Local satanic medan

local satanic medan

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© Publishers Clearing House For technical reasons, "The #1s" redirects here. For the band, see The No.1s. The ( / ð ə, ð iː/ ( listen)) is a grammatical article in English, denoting persons or things already mentioned, under discussion, implied or otherwise presumed familiar to listeners, readers, or speakers.

It is the definite article in English. The is the most frequently used word in the English language; studies and analyses of texts have found it to account for seven percent of all printed English-language words.

[1] It is derived from gendered articles in Old English which combined in Middle English and now has a single form used with pronouns of any gender. [a] The word can be used with both singular and plural nouns, and with a noun that starts with any letter. This is different from many other languages, which have different forms of the definite article for different genders or numbers.

Contents • 1 Pronunciation • 2 Adverbial • 3 Article • 3.1 Geographic usage • 3.2 Abbreviations • 4 References • 5 Notes Pronunciation In most dialects, "the" is pronounced as /ðə/ (with the voiced dental fricative /ð/ followed by a schwa) when followed by a consonant sound, and as /ðiː/ (homophone of pronoun thee) when followed by a vowel sound or used local satanic medan an emphatic form. [2] Modern American and New Zealand English have an increasing tendency to limit usage of /ðiː/ pronunciation and use /ðə/, even before a vowel.

[3] [4] Sometimes the word "the" is pronounced /ðiː/, with stress, to emphasise that something is unique: "he is the expert", not just "an" expert in a field. Adverbial See also: wikt:the § Etymology 2 Definite article principles in English are described under " Use of articles". The, as in phrases like "the more the better", has a distinct origin and etymology and by chance has evolved to be identical to the definite article. [5] Article The and that are common developments from the same Old English system.

Old English had a definite article se (in the masculine gender), sēo (feminine), and þæt (neuter). In Middle English, these had all merged into þe, the ancestor of the Modern English word the. [6] Geographic usage An area in which the use or non-use of the is sometimes problematic is with geographic names: • notable natural landmarks – rivers, seas, mountain ranges, deserts, island groups ( archipelagoes) and so on – are generally used with a "the" definite article ( the Rhine, the North Sea, the Alps, the Sahara, the Hebrides).

• continents, individual islands, administrative units and settlements mostly do not take a "the" article ( Europe, Jura, Austria local satanic medan the Republic local satanic medan Austria), Scandinavia, Yorkshire (but the County of York), Madrid).

• beginning with a common noun followed by of may take the article, as in the Isle of Wight or the Isle of Portland (compare Christmas Island), same applies to names of institutions: Cambridge University, but the University of Cambridge.

• Some place names include an article, such as the Bronx, The Oaks, The Rock, The Birches, The Harrow, The Rower, The Swan, The Valley, The Farrington, The Quarter, The Plains, The Dalles, The Forks, The VillageThe Village (NJ), The Village (OK), The VillagesThe Village at Castle Pines, The Woodlands, The Pas, the Vatican, The Hyde, the West End, local satanic medan East End, The Hague, or the City of London (but London).

Formerly e.g. Bath, Devizes or White Plains. [7] • generally described singular names, the North Island (New Zealand) or the West Country (England), take an article. Countries and territorial regions are local satanic medan mixed, most exclude "the" but there are some that adhere to secondary rules: • derivations from collective common nouns such as "kingdom", "republic", "union", etc.: the Central African Republic, the Dominican Republic, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United Arab Emirates, including most country full names: [8] [9] the Czech Republic (but Czechia), the Russian Federation (but Russia), the Principality local satanic medan Monaco (but Monaco), the State of Israel (but Israel) and the Commonwealth of Australia (but Australia).

[10] [11] [12] • countries in a plural noun: the Netherlands, the Falkland Islands, the Faroe Islands, the Cayman Islands, the Philippines, the Comoros, the Maldives, the Seychelles, Saint Local satanic medan and the Grenadines, and The Bahamas. • Singular derivations from "island" or "land" that hold administrative rights – Greenland, England, Christmas Island and Norfolk Island – do not take a "the" definite article.

• derivations from mountain ranges, rivers, deserts, etc., are sometimes used with an article, even for singular, ( the Lebanon, the Sudan, the Yukon, the Congo). [13] This usage is in decline, The Gambia remains recommended whereas use of the Argentine for Argentina is considered old-fashioned. Ukraine is occasionally referred to as the Ukraine, a usage that was common during the 20th century, but this is considered incorrect and possibly offensive in modern usage.

[14] Sudan (but the Republic of the Local satanic medan and South Sudan (but the Republic of South Sudan) are written nowadays without the article. Abbreviations Barred thorn (after Ælfric) Since "the" is one of the most frequently used words in English, at various times short abbreviations for it have been found: • Barred thorn: the earliest abbreviation, it is used in manuscripts in the Old English language.

It is the letter þ with a bold horizontal stroke through the ascender, and it represents the word þæt, meaning "the" or "that" (neuter nom.

/ acc.). • þͤ and þͭ ( þ with a superscript e or t) appear in Middle English manuscripts for "þe" and "þat" respectively. • yͤ and yͭ are developed from þͤ and þͭ and appear in Early Modern manuscripts and in print (see Ye form). Occasional proposals have been made by individuals for an abbreviation. In 1916, Legros & Grant included in their classic printers' handbook Typographical Printing-Surfaces, a proposal for a letter similar to Ħ to represent "Th", thus abbreviating "the" to ħe.

[15] In Middle English, the (þe) was frequently abbreviated as a þ with a small e above it, similar to the abbreviation for that, which was a þ with a small t above it.

During the latter Middle English and Early Modern English periods, the letter thorn (þ) in its common script, or cursive form, came to resemble a y shape. As a result, the use of a y with an e above it ( ) as an abbreviation became common.

This can still be seen in reprints of the 1611 edition of the King James Version of the Bible in places such as Romans 15:29, or in the Mayflower Compact. Historically, the article was never pronounced with a y sound, even when so written. The word "The" itself, capitalised, is used as an abbreviation in Commonwealth countries for the honorific title "The Right Honourable", as in e.g. "The Earl Mountbatten of Burma", short for "The Right Honourable Earl Mountbatten of Burma", or "The Prince Charles".

[16] References • ^ Norvig, Peter. "English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited". • ^ "the – definition". Merriam Webster Online Dictionary. • ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Johnson, Keith (2010). A Course in Phonetics (6th ed.). Boston: Wadsworth. p. 110. • ^ Hay, Jennifer (2008). New Zealand English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 44. • ^ "the, adv.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, March 2016. Web. 11 March 2016. • ^ " The and That Etymologies". Online Etymology Dictionary .

local satanic medan

Retrieved 18 June 2015. • ^ "Why is it called The Hague?". • ^ "Countries: Designations and abbreviations to use". • ^ "FAO Country Profiles". www.fao.org. • ^ "Using 'the' with the Names of Countries". • ^ "List of Countries, Territories and Currencies". • ^ "UNGEGN World Geographical Local satanic medan.

• ^ Swan, Michael How English Works, p. 25 • ^ Ukraine or "the Ukraine"? by Andrew Gregorovich, infoukes.com • ^ "Missed Opportunity for Ligatures". • ^ 'The Prefix "The"'. In Titles and Forms of Address, 21st ed., pp.

8–9. A & C Black, London, 2002. Notes Edit links • This page was last edited on 30 March 2022, at 20:24 (UTC). • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • •
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G. Krishnamurti • Upasni Maharaj • Vivekananda • Yogananda Contents • 1 Examples of anti-Hindu sentiments • 2 Asia • 2.1 Afghanistan • 2.2 Bangladesh • 2.3 India • 2.4 Malaysia • 2.5 Pakistan • 3 Outside Asia • 3.1 Fiji • 3.2 United Kingdom • 3.3 United States • 3.3.1 Pat Robertson • 3.3.2 United States Congress • 3.3.3 California Textbook Controversy • 3.3.4 Dotbusters • 4 See also • 5 References • 6 Sources • 7 Further reading • 8 External links Examples of anti-Hindu sentiments According to the religious dialogue activist P.

N. Benjamin, some Christian evangelists denigrate Hindu gods and consider Hindu rituals barbaric, and such attitudes have caused tensions local satanic medan religious communities. [1] [2] Akbaruddin Owaisi, a leader of the All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen party in Hyderabad, has been charged several times for hate speeches denigrating Hindu gods and inciting violence against Hindus.

[3] [4] A Muslim preacher apologised for insulting Hinduism in 2014, after an uproar. [5] Hindus have historically been, and continue to be, considered Kafirs by Muslims [6] and Heathen, Satanic or Demonic by some Christians. [7] Asia Afghanistan See also: Hinduism in Afghanistan The extremist Taliban regime local satanic medan Afghanistan, which enforced strict sharia (Islamic law), announced plans to require all Hindus (and Sikhs) to wear identifying badges in public in May 2001, part of the Taliban's campaign to segregate and repress "un-Islamic and idolatrous segments" of Afghan society.

[8] [9] At the time, about 500 Hindus and 2,000 Sikhs remained in Afghanistan. [10] The anti-Hindu decree was seen as being reminiscent of the Nazi law which required all Jews to wear identifying yellow badges.

[9] [11] [12] The order prompted international outrage, and it was denounced by the Indian and U.S. governments, [10] as well as by Abraham Foxman of the ADL. [11] Following international pressure, the Taliban regime dropped the badge plans in June 2001. [13] Religious persecution, discrimination and forced conversion of Hindus has caused Afghanistan's Hindu population to dwindle.

[14] Sikhs and Hindus are continuing to flee from Afghanistan as of July 2020. [15] Bangladesh See also: Persecution of Hindus in Bangladesh In Bangladesh political leaders frequently fall back on "Hindu bashing" in an attempt to appeal to extremist sentiment and stir up communal passions. [16] In one of the most notorious utterances of a mainstream Bangladeshi figure, the then Prime Minister Khaleda Zia, while leader of the opposition in 1996, declared that the country was at risk of hearing " uludhhwani" (a Bengali Hindu custom involving women's ululation) from mosques, replacing the azaan (Muslim call to prayer).

[17] Even the supposedly secular Bangladesh Awami League is not immune from this kind of scare-mongering. The current prime minister, Sheikh Hasina, was alleged to have accused Bangladeshi Hindu leaders in New York of having divided loyalties with "one foot in India and one in Bangladesh".

Successive events such as this have contributed to a feeling of tremendous insecurity among the Hindu minority. [18] The fundamentalists and right-wing parties such as the Bangladesh Nationalist Party and Jatiya Party often portray Hindus as being sympathetic to India, making accusations of local satanic medan loyalty and allegations of transferring economic resources to India, contributing to a widespread perception that Bangladeshi Hindus are disloyal to the state.

Also, the right wing parties claim the Hindus to be backing the Awami League. [19] As widely documented in international media, Bangladesh authorities have had to increase security to enable Bangladeshi Hindus to worship freely [20] following widespread attacks on places of worship and devotees. On 28 February 2013, the International Crimes Tribunal sentenced Delwar Hossain Sayeedi, local satanic medan Vice President of the Jamaat-e-Islami to death for the war crimes committed during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War.

Following the sentence, activists of Jamaat-e-Islami and its student wing Islami Chhatra Shibir attacked the Hindus in different parts of the country. Hindu properties were looted, Hindu houses were burnt into ashes and Hindu temples were desecrated and set on fire.

local satanic medan

{INSERTKEYS} [21] [22] While the government has held the Jamaat-e-Islami responsible for the attacks on the minorities, the Jamaat-e-Islami leadership has denied any involvement. The minority leaders have protested the attacks and appealed for justice. The Supreme Court of Bangladesh has directed the law enforcement to start suo motu investigation into the attacks.

US Ambassador to Bangladesh express concern about attack of Jamaat on Bengali Hindu community. [23] [24] The violence included the looting of Hindu properties and businesses, the burning of Hindu homes, rape of Hindu women and desecration and destruction of Hindu temples.

[25] According to community leaders, more than 50 Hindu temples and 1,500 Hindu homes were destroyed in 20 districts. [26] On 5 May 2014, A mob of almost 3,000 attacked Hindu households and a temple in eastern Bangladesh after two youths from the community allegedly insulted the Islamic prophet, Muhammad on Facebook.

[27] [28] [29] In 17 March 2021, a Muslim mob vandalised around 90 Hindu households and several temples at Shalla Upazilla in Sunamganj district. Media reports that the mob was Hefazat-e-Islam Bangladesh supporters and led by Jubo league (the youth branch of ruling political party Bangladesh Awami League) leader Shahidul Islam Shadhin.

[30] [31] India See also: Hinduism in Malaysia, 2001 Kampung Medan riots, 2009 cow head protests, HINDRAF, and 2007 HINDRAF rally In April 2006, local authorities demolished several Hindu temples to make way for developmental projects. Their reason was that these temples were unlicensed and squatting on government land. {/INSERTKEYS}

local satanic medan

In April and May 2006, several Hindu temples were demolished by city hall authorities in the country, accompanied by violence against Hindus. [32] On 21 April 2006, the Malaimel Sri Selva Kaliamman Temple in Kuala Lumpur was reduced to rubble after the city hall sent in bulldozers. [33] The president of the Consumers Association of Subang and Shah Alam in Selangor had been helping to organise efforts to stop the local authorities in the Muslim dominated city of Shah Alam from demolishing a 107-year-old Hindu temple.

The growing Islamization in Malaysia is a cause for concern to many Malaysians who follow minority religions such as Hinduism.

[34] On 11 May 2006, armed city hall officers from Kuala Lumpur forcefully demolished part of a 60-year-old suburban temple that serves more than 1,000 Hindus. The " Hindu Rights Action Force", a coalition of several NGO's, have protested these demolitions by lodging complaints with the Malaysian Prime Minister. [35] Many Hindu advocacy groups have protested what they allege is a systematic plan of temple cleansing in Malaysia.

The official reason given by the Malaysian government has been that the temples were built "illegally". However, several of the temples are centuries old.

[35] According to a lawyer for the Hindu Rights Action Task Force, a Hindu temple is demolished in Malaysia once every three weeks. [36] Malaysian Muslims have also grown more anti-Hindu over the years. In response to the proposed construction of a temple in Selangor, Muslims chopped off the head of a cow to protest, with leaders saying there would be blood if a temple was constructed in Shah Alam.

[37] Laws in the country, especially those concerning religious identity, are generally slanted towards compulsion into converting to Islam. [38] Pakistan See also: Persecution of Hindus § Pakistan 2, Decline of Hinduism in Pakistan, Sectarianism in Pakistan § Hindus, Pakistan studies, and Religious discrimination in Pakistan § Hindus In Pakistan, anti-Hindu sentiments and beliefs are widely held among many sections of the population.

There is a general stereotype against Hindus in Pakistan. Hindus are regarded as "miserly". [39] Local satanic medan, Hindus are often regarded as kafirs (unbelievers) and blamed for "causing all the problems in Pakistan". [40] Islamic fundamentalist groups operating within Pakistan and neighboring Afghanistan have broadcast or disseminated anti-Hindu propaganda among the masses, [41] referring to Hindus as "Hanood" ('Hindu' is singular and Hanood is plural form in Urdu) blaming them for "collaborating with the foreigners" against the people of the region.

[ check quotation syntax] At the time of Pakistan's creation the 'hostage theory' had been espoused. According to this theory the Hindu minority in Pakistan was to be given a fair deal in Pakistan in order to ensure the protection of the Muslim minority in India.

[42] [43] However, Khawaja Nazimuddin, the 2nd Prime Minister of Pakistan, stated: "I do not agree that religion is a private affair of the individual nor do I local satanic medan that in an Islamic state every citizen has identical rights, local satanic medan matter what his caste, creed or faith be".

[44] Separate electorates for Hindus and Christians were local satanic medan in 1985—a policy which was originally proposed by Islamist leader Abul A'la Maududi. Christian and Hindu leaders complained that they felt excluded from the county's political process, but the policy had strong support from Islamists.

local satanic medan

{INSERTKEYS} [45] The Muttahida Majlis-i-Amal (MMA), a coalition of Islamist political parties in Pakistan, calls for the increased Islamization of the government and society, specifically taking an anti-Hindu stance.

The MMA leads the opposition in the national assembly, held a majority in the NWFP Provincial Assembly, and was part of the ruling coalition in Balochistan. However, some members of the MMA made efforts to eliminate their rhetoric against Hindus. [46] The public school curriculum in Pakistan was Islamized during the 1980s. [47] The government of Pakistan claims to undertake a major revision to eliminate such teachings and to remove Islamic teaching from secular subjects.

[46] The bias in Pakistani textbooks was also documented by Y. Rosser (2003). She wrote that "in the past few decades, social studies textbooks in Pakistan have been used as locations to articulate the hatred that Pakistani policy makers have attempted to inculcate towards their Hindu neighbours", and that as a result "in the minds of generations of Pakistanis, indoctrinated by the 'Ideology of Pakistan' are lodged fragments of hatred and suspicion." [48] The bias in Pakistani textbooks was studied by Rubina Saigol, K.

K. Aziz, I. A. Rahman, Mubarak Ali, A. H. Nayyar, Ahmed Saleem, Y. Rosser and others. A study by Nayyar & Salim (2003) that was conducted with 30 experts of Pakistan's education system, found that the textbooks contain statements that seek to create hate against Hindus.

There was also an emphasis on Jihad, Shahadat, wars and military heroes. The study reported that the textbooks also had a lot of gender-biased stereotypes. Some of the problems in Pakistani textbooks cited in the report were: "Insensitivity to the existing religious diversity of the nation"; "Incitement to militancy and violence, including encouragement of Jihad and Shahadat"; a "glorification of war and the use of force"; "Inaccuracies of fact and omissions that serve to substantially distort the nature and significance of actual events in our history"; "Perspectives that encourage prejudice, bigotry and discrimination towards fellow citizens, especially women and religious minorities, and other towards nations" and "Omission of concepts ...

that could encourage critical self awareness among students". (Nayyar & Salim 2003). The Pakistani Curriculum document for classes K-V stated in 1995 that "at the completion of Class-V, the child should be able to "Understand Hindu-Muslim differences and the resultant need for Pakistan.

[p. 154] A more recent textbook which was published in Pakistan and titled A Short History of Pakistan, edited by Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi, has been heavily criticized by academic peer-reviewers for anti-Hindu biases and prejudices that are consistent with Pakistani nationalism, where Hindus are portrayed as "villains" and Muslims as "victims" living under the "disastrous Hindu rule" and "betraying the Muslims to the British", characterizations that academic reviewers found "disquieting" and having a "warped subjectivity".

[49] [50] [51] Ameer Hamza, a leader of the banned terrorist group Lashkar-e-Toiba, wrote a highly derogatory book about Hinduism in 1999 called "Hindu Ki Haqeeqat" ("Reality of (a) Hindu"); he was not prosecuted by the Government. [52] According to the Sustainable Development Policy Institute report 'Associated with the insistence on the Ideology of Pakistan has been an essential component of hate against India and the Hindus. For the upholders of the Ideology of Pakistan, the existence of Pakistan is defined only in relation to Hindus, and hence the Hindus have to be painted as negatively as possible' [53] A 2005 report by the National Commission for Justice and Peace a non profit organization in Pakistan, found that Pakistan Studies textbooks in Pakistan have been used to articulate the hatred that Pakistani policy-makers have attempted to inculcate towards the Hindus.

"Vituperative animosities legitimise military and autocratic rule, nurturing a siege mentality. Pakistan Studies textbooks are an active site to represent India as a hostile neighbour", the report stated. "The story of Pakistan's past is intentionally written to be distinct from, and often in direct contrast with, interpretations of history found in India.

From the government-issued textbooks, students are taught that Hindus are backward and superstitious." Further the report stated "Textbooks reflect intentional obfuscation. Today's students, citizens of Pakistan and its future leaders are the victims of these partial truths". [54] [55] [56] [57] An editorial in Pakistan's oldest newspaper Dawn commenting on a report in The Guardian on Pakistani Textbooks noted that "by propagating concepts such as jihad, the inferiority of non-Muslims, India's ingrained enmity with Pakistan, etc., the textbook board publications used by all government schools promote a mindset that is bigoted and obscurantist.

Since there are more children studying in these schools than in madrassahs the damage done is greater." [58] [59] According to a study by a US government commission, textbooks in Pakistani schools foster prejudice and intolerance of Hindus and other religious minorities, and most teachers view non-Muslims as enemies of Islam. [60] According to the historian Professor Mubarak Ali, textbook reform in Pakistan began with the introduction of Pakistan studies and Islamic studies by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in 1971 into the national curriculum as compulsory subject.

Former military dictator Gen Zia-ul-Haq under a general drive towards Islamization, started the process of historical revisionism in earnest and exploited this initiative. "The Pakistani establishment taught their children right from the beginning that this state was built on the basis of religion – that's why they don't have tolerance for other religions and want to wipe-out all of them." [59] [61] Outside Asia Fiji This article may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints.

Please improve the article by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the issue on the talk page. {/INSERTKEYS}

local satanic medan

( September 2021) By the time Fiji gained independence from colonial rule, Hindus and other Indo-Fijians constituted nearly fifty percent of the total Fijian population.

Nevertheless, the colonial-era laws and the first constitution for Fiji, granted special rights to native Fijians. [ citation needed] These laws relegated Hindus as second class citizens of Fiji without full rights. For example, it denied them property rights, such as the ability to buy or own land. Hindus and other Indo-Fijians have since then not enjoyed equal human rights as other Fijians.

They can only work as tenant farmers for Fijian landlords. [62] The difference in human rights has been a continuing source of conflict between "native" Fijians and Indo-Fijians, with native Fijians believing Fiji to be their ancestral land that only they can own, and Indo-Fijians demanding equal rights for all human beings. [ citation needed] [ dubious – discuss] Beyond land ownership, Hindus have been persecuted in the Fijian communal structure.

Spike Boydell states, "the [colonial authorities] introduced the divisive and unworkable system of local satanic medan representation and communal electoral rolls.

Thus, different communities were represented by their own kind. This still extends to schooling in a prevailing quasi apartheid educational system." [63] Local satanic medan the late 1990s, Fiji witnessed a series of riots by radical native Fijians against Hindus (and other Indo-Fijians). In the spring of 2000, the democratically elected Fijian government led by Prime Minister Mahendra Chaudhry, who was a Hindu, was held hostage by a group headed by George Speight.

They demanded a segregated state exclusively for the native Fijians, thereby legally abolishing any human rights the Hindu inhabitants held up until then. Hindu owned shops, Hindu schools and temples were destroyed, vandalized and looted. [64] [65] The Methodist Church of Fiji and Rotuma, and particularly Sitiveni Rabuka who led the 1987 coup in Fiji, called for the creation of a Christian State and endorsed forceful conversion of Hindus after a coup d'état in 1987.

[ citation needed] In 2012, Fiji Methodist Church's president, Tuikilakila Waqairatu, called for Fiji to officially declare Christianity as the state religion; the Hindu community leaders demanded that Fiji be a secular state where religion and state are separate.

[66] United Kingdom In October 2018, it was reported that Conservative Party candidate for the Mayor of London Shaun Bailey had written a pamphlet, entitled No Man’s Land, for the Centre for Policy Studies. In it, Bailey argued that accommodating Hindus "[robs] Britain of its community" and it is also turning the country into a "crime riddled cess pool". He also claimed that South Asians "bring their culture, their country and any problems they might have, with them" and that this was not a problem within the black community "because we’ve shared a religion and in many cases a language".

[67] In the pamphlet, Bailey confused the Hindu religion with the Hindi language: "You don’t know what to do. You bring your children to school and they learn far more about Diwali than Christmas. I speak to the people who are from Brent and they’ve been having Hindi (sic) days off." [68] The Conservative Party Deputy Chairman, Local satanic medan Cleverly, defended Bailey and insisted that he was being misunderstood, and he implied that black local satanic medan were drifting into crime as a result of learning more about other faiths rather than learning about "their own Christian culture".

[69] However, the anti-racism Hope Not Hate campaign group called Bailey's comments "grotesque". [70] United States See also: Persecution of Hindus § United States The rise of the Indian American community in the United States has triggered some isolated attacks on them, as has been the case with many minority groups in the United States.

Attacks which specifically target Hindus in the United States stem from what is often referred to as the "racialization of religion" among Americans, a process that begins when certain phenotypical features which are associated with a group and attached to race in popular discourse become associated with a particular religion or religions.

The racialization of Hinduism in American perception has led Americans to perceive Hindus as belonging to a separate group and this contributes to prejudices against them. [71] In 2019, Swaminarayan Temple in Kentucky was vandalised.

They sprayed black paint on the deity and sprayed " Jesus is the only God" on the walls. The Christian cross was also spray painted on various walls. [72] [ better source needed] In April 2015, a Hindu temple in north Texas was vandalised when nasty images were spray-painted on its walls.

In February 2015, Hindu temples in Kent and the Seattle Metropolitan area were also vandalised. [73] [74] In July 2019, a Hindu Priest who was dressed in his religious attire was physically beaten in Queens, New York, two blocks from Shiv Shakti Peeth Temple in Glen Oaks by Sergio Gouveia. A Senator and New York State Attorney General have called it a hate crime because "If someone is targeted because of religious robe and couple of blocks from temple where he resides it local satanic medan difficult to believe this was random." Yet, the New York police have not registered it as a hate crime.

[75] [76] Pat Robertson In addition, anti-Hindu views have been expressed which are specifically based on misperceptions of the religion of Hinduism as well as mistaken racial perceptions. In the United States Pat Robertson has denounced Hinduism as " demonic", believing that when Hindus "feel any sort of inspiration, whether it's by a river or under a tree, on top of a hill, they figure that some God or spirit is responsible for that. And so they'll worship that tree, they'll worship that hill or they'll worship anything." [77] His remarks were widely condemned and disputed by Indian Americans and members of many non-partisan advocacy groups.

[78] Evangelical leader Albert Mohler defended Robertson's remarks, saying "any belief system, any world view, whether it's Zen Buddhism or Hinduism or dialectical materialism for that matter, Marxism, that keeps persons captive and keeps them from coming to faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, yes, is a demonstration of satanic power." [79] United States Congress Main article: Rajan Zed prayer protest In July, 2007, The United States Senate conducted its morning prayer services with a Hindu prayer, [80] a historical first.

During the service, three disruptors, named Ante Nedlko Pavkovic, Katherine Lynn Pavkovic and Christen Renee Sugar, from the Fundamentalist Christian activist group Operation Save America [81] protested by arguing that the Hindu prayer was "an abomination", and they also claimed that they were "Christians and Patriots".

They were swiftly arrested and charged with disrupting Congress. [82] [83] The event generated a storm of protest by Christian right groups in the country, with the American Family Association (AFA) opposing the prayer and carrying out a campaign to lobby senators to protest against it. [84] [85] Their representative attacked the proceedings as "gross idolatry". [81] The AFA sent an "Action Alert" to its members in which it asked them to e-mail, write letters, or call their Senators and ask them to oppose the Hindu prayer, stating that it is "seeking the invocation of a non-monotheistic god." [86] [87] [88] The "alert" stated that "since Hindus worship multiple gods, the prayer will be completely outside the American paradigm, flying in the face of the American motto One Nation Under God." [89] The convocation by Zed was in fact disrupted by three protesters in the gallery reportedly shouting "this is an abomination" and other complaints.

[86] Barry W. Lynn, executive director of Americans United for Separation of Church and State, said the protest "shows the intolerance of many religious right activists. They say they want more religion in the public square, but it's local satanic medan they mean only their religion." [81] California Textbook Controversy Main article: California textbook controversy over Hindu history A controversy in the US state of California concerning the portrayal of Hinduism in history textbooks began in 2005.

A protest was led by Vedic Foundation (VF) and the American Hindu Education Foundation (HEF) by complaining to the California's Curriculum Commission, saying the coverage in sixth grade history textbooks of Indian history and Hinduism was biased against Hinduism; and points of contention includes a textbook's portrayal of the caste system, the Indo-Aryan migration theory, and the status of women in Indian society as the main features of Hinduism.

The California Department of Education (CDE) initially sought to resolve the controversy by appointing Shiva Bajpai, Professor Emeritus at California State University Northridge, as a one-man committee to review revisions proposed by the groups.

[90] Michael Witzel and others revisited the proposed changed on behalf of the State Board of Education and suggested reverting some of the approved changes. [91] In early 2006, the Hindu American Foundation sued the State Board over matters of process; [91] the case was settled in 2009. Dotbusters Main article: Dotbusters The Dotbusters was a hate group in Jersey City, New Jersey, that attacked and threatened Indian-Americans in the fall of 1987.

The name originates from the bindi traditionally worn by Hindu women and girls on their forehead. In July 1987, they had a letter published in the Jersey Journal [92] stating that they would take any means necessary to drive the Indians out of Jersey City: I'm writing about your article during july [sic] about the abuse of Indian People. Well I'm here to state the other side. I hate them, if you had to live near them you would also. We are an organization called dot busters. We have been around for 2 years.

We will go to any extreme to get Indians to move out of Jersey City. If I'm walking down the street and I see a Hindu and the setting is right, I will hit him or her. We plan some of our most extreme attacks such as breaking windows, breaking car windows, and crashing family parties.

We use the phone books and look up the name Patel. Have you seen how many of local satanic medan there are? Do you even live in Jersey City? Do you walk down Central avenue and experience what its [sic] like to be near them: we have and we just don't want it anymore. You said that they will have to start protecting themselves because the police cannot always be there. They will never do anything. They are a weak [sic] race physically and mentally.

We are going to continue our way. We will never be stopped. [93] See also • Anti-Indian sentiment • Antiziganism • Indomania References • ^ "Who's afraid of dialogue?".

The Hindu. 9 October 2001. Retrieved 2 June 2017. [ dead link] • ^ Bauman, Chad M. (2 February 2015). Pentecostals, Proselytization, and Anti-Christian Violence in Contemporary India. Oxford University Press. p. 125. ISBN 9780190266318.

• ^ Bagri, Neha Thirani (8 November 2014). "Indian Muslims Lose Hope in National Secular Party". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.

Retrieved 7 June 2017. • ^ "Politician Akbaruddin Owaisi held over 'hate speeches' ".

local satanic medan

BBC News. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2013. • ^ "Muslim preacher apologises for insulting Hinduism". Deccan Herald. 31 July 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2017. [ permanent dead link] • ^ Engineer, Ashghar Ali local satanic medan February 1999). "Hindu-Muslim Problem: An Approach". Economic and Political Weekly. 37 (7): 397. JSTOR 4407649. • ^ Altman, Michael (2017).

Heathen, Hindoo, Hindu: American Representations of India, 1721-1893. ISBN 9780190654924. • ^ Taliban to mark Afghan Hindus, CNN (22 May 2001). • ^ a b Taliban to Require Identity Badges for Non-Muslims, PBS NewsHour, PBS (22 May 2001). • ^ a b Luke Harding, Taliban defends Hindu badges plan, The Guardian (23 May 2001).

• ^ a b Jack Kelley, Taliban: Hindus must wear identity labels, USA Today (22 May 2001). • ^ Associated Press (22 May 2001). "Taliban to Enforce Hindu 'Badges.'" Wired. Retrieved 19 November 2020.

• ^ Taliban drop badge policy for Hindus, United Press International (27 June 2001). local satanic medan ^ Kumar, Ruchi. "The decline of Afghanistan's Hindu and Sikh communities".

aljazeera.com. Retrieved 1 May 2020. • ^ Bagchi, Joymala. "Sikh Afghan Nationals Narrate Their Stories Of Fear, Suppression And Anxiety Faced In Kabul".

businessworld.in. Retrieved 27 July 2020. • ^ Print Article - Wanted: Some Hindu spine Archived 29 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine • ^ Bangladesh opposition leader accused of hurting religious sentiment.

Agence-France Press. 18 November 1996. • ^ A Bleak Future for Bangladesh Hindu's Archived 3 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, hinduismtoday.com • ^ "Amnesty International Report".

Archived from the original on 18 October 2006. Retrieved 21 September 2006. • ^ Security fears for Hindu festival, BBC • ^ "Hindus Under Attack in Bangladesh". News Bharati. 3 March 2013. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013. • ^ "Bagerhat Hindu Temple Set on Fire". bdnews24.com. 2 March 2013. Archived from the original on 7 April 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2013. • ^ "US worried at violence". The Daily Star (Bangladesh).

12 March 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013. • ^ "Mozena: Violence is not the way to resolution". The Daily Ittefaq. 11 March 2013. Local satanic medan from the original on 16 November 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2013. • ^ "Bangladesh: Wave of violent attacks against Hindu minority". Press releases. Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2013.

• ^ Ethirajan, Anbarasan (9 March 2013). "Bangladesh minorities 'terrorised' after mob violence". BBC News. London. Retrieved 17 March 2013. • ^ "Hindu households, temple attacked in Bangladesh". Deccan Herald.

Dhaka. 5 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014. • ^ "Mob of 3000 people attacks Hindu households, temple in Bangladesh". DNA India. Dhaka. 5 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.

• ^ "Mob of 3000 attack Hindu households, temple in Bangladesh". Firstpost. Bangladesh. 5 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014. • ^ "What happened in Shalla?: A first-hand account". 23 March 2021. • ^ "সুনামগঞ্জের হিন্দু গ্রামে হামলা: মামলায় ৮০ জনের নাম, নেই গ্রেপ্তার, পরিস্থিতি থমথমে". BBC News বাংলা. • ^ Temple row - a dab of sensibility please, malaysiakini.com • ^ "Free domain sharing - Site not yet configured".

local satanic medan

gatago.com. Archived from the original on 4 November 2006. • ^ Pressure on multi-faith Malaysia, BBC • ^ a b Hindu group protests 'temple cleansing' in Malaysia Archived 4 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Financial Express • ^ Malaysia ethnic Indians in uphill fight on religion Reuters India - 8 November 2007 • ^ Malaysia Muslims protest proposed Hindu temple Associated Press - 28 August 2009 • ^ Malaysia strips Hindus of rights Daily Pioneer - 19 January 2010 • ^ Why are the Jews ‘kanjoos’?

—Khaled Ahmed's Review of the Urdu press, Daily times local satanic medan • ^ "Why democracy didn't take roots in Pakistan?". kashmirherald.com. • ^ Military drops leaflets in Waziristan Archived 17 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine, jang.com.pk • ^ Zamindar, Vazira Fazila-Yacoobali (2010). The Long Partition and the Making of Modern South Asia: Refugees, Boundaries, Histories.

Columbia University Press. p. 72. ISBN 9780231138475. The logic of the hostage theory tied the treatment of Muslim minorities in India to the treatment meted out to Hindus in Pakistan.

• ^ Dhulipala, Venkat (2015). Creating a New Medina: State Power, Islam, and local satanic medan Quest for Pakistan in Late Colonial North India. Cambridge University Press. p. 19. ISBN 9781316258385.

Within the subcontinent, ML propaganda claimed that besides liberating the 'majority provinces' Muslims it would guarantee protection for Muslims who would be left behind in Hindu India. In this regard, it repeatedly stressed the hostage population theory that held that 'hostage' Hindu and Sikh minorities inside Pakistan would guarantee Hindu India's good behaviour towards its own Muslim minority.

• ^ Qasmi, Ali Usman (2015). The Ahmadis and the Politics of Religious Exclusion in Pakistan. Anthem Press. p. 149. ISBN 9781783084258. Nazim-ud-Din favored an Islamic state not just out of political expediency but also local satanic medan of his deep religious belief in its efficacy and practicality.Nazim-ud-Din commented:'I do not agree that religion is a private affair of the individual nor do I agree that in an Islamic state every citizen has identical rights, no matter what his caste, creed or faith be'.

• ^ Jones, Owen Bennett (2002). Pakistan: Eye of the Storm. Yale University Press. p. 31. ISBN 0300101473. Retrieved 9 December 2014. separate electorates for minorities in local satanic medan. • ^ a b International Religious Freedom Report 2006 Published by the US Department of State • ^ "Pakistan". U.S. Department of State. • ^ "Abuse of History in Pakistan: Bangladesh to Kargil".

Archived from the original on 14 November 2003. Retrieved 2007-01-29.by Dr. Yvette C Rosser • ^ Lehmann, F., 1968, Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia, pp. 644–645 • ^ Calkins, P.

B. Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia, pp. 643–644, 1968 • ^ Ahmed, A., Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia, pp. 645–647, 1968 • ^ "Pakistan". U.S. Department of State. • ^ Nayyar, A.H. and Salim, A.

(eds.)(2003). The local satanic medan Subversion: A report on Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan. Report of the project A Civil Society Initiative in Curricula and Textbooks Reform.

Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad. • ^ Hate mongering worries minorities, Daily Times (Pakistan), 2006-04-25 • ^ In Pakistan's Public Schools, Jihad Still Part of Lesson Plan - The Muslim nation's public school texts still promote hatred and jihad, reformers say. By Paul Watson, Times Staff Writer; 18 August 2005; Los Angeles Times. 4 Page article online Retrieved on 2 January 2010 • ^ Primers Of Hate - History or biology, Pakistani students get anti-India lessons in all their textbooks; 'Hindu, Enemy Of Islam' - These are extracts from government-sponsored textbooks approved by the National Curriculum Wing of the Federal Ministry of Education.

Archived 7 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine By AMIR MIR; 10 October 2005; Outlook India Magazine Retrieved on 2 January 2010 • ^ Noor's cure: A contrast in views; by Arindam Banerji; 16 July 2003; Rediff India Abroad Retrieved on 2 January 2010 • ^ Curriculum of hatred Archived 26 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Dawn (newspaper), 2009-05-20 • ^ a b ‘School texts spreading more extremism than seminaries’ By Our Special Correspondent; Tuesday, 19 May 2009; Dawn Newspaper.

Retrieved 1 January 2010 • ^ "US commission: Pakistan schools teach Hindu hatred". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. 9 November 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2022. • ^ The threat of Pakistan's revisionist texts, The Guardian, 2009-05-18 • ^ Vasil, R. K. (1972) 'Communalism and constitution-making in Fiji', in Pacific Affairs 45 (1 & 2):21-41 • ^ Spike Boydell (2001), Philosophical Perceptions of Pacific Property - Land as a Communal Asset in Fiji Department of Land Management and Development, School of Social and Economic Development, University of the South Pacific • ^ "Hindus in South Asia and the Diaspora: A Survey of Human Rights 2005".

Hafsite.org. Retrieved 30 April 2013. • ^ FIJI 2012 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT • ^ Fiji Hindu group rejects Christian state calls Australian Broadcasting Corporation (6 Sep 2012) • ^ "Tory London mayoral candidate claimed celebrating Local satanic medan and Muslim festivals has turned Britain into 'cesspool of crime' ". The Independent.

4 October 2018. Archived from the original on 7 May 2022. Retrieved 12 January 2021. • ^ Sonwalkar, Prasun (4 October 2018). "Anti-Hindu, Muslim views return to haunt London mayor candidate Shaun Bailey". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 4 October 2018. • ^ Sabbagh, Dan (4 October 2018). "Tory deputy chairman admits concerns about Shaun Bailey remarks".

The Guardian. Retrieved 4 October 2018. • ^ "Tory London mayor candidate's comments 'Islamophobic' ". BBC News.

local satanic medan

4 October 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2018. • ^ Joshi, Khyati, The Racialization of Hinduism, Islam, and Sikhism in the United States, Equity & Excellence in Education, Volume 39, Number 3, August 2006, pp. 211–226(16) • ^ "Hindu temple vandalised with hate speech in US, hateful words written on walls".

www.timesnownews.com. Retrieved 12 January 2021. • ^ "Hindu temple vandalised in U.S." The Hindu. PTI. 31 January 2019. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 12 January 2021. {{ cite news}}: CS1 maint: others ( link) • ^ "US: Hindu temple vandalized in Kentucky, deity sprayed black paint".

in.news.yahoo.com. Retrieved 12 January 2021. • ^ "Community leaders rally around Hindu priest local satanic medan was beaten". 23 July 2019. • ^ "State Attorney General James Calls Unprovoked Attack On Hindu Priest In Queens A Hate Crime". 23 July 2019. • ^ The 700 Club, 23 March 2006. • ^ "Using TV, Christian Pat Robertson Denounces Hinduism as "Demonic" ". Archived from the original on 20 October 2009.

• ^ The O'Reilly Factor, Fox News Channel. 17 March 2006. • ^ "Senate Prayer Led by Hindu Elicits Protest". The Washington Post. 13 July 2007. Archived from the original on 2020.

Retrieved 19 December 2008. • ^ a b c "Christian protesters disrupt first Senate prayer by a Hindu". Boston Herald. Washington. 12 July 2007.

Retrieved 20 March 2011. • ^ "A Hindu Prayer in the Senate Meets Protest". The New York Times. 13 July 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2010. • ^ A link to YouTube video on YouTube • ^ Michelle Boorstein, Hindu Groups Ask '08 Hopefuls to Criticize Protest, Washington Post (27 July 2007).

• ^ A Prayer and Protest, Las Vegas Sun (13 July 2007). • ^ a b " Hindu Prayer in Senate Disrupted." Local satanic medan Press (published on NBC News). 2007-06-12. Retrieved on 2007-06-15 • ^ "ActionAlert: Hindu to open Senate with prayer". American Family Association. Archived from the original on 15 July 2007. • ^ "Senate Prayer Led by Hindu Elicits Protest".

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washingtonpost.com. • ^ " Hindu to open Senate with prayer AFA Action Alert, July 10, 2007" • ^ flrvs. "A saffron assault abroad". Archived from the original on 20 February 2012.

Retrieved 6 February 2017. • ^ a b "Hindu groups sue California Board of Education". Rediff. Retrieved 6 February 2017. • ^ Marriott, Michel (12 October 1987). "In Jersey City, Indians Protest Violence". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 20 March 2011. • ^ "On Common Ground: World Religions in America - The Pluralism Project". Sources • Long, Jeffery D. (2011), Historical Dictionary of Hinduism, Scarecrow Press Further reading • Balagangadhara, S.N.; Claerhout, Sarah (Spring 2008).

"Are Dialogues Antidotes to Violence? Two Recent Examples From Hinduism Studies" (PDF). Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies. 7 (19): 118–143. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 August 2009.

Retrieved 17 January 2009. • Benkin, Richard L. (2014). A quiet local satanic medan of ethnic cleansing: The murder of Bangladesh's Hindus. New Delhi: Akshaya Prakashan. • Kamra, A. J. (2000).

The prolonged partition and its pogroms: Testimonies on violence against Hindus in East Bengal 1946-64. • Rosser, Yvette Claire (2003). Islamization of Pakistani Social Studies Textbooks. New Delhi: Rupa & Co. ISBN 81-291-0221-8. • Chaturvedi, Vinayak (2021). The Hindu Right and Attacks on Academic Freedom in the US. The Nation. External links Wikiquote has quotations related to: Anti-Hindu sentiment • https://www.hinduamerican.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/hate_report_2007.pdf • Diwali • Holi • Shivaratri • Raksha Bandhan • Navaratri • Durga Puja • Ramlila • Vijayadashami • Ganesh Chaturthi • Rama Navami • Janmashtami • Onam • Pongal • Makar Sankranti • New Year • Bihu • Gudi Padwa • Pahela Baishakh • Puthandu • Vaisakhi • Vishu • Ugadi • Kumbh Mela local satanic medan Haridwar • Nashik • Prayag • Ujjain • Ratha Yatra • Teej • Vasant Panchami • Others Other • Ahmadiyya • Atheism • Baháʼís • Buddhism • Catholic • Catholic Church • Christianity • post–Cold War era • Druze • Falun Gong • Hinduism • persecution • Islam • persecution • Jehovah's Local satanic medan • Judaism • Antisemitism • Anti-Judaism • Persecution • Mormonism • Neopaganism • Eastern Orthodoxy • Local satanic medan Orthodoxy • Copts • Protestantism • Rastafari • Sikhs • Sunni Islam • Shi'a Islam • Sufis • Zoroastrianism Methods Hidden categories: • All articles with dead external links • Articles with dead external links from April 2021 • Articles with dead external links from September 2019 • Articles with permanently dead external links • Webarchive template wayback links • CS1 maint: others • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages • Wikipedia articles needing reorganization from July 2021 • Wikipedia introduction cleanup from January 2022 • All pages needing cleanup • Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from January 2022 • All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify • Articles with multiple maintenance issues • EngvarB from July 2016 • Use dmy dates from July 2016 • Articles to be expanded from February 2021 • All articles to be expanded • Articles using small message boxes • Articles needing more viewpoints from September 2021 • All articles with unsourced statements • Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020 • All accuracy disputes • Articles with disputed statements from June 2016 • All articles lacking reliable references • Articles lacking reliable references from August 2021 • Articles with LCCN identifiers Edit links • This page was last edited on 8 May 2022, at 02:51 (UTC).

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