consisting of 1028 hymns to a pantheon of gods, has been memorized syllable by syllable and preserved orally to the present day. The Rig-Veda was supplemented by two other Vedas, the Yajur-Veda (the textbook for sacrifice) and the Sama-Veda (the hymnal). A fourth book, the Atharva-Veda (a collection of magic spells), was probably added about 900 BC. At this time, too, the Brahmanas—lengthy Sanskrit texts expounding priestly ritual and the myths behind it—were composed.

Between the 8th century BC and the 5th century BC, the Upanishads were composed; these are mystical-philosophical meditations on the meaning of existence and the nature of the universe.

The Vedas, including the Brahmanas and the Upanishads, are regarded as revealed canon ( shruti,”what has been heard [from the gods]”), and no syllable can be changed. The actual content of this canon, however, is unknown to most Hindus. The practical compendium of Hinduism is contained in the Smriti, or “what is remembered,” which is also orally preserved.

No prohibition is made against improvising variations on, rewording, or challenging the Smriti. The Smriti includes the two great Sanskrit epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana; the many Sanskrit Puranas, including 18 great Puranas and several dozen more subordinate Puranas; and the many Dharmashastras and Dharmasutras (textbooks on sacred law), of which the one attributed to the sage Manu is the most frequently cited. The two epics are built around central narratives.

The Mahabharata tells of the war between the Pandava brothers, led by their cousin Krishna, and their cousins the Kauravas. The Ramayana tells of the journey of Rama to recover his wife Sita after she is stolen by the demon Ravana. But these stories are embedded in a rich corpus of other tales and discourses on philosophy, law, geography, political science, and astronomy, so that the Mahabharata (about 200,000 lines long) constitutes a kind of encyclopedia or even a literature, and the Ramayana (more than 50,000 lines long) is comparable.

Although it is therefore impossible to fix their dates, the main bodies of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana were probably composed between 400 BC and AD 400. Both, however, continued to grow even after they were translated into the vernacular languages of India (such as Tamil and Hindi) in the succeeding centuries. The Puranas were composed after the epics, and several of them develop themes found in the epics (for instance, the Bhagavata-Purana describes the childhood of Krishna, a topic not elaborated in the Mahabharata).

The Puranas also include subsidiary myths, hymns of praise, philosophies, iconography, and rituals. Most of the Puranas are predominantly sectarian in nature; the great Puranas (and some subordinate Puranas) are dedicated to the worship of Shiva or Vishnu or the Goddess, and several subordinate Puranas are devoted to Ganesha or Skanda or the sun.

In addition, they all contain a great deal of nonsectarian material, probably of earlier origin, such as the “five marks,” or topics ( panchalakshana), of the Puranas: the creation of the universe, the destruction and re-creation of the universe, the dynasties of the solar and lunar gods, the genealogy of the gods and holy sages, and the ages of the founding fathers of humankind (the Manus).

B. Philosophy Incorporated in this rich literature is a complex cosmology. Hindus believe that the universe is a great, enclosed sphere, a cosmic egg, within which are numerous concentric heavens, hells, oceans, and continents, with India at the center. They believe that time is both degenerative—going from the golden age, or Krita Yuga, through two intermediate periods of decreasing goodness, to the present age, or Kali Yuga—and cyclic: At the end of each Kali Yuga, the universe is destroyed by fire and flood, and a new golden age begins.

Human life, too, is cyclic: After death, the soul leaves the body and is reborn in the body of another person, animal, vegetable, or mineral. This condition of endless entanglement in activity and rebirth is called samsara ( see Transmigration).

rebirth for you sub indo

The precise quality of the new birth is determined by the accumulated merit and demerit that result from all the actions, or karma, that the soul has committed in its past life or lives. All Hindus believe that karma accrues in this way; they also believe, however, that it can be counteracted by expiations and rituals, by “working out” through punishment or reward, and by achieving release ( moksha) from the entire process of samsara through the renunciation of all worldly desires.

Hindus may thus be divided into two groups: those who seek the sacred and profane rewards of this world (health, wealth, children, and a good rebirth), and those who seek release from the world. The principles of the first way of life were drawn from the Vedas and are represented today in temple Hinduism and in the religion of Brahmans and the caste system.

The second way, which is prescribed in the Upanishads, rebirth for you sub indo represented not only in the cults of renunciation ( sannyasa) but also in the ideological ideals rebirth for you sub indo most Hindus. T he worldly aspect of Hinduism originally had three Vedas, three classes of society ( varnas), three stages of life ( ashramas), and three “goals of a man” ( purusharthas), the goals or needs of women being seldom discussed in the ancient texts.

To the first three Vedas was added the Atharva-Veda. The first three classes (Brahman, or priestly; Kshatriya, or warrior; and Vaisya, or general populace) were derived from the tripartite division of ancient Indo-European society, traces of which can be detected in certain social and religious institutions of rebirth for you sub indo Greece and Rome. To the three classes were added the Shudras, or servants, after the Indo-Aryans settled into the Punjab and began to move down into the Ganges Valley.

The three original ashramas were the chaste student ( brahmachari), the householder ( grihastha), and the forest-dweller ( vanaprastha). They were said to owe three debts: study of the Vedas (owed to the sages); a son (to the ancestors); and sacrifice (to the gods).

The three goals were artha (material success), dharma (righteous social behavior), and kama (sensual pleasures). Shortly after the composition of the first Upanishads, during the rise of Buddhism (6th century BC), a fourth ashrama and a corresponding fourth goal were added: the renouncer ( sannyasi), whose goal is release ( moksha) from the other stages, goals, and debts.

Each of these two ways of being Hindu developed its own complementary metaphysical and social systems. The caste system and its supporting philosophy of svadharma (“one's own dharma”) developed within the worldly way. Svadharma comprises the beliefs that each person is born to perform a specific job, marry a specific person, eat certain food, and beget children to do likewise and that it is better to fulfill one's own dharma than that of anyone else (even if one's own is low or reprehensible, such as that of the Harijan caste, the Untouchables, whose mere presence was once considered polluting to other castes).

The primary goal of the worldly Hindu is to produce and raise a son who will make offerings to the ancestors (the shraddha ceremony). The second, renunciatory way of Hinduism, on the other hand, is based on the Upanishadic philosophy of the unity of the individual soul, or atman, with Brahman, the universal world soul, or godhead.

The full realization of this is believed to be sufficient to release the worshiper from rebirth; in this view, nothing could be more detrimental to salvation than the birth of a child. Many of the goals and ideals of renunciatory Hinduism have been incorporated into worldly Hinduism, particularly the eternal dharma ( sanatana dharma), an absolute and general ethical code that purports to transcend and embrace all subsidiary, relative, specific dharmas. The most important tenet of sanatana dharma for all Hindus is ahimsa, the absence of a desire to injure, which is used to justify vegetarianism (although it does not preclude physical violence toward animals or humans, or blood sacrifices in temples).

In addition to sanatana dharma, numerous attempts have been made to reconcile the two Hinduisms. The Bhagavad-Gita describes three paths to religious realization. To the path of works, or karma (here designating sacrificial and ritual acts), and the path of knowledge, or jnana (the Upanishadic meditation on the godhead), was added a mediating third path, the passionate devotion to God, or bhakti, a religious ideal that came to combine and transcend the other two paths.

Bhakti in a general form can be traced in the epics and even in some of the Upanishads, but its fullest statement appears only after the Bhagavad-Gita. It gained momentum from the vernacular poems and songs to local deities, particularly those of the Alvars, Nayanars, and Virashaivas of southern India and the Bengali worshipers of Krishna (see below).

In this way Hindus have been able to reconcile their Vedantic monism ( see Vedanta) with their Vedic polytheism: All the individual Hindu gods (who are said to be saguna,”with attributes”) are subsumed under the godhead ( nirguna,”without attributes”), from which they all emanate. Therefore, most Hindus are devoted (through bhakti) to gods whom they worship in rituals (through karma) and whom they understand (through jnana) as aspects of ultimate reality, the material reflection of which is all an illusion ( maya) wrought by God in a spirit of play ( lila).

C. Gods Although all Hindus acknowledge the existence and importance of a number of gods and demigods, most individual worshipers are primarily devoted to a single god or goddess, of whom Shiva, Vishnu, and the Goddess are the most popular. Shiva embodies the apparently contradictory aspects of a god of ascetics and a god of the phallus.

He is the deity of renouncers, particularly of the many Shaiva sects that imitate him: Kapalikas, who carry skulls to reenact the myth in which Shiva beheaded his father, the incestuous Brahma, and was condemned to carry the skull until he found release in Benares; Pashupatas, worshipers of Shiva Pashupati, “Lord of Beasts”; and Aghoris, “to whom nothing is horrible,” yogis who eat ordure or flesh in order to demonstrate their complete indifference to pleasure or pain.

Shiva is also the deity whose phallus ( linga) is the central shrine of all Shaiva temples and the personal shrine of all Shaiva householders; his priapism is said to have resulted in his castration and the subsequent worship of his severed member.

In addition, Shiva is said to have appeared on earth in various human, animal, and vegetable forms, establishing his many local shrines. To his worshipers, Vishnu is all-pervasive and supreme; he is the god from whose navel a lotus sprang, giving birth to the creator (Brahma).

Vishnu created the universe by separating heaven and earth, and he rescued it on a number of subsequent occasions. He is also worshiped in the form of a number of “descents”—avatars ( see Avatar), or, roughly, incarnations. Several of these are animals that recur in iconography: the fish, the tortoise, and the boar. Others are the dwarf (Vamana, who became a giant in order to trick the demon Rebirth for you sub indo out of the entire universe); the man-lion (Narasimha, who disemboweled the demon Hiranyakashipu); the Buddha (who became incarnate in rebirth for you sub indo to teach a false doctrine to the pious demons); Rama-with-an-Axe (Parashurama, who beheaded his unchaste mother and destroyed the entire class of Kshatriyas to avenge his father); and Kalki (the rider on the white horse, who will come to destroy the universe at the end of the age of Kali).

Most popular by far are Rama (hero of the Ramayana) and Krishna (hero of the Mahabharata and the Rebirth for you sub indo, both of whom are said to be avatars of Vishnu, although they were originally human heroes. Along with these two great male gods, several goddesses are the object of primary devotion.

They are sometimes said to be various rebirth for you sub indo of the Goddess, Devi. In some myths Devi is the prime mover, who commands the male gods to do the work of creation and destruction. As Durga, the Unapproachable, she kills the buffalo demon Mahisha in a great battle; as Kali, the Black, she dances in a mad frenzy on the corpses of those she has slain and eaten, adorned with the still-dripping skulls and severed hands of her victims.

The Goddess is also worshiped by the Shaktas, devotees of Rebirth for you sub indo, the female power. This sect arose in the medieval period along with the Tantrists, whose esoteric ceremonies involved a black mass rebirth for you sub indo which such forbidden substances as meat, fish, and wine were eaten and forbidden sexual acts were performed ritually.

In many Tantric cults the Goddess is identified as Krishna's consort Radha. More peaceful manifestations of the Goddess are seen in wives of the great gods: Lakshmi, the meek, docile wife of Vishnu and a fertility goddess in her own right; and Parvati, the wife of Shiva and the daughter of the Himalayas. The great river goddess Ganga (the Ganges), also worshiped alone, is said to be a wife of Shiva; a goddess of music and literature, Sarasvati, associated with the Saraswati River, is the wife of Brahma.

Many of the local goddesses of India—Manasha, the goddess of snakes, in Bengal, and Minakshi in Madurai—are married to Hindu gods, while others, such as Shitala, goddess of smallpox, are worshiped alone. These unmarried rebirth for you sub indo are feared for their untamed powers and angry, unpredictable outbursts.

Many minor gods are assimilated into the central pantheon by being identified with the great gods or with their children and friends. Hanuman, the monkey god, appears in the Ramayana as the cunning assistant of Rama in the siege of Lanka. Skanda, the general of the army of the gods, is the son of Shiva rebirth for you sub indo Parvati, as is Ganesha, the elephant-headed god of scribes and merchants, the remover of obstacles, and the object of worship at the beginning of any important enterprise.

D. Worship and Ritual The great and lesser Hindu gods are worshiped in a number of concentric circles of public and private devotion.

Because of the social basis of Hinduism, the most fundamental ceremonies for every Hindu are those that involve the rites of passage ( samskaras). These begin with birth and the first time the child eats solid food (rice). Later rites include the first haircutting (for a young boy) and the purification after the first menstruation (for a girl); marriage; and the blessings upon a pregnancy, to produce a male child and to ensure a successful delivery and the child's survival of the first six dangerous days after birth (the concern of Shashti, goddess of Six).

Last are the funeral ceremonies (cremation and, if possible, the sprinkling of ashes in a holy river such as the Ganges) and the yearly offerings to dead ancestors. The most notable of the latter is the pinda, a ball of rice and sesame seeds given by the eldest male child so that the ghost of his father may pass from limbo into rebirth.

In daily ritual, a Hindu (generally the wife, who is thought to have more power to intercede with the gods) makes offerings ( puja) of fruit or flowers before a small shrine in the house. She also makes offerings to local snakes or trees or obscure spirits (benevolent and malevolent) dwelling in her own garden or at crossroads or other magical places in the village.

Many villages, and all sizable towns, have temples where priests perform ceremonies throughout the day: sunrise prayers and noises to awaken the god within the holy of holies (the garbagriha, or “womb-house”); bathing, clothing, and fanning the god; feeding the god and distributing the remains of the food ( prasada) to worshipers.

The temple is also a cultural center where songs are sung, holy texts read aloud (in Sanskrit and vernaculars), and sunset rituals performed; devout laity may be present at most of these ceremonies.

In many temples, particularly those sacred to goddesses (such as the Kalighat temple to Kali, in Kolkata), goats are sacrificed on special occasions. The sacrifice is often carried out by a special low-caste priest outside the bounds of the temple itself. Thousands of simple local temples exist; each may be nothing more than a small stone box enclosing a formless effigy swathed in cloth, or a slightly more imposing edifice with a small tank in which to bathe.

In addition, India has many temples of great size as well as complex temple cities, some hewn out of caves (such as Elephanta and Ellora), some formed of great monolithic slabs (such as those at Mahabalipuram), and some built of imported and elaborately carved stone rebirth for you sub indo (such as the temples at Khajuraho, Bhubaneshwar, Madurai, and Kanjeevaram).

On special days, usually once a year, the image of the god is taken from its central shrine and paraded around the temple complex on a magnificently carved wooden chariot ( ratha). Many holy places or shrines ( tirthas, literally “fords”), such as Rishikesh in the Himalayas or Benares on the Ganges, are the objects of pilgrimages from all over India; others are essentially local shrines. Certain shrines are most frequently visited at special yearly festivals.

For example, Prayaga, where the Ganges and Yamuna rivers join at Allahabad, is always sacred, but it is crowded with pilgrims during the Kumbha Mela festival each January and overwhelmed by the rebirth for you sub indo who come to the special ceremony held every 12 years.

In Bengal, the goddess Durga's visit to her family and return to her husband Shiva are celebrated every year at Durgapuja, when images of the goddess are created out of papier-mâché, worshiped for ten days, and then cast into the Ganges in a dramatic midnight ceremony ringing with drums and glowing with candles. Some festivals are celebrated throughout India: Diwali, the festival of lights in early winter; and Holi, the spring carnival, when members of all castes mingle and let down their hair, sprinkling one another with cascades of red powder and liquid, symbolic of the blood that was probably used in past centuries.

III. History The basic beliefs and practices of Hinduism cannot be understood outside their historical context. Although the early texts and events are impossible to date with precision, the general chronological development is clear.

A. Vedic Civilization About 2000 BC, a highly developed civilization flourished in the Indus Valley, around the sites of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. By about 1500 BC, when the Indo-Aryan tribes invaded India, this civilization was in a serious decline. It is therefore impossible to know, on present evidence, whether or not the two civilizations had any significant contact. Many elements of Hinduism that were not present in Vedic civilization (such as worship of the phallus and of goddesses, bathing in temple tanks, and the postures of yoga) may have been derived from the Indus civilization, however.

See Indus Valley Civilization. By about 1500 BC, the Indo-Aryans had settled in the Punjab, bringing with them their predominantly male Indo-European pantheon of gods and a simple warrior ethic that was vigorous and worldly, yet also profoundly religious. Gods of the Vedic pantheon survive in later Hinduism, but no longer as objects of worship: Indra, king of the gods and god of the storm and of fertility; Agni, god of fire; and Soma, god of the sacred, intoxicating Soma plant and the drink made from it.

By 900 BC the use of iron allowed the Indo-Aryans to move down into the lush Ganges Valley, where they developed a far more elaborate civilization and social system. By the 6th century BC, Buddhism had begun to make its mark on India and what was to be more than a millennium of fruitful interaction with Hinduism. B. Classical Hindu Civilization From about 200 BC to AD 500 India was invaded by many northern powers, of which the Shakas (Scythians) and Kushanas had the greatest impact.

This was a time of great flux, growth, syncretism, and definition for Hinduism and is the period in which the epics, the Dharmashastras, and the Dharmasutras took final form. Under the Gupta Empire (320-550?), when most of northern India was under a single power, classical Hinduism found its most consistent expression: the sacred laws were codified, the great temples began to be built, and myths and rituals were preserved in the Puranas.

C. Rise of Devotional Movements In the post-Gupta period, a less rigid and more eclectic form of Hinduism emerged, with rebirth for you sub indo dissident sects and vernacular movements. At this time, too, the great devotional movements arose. Many of the sects that emerged during the period from 800 to 1800 are still active in India today.

Most of the bhakti movements are said to have been founded by saints—the gurus by whom the tradition has been handed down in unbroken lineage, from guru to disciple ( chela). This lineage, in addition to a written canon, is the basis for the authority of the bhakti sect.

Other traditions are based on the teachings of such philosophers as Shankara and Ramanuja. Shankara was the exponent of pure monism, or nondualism (Advaita Vedanta), and of the doctrine that all that appears to be real is merely illusion. Ramanuja espoused the philosophy of qualified nondualism (Vishishta-Advaita), an attempt to reconcile belief in a godhead without attributes ( nirguna) with devotion to a god with attributes ( saguna), and to solve the paradox of loving a god with whom one is identical.

The philosophies of Shankara and Ramanuja were developed in the context of the six great classical philosophies ( darshanas) of India: the Karma Mimamsa (“action investigation”); the Vedanta (“end of the Vedas”), in which tradition the work of Shankara and Ramanuja should be placed; the Sankhya system, which describes the opposition between an inert male spiritual principle ( purusha) and an active female principle of matter or nature ( prakriti), subdivided into the three qualities ( gunas) of goodness ( sattva), passion ( rajas), and darkness ( tamas); the Yoga system; and the highly metaphysical systems of Vaisheshika (a kind of atomic realism) and Nyaya (logic, but of an extremely theistic nature).

D. Medieval Hinduism Parallel with these complex Sanskrit philosophical investigations, vernacular songs were composed, transmitted orally, and preserved locally throughout India. They were composed during the 7th, 8th, and 9th centuries in Tamil and Kannada by the Alvars, Nayanars, and Virashaivas and during the 15th century by the Rajasthani poet Mira Bai, in the Braj dialect. In the 16th century in Bengal, Chaitanya founded a sect of erotic mysticism, celebrating the union of Krishna and Radha in a Tantric theology heavily influenced by Tantric Buddhism.

Chaitanya believed that both Krishna and Radha were incarnate within him, and he believed that the village of Vrindaban, where Krishna grew up, had become manifest once again in Bengal.

The school of the Gosvamins, who were disciples of Chaitanya, developed an elegant theology of aesthetic participation in the ritual enactment of Krishna's life. These ritual dramas also developed around the village of Vrindaban itself during the 16th century, and they were celebrated by Hindi poets.

The first great Hindi mystic poet was Kabir, who was said to be the child of a Muslim and was strongly influenced by Islam, particularly by Sufism. His poems challenge the canonical dogmas of both Hinduism and Islam, praising Rama and promising salvation by the chanting of the holy name of Rama. He was followed by Tulsidas, who wrote a beloved Hindi version of the Ramayana.

A contemporary of Tulsidas was Surdas, whose poems on Krishna's life in Vrindaban formed the basis of the ras lilas, local dramatizations of myths of the childhood of Krishna, which still play an important part in the worship of Krishna in northern India. E. 19th and 20th Centuries In the 19th century, important reforms took place under the auspices of Ramakrishna, Vivekananda, and the sects of the Arya Samaj and the Brahmo Samaj. These movements attempted to reconcile traditional Hinduism with the social reforms and political ideals of the day.

So, too, the nationalist leaders Sri Aurobindo Ghose and Mohandas Gandhi attempted to draw from Hinduism those elements that would best serve their political and social aims. Gandhi, for example, used his own brand of ahimsa, transformed into passive resistance, to obtain reforms for the Untouchables and to remove the British from India.

Similarly, Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar revived the myth of the Brahmans who fell from their caste and the tradition that Buddhism and Hinduism were once one, in order to enable Untouchables to gain self-respect by “reconverting” to Buddhism. In more recent times, numerous self-proclaimed Indian religious teachers have migrated to Europe and the United States, where they have inspired large followings.

Some, such as the Hare Krishna sect founded by Bhaktivedanta, claim to base themselves on classical Hindu practices. In India, Hinduism thrives despite numerous reforms and shortcuts necessitated by the gradual modernization and urbanization of Indian life. The myths endure in the Hindi cinema, and the rituals survive not only in the temples but also in the rites of passage. Thus, Hinduism, which sustained India through centuries of foreign occupation and internal disruption, continues to serve a vital function by giving passionate meaning and supportive form to the lives of Hindus today.

For information on religious violence in India, See India. Special thanks to the Microsoft Corporation for their contribution to our site.

The information above came from Microsoft Encarta. Here is a hyperlink to the Microsoft Encarta home page. Introduction to Hinduism The Hindu Universe Hinduwebsite - Hinduism Reference Center Overall view of Hinduism Origin of Hinduism Hindu beliefs The caste system Gods and godesses in Hinduism Karma and Hinduism Aspects of Brahman Idol worshiping The Hindu way of life, beliefs and practices Hinduism and Daily Life Beliefs about the soul Reincarnation of the soul Hindu History: M ysticism and Hinduism Indexes & Directories Reference Desk Digital Library General Philosophy Anthropology Hare Krishna Philosophy Central Directory of Hindu Sites - The Directory of Hindu Resources Online Additional Sites rebirth for you sub indo Interest God in Hindu Dharma and Representation in Temples The Integral Yoga of Sri Aurobindo Essays in Spirituality in Life The Mother's Service Society Spirituality Home Page "It deals with matters connected with Science, Spirituality, Hinduism, Vedanta, Religion.This rebirth for you sub indo a revised and enlarged version of my monograph entitled SCIENCE AND SPIRITUALITY." By Professor V.

Krishnamurthy Suddha Dharma Mandalam "Yoga Brahma Vidya, Synthetic Science of the Absolute. Suddha Raja Yoga." Spiritual Journeys "Spiritual tours addressing all religions in India." SACRED TEXTS CONTRIBUTORS: Donnamarie Romano (2001) Proceed to the next section by clicking here> next © Copyright Philip A.

Pecorino 2001. All Rights reserved. Web Surfer's Caveat: These are class notes, intended to comment on readings and amplify class discussion. They should be read as such. They are not intended for publication or general distribution. Return to: Table of Contents for the Online Textbook Main navigation • Weather Weather sub-navigation • 5 Day Forecast • Long-Range Forecast • 2021-22 Winter Weather • Weather History • Webcam • Gardening Gardening sub-navigation • Planting Calendar • Frost Dates • Growing Guides • Pests & Diseases • Vegetable Gardening • Flower Gardening • Garden Planner • Garden Tips by Month • Gardening Advice • Moon & Sun Moon & Sun sub-navigation • Next Full Moon • Moon Phase Calendar • Sunrise & Set Times • Moonrise & Set Times • Visible Planets • Meteor Showers • Equinoxes & Solstices • Eclipse Dates • This Month's Night Sky • This Week's Amazing Sky • Calendar Calendar sub-navigation • Holidays & Events • Moon Phase Calendar • Planting Calendar • Best Days Calendar • Fishing Calendar • Food Food sub-navigation • Find A Recipe • Cooking and Pickling • Natural Remedies • Kids • Search • Long-Range Weather • Newsletter Sign Up • The Old Farmer's Store • Where to Buy Advertisement Easter is the most important feast day in the Christian church, celebrating the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

The feast day is “movable” and always falls on the first Sunday after the first full Moon after the spring equinox. Find out more about how Easter’s date is determined!

Easter Traditions When you think of Easter—whether you’re religious or not—which family traditions come to mind? We decorate homes with colored Easter eggs, put out baskets for the Easter bunny to fill, give Easter lilies as gifts, rebirth for you sub indo even eat traditional foods, from lamb to ham to special sweet breads. The history of Easter symbols is really quite interesting. It’s not as simple as saying whether they are pagan or Christian; history is a rich and beautiful tapestry woven through the ages.

Easter Eggs The oval-shape egg has been a universal symbol in many religions across the millennia, symbolizing new life, rebirth, and fertility. According to The Easter Book by Francis X. Weiser, S.J., “[t]he origin of the Easter egg is based on the fertility lore of the Indo-European races. To our pre-Christian ancestors, it was a most startling event to see a new and live creature emerge from a seemingly dead object.

The egg to them became a symbol of spring. Long ago in Persia, people used to present each other with eggs at the spring equinox, which for them also marked the beginning of a new year.” In Judaism, eggs are an important part of the Passover seder plate.

For some Christians, the egg symbolizes the rock tomb out of which Christ emerged to the new life of his Resurrection. Also, there was a practical reason that eggs became popular on Easter: They were forbidden during the 40 days of Lent. However, chickens still laid eggs, so they were often collected and decorated. In most countries, the eggs are stained in plain vegetable dye colors. Among Orthodox Christians, the faithful present each other with crimson eggs in honor of the blood of Christ.

In parts of Eastern Europe, it’s tradition to create intricate designs on the egg with wax or twine before coloring. Called pysanki, these special eggs are saved from year to year like symbolic heirlooms and can be seen seasonally in Ukrainian shops.

In Germany and other countries, the eggs are pierced and made hollow so that they can be suspended from shrubs and trees during Easter Week—much like decorations on a Christmas tree. → Learn how to dye your Easter eggs naturally! Of course, many countries have egg hunts and games, too.

Plastic eggs are often filled with candy treats, since it’s the end of Lent. Every year in Washington, D.C., there is an egg-rolling party on the lawn of the White House. This custom is traced back to Sunday School picnics and parades at Easter in the years before the Civil War.

At these picnics, the children amused themselves with a variety of games, and egg-rolling was one of them. The Easter Bunny Easter comes during spring and celebrates new life. What springtime animals better represent fertility than the rabbit or the hare, which produce so many offspring?

The rabbit symbolism had its origin in pre-Christian fertility lore, while the hare was the Egyptian symbol of fertility. The ancient Greeks thought that rabbits could reproduce as virgins, and in the early medieval times, the rabbit became associated with the Virgin Mary and commonly appeared in medieval art.

rebirth for you sub indo

However, the “Easter Bunny,” who visits children on Easter morning, was an invention of German Protestants; the Osterhase or “Easter Hare,” brought eggs and sweets to “good children,” in the same way that Santa Claus brought gifts to well-behaved youngsters. The Easter Hare played this Santa Claus–like role at the start of the Easter season, judging whether or not children had been obedient to their parents.

The symbolism is not particularly religious, but we can be reasonably certain that the Lutherans of long ago were not intending to teach their children about fertility. Like Santa Claus, the Easter Bunny is something fun to do with the kids. The Easter Bunny followed German immigrants to the American colonies in the 18th century, and the folklore spread across the United States.

Initially, children fashioned nests for their Easter Bunnies out of bonnets, hats, or boxes; eventually, these became the colorful Easter baskets that we use today! Easter Lamb Among the popular Easter symbols, the lamb is by far the most significant of this great feast. The lamb is said to symbolize Jesus, as it embodies purity and goodness, but also represents sacrifice. The lamb was a sacrifice made during the Jewish Passover, which is a holiday commemorating the passage of the “angel of death” over the homes of those who had smeared the blood of sacrificial lambs on their doorposts, thus sparing the firstborn sons.

Roasted lamb shanks are an important part of the Passover seder plate; roasted leg of lamb is popular for Easter in Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Greece. Jesus was crucified during Passover week and then made the ultimate sacrifice, his life.

He is referred to as the “Lamb of God” and “our Passover lamb” in the Bible. During Easter, we celebrate Jesus’ passover from death to life. The oldest prayer for the blessing of lambs can be found in the 7th-century sacramentary (ritual book) of the Benedictine monastery in Bobbio, Italy.

Two hundred years later, Rome adopted it, and thereafter the main feature of the Pope’s Easter dinner for many centuries was roast lamb. After the 10th century, in place of the whole lamb, smaller pieces of meat were used.

See our recipe for Easter Lamb here. Photo by stockcreations/Shutterstock The ancient tradition of the Paschal lamb also inspired the Christians use of lamb meat as a popular food at Eastertime; at the present time, it is consumed during the main meal on Easter Sunday in many parts of eastern Europe.

Sometimes, families will bake a lamb made of butter, pastry, or sugar to be a centerpiece; this is often a substitute for meat on Easter. Easter Ham Since we’re talking about the Easter lamb, let’s not forget the Rebirth for you sub indo ham. It, too, is an age-old custom, handed down from pre-Christian times, to eat the meat of this animal on festive occasions, feast days, and weddings.

The pig is an ancient symbol of good luck and prosperity. In some popular German expressions, the word “pig” is synonymous with “good luck” ( Schwein haben, i.e., “to have a pig”). In Hungary, the highest card (ace) in card games is called “pig” (disznó). Not too long ago, it was fashionable for men to wear little pig figurines as good luck charms on their watch chains. More recently, charm bracelets for teenagers contained dangling pigs. Savings boxes for children in the figure of a pig (piggy banks) continue the ancient symbolism of good luck and prosperity.

Smoked or cooked hams, as well as lamb, have been eaten by most European nations from ancient times and are a traditional Easter dish from coast to coast in this country. Roast pork is another traditional main dish in some countries. See our recipes for Nanna’s Baked Ham and Ham With Brown Sugar Glaze. Easter Breads Sweet breads are also a tradition, especially with the conclusion of Lent, a period when many people do not indulge in sweets. For Christians, the resurrected Christ is called, “the bread of life” (John 6:35), in whom believers will find their daily spiritual sustenance.

In Russia and Austria, the sweet breads are often marked with a cross or image of a lamb. In Germany, the Easter bread is baked in loaves of twisted or braided strands (Osterstollen).

Another kind of Austrian Easter bread is the Osterlaib (Easter loaf), a large, flat, round loaf marked with the cross or an image of the lamb. In Poland and other countries, folks enjoy a special cake called the Easter baba ( Baba Wielkanocna).

In Greece, the traditional Easter bread is baked with a red-dyed egg on top, covered with two strips of dough in the form of a cross. See our recipe for Greek Easter Bread (Lambropsomo). In Italy, the Easter bread is braided with eggs, symbolizing new life. See our recipe for Italian Easter Bread. Hot Cross Buns Hot cross buns, hot cross buns!

Traditionally, this delicious sweet bun was served on Good Friday, the Friday prior to Easter. Good Friday marks the end of Lent and is the day that Jesus died on the cross. The sweet bun is marked with a cross to help the bread rise and as a visible sign that the bread was “blessed.” See our recipe for Hot Cross Buns! Easter Lily The magnificent Easter lily, with its sheer white petals, symbolizes life, purity, innocence, joy, and peace.

The beautiful white flowers of the lily were connected with these traits well before Jesus Christ. Many ancient allegories connect the flower with motherhood. One fable tells us that the lily sprang from the milk of Hera, the mythological Queen of Heaven. This may explain why the lily is so closely associated with Mary in Roman Catholic tradition. In early paintings, the Angel Gabriel is seen handing a bouquet of white lilies to the Virgin Mary. In other paintings, the saints are bringing vessels full of lilies to Mary and the baby Jesus.

It is said that beautiful white lilies sprang up in the Garden of Gethsemane, where Jesus wept in the last hours before he was betrayed by Judas. The lilies sprang up where drops of Christ’s sweat fell to the ground in his final hours of sorrow. The lilies from Christ’s time were not the Easter lily that we know today (Lilium longiflorum), which is native to the southern islands of Japan and now cultivated in areas such as California and Oregon.

The lilies in Jesus’ area were wild lilies of the valleys and fields. Still, our Easter lily serves as a reminder of the lilies mentioned frequently throughout the Bible. Easter lilies grace homes and churches each spring as a symbol of new life. There are many other purely religious symbols that are related to the Lenten season: marking the forehead with ashes on Ash Wednesday, waving palms on Palm Sunday, and the symbolism of the crucifix (cross) on which Jesus died.

Did you learn anything new in this article? Please comment or contribute any information that we didn’t include. We wish you all a very Happy Easter! I have read a number of articles re Christian faith/holidays/traditions on the Almanac website and I have never been disappointed.

I can't say whether the information is "watered down" or "embellished" as some would infer because I am neither historian nor theologian. But the articles are enriching and I always learn something from them. Christianity is steeped in tradition - that's the human way - and I will continue to enjoy these beautiful, well-written articles.

And I sincerely pray they will reach unbelievers. God bless all of you at the Almanac. • Reply Very interesting article. I’m a believer in the resurrection of my Savior, The Lord Jesus Christ. If you do your math and understand that the Jews did not use our calendar of today; then you will see Jesus was not Crucified on Friday but on Wednesday according to our calendar of today. It’s interesting. Also, I’m not a fanatic. We still give our daughter an Easter Basket full of treats and gift cards.

Happy Easter to all. He is Risen!!! • Reply Interesting article. Unfortunately, I see some sanitization of history throughout, but I would like to center on the origin of the painted egg.

Pagan families would dye eggs leading up to the equinox, their children were tasked with marking the field borders. Christian children were instructed to 'hunt' for the eggs and bring them home, identifying the pagans to be exiled and/or executed. As someone with native, pagan, christian, and hebrew blood, I appreciate a non-sanitized account of European/American and rebirth for you sub indo history.

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Australia, India, Japan, and the United States are highlighted in blue.

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe intended for the Quadrilateral to establish an "Asian Arc of Democracy". Abbreviation Quad Established 2007 (1st time); lasted until 2008 2017 (re-established after negotiations in November) Type Inter-governmental security forum Members States in the Dialogue: • Australia • India • Japan • United States The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue ( QSD), colloquially the Quad (sometimes erroneously written QUAD despite not being an acronym), is a strategic security dialogue between Australia, India, Japan, and the United States that is maintained by talks between member countries.

The dialogue was initiated in 2007 by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, with the support of Australian Prime Minister John Howard, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, and U.S.

Vice President Dick Cheney. [1] The dialogue was paralleled by joint military exercises of an unprecedented scale, titled Exercise Malabar. The diplomatic and military arrangement was widely viewed as a response to increased Chinese economic and military power, and the Chinese government responded to the Quadrilateral dialogue by issuing formal diplomatic protests to its members, calling it "Asian NATO". [2] The Quad ceased following the withdrawal of Australia during Kevin Rudd’s tenure as prime minister, reflecting ambivalence in Australian policy over the growing tension between the United States and China in the Asia-Pacific.

Following Rudd's replacement by Julia Gillard in 2010, enhanced military cooperation between the United States and Australia was resumed, leading to the placement of U.S. Marines near Darwin, Australia, overlooking the Timor Sea and Lombok Strait.

Meanwhile, India, Japan, and the United States continued to hold joint naval exercises under Malabar. During the 2017 ASEAN Summits in Manila, all four former members led by Abe, Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, and US President Donald Trump agreed to revive the quadrilateral alliance in order to counter China militarily and diplomatically in the "Indo-Pacific" region, particularly in the South China Sea.

Tensions between Quad members and China have led to fears of what was dubbed by some commentators "a new Cold War" in the region. [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] In a joint statement in March 2021, "The Spirit of the Quad," the Quad members described "a shared vision for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific," and a "rules-based maritime order in the East and South China seas," which the Quad members state are needed to counter Chinese maritime claims. The Quad pledged to respond to COVID-19, [8] and held a first Quad Plus meeting that included representatives from South Korea, New Zealand, and Vietnam to work on its response to it.

[8] [9] [10] Contents • 1 Background • 1.1 Strategic framework of US-China competition • 1.2 India-US military relations • 1.3 Trilateral Security Dialogue (TSD) • 1.4 2004 tsunami cooperation • 1.5 The South China Sea • 2 Creation and cessation of the Quad (2007–2008) • 2.1 Creation • 2.2 China's opposition • 2.3 Australia's departure during Rudd • 3 Intermission (2009-2017) • 3.1 Continued naval exercises • 3.2 Australia's foreign policy under the Liberal-National governments • 3.3 The US "Pivot to Asia" • 3.4 Japan's reorientation to the Indo-Pacific • 3.5 China's foreign policy under Xi • 3.6 India's shift in position and "Look East" • 4 Restarting the Quad (2017-) • 4.1 2017 ASEAN Summit • 4.2 Follow-up meetings • 4.3 Rebirth for you sub indo Plus meeting on COVID-19 • 4.4 Comparisons to NATO • 4.5 Expanding scope • 4.5.1 QUAD Plus meetings • 4.6 Other Meetings • 4.7 European and Canadian pivot to the Indo-Pacific • 4.7.1 Canada • 4.7.2 European Union • 4.7.3 France • 4.7.4 Germany • 4.7.5 Italy • 4.7.6 Netherlands • 4.7.7 United Kingdom • 5 Concept of the Indo-Pacific • 6 Analysis • 7 See also • 8 Notes • 9 References Background [ edit ] Strategic framework of US-China competition [ edit ] In the early twenty-first century, the strategic preoccupation of the United States with Iraq and Afghanistan served as a distraction from major power shifts in the Asia-Pacific, rebirth for you sub indo about by increased Chinese economic power, which undermined America's traditional role in the region.

[11] In the long term the United States has sought a policy of "soft containment" of China by organizing strategic partnerships with democracies at its periphery. [11] While US alliances with Japan, Australia and India now form the bulwark of this policy, the development of closer US military ties to India has been a complex process since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Australian commentaries showed mixed attitudes to a Quadrilateral security arrangement isolating China. [11] India-US military relations [ edit ] Donald H.

Rumsfeld, U.S. Secretary of Defense and Pranab Mukherjee, Minister of Defence for India, at Pentagon, Washington, D.C., 2005. Active US-Indian military cooperation expanded in 1991 following the economic liberalization of India when American Lt.

General Claude C. Kicklighter, then commander of the United States Army Pacific, proposed army-to-army cooperation. [12] This cooperation further expanded in the mid-1990s under an early Indian centre-right coalition, and in 2001 India offered the United States military facilities within its territory for offensive operations in Afghanistan.

US Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and his Indian counterpart Pranab Mukherjee signed a "New Framework for India-US Defense" in 2005 under the Indian United Progressive Alliance government, increasing cooperation regarding military relations, defence industry and technology sharing, and the establishment of a "Framework on maritime security cooperation." [12] Rebirth for you sub indo and the United States conducted dozens of joint military exercises in the ensuing years before the development of the Quadrilateral dialogue, interpreted as an effort to "contain" China.

[12] Indian political commentator Brahma Chellaney referred to the emerging Quadrilateral Security Dialogue between the United States, Japan, Australia and India as part of a new " Great Game" in Asia, and Indian diplomat M. K. Rasgotra has maintained that Rebirth for you sub indo efforts to shape security pacts in Asia will result not in an " Asian Century," but rather in an "American Century in Asia." [13] Some, like US Lt.

General Jeffrey B. Kohler, viewed US-India defence agreements as potentially lucrative for American defence industries and oversaw the subsequent sale of American military systems to India.

[12] Nevertheless, some Indian commentators opposed increased American military cooperation with India, citing the American presence in Iraq, hostility to Iran and "attempts at encircling China" as fundamentally destabilizing to Asian peace, and objecting to the presence of American warships with nuclear capabilities off the coast of southern India, or to American calls for the permanent hosting of American naval vessels in Goa or Kochi.

[13] Trilateral Security Dialogue (TSD) [ edit ] The Trilateral Strategic Dialogue (TSD) was a series of trilateral meetings between the United States, Japan, and Rebirth for you sub indo. The TSD originally convened at senior officials level in 2002, then was upgraded to ministerial level in 2005. The United States expected regional rebirth for you sub indo to help facilitate evolving US global strategy to fight against terrorism and nuclear proliferation.

In return, Japan and Australia expected benefits including continued US strategic involvement and the maintenance of strategic guarantees in the region. [14] 2004 tsunami cooperation [ edit ] See also: Nine-dash line The nine-dash line refers to the ill-defined [17] demarcation line used by the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan), for their claims of the major part of the South China Sea.

[18] [19] The contested area in the South China Sea includes the Paracel Islands, [a] the Spratly Islands, [b] [20] and various other areas including Pratas Island and the Vereker Banks, the Macclesfield Bank and the Scarborough Shoal.

Despite having made the vague claim public in 1947, neither the PRC nor the ROC has (as of 2018 [update]) filed a formal and specifically defined claim to the area. [21] An early map showing a U-shaped eleven-dash line was published in the then- Republic of China on 1 December 1947.

[22] Two of the dashes in the Gulf of Tonkin were later removed at the behest of Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai, reducing the total to nine. Chinese scholars asserted at the time that the version of the map with nine dashes represented the maximum extent of historical claims to the South China Sea. [23] Subsequent editions added a tenth dash to the east of Taiwan island in 2013, extending it into the East China Sea.

[24] [25] [26] Creation and cessation of the Quad (2007–2008) [ edit ] Creation [ edit ] In early 2007, Prime Minister Abe proposed the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, or "Quadrilateral Initiative", under which India would join a formal multilateral dialogue with Japan, the United States and Australia.

[27] [28] The initiation of an American, Japanese, Australian and Indian defence arrangement, modelled on the concept of a Democratic Peace, was credited to Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. [29] The Quadrilateral was supposed to establish an "Asian Arc of Democracy," envisioned to ultimately include countries in Central Asia, Mongolia, the Korean Peninsula, and other countries in Southeast Asia: "virtually all the countries on China’s periphery, except for China itself." This led some critics, such as former U.S.

State Department official Morton Abramowitz, to call the project "an anti-Chinese move," [30] while others have called it a "democratic challenge" to the projected Chinese century, mounted by Asian powers in coordination with the United States.

While China has traditionally favoured the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Quadrilateral was viewed as an "Asian NATO;" Daniel Twining of the German Marshall Fund of the United States has written that the arrangement "could lead to military conflict," or could instead "lay an enduring foundation for peace" if China becomes a democratic leader in Rebirth for you sub indo. [31] China's opposition [ edit ] Naval vessels from Australia, India, Japan, Singapore, and the United States take part in Malabar Exercise in the Bay of Bengal in 2007.

China sent diplomatic protests to all four members of the Quadrilateral before any formal convention of its members. [32] In May 2007 in Manila, Australian Prime Minister John Howard participated with other members in the inaugural meeting of the Quadrilateral at Cheney's urging, one month after joint naval exercises near Tokyo by India, Japan and the United States.

In September 2007 further naval exercises were held in the Bay of Bengal, including Australia. [29] These were followed in October by a further security agreement between Japan and India, ratified during a visit by Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to Tokyo, to promote sea lane safety and rebirth for you sub indo collaboration; Japan had previously established such an agreement only with Australia. [29] Though the Quadrilateral initiative of the Bush Administration improved relationships with New Delhi, it gave the impression of "encircling" China.

[33] The security agreement between Japan and India furthermore made China conspicuous as absent on the list of Japan's strategic partners in Asia. [34] These moves appeared to "institutionally alienate" China, the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), and promote a "Washington-centric" ring of alliances in Asia.

[33] [34] The Japanese Prime Minister succeeding Abe, Taro Aso, downplayed the importance of China in the Japan-India pact signed following the creation of the Quadrilateral, stating, "There was mention of China – and we do not have any assumption of a third country as a target such as China." Indian Foreign Secretary Shiv Shankar Menon similarly argued that the defence agreement was long overdue because of Indian freight trade with Japan, and did not specifically target China.

[35] On the cusp of visits to China and meetings with Prime Minister Wen Jiabao and President Hu Jintao in January 2008, the Indian prime minister, Manmohan Singh, declared that "India is not part of any so-called contain China effort," after being asked about the Quadrilateral. [36] Australia's departure during Rudd [ edit ] In 2008 Kevin Rudd terminated the quadrilateral, signalling closer relations with China.

Fears over Chinese military spending and missile capacities had helped drive Australia towards a defence agreement with the United States, as outlined by the 2007 Canberra Defense Blueprint; Sandy Gordon of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute had recommended the sale of uranium to India on the basis of similar considerations, as it appeared that the United States was backing it as a "counter to a rising China." [37] Chinese anger over rebirth for you sub indo Quadrilateral however caused uneasiness within Australia even before the agreements were initiated.

[38] On becoming Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd visited China's foreign minister, Yang Jiechi, even before visiting Japan, and subsequently organized a meeting between Yang and the Australian foreign minister, Stephen Smith, in which Australia unilaterally announced it would "not be proposing" a second round of dialogue between the four partners. [39] [40] rebirth for you sub indo Within Australia, this decision was seen as motivated by the uncertainty of China-United States relations and by the fact that Australia's principal economic partner, China, was not its principal strategic partner.

[42] Rudd may furthermore have feared regional escalations in conflict and attempted to diffuse these via an "Asia-Pacific Union." [39] Some US strategic thinkers criticized Rudd's decision to leave Quadrilateral; the former Asia director of the United States National Security Council, Mike Green, said that Rudd had withdrawn in an effort to please China, which had exerted substantial diplomatic effort to achieve that aim.

[43] A December 2008 cable authored by US ambassador Robert McCallum and published by WikiLeaks reveals that Rudd did not consult the United States before leaving the Quadrilateral.

[44] Rebirth for you sub indo Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, a region claimed by China to be part of Tibet. US President Obama's efforts in November 2009 to improve US–Indian relations raised alarms in India and Australia both that a deepening military alliance between these powers could lead to regional escalations.

[45] According to analyst John Lee, "For realists . New Delhi has been warily balancing and competing against Rebirth for you sub indo from the very moment of India's creation in 1947;" significant tensions between China and India were associated with the disputed Indian province of Arunachal Pradesh, and with Chinese nuclear weapons stationed on the Tibetan Plateau. [45] Rudd's calculation may have been that as a regional economic power, China was too important to contain through a simplistic Quadrilateral Initiative undertaken by US, India, Japan and Australia in 2007, when many regional powers are hedging their alliances in the event of a Japanese and an American decline.

[45] Intermission (2009-2017) [ edit ] Continued naval exercises [ edit ] In the years between the cessation and restart of the Quad, Quad members continued to cooperate on a bilateral or trilateral level, sometimes with non-Quad members involved. [46] This was especially the case in joint military exercises: Japan joined for the first time the Australian Kakadu and Nichi Trou Trident naval exercises in respectively 2008 and 2009, Japan and India held for the first time a joint naval exercise in 2012 and Australia and India did the same in 2015, Australia joined the US-Philippines Balikatan exercise for the first time in 2014 and Japan did the same in 2017, Japan joined for the first time the Indian Malabar exercise in 2015, and Japan joined for the first time the Australian-US joint Defence Exercise Talisman Saber in 2015.

[46] Australia's foreign policy under the Liberal-National governments [ edit ] Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard with US Ambassador Jeff Bleich in June 2010. Rudd's replacement as Australian prime minister by Julia Gillard in June 2010 was associated with a shift in Australian foreign policy towards a closer relationship to the United States and a distancing from China.

[47] The Australian, which has written extensively on the Quadrilateral and on Australian defence issues, argued after Rudd's replacement that "Australia's national interest is best served by continuing to engage and encourage our long-standing ally, the US, to retain its primacy in the region." [47] Despite Gillard's rapprochement with the US and increased US-Australian military cooperation, Rudd's decision to leave the Quadrilateral remained an object of criticism from Tony Abbott and the Liberal Party.

[48] Australia's decision not to sell uranium to India had weakened the Quad, [49] a move also criticized by the Liberal Party; the Party has however backed Gillard's support for a US military presence near Darwin, overlooking the Timor Sea and the Lombok Strait.

[50] With support from the United States, Gillard and the Labor party have since reversed policy and backed the sale of uranium to India, which has refused to sign the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty.

[51] On 5 September 2014, Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott agreed to sell Uranium to India. The US "Pivot to Asia" [ edit ] Main article: East Asian foreign policy of the Barack Obama administration The Obama administration's 2011 US "Pivot to Asia" represented a significant shift of resources and priorities in the foreign policy of the United States away from the Middle Eastern/European sphere and the US began to invest heavily in East Asian countries, some of which are in close proximity to the People's Republic of China.

[52] The pivot also included taking the lead in the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement, and rejecting the Chinese claims on the islands in the South China Sea. [53] The US policy shift towards East-China was generally seen as a move to oppose the growing influence of China in the region. [53] In July 2013, when Obama named Susan Rice the US National Security Advisor, Rice sought a cooperative relationship with China.

[54] [55] Japan's reorientation to the Indo-Pacific [ edit ] Main article: Free and Open Indo-Pacific Japan opened a naval base in Djibouti in 2011, its first long term naval base overseas, and part of its growing involvement in the wider Indo-Pacific region. [46] In December 2012, Shinzo Abe had prepared a proposal on strategic framework " Asia’s Democratic Security Diamond [ ja]", [56] a sort of Quad remake, to be published from an international media organization before his second administration in Japan, and it was published on the next day of his prime minister designate.

[57] The Japanese government had worked to clarify the concepts in Prime Minister Abe's proposal of 2012, implemented in diplomatic statements, and prepared the official announcement of " Free and Open Indo-Pacific" in 2016. China's foreign policy under Xi [ edit ] Territorial claims in the South China Sea In 2012, Xi Jinping became the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, succeeding the leader of China. Since then, tensions between China and rebirth for you sub indo of the four Quad countries have increased.

[53] Xi has taken a hard-line on security issues as well as foreign affairs, projecting a more nationalistic and assertive China on the world stage than was the case with China's peaceful rise policy advanced by Xi's predecessor Hu Jintao.

[58] Xi's political program calls for a China more united and confident of its own value system and political structure. [59] Under Xi's leadership, the PRC has resorted to island building in the Rebirth for you sub indo Islands and the Paracel Islands region. [60] According to Reuters, island building in the South China Sea primarily by Vietnam and the Philippines has been going on for decades; while China has come late to the island building game, its efforts have been on an unprecedented scale as it had from 2014 to 2016 constructed more new island surface than all other nations have constructed throughout history and as of 2016 placed military equipment on one of its artificial islands unlike the other claimants.

[61] A 2019 article in Voice of America that compared China and Vietnam's island building campaign in the South China Sea similarly noted that the reason why Vietnam in contradistinction to China has been subject to little international criticism and even support was because of the slower speed and widely perceived defensive nature of its island-building project.

[62] In a 2020 opinion column, former Indian general S. K. Chatterji described China's foreign policy as " salami slicing.". [63] Between 2015 and mid-2017, the US has conducted five freedom of navigation naval operations (FONOP) in the region. [64] In July 2016, an arbitration tribunal constituted under Annex VII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) ruled against the PRC's maritime claims in Philippines v. China. [65] The tribunal did not rule on the ownership of rebirth for you sub indo islands or delimit maritime boundaries.

[66] [67] Both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan) stated that they did not recognize the tribunal and insisted that the matter should be resolved through bilateral negotiations with other claimants.

[68] India's shift in position and "Look East" [ edit ] Main articles: China–India relations § 2010s, and Look East policy (India) In the years following the cessation of the Quad, India was not keen to reinstate the grouping, out of fear it would antagonize China. [69] After several years of growing tensions with China on a range of topics, and particularly after the 2017 border standoff, India started to express renewed interest. [69] [70] Restarting the Quad (2017-) [ edit ] 2017 ASEAN Summit [ edit ] In August 2017, Japan invited Australia, India and the US to hold a joint foreign ministers meeting during the ASEAN summit in November.

[71] In November, American president-elect Donald Trump and Prime Minister Abe met and agreed to pursue what Japan calls a "Free and Open Indo-Pacific" strategy, originally a concept developed by US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.

[72] The agreement was regarded as a response to China's Belt and Road Initiative, and Chinese minister Geng Shuang responded by stating that "such multilateral initiatives should rebirth for you sub indo cooperation among countries concerned and not be turned into exclusionary frameworks." [72] The visit coincided with a meeting by Japanese, Indian, Australian and American officials to continue military cooperation ahead of the ASEAN and East Asia Summits in November 2017.

[73] The meeting included discussion of China's increased prominence in the South China Sea, and may have signalled U.S. president Trump's interest in reviving a formal Quadrilateral. [74] [75] Naval vessels from the United States, Australia, Japan and India take part in the Malabar Exercise in 2020. Follow-up meetings [ edit ] The Quadrilateral met five times in 2017–2019.

[76] During the Raisina Dialogue in New Delhi in 2018, the navy chiefs of Japan, US, Australia and India came together, one of the first indications of the revival of the Quad's security structure. [77] In 2019, four ministers met in New York City to discuss reforming the Quad, [82] and then again in Bangkok.

[83] The next summer, India, Japan and US invited Australia to the co-ordinated navy exercise at Malabar; the exercises were delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. [84] Quad Plus meeting on COVID-19 [ edit ] In March 2020, the Quad members held a meeting with representatives from New Zealand, South Korea and Vietnam to discuss their respective approaches to the COVID-19 pandemic.

[9] Instigated by the US, this new grouping of key Indo-Pacific states was called " Quad Plus". The September 2021 Quad summit focused on efforts to increase availability of COVID-19 vaccines.

A fact sheet on the Quad Leaders' Summit [85] released by the White House addresses COVID-19 and global health issues. Comparisons to NATO [ edit ] Following the 2020 Malabar naval exercises, American secretary of state and former CIA director Mike Pompeo met with members of the quad to discuss converting the security arrangement into an "Asian NATO" with "shared security and geopolitical goals." [89] One commentator at the South China Morning Post described the concept as "a bulwark against the rise of China," and a Chinese diplomat protested the concept as an attempt to "wind back the clock of history:" [95] The foreign secretary of Sri Lanka rebirth for you sub indo concerns in October 2020 about the militarization of the Quad in the Indian Rebirth for you sub indo.

[96] At the same time, Japan, the US and Canada held a joint naval exercise called Keen Sword in October, one of several Canadian naval exercises in the Taiwan straits that year, and accompanied by diplomatic meetings in Tokyo.

[102] though no joint statement was produced from the meeting. [103] With a meeting by Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison to Tokyo, Australia and Japan agreed in principle to defence pact that will increase military ties. [104] [105] In 2021, Li Jimming, the Chinese ambassador to Bangladesh, warned Bangladesh not to join the Quad saying any attempt to do so would seriously damage relations with China.

The ambassador described the Quad as “a military alliance aimed against China’s resurgence.” Within Bangladesh these comments attracted criticism both from the government and otherwise for infringing on Bangladesh's sovereignty.

Following the controversy Li Jimming walked back his statement saying that he was only expressing his personal view on the issue. However the Chinese Foreign Ministry appeared to defend the ambassador with Hua Chunying stating that “We all know what kind of mechanism the Quad is. China opposes certain countries’ efforts to form an exclusive clique, portray China as a challenge, and sow discord between regional countries and China.” [106] Expanding scope [ edit ] On 3 March 2021, The White House, now under president Biden, issued the "Interim National Security Strategic Guidance", [107] and two days later, Australian Prime Minister Morrison told that the leaders of the Quad will hold their rebirth for you sub indo meeting virtually.

Morrison said he had discussed arrangements with US President Joe Biden and Vice President Kamala Harris in recent weeks. [108] And in the next week, on 12 March, the first summit meeting was held virtually by the leadership of US President Biden. [112] Commitment of the Quad will be implemented by the launch of a senior-level Quad Vaccine Experts Group, The Quad Climate Working Group and The Quad Critical and Emerging Technology Working Group.

[113] It had been reported before the summit meeting that the four countries are working to develop a plan to distribute COVID-19 vaccines to countries in Asia as part of a broader strategy to counter China's influence, [114] and that India had urged the other three countries to invest in its vaccine production capacity. [115] The next summit meeting will be held in person by the rebirth for you sub indo of 2021.

[8] In March 2021, the Quad pledged to respond to the economic and health impacts of COVID-19. [8] QUAD Plus meetings [ edit ] In the same month, the QUAD held its first Quad Plus meeting that included representatives from New Zealand, South Korea, and Vietnam to work on its response to the COVID-19 pandemic and reopening of economies.

[8] [9] [10] The participation of representatives from New Zealand, South Korea and Vietnam, the latter is the first country from Southeast Asia/ ASEAN to join, have also been seen as another attempt to expand the importance of the QUAD as well as the growing threat China posed in the region.

[116] In May 2021, Brazil and Israel, two countries with no border to the Pacific Ocean, were also invited into the Plus format. [116] Other Meetings [ edit ] From left to right: Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, U.S. President Joe Biden and Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison held the first in-person Quad meeting in Washington, D.C., 2021 On 15 March, US Secretary of State Antony Blinken and Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin arrived at the Yokota Air Base in Tokyo.

[117] They had contributed to a Washington Post article before their flight. [118] On 16 March, the two US officials participated in a Security Consultative Committee (SCC), the so-called "two-plus-two", with Japanese Foreign Minister Toshimitsu Motegi and Defense Minister Nobuo Kishi. Also, the two US officials have met and talked with Prime Minister Suga.

[119] [120] [121] On 19 March, US Defense Secretary Austin arrived at India, and met with Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi [122] and Indian National Security Adviser Ajit Doval. On the next rebirth for you sub indo, he discussed with Indian Defence Minister Rajnath Singh.

[123] [124] On 13 April, the foreign and defence ministers of Japan and Germany held the first "two-plus-two" dialogue between the two nations, with each expected to affirm security cooperation in an apparent counter to China's increasing assertiveness in its regional waters.

[125] On 16 April, in Washington, D.C., US President Biden and Japanese Prime Minister Suga met and showcased the alliance between their two countries as well as their shared resolve rebirth for you sub indo dealing with China. The US and Japanese governments have been working to strengthen technology supply chains independent of China during a shortage of semiconductors that's worrying businesses around the world.

Both countries are expected in coming days to make deeper commitments to cutting climate-wrecking fossil fuel emissions, in line with Biden's climate summit with 40 world leaders next week. [126] [127] Suga plans to visit India and the Philippines.

[128] With India and the US, he is also seeking to further solidify the Quad framework. Japan and India will hold a "two-plus-two" foreign and defence ministerial meeting in Tokyo in late April, government sources said. [129] President Joe Biden of the United States hosted the first Quad Leaders Summit on September 24, 2021 at the White House with Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India, Prime Minister Scott Morrison of Australia and Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga of Japan participating in the summit.

[130] The Quad leaders pledged to work towards peace and prosperity in the Indo-Pacific region. [131] European and Canadian pivot to the Indo-Pacific [ edit ] At the Shangri-La Dialogue in Singapore in June 2018, French and British defence ministers announced they would sail warships through the South China Sea to challenge China's military expansion.

[132] In a similar move, on 16 September 2020, France, the UK and Germany together submitted a note verbale to the United Nations, which reaffirmed that the integrity of UNCLOS needs to be maintained, stating that China's territorial claims in the South China Sea do not comply with it.

[133] On 20 Rebirth for you sub indo 2021, Joe Biden became the president of the United States, and two days later, US and Japanese top security officials discussed security issues. [134] Three days after that, the Japanese Foreign Minister, Toshimitsu Motegi, attended the EU Foreign Affairs Council to promote cooperation between Japan and the EU in the Indo-Pacific. [135] [136] On 18 February, during the third ministerial meeting, [137] [138] [139] [140] the United States, Australia, Japan and India agreed to strongly oppose any use of force by China, [141] and vowed to work with ASEAN and Europe to meet their aims.

[142] [143] Canada [ edit ] While Canada hasn't published an Indo-Pacific strategy yet, it started increasing its naval presence in the region in 2020. In June 2020, Canadian frigate HMCS Regina and auxiliary vessel MV Asterix sailed through the Taiwan Strait. [144] In January 2021, HMCS Winnipeg did the same and later joined the navies of the Quad members in the naval exercise Sea Dragon, according to a Canadian official "to demonstrate the strength and durability of our alliances in the Indo-Pacific region".

[145] [146] In late March, the Canadian frigate HMCS Calgary passed near the Spratly Islands, which China claims. [147] European Union [ edit ] The first Quad summit, held in March 2021, explored a partnership with Europe. France, Germany, and the Netherlands have announced their Indo-Pacific visions, and the EU is in the midst of formulating its own.

[148] France [ edit ] According to Brendan Berne, the then-Australian ambassador to France, French president Macron said, when they met in late 2017 that "he was aware of the threat situation in the Indo-Pacific and that Australia would not be alone".

[149] Six months later, in June 2018, the same month as the 2018 Shangri-La Dialogue, France, with 1.6 million of its citizens living and over 90% of its exclusive economic zone located in the Indo-Pacific region, was the first EU member to publish an Indo-Pacific strategy, following increased Chinese assertiveness in the region, and updated it in May 2019. [150] It was also the first EU member to use the geopolitical concept of the Indo-Pacific. Partnerships with all four members of the Quad as well as with ASEAN are a key component of France's Indo-Pacific strategy.

[151] As part of this strategic shift, French frigate Vendémiaire sailed through the Taiwan Strait in 2018, which may be the first-ever such passage for the modern French Navy, and was seen as a freedom of navigation patrol, countering China's claim over the Strait. [152] [153] On 9 September 2020, France, India and Australia held their first India-France-Australia Trilateral Dialogue, with their foreign secretaries meeting through videoconference.

[154] In December 2020, France also revealed it will join for the first time the joint military drills with Japan and the US in May 2021. [155] On 10 February 2021, the French submarine Emeraude patrolled through the South China Sea, proving its capacity to deploy over long distances and work together with the navies of Australia, the US, and Japan.

[156] On 24 February 2021, a second India-France-Australia Trilateral Dialogue meeting was held, to evaluate progress on the actions defined in the first trilateral meeting in September. [157] On 30 March 2021, French Navy’s amphibious assault helicopter carrier Tonnerre and escort frigate Surcouf arrived at the Kochi port in Kerala, India, ahead of a joint naval exercise with the four Quad member countries.

[158] The French naval drill exercise is called La Perouse and is scheduled to take place from 5 to 7 April 2021. South China Morning Post reported this as the first instance of naval exercises to involve all four Quad members.

[159] Late April, India and France are holding their separate annual Varuna naval exercise. [160] The two French warships are on a five-month-long deployment in the Indo-Pacific. On 13 April 2021, a third India-France-Australia Trilateral Dialogue meeting is planned, which will take place in New Delhi. [161] Germany [ edit ] On 1 September 2020, the German government followed, releasing a policy document in which the country for the first time officially endorsed the concept of the Indo-Pacific, and among others includes actively building partnerships in the region, including on security matters, calling on the EU to do the same.

[162] In December 2020, in an online meeting between Japan's and Germany's defence ministers, Japan expressed hopes for Germany to send a warship to the Indo-Pacific region, and join drills with Japan Self-Defense Forces, [163] In March 2021, Germany confirmed that it will send in August a frigate to the South China Sea, [164] making it the first German warship since 2002 to traverse this region.

[165] In mid-April 2021, the foreign and defence ministers of Japan and Germany are meeting via videoconference to discuss Indo-Pacific security topics. [166] Italy [ edit ] Mirroring the India-France-Australia Trilateral, an India-Italy-Japan Trilateral was formed in June 2021, with the aim to create a rules-based international order in the Indo-Pacific region.

[167] Netherlands [ edit ] In November 2020, the Netherlands published its Indo-Pacific strategy, making it the third EU member to do so, following similar moves by France and Germany. [168] The policy document calls on the EU to build partnerships in the region and to reject Chinese territorial claims more strongly. As part of this policy shift, the Netherlands will send the frigate HNLMS Evertsen to the Indo-Pacific as part of the British aircraft carrier group later this year.

[169] In April 2021, Dutch prime minister Rutte and Indian prime minister Modi held a videoconference meeting to discuss cooperation in the Indo-Pacific region. [170] United Kingdom [ edit ] In 2016 the UK moved a satellite in its Skynet military communications system eastward to extend coverage to east Asia and the western Pacific Ocean, and opened a new Australian ground station.

At the opening ceremony The British High Commissioner referred to the territorial disputes in the South China Sea. [171] Rebirth for you sub indo December 2020, the UK announced it would dispatch an aircraft carrier strike group to waters near Japan as soon as early 2021, planning to conduct joint exercises with US military and Japan Self-Defense Forces in May. [172] [173] [174] The strike group will consist of: the carrier HMS Rebirth for you sub indo Elizabeth (R08) with an embarked air group (consisting of 24 F-35 aircraft from No.

617 Squadron RAF and Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 211, along with 9 Merlin helicopters and a number of Wildcat helicopters); two Type 45 destroyers; two Type 23 frigates; two Royal Fleet Auxiliary logistics vessels; an Astute-class submarine; the American destroyer USS The Sullivans, and the Dutch frigate HNLMS Evertsen.

[175] [176] [177] [178] Once it has set sail, the strike group will also be joined by "at least a frigate" of the Royal Australian Navy, [177] HMNZS Te Kaha and HMNZS Aotearoa from the Royal New Zealand Navy, [179] and a number of vessels from the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, [180] before it is reported that it will enter the South China Sea.

[181] In March 2021, the UK published a policy document titled the " Integrated Review" which confirmed the UK's foreign policy shift towards the Indo-Pacific and included a nine-step plan detailing what this shift entails.

[182] The document acknowledged that trade between the UK and China was mutually beneficial, yet it also named China as "the biggest state-based threat to the U.K.’s economic security" and called on middle powers to work together in this new geopolitical context. [182] Concept of the Indo-Pacific [ edit ] Main article: Indo-Pacific The four Quad members have played a major rebirth for you sub indo in purposefully redefining the "Asia-Pacific" as the " Indo-Pacific", to deepen trans-regional ties between the Indian and Pacific Ocean areas, and to, in their words, deal more effectively with the rise of China, the Middle East and Africa.

[9] The term "Indo-Pacific" gained traction in the political lexicon and strategic thinking of not only the Quad members, but as of recently also of ASEAN, [183] the European Union, the United Kingdom, France, [150] Germany, [162] and the Netherlands, [168] used mainly with regards to China. [182] Analysis [ edit ] According to the American think tank Center for a New American Security, CNAS, the United States pursued a Quadrilateral Security Dialogue in an effort to adapt to an increasingly economically powerful China in the Asia-Pacific, where great power rivalry, massive military investment, social inequality, and contemporary territorial disputes have all made war in Asia "plausible." [11] According to the CNAS, establishing a series of alliances among nations recognized as democratic by the United States furthers its own interests: "It is precisely because of the rise of Chinese power and the longer term trend towards multipolarity in the international system that values can and should serve as a rebirth for you sub indo of American statecraft today." [11] Prominent U.S.

politicians from both Democratic and Republican parties have advocated a more aggressive diplomacy in Asia. During the 2008 US presidential campaign, President Obama called for a new worldwide concert of democracies to counter the influence of Russia and China in the UN Security Council; key officials of Obama's administration were involved in the Princeton Project, whose final report called for the construction of a new ‘concert of democracies.’ [184] Secretary of State Hillary Clinton’s Policy Planning Director at the State Department, Anne-Marie Slaughter, authored the Princeton Project’s final report, which "called for reconstituting the quadrilateral military partnership among the United States, Japan, Australia and India." John McCain also called for a "league of democracies," and Rudy Giuliani for incorporating Asia's militarily capable democracies into NATO.

[184] The development of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue took place in the context of Chinese military modernization, geared towards contingency in Taiwan Strait but also towards "force projection capabilities." Some US officials view Chinese assertiveness in South China Sea as demonstrated by the naval confrontation between the USNS Impeccable and Chinese naval vessels near Hainan Island.

[184] See also [ edit ] • Andaman and Nicobar Command • Anti-Chinese sentiment • Chinese espionage in the United States • Chinese salami slicing strategy • East Asia island arcs (China containment policy) • Pax Americana • Post–Cold War era • List of military alliances • Sea lines of communication • String of Pearls • Territorial disputes in the South China Sea • United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission • Vaccine diplomacy • Wolf warrior diplomacy International groupings • ANZUS • AUKUS • Blue Dot Network • D-10 Strategy Forum • Eight-Nation Alliance • Five Eyes • Five Power Defence Arrangements • Group of Seven (G7) • The Clean Network International relations • Australia–India relations • Australia–Japan relations • Australia–United States relations • India–Japan relations • India–United States relations • Japan–United States relations • Rebirth for you sub indo Strategic and Economic Dialogue Military exercises • Balikatan (Philippines–U.S.) • Malabar (India–U.S.) • Talisman Saber (Australia–U.S.) • Varuna (France–India) Notes [ edit ] • ^ The Paracel Islands are administered by China (PRC), but are also claimed by Taiwan (ROC) and Vietnam.

• ^ The Spratly Islands are disputed by Brunei, China (PRC), Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan (ROC), and Vietnam, who each claim either part or all the islands, which are believed (hoped) rebirth for you sub indo sit on vast mineral resources, including oil and gas. References [ edit ] • ^ "Australia has been in a stalemate with China, but that could be about to change". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 10 March 2021. Retrieved 29 March 2021. • ^ "Quad Summit 2021: Why is China Rattled?".

The Financial Express. 14 March 2021. Retrieved 7 September 2021. • ^ Jamali, Naveed; O'Connor, Tom (22 October 2020). "US, China's Geopolitical Battle for Asia Shapes New Power Dynamic for Region". Newsweek. Retrieved 13 April 2021. • ^ Heydarian, Richard (13 March 2021). "Quad summit next step towards an Asian NATO". Asia Times. Retrieved 13 April 2021. • ^ Kobara, Junnosuke; Moriyasu, Ken (27 March 2021).

"Japan will turn to Quad in 'new Cold War': Defense Ministry think tank". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 13 April 2021. • ^ Rasheed, Zaheena (25 November 2020). "What is the Quad and can it counter China's rise?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 13 April 2021.

• ^ Power, John (24 February 2021). "What is the Quad, and how will it impact US-China relations under the Biden administration?". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 13 April 2021. • ^ a b c d e f "Quad Leaders' Joint Statement: "The Spirit of the Quad" ".

White House. 12 March 2021. Retrieved 12 March 2021. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. • ^ a b c d "Canada and the Indo-Pacific" (PDF).

Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada. September 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2021. • ^ a b "Towards a Quad-Plus Arrangement?". Perth USAsia Centre. Retrieved 5 May 2020. • ^ a b c d e Campbell, K. M., Patel, N. and V. J. Singh, 2008. "The Power of Balance: America in iAsia". Archived 14 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine Center for a New American Security’’.

• ^ a b c d Kumaraswami, Sridhar, "India, US Defence cooperation 'set to escalate.'" The Asian Age, 9 September 2007. Reprinted by the BBC monitoring South Asia. • ^ a b Varadarajan, Siddharth, "US seeks India’s help to create 'century of America in Asia'", The Hindu, 5 July 2007.

• ^ Tow, William (2008). "Assessing the Trilateral Strategic Dialogue". NBR Special Report. 16. • ^ Tanvi Madan (16 November 2017). "The Rise, Fall, and Rebirth of the 'Quad' ". War on the Rocks. Retrieved 22 February 2021. • ^ "Australia has been in a stalemate with China, but that could be about to change".

Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 10 March 2021. Retrieved 29 March 2021. • ^ Raul (Pete) Pedrozo (19 August 2014). "China versus Vietnam: An Analysis of the Competing Claims in the South China Sea". Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017. • ^ Martin Riegl; Jakub Landovský; Irina Valko, eds. (26 November 2014).

Strategic Regions in 21st Century Power Politics. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 66–68. ISBN 9781443871341. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015.

Retrieved 19 July 2015. • ^ Michaela del Callar (26 July 2013). "China's new '10-dash line map' eats into Philippine territory". GMA News. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2015. • ^ Jamandre, Tessa (14 April 2011).

"PH protests China's '9-dash line' Spratlys claim". Malaya. Archived from the original on 19 April 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2011. • ^ Cheney-Peters, Scott (14 December 2014). "China's Nine-Dashed Line faces renewed assault". Archived from the rebirth for you sub indo on 11 July 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2014. • ^ Wu 2013, p. 79(at History of the U-shaped line) sfn error: no target: CITEREFWu2013 ( help) • ^ Brown, Peter J.

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W., Denmark, A. M., Ford, L., Green, M. J., Ikenberry, G. J., Kaplan, R. D., Patel, N., Twining, D., and R. Weitz, 2009. "China’s Arrival: A Strategic Framework for a Global Relationship". Eds. Abraham Denmark and Nirav Patel, Center for a New American Security. • Embassy of Australia, Washington, D.C. • Ambassadors of Australia to the United States • Embassy of the United States, Canberra • Ambassadors of the United States to Australia • Consuls-General of Australia, New York • Australian Consulate-General, Houston • Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs Diplomacy • ANZUS • AUKUS • Exercise Talisman Saber • Five Eyes • Rebirth for you sub indo Agreement • International Maritime Security Construct • Joint Defense Facility Nurrungar • Major non-NATO ally • Marine Rotational Force – Darwin • Operation Blowdown • Pine Gap • Quadrilateral Security Dialogue • Southeast Asia Treaty Organization • War Plan Red Related • Embassy of India, Washington, D.C.

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A Joint USI - ICWA Publication Part I - India and UN Peace Operations : Principles of UN Peacekeeping and Mandate Read more Part II - UN Peace Operations: Hostage Taking of Peacekeepers Read more Part III - UN Peace Operations Effectiveness of UN Peace Operations: Dynamics of Composition of Troops and Diversity on UN Peace Operations Read more Part-IV - UN Peace Operations :Protection of Civilians Read more Edited by A K Bardalai and Pradeep Goswami OBITUARY “Death is certain for one who has been born, and rebirth is inevitable for one who has died.

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General • Divine illumination • Pantheism • Panentheism Antiquity • Gnosticism • Hermeticism • Rebirth for you sub indo • Western esotericism Medieval • Mysticism Early modern • Perennial philosophy • Jakob Böhme • Emanuel Swedenborg • Pietism Modern • Romanticism • Transcendentalism • Universalism • New Thought • Theosophy • Anthroposophy • Occultism • Spiritualism • Esoteric Christianity • New Age • v • t • e Karma ( / ˈ k ɑːr m ə/; Sanskrit: कर्म, IPA: [ˈkɐɾmɐ] ( listen); Pali: kamma) means action, work, or deed.

[1] For the believers in spirituality the term also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect, often descriptively called the principle rebirth for you sub indo karma, wherein intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect): [2] Good intent and good deeds contribute to good karma and happier rebirths, while bad intent and bad deeds contribute to bad karma and bad rebirths. [3] [4] For the believers, the concept of karma is closely associated with the idea of rebirth in many schools of Indian religions (particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism), [5] as well as Taoism.

[6] In these schools, karma in the present affects one's future in the current life, as well as the nature and quality rebirth for you sub indo future lives—one's saṃsāra. [7] [8] This concept has also been adopted in Western popular culture, in which the events which happen after a person's actions may be considered natural consequences.

Contents • 1 Definition • 1.1 Principle of karma • 1.1.1 Causality • 1.1.2 Ethicization • 1.1.3 Rebirth • 2 Early development • 3 In Hinduism • 4 In Buddhism • 5 In Jainism • 5.1 Eight Karmas • 6 Reception in other traditions • 6.1 Sikhism • 6.2 Falun Gong • 6.3 Taoism • 6.4 Shinto • 7 Discussion • 7.1 Free will and destiny • 7.2 Psychological indeterminacy • 7.3 Transferability • 7.4 The problem of evil • 8 Comparable concepts • 8.1 Christianity • 8.2 Judaism • 8.3 Psychoanalysis • 8.4 Theosophy, Spiritism, New Age • 9 See also • 10 Notes • 11 References • 11.1 Citations • 11.2 Sources • 12 External links Definition The term karma ( Sanskrit: कर्म; Pali: kamma) refers to both the executed 'deed, work, action, act' and the 'object, intent'.

[3] Wilhelm Halbfass (2000) explains karma ( karman) by contrasting it with the Sanskrit word kriya: [3] whereas kriya is the activity along with the steps and effort in action, karma is (1) the executed action as a consequence of that activity, as well as (2) the intention of the actor behind an executed action or a planned action (described by some scholars [9] as metaphysical residue left in the actor).

A good action creates good karma, as does good intent. A bad action creates bad karma, as does bad intent. rebirth for you sub indo Difficulty in arriving at a definition of karma arises because of the diversity of views among the schools of Hinduism; some, for example, consider karma and rebirth linked and simultaneously essential, some consider karma but not rebirth to be essential, and a few discuss and conclude karma and rebirth to be flawed fiction.

[10] Buddhism and Jainism have their own karma precepts. Thus, karma has not one, but multiple definitions and different meanings. [11] It is a concept whose meaning, importance, and scope varies between the various traditions that originated in India, and various schools in each of these traditions.

Wendy O'Flaherty claims that, furthermore, there is an ongoing debate regarding whether karma is a theory, a model, a paradigm, a metaphor, or a metaphysical stance.

[12] Principle of karma Karma also refers to a conceptual principle that originated in India, often descriptively called the principle of karma, and sometimes the karma theory or the law of karma. [13] In the context of theory, karma is complex and difficult to define. [12] Different schools of Indology derive different definitions for the concept from ancient Indian texts; their definition is some combination of (1) causality that may be ethical or non-ethical; (2) ethicization, i.e., good or bad actions have consequences; and (3) rebirth.

[12] [14] Other Indologists include in the definition that which explains the present circumstances of an individual with reference to his or her actions in past. These actions may be those in a person's current life, or, in some schools of Indian traditions, possibly actions in their past lives; furthermore, the consequences may result in current life, or a person's future lives.

[12] [15] The law of karma operates independent of any deity or any process of divine judgment. [16] Causality Karma as action and reaction: if we show goodness, we will reap goodness.

A common theme to theories of karma is its principle of causality. [13] This relationship between karma and causality is a central motif in all schools of Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain thought. [17] One of the earliest association of karma to causality occurs in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad of Hinduism.

For example, at 4.4.5–6, it states: Now as a man is like this or like that, according as he acts and according as he behaves, so will he be; a man of good acts will become good, a man of bad acts, bad; he becomes pure by pure deeds, bad by bad deeds; And here they say that a person consists of desires, and as is his desire, so is his will; and as is his will, so is his deed; and whatever deed he does, that he will reap.

— Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, 7th century BCE [18] [19] The theory of karma as causation holds that: (1) executed actions of an individual affects rebirth for you sub indo individual and the life he or she lives, and (2) the intentions of an individual affects the individual and the life he or she lives. Disinterested actions, or unintentional actions do not have the same positive or negative karmic effect, as interested and intentional actions.

In Buddhism, for example, actions that are performed, or arise, or originate without any bad intent such as covetousness, are considered non-existent in karmic impact or neutral in influence to the individual.

rebirth for you sub indo Another causality characteristic, shared by karmic theories, is that like deeds lead to like effects. Thus, good karma produces good effect on the actor, while bad karma produces bad effect.

This effect may be material, moral, or emotional—that is, one's karma affects both one's happiness and unhappiness. [17] The effect of karma need not be immediate; the effect of karma can be later in one's current life, and in some schools it extends to future lives. [21] The consequence or effects of one's karma can be described in two forms: phala and samskara. A phala ( lit. 'fruit' or 'result') is the visible or invisible effect that is typically immediate or within the current life.

In contrast, a samskara ( Sanskrit: संस्कार) is an invisible effect, produced inside the actor because of the karma, transforming the agent and affecting his or her ability to be happy or unhappy in their current and future lives.

The theory of karma is often presented in the context of samskaras. [17] [22] Karl Potter (1964) and Harold Coward (1983) suggest that karmic principle can also be understood as a principle of psychology and habit. [13] [23] Karma seeds habits ( vāsanā), and habits create the nature of man.

Karma also seeds self perception, and perception influences how one experiences life events. Both habits and self perception affect the course of one's life. Breaking bad habits is not easy: it requires conscious karmic effort. [13] [24] Thus, psyche and habit, according to Potter and Coward, link karma to causality in ancient Indian literature.

[13] [25] The idea of karma may be compared to the notion of a person's 'character', as both are an assessment of the person and determined by that person's habitual thinking and acting. [8] Ethicization The second theme common to karma theories is ethicization. Rebirth for you sub indo begins with the premise that every action has a consequence, rebirth for you sub indo which will come to fruition in either this life or a future life; thus, morally good acts will have positive consequences, whereas bad acts will produce negative results.

An individual's present situation is thereby explained by reference to actions in his present or in previous lifetimes. Karma is not itself ' reward and punishment', but the law that produces consequence. [26] Wilhelm Halbfass (1998) notes that good karma is considered as dharma and leads to punya ('merit'), while bad karma is considered adharma and rebirth for you sub indo to pāp ('demerit, sin').

[27] Reichenbach (1988) suggests that the theories of karma are an ethical theory. [17] This is so because the ancient scholars of India linked intent and actual action to the merit, reward, demerit, and punishment. A theory without ethical premise would be a pure causal relation; the merit or reward or demerit or punishment would be same regardless of the actor's intent. In ethics, one's intentions, attitudes and desires matter in the evaluation of one's action. Where the outcome is unintended, the moral responsibility for it is less on the actor, even though causal responsibility may be the same regardless.

[17] A karma theory considers not only the action, but also actor's intentions, attitude, and desires before and during the action. The karma concept thus encourages each person to seek and live a moral life, as well as avoid an immoral life. The meaning and significance of karma is thus as a building block of an ethical theory.

rebirth for you sub indo

{INSERTKEYS} [28] Rebirth The third common theme of karma theories is the concept of reincarnation or the cycle of rebirths ( saṃsāra). [7] [29] [30] Rebirth is a fundamental concept of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. [8] Rebirth, or saṃsāra, is the concept that all life forms go through a cycle of reincarnation, that is, a series of births and rebirths.

The rebirths and consequent life may be in different realm, condition, or form. The karma theories suggest that the realm, condition and form depends on the quality and quantity of karma. [31] In schools that believe in rebirth, every living being's soul transmigrates (recycles) after death, carrying the seeds of Karmic impulses from life just completed, into another life and lifetime of karmas.

[7] [32] This cycle continues indefinitely, except for those who consciously break this cycle by reaching moksha. Those who break the cycle reach the realm of gods, those who don't continue in the cycle. The concept has been intensely debated in ancient literature of India; with different schools of Indian religions considering the relevance of rebirth as either essential, or secondary, or unnecessary fiction.

[10] Hiriyanna (1949) suggests rebirth to be a necessary corollary of karma; [33] Yamunacharya (1966) asserts that karma is a fact, while reincarnation is a hypothesis; [34] and Creel (1986) suggests that karma is a basic concept, rebirth is a derivative concept.

[35] The theory of 'karma and rebirth' raises numerous questions—such as how, when, and why did the cycle start in the first place, what is the relative Karmic merit of one karma versus another and why, and what evidence is there that rebirth actually happens, among others. Various schools of Hinduism realized these difficulties, debated their own formulations, some reaching what they considered as internally consistent theories, while other schools modified and de-emphasized it, while a few schools in Hinduism such as Charvakas (or Lokayata) abandoned the theory of 'karma and rebirth' altogether.

[3] [36] [37] Schools of Buddhism consider karma-rebirth cycle as integral to their theories of soteriology. [38] [39] Early development Lotus symbolically represents karma in many Asian traditions. A blooming lotus flower is one of the few flowers that simultaneously carries seeds inside itself while it blooms. Seed is symbolically seen as cause, the flower effect.

Lotus is also considered as a reminder that one can grow, share good karma and remain unstained even in muddy circumstances. [40] The Vedic Sanskrit word kárman- ( nominative kárma) means 'work' or 'deed', [41] often used in the context of Srauta rituals. [42] In the Rigveda, the word occurs some 40 times. [41] In Satapatha Brahmana, sacrifice is declared as the "greatest" of works; Satapatha Brahmana associates the potential of becoming immortal ( amara) with the karma of the agnicayana sacrifice.

[41] The earliest clear discussion of the karma doctrine is in the Upanishads. [7] [41] For example, causality and ethicization is stated in Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad 3.2.13: [43] Truly, one becomes good through good deeds, and evil through evil deeds." Some authors [44] state that the samsara (transmigration) and karma doctrine may be non-Vedic, and the ideas may have developed in the " shramana" traditions that preceded Buddhism and Jainism.

Others state that some of the complex ideas of the ancient emerging theory of karma flowed from Vedic thinkers to Buddhist and Jain thinkers. [12] [45] The mutual influences between the traditions is unclear, and likely co-developed.

[46] Many philosophical debates surrounding the concept are shared by the Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist traditions, and the early developments in each tradition incorporated different novel ideas. [47] For example, Buddhists allowed karma transfer from one person to another and sraddha rites, but had difficulty defending the rationale. [47] [48] In contrast, Hindu schools and Jainism would not allow the possibility of karma transfer.

[49] [50] In Hinduism Main article: Karma in Hinduism The concept of karma in Hinduism developed and evolved over centuries. The earliest Upanishads began with the questions about how and why man is born, and what happens after death. As answers to the latter, the early theories in these ancient Sanskrit documents include pancagni vidya (the five fire doctrine), pitryana (the cyclic path of fathers) and devayana (the cycle-transcending, path of the gods). [51] Those who do superficial rituals and seek material gain, claimed these ancient scholars, travel the way of their fathers and recycle back into another life; those who renounce these, go into the forest and pursue spiritual knowledge, were claimed to climb into the higher path of the gods.

It is these who break the cycle and are not reborn. [52] With the composition of the Epics – the common man's introduction to dharma in Hinduism – the ideas of causality and essential elements of the theory of karma were being recited in folk stories. For example: As a man himself sows, so he himself reaps; no man inherits the good or evil act of another man. The fruit is of the same quality as the action. — Mahabharata, xii.291.22 [53] The 6th chapter of the Anushasana Parva (the Teaching Book), the 13th book of the Mahabharata, opens with Yudhishthira asking Bhishma: "Is the course of a person's life already destined, or can human effort shape one's life?" [54] The future, replies Bhishma, is both a function of current human effort derived from free will and past human actions that set the circumstances.

[55] Over and over again, the chapters of Mahabharata recite the key postulates of karma theory. That is: intent and action (karma) has consequences; karma lingers and doesn't disappear; and, all positive or negative experiences in life require effort and intent. [56] For example: — Mahabharata, xiii.6.10 & 19 [57] Over time, various schools of Hinduism developed many different definitions of karma, some making karma appear quite deterministic, while others make room for free will and moral agency.

[58] Among the six most studied schools of Hinduism, the theory of karma evolved in different ways, as their respective scholars reasoned and attempted to address the internal inconsistencies, implications and issues of the karma doctrine. According to Professor Wilhelm Halbfass, [3] • The Nyaya school of Hinduism considers karma and rebirth as central, with some Nyaya scholars such as Udayana suggesting that the Karma doctrine implies that God exists.

[59] • The Vaisesika school does not consider the karma from past lives doctrine very important. • The Samkhya school considers karma to be of secondary importance (second to prakrti). • The Mimamsa school gives a negligible role to karma from past lives, disregards samsara and moksa. [60] • The Yoga school considers karma from past lives to be secondary, one's behavior and psychology in the current life is what has consequences and leads to entanglements.

[52] • The Vedanta schools (including Advaita) accept the doctrine of karma, and they hold that it does not function on its own power, instead they think that God ( Isvara) is the dispenser of the fruit (phala) of karma.

This idea is defended in the Brahmasutras (3.2.38). [61] [62] The above schools illustrate the diversity of views, but are not exhaustive. Each school has sub-schools in Hinduism, such as that of non-dualism and dualism under Vedanta.

Furthermore, there are other schools of Indian philosophy such as Charvaka (or Lokayata; the materialists) who denied the theory of karma-rebirth as well as the existence of God; to this non-Vedic school, the properties of things come from the nature of things.

Causality emerges from the interaction, actions and nature of things and people, determinative principles such as karma or God are unnecessary. [63] [64] In Buddhism Main article: Karma in Buddhism Karma and karmaphala are fundamental concepts in Buddhism, [65] [66] which explain how our intentional actions keep us tied to rebirth in samsara, whereas the Buddhist path, as exemplified in the Noble Eightfold Path, shows us the way out of samsara.

[67] [68] The cycle of rebirth is determined by karma, literally 'action'. [69] [note 1] Karmaphala (wherein phala means 'fruit, result') [75] [76] [77] refers to the 'effect' or 'result' of karma. [78] [79] The similar term karmavipaka (wherein vipāka means 'ripening') refers to the 'maturation, ripening' of karma. [76] [80] [81] In the Buddhist tradition, karma refers to actions driven by intention ( cetanā), [82] [83] [77] [note 2] a deed done deliberately through body, speech or mind, which leads to future consequences.

[86] The Nibbedhika Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya 6.63: Intention ( cetana) I tell you, is kamma. Intending, one does kamma by way of body, speech, & intellect. [87] [note 3] How these intentional actions lead to rebirth, and how the idea of rebirth is to be reconciled with the doctrines of impermanence and no-self, [89] [note 4] is a matter of philosophical inquiry in the Buddhist traditions, for which several solutions have been proposed. [69] In early Buddhism no explicit theory of rebirth and karma is worked out, [72] and "the karma doctrine may have been incidental to early Buddhist soteriology." [73] [74] In early Buddhism, rebirth is ascribed to craving or ignorance.

[70] [71] The Buddha's teaching of karma is not strictly deterministic, but incorporated circumstantial factors, unlike that of the Jains. [90] [91] [note 5] It is not a rigid and mechanical process, but a flexible, fluid and dynamic process.

[92] There is no set linear relationship between a particular action and its results. [91] The karmic effect of a deed is not determined solely by the deed itself, but also by the nature of the person who commits the deed, and by the circumstances in which it is committed. [93] [91] Karmaphala is not a "judgement" enforced by a God, Deity or other supernatural being that controls the affairs of the Cosmos.

Rather, karmaphala is the outcome of a natural process of cause and effect. [note 6] Within Buddhism, the real importance of the doctrine of karma and its fruits lies in the recognition of the urgency to put a stop to the whole process. [95] [96] The Acintita Sutta warns that "the results of kamma" is one of the four incomprehensible subjects (or acinteyya), [97] [98] subjects that are beyond all conceptualization [97] and cannot be understood with logical thought or reason.

[note 7] Nichiren Buddhism teaches that transformation and change through faith and practice changes adverse karma—negative causes made in the past that result in negative results in the present and future—to positive causes for benefits in the future. [103] In Jainism Types of Karmas as per Jain philosophy In Jainism, karma conveys a totally different meaning from that commonly understood in Hindu philosophy and western civilization. [104] Jain philosophy is the one of the oldest Indian philosophy that completely separates body (matter) from the soul (pure consciousness).

[105] In Jainism, karma is referred to as karmic dirt, as it consists of very subtle particles of matter that pervade the entire universe. [106] Karmas are attracted to the karmic field of a soul due to vibrations created by activities of mind, speech, and body as well as various mental dispositions. Hence the karmas are the subtle matter surrounding the consciousness of a soul. When these two components (consciousness and karma) interact, we experience the life we know at present.

Jain texts expound that seven tattvas (truths or fundamentals) constitute reality. These are: [107] • Jīva: the soul which is characterized by consciousness • Ajīva: the non-soul • Āsrava: inflow of auspicious and evil karmic matter into the soul.

• Bandha (bondage): mutual intermingling of the soul and karmas. • Samvara (stoppage): obstruction of the inflow of karmic matter into the soul. • Nirjara (gradual dissociation): separation or falling off of part of karmic matter from the soul.

• Mokṣha (liberation): complete annihilation of all karmic matter (bound with any particular soul). According to Padmanabh Jaini, This emphasis on reaping the fruits only of one's own karma was not restricted to the Jainas; both Hindus and Buddhist writers have produced doctrinal materials stressing the same point. Each of the latter traditions, however, developed practices in basic contradiction to such belief.

In addition to shrardha (the ritual Hindu offerings by the son of deceased), we find among Hindus widespread adherence to the notion of divine intervention in ones fate, while Buddhists eventually came to propound such theories like boon-granting bodhisattvas, transfer of merit and like. Only Jainas have been absolutely unwilling to allow such ideas to penetrate their community, despite the fact that there must have been tremendous amount of social pressure on them to do so.

[108] The relationship between the soul and karma, states Padmanabh Jaini, can be explained with the analogy of gold. Like gold is always found mixed with impurities in its original state, Jainism holds that the soul is not pure at its origin but is always impure and defiled like natural gold. One can exert effort and purify gold, similarly, Jainism states that the defiled soul can be purified by proper refining methodology.

[109] Karma either defiles the soul further, or refines it to a cleaner state, and this affects future rebirths. [110] Karma is thus an efficient cause ( nimitta) in Jain philosophy, but not the material cause ( upadana). The soul is believed to be the material cause. [111] The key points where the theory of karma in Jainism can be stated as follows: • Karma operates as a self-sustaining mechanism as natural universal law, without any need of an external entity to manage them.

(absence of the exogenous ' Divine entity' in Jainism) • Jainism advocates that a soul attracts karmic matter even with the thoughts, and not just the actions. Thus, to even think evil of someone would endure a karma-bandha or an increment in bad karma.

For this reason, Jainism emphasise on developing Ratnatraya (The Three Jewels): samyak darśana ('Right Faith'), samyak jnāna ('Right Knowledge') and samyak charitra ('Right Conduct'). • In Jain theology, a soul is released of worldly affairs as soon as it is able to emancipate from the karma-bandha. [112] In Jainism, nirvana and moksha are used interchangeably. Nirvana represents annihilation of all karmas by an individual soul and moksha represents the perfect blissful state (free from all bondage).

In the presence of a Tirthankara, a soul can attain Kevala Jnana ('omniscience') and subsequently nirvana, without any need of intervention by the Tirthankara. [112] • The karmic theory in Jainism operates endogenously. Even the Tirthankaras themselves have to go through the stages of emancipation, for attaining that state. • Jainism treats all souls equally, inasmuch as it advocates that all souls have the same potential of attaining nirvana.

Only those who make effort, really attain it, but nonetheless, each soul is capable on its own to do so by gradually reducing its karma. [113] Eight Karmas There are eight types of Karma which attach a soul to Samsar (the cycle of birth and death): [114] [115] • Gyanavarniya (knowledge-obstructing): like a veil prevents a face and its features from being seen, this karma prevents the soul from knowing an object along with details about that object.

This karma obstructs the soul from realizing its essential quality of knowledge. In its absence, a soul is omniscient. There are five sub-types of gyanavarniya karma which prevents the five types of knowledge: mati gyan (sensory knowledge), shrut gyan (articulate knowledge), avadhi gyan ( clairvoyance), mana paryay gyan ( telepathy) and keval gyan ( omniscience).

• Darshanavarniya (perception-obstructing): like a gatekeeper prevents the sight of the king, this karma prevents an object from being perceived, hiding it. This karma obstructs the soul from realizing its essential quality of perception. In its absence, a soul completely perceives all substances in the universe. There are nine sub-types of this karma. Four of these prevent the four types of perception; visual perception, non-visual perception, clairvoyant perception and omniscient perception.

The other five sub-types of darshanavarniya karma bondage induce five kinds of sleep causing reduction in consciousness: light sleep, deep sleep, drowsiness, heavy drowsiness, and sleep-walking.

• Vedaniya (sensation-producing): like licking honey from a sword gives a sweet taste but cuts the tongue, this karma makes a soul experience pleasure and pain. The soul's bliss is continuously disturbed by experiences of external sensual pleasure and pain. In the absence of the vedaniya karma, the soul experiences undisturbed bliss. There are two sub-types of this karma; pleasure-producing and pain-producing.

• Mohniya (deluding): like a bee becomes infatuated with the smell of a flower and is attracted to it, this karma attracts the soul to the objects that it considers favorable while repelling it from objects it considers unfavorable.

It creates a delusion in the soul that external objects can affect it. This karma obstructs the soul's essential quality of happiness and prevents the soul from finding pure happiness in itself. • Ayu (lifespan-determining): like a prisoner remains trapped by iron chains (around his legs, hands, etc.) this karma keeps a soul trapped in a particular life (or birth).

• Naam (body-producing): like a painter creates various pictures and gives them various names, this karma gives souls various types of bodies (that are classified based on various attributes). It is the naamkarma which determines the body of living organism into which the soul must enter. • Gotra ( status-determining): like a potter makes short and tall pots, this karma bestows a low or high (societal) status on the body of soul. It creates social inequalities and in its absence, all souls are equal.

There are two sub-types of gotra karma: high status and low status. • Antaray (power-obstructing): like a treasurer obstructs a king from spending his wealth, this karma prevents the soul from using its innate power for acts of charity, profit, enjoyment, repeated enjoyment and will-power. It obstructs and prevents the soul's essential quality of infinite power from manifesting. In its absence, a soul has infinite power. Reception in other traditions Sikhism Part of a series on Sikhism • People • Outline • History • v • t • e In Sikhism, all living beings are described as being under the influence of the three qualities of maya.

Always present together in varying mix and degrees, these three qualities of maya bind the soul to the body and to the earth plane. Above these three qualities is the eternal time. Due to the influence of three modes of maya's nature, jivas (individual beings) perform activities under the control and purview of the eternal time. These activities are called karma, wherein the underlying principle is that karma is the law that brings back the results of actions to the person performing them.

This life is likened to a field in which our karma is the seed. We harvest exactly what we sow; no less, no more. {/INSERTKEYS}

rebirth for you sub indo

This infallible law of karma holds everyone responsible for what the person is or is going to be. Based on the total sum of past karma, some feel close to the Pure Being in this life and others feel separated. This is the law of karma in Gurbani ( Sri Guru Granth Sahib).

Like other Indian and oriental schools of thought, the Gurbani also accepts the doctrines of karma and reincarnation as the facts of nature. [116] Falun Gong David Ownby, a scholar of Chinese history at the University of Montreal, [117] asserts that Falun Gong differs from Buddhism in its definition of the term "karma" in that it is taken not as a process of award and punishment, but as an exclusively negative term.

The Chinese term de, or 'virtue', is reserved for what might otherwise be termed 'good karma' in Buddhism. Karma is understood as the source of all suffering – what Buddhism might refer to as 'bad karma'. According to Li Hongzhi, the founder of Falun Gong: "A person has done bad things over his many lifetimes, and for people this results in misfortune, or for cultivators its karmic obstacles, so there's birth, aging, sickness, and death.

This is ordinary karma." [118] Falun Gong teaches that the spirit is locked in the cycle of rebirth, also known as samsara, [119] due to the accumulation of karma.

[120] This is a negative, black substance that accumulates in other dimensions lifetime after lifetime, by doing bad deeds and thinking bad thoughts. Falun Gong states that karma is the reason for suffering, and rebirth for you sub indo ultimately blocks people from the truth of the universe and attaining enlightenment. At the same time, karma is also the cause of one's continued rebirth and suffering.

[120] Li says that due to accumulation of karma the human spirit upon death will reincarnate over and over again, until the karma is paid rebirth for you sub indo or eliminated through cultivation, or the person is destroyed due to the bad deeds he has done.

[120] Ownby regards the concept of karma as a cornerstone to individual moral behaviour in Falun Gong, and also readily traceable to the Christian doctrine of "one reaps what one sows". Others say Matthew 5:44 means no unbeliever will not fully reap what they sow until they are judged by God after death in Hell. Ownby says Falun Gong is differentiated by a "system of transmigration", although, rebirth for you sub indo which each organism is the reincarnation of a previous life form, its current form having been determined by karmic calculation of the moral qualities of the previous lives lived." Ownby says the seeming unfairness of manifest inequities can then be explained, at the same time allowing a space for moral behaviour in spite of them.

[118] In the same vein of Rebirth for you sub indo monism, matter and spirit are one, karma is identified as a black substance which must be purged in the process of cultivation. [118] According to Li, Human beings all fell here from the many dimensions of the universe. They no longer met the requirements of the Fa at their given levels in the universe, and thus had to drop down.

Just as we have said before, the heavier one's mortal attachments, the further down one drops, with the descent continuing until one arrives at the state of ordinary human beings. [121] He says that, in the eyes of higher beings, the purpose of human life is not merely to be human, but to awaken quickly on Earth, a "setting of delusion," and return. "That is what they really have in mind; they are opening a door for you. Those who fail to return will have no choice but to reincarnate, with this continuing until they amass a huge amount of karma and are destroyed." [121] Ownby regards this as the basis for Falun Gong's apparent "opposition to practitioners' taking medicine when ill; they are missing an opportunity to work off karma by allowing an illness to run its course (suffering depletes karma) or to fight the illness through cultivation." Benjamin Penny shares this interpretation.

Since Li believes that "karma is the primary factor that causes sickness in people," Penny asks: "if disease comes from karma and karma can be eradicated through cultivation of xinxing, then what good will medicine do?" [122] Li himself states that he is not forbidding practitioners from taking medicine, maintaining that "What I'm doing is telling people the relationship between practicing cultivation and medicine-taking." Li also states that "An everyday person needs to take medicine when he gets sick." [123] Danny Schechter (2001) quotes a Falun Gong student who says "It is always an individual choice whether one should take medicine or not." [124] Taoism Part of a series on Taoism • Outline • History Hongjun Laozu Three Pure Ones • Yuanshi Tianzun • Lingbao Tianzun • Daode Tianzun Four Sovereigns • Yuhuang Dadi (Great Jade Emperor) • Zhongtian Ziwei Beiji Dadi (Great Emperor of the North Star) • Gouchen Dadi (Great Emperor of the Curved Array/ Little Dipper) • Houtu Huang Diqi (Empress of the Earth) Others • Three Great Emperor-Officials • Xiwangmu (Queen Mother of the West) • Dongwanggong (King Father of the East) • Eight Immortals • Chang'e rebirth for you sub indo Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors • Yellow Emperor • Guan Shengdi • Li Hong • Other deities • v • t • e Karma is an important concept in Taoism.

Every deed is tracked by deities and spirits. Appropriate rewards or retribution follow karma, just like a shadow follows a person. [6] The karma doctrine of Taoism developed in three stages. [125] In the first stage, causality between actions and consequences was adopted, with supernatural beings keeping track of everyone's karma and assigning fate ( ming).

In the second phase, transferability of karma ideas from Chinese Buddhism were expanded, and a transfer or inheritance of Karmic fate from ancestors to one's current life was introduced. In the third stage of karma doctrine development, ideas of rebirth based on karma were added. One could be reborn either as another human being or another animal, according to this belief.

In the third stage, additional ideas were introduced; for example, rituals, repentance and offerings at Taoist temples were encouraged as it could alleviate Karmic burden.

[125] [126] Shinto Interpreted as musubi, a view of karma is recognized in Shinto as a means of enriching, empowering and life affirming. [127] Discussion Free will and destiny One of the significant controversies with the karma doctrine is whether it always implies destiny, and its implications on free will. This controversy is also referred to as the moral agency problem; [128] the controversy is not unique to karma doctrine, but also found in some form in monotheistic religions.

[129] The free will controversy can be outlined in three parts: [128] • A person who kills, rapes or commits any other unjust act, can claim all his bad actions were a product of his karma: rebirth for you sub indo is devoid of free will, he can not make a choice, he is an agent of karma, and he merely delivers necessary punishments his "wicked" victims deserved for their own karma in past lives.

Are crimes and unjust actions due to free will, or because of forces of karma? • Does a person who suffers from the unnatural death of a loved one, or rape or any other unjust act, assume a moral agent is responsible, that the harm is gratuitous, and therefore seek justice? Or, should one blame oneself for bad karma over past lives, and assume that the unjust suffering is fate? • Does the karma doctrine undermine the incentive for moral education—because all suffering is deserved and consequence of past lives, why learn anything when the balance sheet of karma from past lives will determine one's action and sufferings?

[130] The explanations and replies to the above free will problem vary by the specific school of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. The schools of Hinduism, such as Yoga and Advaita Vedanta, that have emphasized current life over the dynamics of karma residue moving across past lives, allow free will.

[131] Their argument, as well of other schools, are threefold: • The theory of karma includes both the action and the intent behind that action. Not only is one affected by past karma, one creates new karma whenever one acts with intent – good or bad. If intent and act can be proven beyond reasonable doubt, new karma can be proven, and the process of justice can proceed against this new karma. The actor who kills, rapes or commits any other unjust act, must be considered as the moral agent for this new karma, and tried.

rebirth for you sub indo Life forms not only receive and reap the consequence of their past karma, together they are the means to initiate, evaluate, judge, give and deliver consequence of karma to others. • Karma is a theory that explains some evils, not all (cf. moral evil versus natural evil). [132] [133] Other schools of Hinduism, as well as Buddhism and Jainism that do consider cycle of rebirths central to their beliefs and that karma from past lives affects one's present, believe that both free will ( cetanā) and karma can co-exist; however, their answers have not persuaded all scholars.

[128] [133] Psychological indeterminacy Another issue with the theory of karma is that it is psychologically indeterminate, suggests Obeyesekere (1968).

[134] That is, if no one can know what their karma was in previous lives, and if the karma from past lives can determine one's future, then the individual is psychologically unclear what if anything he or she can do now to shape the future, be more happy, or reduce suffering. If something goes wrong, such as sickness or failure at work, the individual is unclear if karma from past lives was the cause, or the sickness was caused by curable infection and the failure was caused by something correctable.

[134] This psychological indeterminacy problem is also not unique to the theory of karma; it is found in every religion adopting the premise that God has a plan, or in some way influences human events.

As with the karma-and-free-will problem above, schools that insist on primacy of rebirths face the most controversy. Their answers to the psychological indeterminacy issue are the same as those for addressing the free will problem.

[133] Transferability Some schools of Asian religions, particularly popular Buddhism, allow transfer of karma merit and demerit from one person to another. This transfer is an exchange of non-physical quality just like an exchange of physical goods between two human beings. The practice of karma transfer, or even its possibility, is controversial.

[135] [136] Karma transfer raises questions similar to those with substitutionary atonement and vicarious punishment. It defeats the ethical foundations, and dissociates the causality and ethicization in the theory of karma from the moral agent. Proponents of some Buddhist schools suggest that the concept of karma merit transfer encourages religious giving, and such transfers are not a mechanism to transfer bad karma (i.e., demerit) from one person to another.

In Hinduism, Sraddha rites during funerals have been labelled as karma merit transfer ceremonies by a few scholars, a claim disputed by others.

[137] Other schools in Hinduism, such as the Yoga and Advaita Vedantic philosophies, and Jainism hold that karma can not be transferred. [12] [138] The problem of evil There has been an ongoing debate about karma theory and how it answers the problem of evil and related problem of theodicy. The problem of evil is a significant question debated in monotheistic religions with two beliefs: [139] • There is one God who is absolutely good and compassionate ( omnibenevolent); and • That one God knows absolutely everything ( omniscient) and is all powerful ( omnipotent).

The problem of evil is then stated in formulations such as, "why does the omnibenevolent, omniscient and omnipotent God allow any evil and suffering to exist in the world?" Sociologist Max Weber extended the problem of evil to Eastern traditions.

[140] The problem of evil, in the context of karma, has been long discussed in Eastern traditions, both in theistic and non-theistic schools; for example, in Uttara Mīmāṃsā Sutras Book 2 Chapter 1; [141] [142] the 8th century arguments by Adi Sankara in Brahma Sutra bhasya where he posits that God cannot reasonably be the cause of the world because there exists moral evil, inequality, cruelty and suffering in the world; [143] [144] and the 11th century theodicy discussion by Ramanuja in Sri Bhasya.

[145] Epics such as the Mahabharata, for example, suggests three prevailing theories in ancient India as to why good and evil exists – one being that everything is ordained by God, another being karma, and a third citing chance events ( yadrccha, यदृच्छा).

[146] [147] The Mahabharata, which includes Hindu deity Vishnu in the form of Krishna as one of the central characters in the Epic, debates the nature and existence of suffering from these three perspectives, and includes a theory of suffering as arising from an interplay of chance events (such as floods and other events of nature), circumstances created by past human actions, and the current desires, volitions, dharma, adharma and current actions ( purusakara) of people.

[146] [148] [149] However, while karma theory in the Mahabharata presents alternative perspectives on the problem of evil and suffering, it offers no conclusive answer.

[146] [150] Other scholars [151] suggest that nontheistic Indian religious traditions do not assume an omnibenevolent creator, and some [152] theistic schools do not define or characterize their God(s) as monotheistic Western religions do and the deities have colorful, complex personalities; the Indian deities are personal and cosmic facilitators, and in some schools conceptualized like Plato's Demiurge.

[145] Therefore, the problem of theodicy in many schools of major Indian religions is not significant, or at least is of a different nature than in Western religions. [153] Many Indian religions place greater emphasis on developing the karma principle for first cause and innate justice with Man as focus, rather than developing religious principles with the nature and powers of God and divine judgment as focus.

[154] Some scholars, particularly of the Nyaya school of Hinduism and Sankara in Brahma Sutra bhasya, have posited that karma doctrine implies existence of god, who administers and affects the person's environment given that person's karma, but then acknowledge that it makes karma as violable, contingent and unable to address the problem of evil.

[155] Arthur Herman states that karma-transmigration theory solves all three historical formulations to the problem of evil while acknowledging the theodicy insights of Sankara and Ramanuja. [156] Some theistic Indian religions, such as Sikhism, suggest evil and suffering are a human phenomenon and arises from the karma of individuals. [157] In other theistic schools such as those in Hinduism, particularly its Nyaya school, karma is combined with dharma and evil is explained as arising from human actions and intent that is in conflict with dharma.

[145] In nontheistic religions such as Buddhism, Jainism and the Mimamsa school of Hinduism, karma theory is used to explain the cause of evil as well as to offer distinct ways to avoid or be unaffected by evil in the world. [143] Those schools of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism that rely on karma-rebirth theory have been critiqued for their theological explanation of suffering in children by birth, as the result of his or her sins in a past life.

rebirth for you sub indo

{INSERTKEYS} [158] Others disagree, and consider the critique as flawed and a misunderstanding of the karma theory. [159] Comparable concepts It Shoots Further Than He Dreams by John F. Knott, March 1918. Western culture, influenced by Christianity, [5] holds a notion similar to karma, as demonstrated in the phrase " what goes around comes around".

Christianity Mary Jo Meadow suggests karma is akin to "Christian notions of sin and its effects." [160] She states that the Christian teaching on a Last Judgment according to one's charity is a teaching on karma. [160] Christianity also teaches morals such as one reaps what one sows ( Galatians 6:7) and live by the sword, die by the sword ( Matthew 26:52).

[161] Most scholars, however, consider the concept of Last Judgment as different from karma, with karma as an ongoing process that occurs every day in one's life, while Last Judgment, by contrast, is a one-time review at the end of life.

[162] Judaism There is a concept in Judaism called in Hebrew midah k'neged midah, which is often translated as "measure for measure".

[163] The concept is used not so much in matters of law, but rather in matters of divine retribution for a person's actions. David Wolpe compared midah k'neged midah to karma. [164] Psychoanalysis Carl Jung once opined on unresolved emotions and the synchronicity of karma; When an inner situation is not made conscious, it appears outside as fate.

[165] Popular methods for negating cognitive dissonance include meditation, metacognition, counselling, psychoanalysis, etc., whose aim is to enhance emotional self-awareness and thus avoid negative karma. This results in better emotional hygiene and reduced karmic impacts. [166] Permanent neuronal changes within the amygdala and left prefrontal cortex of the human brain attributed to long-term meditation and metacognition techniques have been proven scientifically.

[167] This process of emotional maturation aspires to a goal of Individuation or self-actualisation. Such peak experiences are hypothetically devoid of any karma ( nirvana or moksha). Theosophy, Spiritism, New Age The idea of karma was popularized in the Western world through the work of the Theosophical Society.

In this conception, karma was a precursor to the Neopagan law of return or Threefold Law, the idea that the beneficial or harmful effects one has on the world will return to oneself. Colloquially this may be summed up as 'what goes around comes around.' Theosophist I.

K. Taimni wrote, "Karma is nothing but the Law of Cause and Effect operating in the realm of human life and bringing about adjustments between an individual and other individuals whom he has affected by his thoughts, emotions and actions." [168] Theosophy also teaches that when humans reincarnate they come back as humans only, not as animals or other organisms. [169] See also • Adrsta • Amor fati • Anantarika-karma • Causes of karma in Jainism • Consequentialism • Divine retribution • Ethic of reciprocity • Hoʻoponopono#Freedom from karma • Judgement (afterlife) • Just-world hypothesis • Karma yoga • Luck • Moksha • Nishkam Karma • Pratītyasamutpāda • Saṅkhāra • Self-fulfilling prophecy • Social Credit System • Tibetan Buddhist Philosophy of Karma • Types of Karma • Unintended consequence • Work (Christian theology) Notes • ^ In early Buddhism rebirth is ascribed to craving or ignorance, [70] [71] and the theory of karma may have been of minor importance in early Buddhist soteriology.

[72] [73] [74] • ^ Rupert Gethin: "[Karma is] a being's intentional 'actions' of body, speech, and mind—whatever is done, said, or even just thought with definite intention or volition"; [84] "[a]t root karma or 'action' is considered a mental act or intention; it is an aspect of our mental life: 'It is "intention" that I call karma; having formed the intention, one performs acts (karma) by body, speech and mind.'" [85] • ^ There are many different translation of the above quote into English.

For example, Peter Harvey translates the quote as follows: "It is will ( cetana), O monks, that I call karma; having willed, one acts through body, speech, and mind." (A.III.415). [88] • ^ Dargray: "When [the Buddhist] understanding of karma is correlated to the Buddhist doctrine of universal impermanence and No-Self, a serious problem arises as to where this trace is stored and what the trace left is.

The problem is aggravated when the trace remains latent over a long period, perhaps over a period of many existences. The crucial problem presented to all schools of Buddhist philosophy was where the trace is stored and how it can remain in the ever-changing stream of phenomena which build up the individual and what the nature of this trace is." [89] • ^ Bhikkhu Thanissaro: "Unlike the theory of linear causality — which led the Vedists and Jains to see the relationship between an act and its result as predictable and tit-for-tat — the principle of this/that conditionality makes that relationship inherently complex.

The results of kamma ("kamma" is the Pali spelling for the word "karma") experienced at any one point in time come not only from past kamma, but also from present kamma. This means that, although there are general patterns relating habitual acts to corresponding results [MN 135], there is no set one-for-one, tit-for-tat, relationship between a particular action and its results.

Instead, the results are determined by the context of the act, both in terms of actions that preceded or followed it [MN 136] and in terms one's state of mind at the time of acting or experiencing the result [AN 3:99]. [...] The feedback loops inherent in this/that conditionality mean that the working out of any particular cause-effect relationship can be very complex indeed. This explains why the Buddha says in AN 4:77 that the results of kamma are imponderable. Only a person who has developed the mental range of a Buddha—another imponderable itself—would be able to trace the intricacies of the kammic network.

The basic premise of kamma is simple—that skillful intentions lead to favorable results, and unskillful ones to unfavorable results—but the process by which those results work themselves out is so intricate that it cannot be fully mapped. We can compare this with the Mandelbrot set, a mathematical set generated by a simple equation, but whose graph is so complex that it will probably never be completely explored." [91] • ^ Khandro Rinpoche: "Buddhism is a nontheistic philosophy.

We do not believe in a creator but in the causes and conditions that create certain circumstances that then come to fruition. {/INSERTKEYS}

rebirth for you sub indo

This is called karma. It has nothing to do with judgement; there is no one keeping track of our karma and sending us up above or down below.

Karma is simply the wholeness of a cause, or first action, and its effect, or fruition, which then becomes another cause. In fact, one karmic cause rebirth for you sub indo have many fruitions, all of which can cause thousands more creations.

Just as a handful of seed can ripen into a full field of grain, a small amount of karma can generate limitless effects." [94] • ^ Dasgupta explains that in Indian philosophy, acintya is "that which is to be unavoidably accepted for explaining facts, but which cannot stand the scrutiny of logic." [99] See also the Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta "Discourse to Vatsagotra on the [Simile of] Fire," Majjhima Nikaya 72, [100] [101] in which the Buddha is questioned by Vatsagotra on the "ten indeterminate question," [100] and the Buddha explains that a Tathagata is like a fire that has been extinguished, and is "deep, boundless, hard to fathom, like the sea".

[102] References Citations • ^ See: • Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 15, New York, pp 679–680, Article on Karma; Quote – "Karma meaning deed or action; in addition, it also has philosophical and technical meaning, denoting a person's deeds as determining his future lot." • The Encyclopedia of World Religions, Robert Ellwood & Gregory Alles, ISBN 978-0-8160-6141-9, pp 253; Quote – "Karma: Sanskrit word meaning action and the consequences of action." • Hans Torwesten (1994), Vedanta: Heart of Hinduism, ISBN 978-0-8021-3262-8, Grove Press New York, pp 97; Quote – "In the Vedas the word karma (work, deed or action, and its resulting effect) referred mainly to." • ^ Karma Encyclopædia Britannica (2012) • ^ a b c d e f Halbfass, Wilhelm (2000), Karma und Wiedergeburt im indischen Denken, Diederichs, München, Germany • ^ Lawrence C.

Becker & Charlotte B. Becker, Encyclopedia of Ethics, 2nd Edition, ISBN 0-415-93672-1, Hindu Ethics, pp 678 • ^ a b Parvesh Singla.

rebirth for you sub indo

The Manual of Life – Karma. Parvesh singla. pp. 5–7. GGKEY:0XFSARN29ZZ. Retrieved 4 June 2011. • ^ a b Eva Wong, Taoism, Shambhala Publications, ISBN 978-1-59030-882-0, pp. 193 • ^ a b c d e "Karma" in: John Bowker (1997), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press.

• ^ a b c James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Rosen Publishing, New York, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pp 351–352 • ^ Julius Lipner (2010), Hindus: Their religious beliefs and practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7, pp 261–262 rebirth for you sub indo ^ a b see: • Kaufman, W.

R. (2005), Karma, rebirth, and the problem of evil, Philosophy East and West, pp 15–32; • Sharma, A. (1996), On the distinction between Karma and Rebirth in Hinduism, Asian Philosophy, 6(1), pp 29–35; • Bhattacharya, R. (2012), Svabhāvavāda and the Cārvāka/Lokāyata: A Historical Overview, Journal of Indian Philosophy, 40(6), pp 593–614 • ^ Harold Coward (2003), Encyclopedia of Science of Religion, MacMillan Reference, ISBN 978-0-02-865704-2, see article on Karma • ^ a b c d e f Rebirth for you sub indo D.

O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-03923-0, pp xi–xxv (Introduction) • ^ a b c d e Karl Potter (1964), The Naturalistic Principle of Karma, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Apr. 1964), pp. 39–49 • ^ Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-03923-0, pp 3–37 • ^ Karl Potter (1980), in Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions (O'Flaherty, Editor), University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-03923-0, pp 241–267 • ^ See: • For Hinduism view: Jeffrey Brodd (2009), World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery, Saint Mary's Press, ISBN 978-0-88489-997-6, pp.

47; • For Buddhism view: Khandro Rinpoche (2003), This Precious Life, Shambhala, pp. 95 • ^ a b c d e Bruce R. Reichenbach, The Law of Karma and the Principle of Causation, Philosophy East and West, Vol.

38, No. 4 (Oct. 1988), pp. 399–410 • ^ Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.4.5–6 Berkley Center for Religion Peace & World Affairs, Georgetown University (2012) • ^ The words "deed", "acts" above are rendered from karma; see Brihadaranyaka James Black, Original Sanskrit & Muller Oxford English Translations, University of Wisconsin, United States (2011) • ^ Anguttara-Nikaya 3.4.33, Translator: Henry Warren (1962), Buddhism in Translations, Atheneum Publications, New York, pp 216–217 • ^ see: • James McDermott, Karma and Rebirth in Early Buddhism, in Editor: Wendy D.

O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-03923-0, pp 165–192 • Padmanabh Jaini, Karma and the problem of rebirth in Jainism, in Editor: Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-03923-0, pp 217–239 • Ludo Rocher, Karma and Rebirth in the Dharmasastras, in Editor: Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-03923-0, pp 61–89 • ^ Damien Keown (1996), Karma, character, and consequentialism, The Journal of Religious Ethics, pp 329–350.

• ^ Karl Potter's suggestion is supported by the Bhagavad-Gita, which links good bondage and bad bondage to good habits and bad habits respectively. It also lists various types of habits – such as good (sattva), passion (rajas) and indifferent (tamas) – while explaining karma. See the cited Potter reference; elsewhere, in Yoga Sutras, the role of karma to creating habits is explained with Vāsanās – see Ian Whicher, The Integrity of the Yoga Darsana: A Reconsideration of Classical Yoga, State University of New York, ISBN 0-7914-3816-3, Chapter 3, particularly pp 102–105 • ^ Ian Whicher (1998), The final stages of purification in classical yoga, Asian Philosophy, 8(2), pp 85–102 • ^ Harold Coward (1983), "Psychology and Karma", Philosophy East and West 33 (Jan): 49–60.

• ^ Francis X. Clooney, Evil, Divine Omnipotence, and Human Freedom: Vedānta's Theology of Karma, The Journal of Religion, Vol. 69, No. 4 (Oct. 1989), pp. 530–548 • ^ Wilhelm Halbfass (1998), Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, London, see article on Karma and Rebirth (Indian Conceptions) • ^ see: • James Hastings et al.

(1915), Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (Hymns-Liberty), Volume VII, Article on Jainism, pp 469–471; • Chapple, Christopher (1975), Karma and the path of purification, in Virginia Hanson et al. (Editors) – Karma: Rhythmic Return to Harmony, ISBN 978-0-8356-0663-9, Chapter 23; • Krishan, Y. (1988), The Vedic origins of the doctrine of karma, South Asian Studies, 4(1), pp 51–55 • ^ Obeyesekere 2005, p. 1-2, 108, 126–128. • ^ Mark Juergensmeyer & Wade Clark Roof 2011, pp.

272–273, 652–654. • ^ James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 2, Rosen Publishing, New York, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pp 589 • ^ Harold Coward (2003), Encyclopedia of Science of Religion, Karma • ^ M. Hiriyana (1949), Essentials of Indian Philosophy, George Allen Unwin, London, pp 47 • ^ M Yamunacharya (1966), Karma and Rebirth, Indian Philo. Annual, 1, pp 66 • ^ Austin Creel (1986), in Editor: Ronald Wesley Neufeldt, Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-87395-990-2, Chapter 1 • ^ see: • Wilhelm Halbfass (1998), Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, London, see article on Karma and Rebirth (Indian Conceptions) • Ronald Wesley Neufeldt, Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-87395-990-2 • ^ A.

Javadekar (1965), Karma and Rebirth, Indian Philosophical Annual, 1, 78 • ^ Damien Keown (2013), Buddhism: A very short introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-966383-5 • ^ Étienne Lamotte(1936), Le traité de l'acte de Vasubandhu: Karmasiddhiprakarana, in Mélanges chinois et bouddhiques 4, pp 151–288 • ^ Maria I. Macioti, The Buddha Within Ourselves: Blossoms of the Lotus Sutra, Translator: Richard Maurice Capozzi, ISBN 978-0-7618-2189-2, pp 69–70 • ^ a b c d Krishan, Y.

(1988). "The Vedic Origins of the Doctrine of Karma". South Asian Studies. 4 (1): 51–55. doi: 10.1080/02666030.1988.9628366. ; Yuvraj Krishan (1997). The Doctrine of Karma: Its Origin and Development in Brāhmaṇical, Buddhist, and Jaina Traditions. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. pp. 4, 12, 17–19, for context see 1–27. ISBN 978-81-208-1233-8. • ^ a neuter n-stem, कर्म from the root √kṛ कृ "to do, make, perform, accomplish, cause, effect, prepare, undertake" kṛ,कृ Monier Monier-Williams, Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary (1899).

• ^ Mark Juergensmeyer & Wade Clark Roof 2011, p. 653. • ^ see: • Y. Masih (2000) In : A Comparative Study of Religions, Motilal Banarsidass Publ : Delhi, ISBN 81-208-0815-0, page 37, Quote – "This confirms that the doctrine of transmigration is non-aryan and was accepted by non-vedics like Ajivikism, Jainism and Buddhism.

The Indo-aryans have borrowed the theory of re-birth after coming in contact with the aboriginal inhabitants of India. Certainly Jainism and non-vedics [.] accepted the doctrine of rebirth as supreme postulate or article of faith." • Gavin D. Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press: UK ISBN 0-521-43878-0, page 86, Quote – "The origin and doctrine of Karma and Saṃsāra are obscure.

These concepts were certainly circulating amongst sramanas, and Jainism and Buddhism developed specific and sophisticated ideas about the process of transmigration. It is very possible that the karmas and reincarnation entered the mainstream brahaminical thought from the sramana or the renouncer traditions." • Bimala Rebirth for you sub indo (1952, Reprint 2005), The Buddhist Conception of Spirits, ISBN 81-206-1933-1, Asian Educational Services; in particular, see Chapter II • Y.

Krishan, The doctrine of Karma and Śraddhas, Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Vol. 66, No. 1/4 (1985), pp. 97–115 • ^ Yuvraj Krishan (1985), The doctrine of Karma and Śraddhas, Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Vol. 66, No. 1/4, pages 97–115 • ^ Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-03923-0, pp xvii–xviii; Quote – "There was such constant interaction between Vedism and Buddhism in the early period that it is fruitless to attempt to sort out the earlier source of many doctrines, they lived in one another's pockets, like Picasso and Braque (who, in later years, were unable to say which of them had painted certain paintings from their earlier, shared period)." • ^ a b Wendy Doniger (1980).

Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions. University of California Press. pp. xii–xxiii. ISBN 978-0-520-03923-0. • ^ James McDermott (1980). Wendy Doniger (ed.). Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions. University of California Press. pp. 165–192. ISBN 978-0-520-03923-0. • ^ Padmanabh Jaini (1980). Wendy Doniger (ed.). Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions.

University of California Press. pp. 217–239. ISBN 978-0-520-03923-0. • ^ Ludo Rocher (1980). Wendy Doniger (ed.). Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions. University of California Press. pp. 61–89. ISBN 978-0-520-03923-0.

• ^ Colebrooke, H. T. (1829), Essay on the Philosophy of the Hindus, Part V. Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 2(1), 1–39 • ^ a b William Mahony (1987), Karman: Hindu and Jain Concepts, in Editor: Mircea Eliade, Encyclopedia of Religion, Collier Macmillan, Rebirth for you sub indo York • ^ E.

Washburn Hopkins, Modifications of the Karma Doctrine, The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, (Jul., 1906), pp. 581–593 • ^ Chapple, Christopher (1986), Karma and creativity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-88706-251-2; see Chapter 3 and Appendix 1 • ^ Chapple, Christopher (1986), Karma and creativity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-88706-251-2; pp 60–64 • ^ J. Bruce Long, The concepts of human action and rebirth in the Mahabharata, in Wendy D.

O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-03923-0, Chapter 2 • ^ see: • Chapple, Christopher (1986), Karma and creativity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-88706-251-2; • Manmatha Nath Dutt (1896), Vana Parva – in multivolume series: A prose English translation of the Mahabharata, Elysium Press, page 46-47; For a Google Books archive from Stanford University Library, see this • There is extensive debate in the Epic Mahabharata about karma, free will and destiny across different chapters and rebirth for you sub indo.

Different characters in the Epic take sides, some claiming destiny is supreme, some claiming free will is. For a discussion, see: Daniel H. H. Ingalls, Dharma and Moksa, Philosophy East and Rebirth for you sub indo, Vol. 7, No. 1/2 (Apr. – Jul. 1957), pp. 44–45; Quote – "(.) In the Epic, free will has the upper hand. Only when a man's effort is frustrated or when he is overcome with grief does he become a predestinarian (believer in destiny)."; Quote – "This association of success with the doctrine of free will or human effort (purusakara) was felt so clearly that among the ways of bringing about a king's downfall is given the following simple advice: 'Belittle free will to him, and emphasize destiny.

'" (Mahabharata 12.106.20) • ^ Harold Coward (2003) Encyclopedia of Science of Religion, MacMillan Reference, see Karma • ^ Sharma, C. (1997). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0365-5, pp.

209–10 • ^ Wilhelm Halbfass, The concepts of human action and rebirth in the Mahabharata, in Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-03923-0, Chapter 11 • ^ Francis X Clooney (1993), Theology After Vedanta: An Experiment in Comparative Theology, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791413654, pages 68-71 • ^ Brahma Sutras (Shankara Bhashya) (5 March 2014).

"Chapter III, Section II, Adhikarana VIII". Retrieved 8 May 2022. • ^ Eli Franco (1981), Lokayata La Philosophie Dite Materialiste de l'Inde Classique, Nanterre-Paris, France • ^ Franco, Eli (1998), Nyaya-Vaisesika, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, London • ^ Kragh 2006, p.

11. • ^ Lamotte 1987, p. 15. • ^ P. T. Raju (1985). Structural Depths of Indian Thought. State University of New York Press. pp. 147–151. ISBN 978-0-88706-139-4.

• ^ Charles Eliot (2014). Japanese Buddhism. Routledge. pp. 39–41. ISBN 978-1-317-79274-1. • ^ a b Buswell 2004, p. 712. • ^ a b Vetter 1988, p. xxi. • ^ a b Buswell 2004, p. 416. • ^ a b Matthews 1986, p. 124. • ^ a b Schmithausen 1986, p. 206-207. • ^ a b Bronkhorst 1998, p.

13. • ^ Kalupahana 1992, p. 166. • ^ a b Keown 2000, p. 36-37. • ^ a b Gombrich 2009, rebirth for you sub indo.

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95. • ^ Gombrich 2009, p. 21-22. • ^ Vetter 1988, p. 79-80. • ^ a b Buswell & Lopez Jr. 2013, p. 14. • ^ accesstoinsight, Acintita Sutta: Unconjecturable, Anguttara Nikaya 4.77 • ^ Dasgupta 1991, p. 16. • ^ a b Buswell & Lopez Jr. 2013, p. 852. • ^ : to accesstoinsight, Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on Fire, translated by Thanissaro Bhikkhu [ permanent dead link] • ^ accesstoinsight, Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta: To Vacchagotta on Fire, translated by Thanissaro Bhikkhu • ^ Fowler, Jeaneane and Merv (2009).

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A. Jain. Jwalamalini Trust. p. 7. • ^ Jaini, Padmanabh, ed. (2000). Collected papers on Jaina studies (1st ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 137. {{ cite encyclopedia}}: Missing or empty -title= ( help) • ^ Jaini 1998, p. 107. • ^ Jaini 1998, pp. 107–115. • ^ Jaini 1998, pp. 117–118. • ^ a b Jaini, Padmanabh S.

(2003). "From Nigoda to Moksa: The Story of Marudevi". In Qvarnström, Olle (ed.). Jainism and Early Buddhism: Essays in Honor of Padmanabh S. Jaini. Vol. I. Fremont CA: Asian Humanities Press (an imprint of Jain Publishing Company).

pp. 1–28. • ^ Sancheti Asoo Lal, Bhandari Rebirth for you sub indo Mal, First Steps to Jainism (Part Two): Doctrine of Karma, Doctrine of Anekant and Other Articles with Appendices, Catalogued by Library of U.S.

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47–50. • ^ a b Livia Kohn (1998), Steal holy food and come back as a Viper – Conceptions of Karma and Rebirth in Medieval Daoism Archived 9 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Early Medieval China, 4, pp 1–48 • ^ Erik Zurcher (1980), Buddhist influence on early Taoism, T'oung Pao, Vol. 66, pp 84–147 • ^ Aidan Rankin (3 February 2011). Shinto: A Celebration of Life. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-84694-438-3.

• ^ a b c Kaufman, W. R. (2005), Karma, rebirth, rebirth for you sub indo the problem of evil, Philosophy East and West, pp 15–32 • ^ [Moral responsibility] Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University (2009); Quote – "Can a person be morally responsible for her behavior if that behavior can be explained solely by reference to physical states of the universe and the laws governing changes in those physical states, or solely by reference to the existence of a sovereign God who guides the world along a divinely ordained path?" • ^ Herman, Arthur (1976), The Problem of Evil in Indian Thought, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas • ^ Harold Coward (2003) Encyclopedia of Science of Religion, Macmillan Reference, see Karma • ^ Reichenbach, Bruce (1990), The Law of Karma, University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, ISBN 978-0-333-53559-2 • ^ a b c Matthew Dasti and Edwin Bryant (2013), Free Will, Agency, and Selfhood in Indian Philosophy, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-992275-8 • ^ a b G.

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Woodward (1914), The Buddhist Doctrine of Reversible Merit, The Buddhist Review, Vol. 6, pp 38–50 • ^ Ronald Wesley Neufeldt, Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-87395-990-2, pp 226, see Footnote 74 • ^ Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-03923-0, Chapter 1 • ^ R Green (2005), Theodicy, in The Encyclopedia of Religion, 2nd Edition (Editor: Lindsay Jones), Volume 12, Macmillan Reference, ISBN 978-0-02-865733-2 • ^ Max Weber (Translated by Fischoff, 1993), The Sociology of Religion, Beacon Press, ISBN 978-0-8070-4205-2, pp.

129–153 • ^ Francis Clooney (2005), in The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism (Editor: Gavin Flood), Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-21535-2, pp. 454–455 • ^ Francis Clooney (1989), "Evil, Divine Omnipotence and Human Freedom: Vedanta's theology of Karma", Journal of Religion, Vol. 69, pp 530–548 • ^ a b P. Bilimoria (2007), Karma's rebirth for you sub indo A Mimamsa solution to the problem of evil, in Indian Ethics (Editors: Bilimoria et al.), Volume 1, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7546-3301-3, pp.

171–189 • ^ See Kumarila's Slokavarttika; for English translation of parts and discussions: P. Bilimoria (1990), "Hindu doubts about God – Towards a Mimamsa Deconstruction", International Philosophical Quarterly, 30(4), pp. 481–499 • ^ a b c P. Bilimoria (2013), Toward an Indian Theodicy, in The Blackwell Companion to the Problem of Evil (Editors: McBrayer and Howard-Snyder), 1st Edition, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0-470-67184-9, Chapter 19 • ^ a b c Emily Hudson (2012), Disorienting Dharma: Ethics and the Aesthetics of Suffering in the Mahabharata, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-986078-4, pp.

178–217 • ^ Manmatha Nath Dutt (1895), English translation of The Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 159, verse 15 • ^ Gregory Bailey (1983), Suffering in the Mahabharata: Draupadi and Yudhishthira, Purusartha, No.

7, pp. 109–129 • ^ Alf Hiltebeitel (2001), Rethinking the Mahabharata: A Reader's Guide to the Education of the Dharma King, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-34053-1, Chapters 2 and 5 • ^ P.B. Mehta (2007), The ethical irrationality of the world – Weber and Hindu Ethics, in Indian Ethics (Editors: Billimoria et al.), Volume 1, Ashgate, ISBN 978-0-7546-3301-3, pp. 363–375 • ^ Ursula Sharma (1973), Theodicy and the doctrine of karma, Man, Vol.

8, No. 3, pp. 347–364 • ^ The Nyaya-Vaisesika school of Hinduism is one of the exceptions where the premise is similar to the Christian concept of an omnibenevolent, omnipotent creator • ^ G.

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Kessler), Wadsworth, ISBN 978-0-534-50549-3, pp. 248–255 • ^ Bruce R. Reichenbach (1989), Karma, Causation, and Divine Intervention, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 135–149 • ^ Arthur Herman, The problem of evil and Indian thought, 2nd Edition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0753-7, rebirth for you sub indo. 5 with Part II and III of the book • ^ P. Singh, Sikh perspectives on health and suffering: A focus on Sikh theodicy, in Religion, Health and Suffering (Editors: John Hinnells and Roy Porter), Routledge, ISBN 978-0-7103-0611-1, pp.

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In: Ronald W. Neufeldt (ed.), "Karma and rebirth: Post-classical developments", SUNY • Vetter, Tilmann (1988), The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism, BRILL External links Wikiquote has quotations related to: Karma Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article " Karma". • Abhinavabharati • Arthashastra • Bhagavad Gita • Bhagavata Purana • Brahma Sutra • Buddhist texts • Dharmashastra • Hindu texts • Jain Agamas • Kamasutra • Mimamsa Sutras • All 108 texts • Principal • Nyāya Sūtras • Nyayakusumanjali • Panchadasi • Samkhyapravachana Sutra • Sangam texts • Shiva Sutras • Tarka-Sangraha • Tattvacintāmaṇi • Tirukkuṟaḷ • Upanishads • Minor • Vaiśeṣika Sūtra • Vedangas • Vedas • Yoga Sutras of Patanjali • Yoga Vasistha • More.

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