Nanda gita wikipedia

nanda gita wikipedia

Nanda Devi East (rightmost peak) Highest point Elevation 7,434 m (24,390 ft) [1] list of highest mountains Prominence 260 m (850 ft) [2] [3] Nanda gita wikipedia 30°22′00″N 79°59′40″E  /  30.36667°N 79.99444°E  / 30.36667; 79.99444 Coordinates: 30°22′00″N 79°59′40″E  /  30.36667°N 79.99444°E  / 30.36667; 79.99444 [1] [4] Naming Native name Nanda gita wikipedia सुनन्दा देवी Geography Location in India Location Pithoragarh District, Chamoli District, Uttarakhand, India Parent range Garhwal Himalayas Climbing First ascent 1939 by Jakub Bujak and Janusz Klarner.

[5] Easiest route South ridge, from Lawan Gad via Longstaff Col: technical rock/snow/ice climb Nanda Devi East ( Devanagari: नंदा देवी पूर्व), locally known as Sunanda Devi, is the nanda gita wikipedia of the two adjacent peaks of the highest mountain in Uttarakhand and second highest mountain in India; Nanda Devi is its higher twin peak.

Nanda Devi and Nanda Devi East are part of the Garhwal Himalayas, and are located in the state of Uttarakhand.

The graceful peaks of twin mountains are visible from almost everywhere in Kumaon. The first ascent to Nanda Devi East peak in recorded history appears to be in 1939 by Jakub Bujak and Janusz Klarner. The elevation of Nanda Devi East is 7,434 m (24,390 ft) and its prominence is 260 m (850 ft). Contents • 1 Religious significance • 2 Climbing history • 3 Nanda Devi National Park and Valley of Flowers National Parks • 4 Books • 5 References • 6 External links Religious significance [ edit ] Nanda Devi East is the lower eastern summit of the twin peaks of Nanda Devi a two-peaked massif, forming a 2 kilometres long ridge, oriented east-west.

The western summit is higher, and the eastern summit called Nanda Devi East is also locally referred to as Sunanda Devi. Together the peaks may be referred to as the peaks of the goddesses Nanda and Sunanda.

These goddesses have occurred together in ancient Sanskrit literature, Srimad Bhagvatam or Bhagavata Purana ( Gita Press has a two-volume English and Hindi translation) and are frequently worshipped together in the Kumaon and Garhwal as well as elsewhere in India. Regarding certain mountains as sacred and associating them with specific Gods and Goddesses is a practice prevalent in other parts of Asia as well e.g.

the volcanic Mount Fuji in Japan appears to have been named after the fire goddess. The first nanda gita wikipedia reference to Nanda Devi East as Sunanda Devi appears to be in a recent novel (Malhotra 2011) that has the Kumaon region as backdrop. An annual Nanda Devi Raj Jat festival celebrating the two goddesses is popular in Uttarakhand.

The Himalaya have also been personified as the Lord Himavata, the God of snow, who is mentioned in the Mahabharata. He is father of Ganga and Saraswati, that became rivers, and Parvati an avatar of the great Mother Goddess Durga, who married Shiva and the goddesses Nanda and Sunanda who too are avatars or close spiritual associates of the goddess Durga.

Climbing history [ edit ] A four-member Polish expedition led by Adam Karpiński climbed the Nanda Devi East peak in 1939 from Longstaff Col which is the standard route on the peak. The summit party was Jakub Bujak and Janusz Klarner. In 1951 a French expedition attempted to traverse the nanda gita wikipedia between Nanda Devi and Nanda Devi East for the first time, resulting in the death of two members. Tenzing Norgay was a part of the support team; he and Louis Dubost climbed Nanda Devi East to look for the missing pair.

Tenzing later stated that it was the most difficult climb of his life, even more difficult than Everest. [6] Since then the peak has been reached by an Indo-French group in 1975 and perhaps also an Indian Army expedition in 1981 but the mountaineers in this last case did not survive to tell the story.

The standard approach to the south ridge route is from the Milam Valley to the east, that passes through Lawan Glacier and onwards to Longstaff Col. The trek goes through the picturesque villages of Munsyari and Bhadeligwar. In 1978, David Hopkins led the British Gharwal Himalayan Expedition which attempted to summit Nanda Devi East from the southwest face, transverse to the main summit of Nanda Devi and descend the south face of the main peak.

[7] This expedition was plagued by problems, notably the death of Ben Beattie, who was the expedition leader of the tragic Cairngorm Plateau disaster in 1971.

[8] Marco Dalla Longa led a large Italian expedition of twelve members to Nanda Devi East Summit in 2005. They approached the peak from Munsyari and the Milam valley.

nanda gita wikipedia

Camps were set up to 5400m. The Italian team made good progress on Nanda Devi East, through the central pillar on the east face. They were nanda gita wikipedia towards the summit when a long spell of bad weather from 9 to 18 September made them sit up at the higher camps. Then tragedy struck the Italian team on Nanda Devi. Expedition leader Marco Dalla Longa died suddenly.

He died by a coma stroke on 24 September. The team's doctor suspected cerebral oedema. Longa was young and fit, with no health problems reported during the expedition up to that time. The entire expedition was evacuated by air from 27 September to Munsyari and to Delhi by air the next day.

On June 27, 2019 (on nanda gita wikipedia 80th anniversary of the first Polish expedition to Nanda Devi East) members of the Polish expedition - Nanda gita wikipedia Gawrysiak and Wojciech Flaczyński climbed the Nanda Devi East. Nanda Devi National Park and Valley of Flowers National Parks [ edit ] Nanda Devi National Park along with the Valley of Flowers National Park are some of the most spectacular wilderness areas in the Himalayas.

It is dominated by the peaks of Nanda Devi and Nanda Devi East of India's second highest mountain which is approached through the Rishiganga gorge, one of the deepest in the world.

No humans live in the Park which has remained more or less intact because of its rugged inaccessibility. It has a very diverse flora and is the habitat of several endangered mammals, among them the snow leopard, serow, himalayan musk deer and bharal. Nanda Devi National Park lies in eastern Uttarakhand, near the Tibetan border in the Garhwal Himalaya, 300 km northeast of Delhi.

Books [ edit ] • Aitken, Bill. (reprinted 1994). The Nanda Devi Affair, Penguin Books India. ISBN 0-14-024045-4. • Malhotra, Ashok (2011) Nude Besides the Lake, Createspace ISBN 978-1463529390 References [ edit ] • ^ a b "High Asia I: The Karakoram, Pakistan Himalaya and India Himalaya (north of Nepal)". Retrieved 28 May 2014. • ^ Corrected DEM files for the Himalaya • ^ Garhwal-Himalaya-Ost, 1:150,000 scale topographic map, prepared in 1992 by Ernst Huber for the Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, based on maps of the Survey of India. • ^ The Himalayan Index gives the coordinates of Nanda Devi as 30°22′12″N 79°58′12″E  /  30.37000°N 79.97000°E  / 30.37000; 79.97000. • ^ Harish Kapadia, "Nanda Devi", in World Mountaineering, Audrey Salkeld, editor, Bulfinch Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8212-2502-2, pp.

254–257. • ^ Tenzing Norgay and James Ramsey Ullman Tiger of the Snows/ Man of Everest • ^ "AAC Publications - Asia, India-Garhwal, Nanda Devi East Attempt and Tragedy". Retrieved 20 November 2021. • ^ "The worst mountain disaster in British history". BBC News. 19 November 2021. Retrieved 20 November 2021. External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sunanda Devi. • United Nations Environment Programme • The Encyclopedia of Earth Edit links • This page was last edited on 28 February 2022, at 13:50 (UTC).

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500 – 1026) Chalukya Empire (543–753) Maukhari Empire (c. 550 – c. 700) Harsha Empire (606–647) Tibetan Empire (618–841) Eastern Chalukya Kingdom (624–1075) Rashidun Caliphate (632–661) Gurjara-Pratihara Empire (650–1036) Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) Mallabhum kingdom (694-1947) Bhauma-Kara Kingdom (736-916) Pala Empire (750–1174) Rashtrakuta Empire (753–982) Paramara Kingdom (800–1327) Yadava Empire (850–1334) Somavamshi Kingdom (882–1110) Chaulukya Kingdom (942–1244) Western Chalukya Empire (973–1189) Lohara Kingdom (1003–1320) Hoysala Empire (1040–1347) Sena Empire (1070–1230) Eastern Ganga Empire (1078–1434) Kakatiya Kingdom (1083–1323) Zamorin Kingdom (1102–1766) Kalachuris of Tripuri (675-1210) Kalachuris of Kalyani (1156–1184) Chutiya Kingdom (1187–1673) Deva Kingdom (c.

1200 – c. 1300) Ghaznavid Dynasty (977–1186) Ghurid Dynasty (1170–1206) Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526) – Mamluk Sultanate (1206–1290) – Khalji Sultanate (1290–1320) – Tughlaq Sultanate (1320–1414) – Sayyid Sultanate (1414–1451) – Lodi Sultanate (1451–1526) Ahom Kingdom (1228–1826) Chitradurga Kingdom (1300–1779) Reddy Kingdom (1325–1448) Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646) Bengal Sultanate (1352–1576) Garhwal Kingdom (1358–1803) Mysore Kingdom (1399–1947) Gajapati Empire (1434–1541) Ladakh Kingdom (1470–1842) Deccan Sultanates (1490–1596) – Ahmadnagar Sultanate (1490–1636) – Berar Sultanate (1490–1574) – Bidar Sultanate (1492–1619) – Bijapur Sultanate (1492–1686) – Golkonda Sultanate (1518–1687) Keladi Kingdom (1499–1763) Koch Kingdom (1515–1947) Mughal Empire (1526–1858) Sur Empire (1540–1556) Madurai Kingdom (1529–1736) Thanjavur Kingdom (1532–1673) Bhoi dynasty (1541–1804) Bengal Subah (1576–1757) Marava Kingdom (1600–1750) Sikkim Kingdom (1642–1975) Thondaiman Kingdom (1650–1948) Maratha Empire (1674–1818) Sikh Confederacy (1707–1799) Travancore Kingdom (1729–1947) Sikh Empire (1799–1849) • v • t • e The Nanda dynasty ruled in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent during the 4th century BCE, and possibly during the 5th century BCE.

The Nandas overthrew the Shaishunaga dynasty in the Magadha region of eastern India, and expanded their empire to include a larger part of northern India. Ancient nanda gita wikipedia differ considerably regarding the names of the Nanda kings, and the duration of their rule, but based on the Buddhist tradition recorded in the Mahavamsa, they appear to have ruled during c. 345–322 BCE, although some theories date the start of their rule to 5th century BCE. Modern historians generally identify the ruler of the Gangaridai and the Prasii mentioned in ancient Greco-Roman accounts as a Nanda king.

The chroniclers of Alexander the Great, who invaded north-western India during 327–325 BCE, characterise this king as a militarily powerful and prosperous ruler. The prospect of a war against this king led to a mutiny among the soldiers of Alexander, who had to retreat from India without waging a war against him.

The Nandas built on the successes of their Haryanka and Shaishunaga predecessors, and instituted a more centralised administration. Ancient sources credit them with amassing great wealth, which was probably a result of introduction of new currency and taxation system. Ancient texts also suggest that the Nandas were unpopular among their subjects because of their low status birth, their excessive taxation, and their general misconduct.

The last Nanda king was overthrown by Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire, and the latter's mentor Chanakya. Contents • 1 Origins • 2 Regnal period • 3 Nanda kings • 4 Nanda gita wikipedia extent • 5 Military strength • 6 Administration • 6.1 Ministers and scholars • 6.2 Wealth • 7 Religion • 8 Architecture • 9 Nanda era • 10 Unpopularity and overthrow • 11 References • 11.1 Bibliography Origins [ edit ] Both Indian and Greco-Roman traditions characterize the dynasty's founder as of low birth.

[3] According to Greek historian Diodorus (1st century BCE), Porus told Alexander that the contemporary Nanda king was thought to be the son of a barber. [4] Roman nanda gita wikipedia Curtius (1st century CE) adds that according to Porus, this barber became the former queen's paramour thanks to his attractive looks, treacherously assassinated the then king, usurped the supreme authority by pretending to act as a guardian for the then princes, and later killed the princes.

[4] [5] The Jain tradition, as recorded in the Avashyaka Sutra and Parishishta-parvan, corroborates the Greco-Roman accounts, stating that the first Nanda king was the son of a barber.

[6] [7] [8] According to nanda gita wikipedia 12th century text Parishishta-parvan, the mother of the first Nanda king was a courtesan.

However, the text also states that the daughter of the last Nanda king married Chandragupta, because it was customary for Kshatriya girls to choose their husbands; thus, it implies that the Nanda king claimed to be a Kshatriya, that is, a member of the warrior class.

[6] The Puranas name the dynasty's founder as Mahapadma, and claim that he was the son of the Shaishunaga king Mahanandin. However, even these texts hint at the low birth of the Nandas, when they state that Mahapadma's mother belonged to the Shudra class, the lowest of the varnas.

[8] Since the claim of the barber ancestry of the dynasty's founder is attested by two different traditions—Greco-Roman and Jain, it appears to be more reliable than the Puranic claim of Shaishunaga ancestry. [9] The Buddhist tradition calls the Nandas "of unknown lineage" ( annata-kula). According to Mahavamsa, the dynasty's founder was Ugrasena, who was originally "a man of the frontier": he fell into the hands of a gang of robbers, and later became their leader. [10] He later ousted the sons of the Shaishunaga king Kalashoka (or Kakavarna).

[5] K. N. Panikkar suggested that the Nandas were the sole Kshatriyas in India "at the time of the Mauryas" and M. N. Srinivas suggested that the "other Kshatriya castes have come into existence through a process of caste mobility from among the lower castes". [11] : 177 Regnal period [ edit ] There is little unanimity among the ancient sources regarding the total duration of the Nanda reign or their regnal period.

[12] For example, the Matsya Purana assigns 88 years to the rule of the first Nanda king alone, [9] while some manuscripts of the Vayu Purana state the total duration of the Nanda rule as 40 years. The 16th century Buddhist scholar Taranatha assigns 29 years to the Nandas. nanda gita wikipedia It is difficult to assign precise date for the Nanda and other early dynasties of Magadha.

[14] Historians Irfan Habib and Vivekanand Jha date the Nanda rule from c. 344–322 BCE, relying on the Sri Lankan Buddhist tradition which states that the Nandas ruled for 22 years. [7] Historian Upinder Singh dates the Nanda rule from 364/345 BCE to 324 BCE, based on the assumption that Gautama Buddha died in c. 486 BCE. [14] According to another theory, based on astronomical calculations, the first Nanda king ascended the throne in 424 BCE.

Proponents of this theory also interpret the Hathigumpha inscription to mean that "Nandaraja" (the Nanda king) flourished in year 103 of the Mahavira Era, that is, in 424 BCE. [15] The 14th century Jain writer Merutunga, in his Vichara-shreni, states that king Chandra Pradyota of Avanti died on the same night as the Jain leader Mahavira. He was succeeded by his son Palaka, who ruled for 60 years.

After that, the Nandas rose to power at Pataliputra and captured the Avanti capital Ujjayini. The Nanda rule, spanning the reigns of nine kings, lasted for 155 years, after which the Mauryas came to power.

According to the Shvetambara Jain tradition, Mahavira died in 527 BCE, which would mean that the Nanda rule—according to Merutunga's writings—lasted from 467 BCE to 312 BCE.

According to historian R. C. Majumdar, while all the chronological details provided by Merutunga cannot be accepted without corroborative evidence, they cannot be dismissed as entirely unreliable unless contradicted by more reliable sources.

[16] Nanda kings [ edit ] The Buddhist, Jain, and Puranic traditions all state that there were 9 Nanda kings, [10] but the sources differ considerably on the names of these kings. [7] According to the Greco-Roman accounts, the Nanda rule spanned two generations.

[3] For example, the Roman historian Curtius (1st century CE) suggests that the dynasty's founder was a barber-turned-king, and that his son was the dynasty's last nanda gita wikipedia, who was overthrown by Chandragupta.

[4] The Greek accounts name only one Nanda king—Agrammes or Xandrames—who was a contemporary of Alexander. "Agrammes" may be a Greek transcription of the Sanskrit word "Augrasainya" (literally "son or descendant of Ugrasena", Ugrasena being the name of the dynasty's founder according to the Buddhist tradition).

[7] [5] The Puranas, compiled in India in c. 4th century CE (but probably based on earlier sources), also state that the Nandas ruled for two generations. [3] According to the Puranic tradition, the dynasty's founder was Mahapadma: the Matsya Purana assigns him an incredibly long reign of 88 years, while the Vayu Purana mentions the length of his reign as only 28 years.

[9] The Puranas further state that Mahapadma's 8 sons ruled in succession after him for a total of 12 years, but name only one of these sons: Sukalpa. [8] A Vayu Purana script names him as "Sahalya", which apparently corresponds to the "Sahalin" mentioned in the Buddhist text Divyavadana. [12] Dhundiraja, a commentator on the Vishnu Purana, names one of the Nanda kings as Sarvatha-siddhi, and states that his son was Maurya, whose son was Chandragupta Maurya.

[14] However, the Puranas themselves do not talk of any relation between the Nanda and the Maurya dynasties. [17] According to the Sri Lankan Buddhist text Mahavamsa, written in Pali language, there were 9 Nanda kings – they were brothers who ruled in succession, for a total of 22 years. [7] These nine kings were: [14] [7] An estimate of the territorial evolution of the Magadha empires, including during the rule of predecessors and successors of the Nandas The Nanda capital was located at Pataliputra (near present-day Patna) in the Magadha region of eastern India.

This is confirmed by the Buddhist and Jain traditions, as well as the Sanskrit play Mudrarakshasa. The Puranas also connect the Nandas to the Shaishunaga dynasty, which ruled in the Magadha region. The Greek accounts state that Agrammes (identified as a Nanda king) was the ruler of the Gangaridai (the Ganges valley) and the Prasii (probably a transcription of the Sanskrit word prachyas, literally "easterners").

According to the later writer Megasthenes (c. 300 BCE), Pataliputra (Greek: Palibothra) was located in the country of the Prasii, which further confirms that Pataliputra was the Nanda capital. [7] The Nanda empire appears to have stretched from present-day Punjab in the west to Odisha in the east.

[18] An analysis of various historical sources – including the ancient Greek accounts, the Puranas, and the Hathigumpha inscription – suggests that the Nandas controlled eastern India, the Ganges valley, and at least a part of Kalinga.

[19] It is also highly probable that they controlled the Avanti nanda gita wikipedia in Central India, which made it possible for their successor Chandragupta Maurya to conquer present-day Gujarat western India. [20] According to the Jain tradition, the Nanda minister subjugated the entire country up to the coastal areas. [21] The Puranas state that the Nanda king Mahapadma destroyed the Kshatriyas, and attained undisputed sovereignty. [22] The Kshatriyas said to have been exterminated by him include Maithalas, Kasheyas, Ikshvakus, Panchalas, Shurasenas, Kurus, Haihayas, Vitihotras, Kalingas, and Ashmakas.

[21] • The Maithala (literally, nanda gita wikipedia Mithila") territory was located to the north of Magadha, on the border of present-day Nepal and northern Bihar. This region had come under the control of Magadha during the reign of the 5th century BCE king Ajatashatru.

The Nandas probably subjugated the local chieftains, who may have retained some degree of independence from Magadha. [23] • The Kasheyas were the residents of the area around Kashi, that is, present-day Varanasi. According to the Puranas, a Shaishunaga prince was appointed to govern Kashi, which suggests that this region was under Shaishunaga control. The Nandas may have captured it from a successor of the Shaishunaga prince. [21] • The Ikshvakus ruled the historical Kosala region of present-day Uttar Pradesh, and had come into conflict with the Magadha kingdom during the reign of Ajatashatru.

Their history after the reign of Virudhaka is obscure. A passage of the 11th century story-collection Kathasaritsagara refers nanda gita wikipedia the Nanda camp ( kataka) in the Ayodhya town of the Kosala region. This suggests that the Nanda king went on a military campaign to Kosala. [21] • The Panchalas occupied the Ganges valley to the north-west of the Kosala region, and there nanda gita wikipedia no records of their conflict with the Magadha monarchs before the Nanda period.

Therefore, it appears that the Nandas subjugated them. [21] According to the Greek accounts, Alexander expected to face king Agrammes (identified as a Nanda king) if he advanced eastwards from the Punjab region. This suggests that the Nanda territory extended up to the Ganges river in the present-day western Uttar Pradesh. [7] • The Shurasenas ruled the area around Mathura.

The Greek accounts suggest that they were subordinates to the king of the Prasii, that is, the Nanda king. [23] • The Kuru territory, which included the sacred site of Kurukshetra, was located to the west of the Panchala territory. [24] The Greek records suggest that the king of Gangaridai and Prasii controlled this region, which may be taken as corrorobrative evidence for the Nanda conquest of the Kuru territory.

[23] • The Haihayas ruled the Narmada valley in central India, with their capital at Mahishmati. [25] The Nanda control over this territory does not seem improbable, given that their predecessors – the Shaishunagas – are said to have subjugated the rulers of Avanti in central India (according to the Puranas), and their successors – the Mauryas – are known to have ruled over Central India.

[26] • The Vitihotras, according to the Puranas, were closely associated with the Haihayas. Their sovereignty is said to have ended before the rise of the Pradyota dynasty in Avanti, far earlier than the Nandas and the Shaishunagas came to power. However, a passage in the Bhavishyanukirtana of the Puranas suggests that the Vitihotras were contemporaries of the Shaishunagas. It is possible that the Shaishunagas restored a Pradyota prince as a subordinate ruler, after defeating the Pradyotas.

The Nandas may have defeated this Vitihotra ruler. [23] The Jain writers describe the Nandas as the successors of Palaka, the son of king Pradyota. [27] • The Kalingas occupied the coastal territory in present-day Odisha and Andhra Pradesh. [26] The Nanda control of this region is corroborated by the Hathigumpha inscription of the later king Kharavela (c.

nanda gita wikipedia

1st or 2nd century BCE). [7] The inscription states that "Nanda-raja" nanda gita wikipedia Nanda king) had excavated a canal in Kalinga, and had taken a Jain idol from Kalinga. [14] According to the inscription, this canal had been dug " ti-vasa-sata" years ago: the term is variously interpreted as "three hundred" or "one hundred and three". [28] • The Ashmakas occupied the Godavari valley in the Deccan region.

[26] According to one theory, Nanded in this region was originally called "Nau Nand Dehra" (abode of the nine Nandas), which may be considered as evidence of the Nanda control of this area.

However, there is no concrete evidence that the Nanda rule extended to the south of the Vindhya range. [14] [26] The Amaravathi hoard of Punch marked coins have revealed imperial standard coins dating back to the Nandas besides other dynasties of Magadha, including the Mauryas; but it is not certain when this region was annexed by the Magadhan rulers.

[29] Some Kuntala country (North Mysore) inscriptions suggest that the Nandas also ruled it, which included a part of present-day Karnataka in southern India. However, these inscriptions are relatively late (c.

1200 CE), and therefore, cannot be considered as reliable in nanda gita wikipedia context.

nanda gita wikipedia

The Magadha empire included parts of southern India during the reign of the Mauryas – the successors of the Nandas – but there is no satisfactory account of how they came nanda gita wikipedia control this area. [27] For example, an inscription discovered at Bandanikke states: the Kuntala country (which included the north-western parts of Mysore and the southern parts of the Bombay Presidency) was ruled by the nava-Nanda, Gupta-kula, Mauryya kings ; then the Rattas ruled it : after whom were the Chalukyas; then the Kalachuryya family; and after them the ( Hoysala) Ballalas.

Military strength [ edit ] Alexander the Great invaded north-western India at the time of Agrammes or Xandrames, [7] whom modern historians generally identify as the last Nanda king – Dhana Nanda. [30] In the summer of 326 BCE, Alexander's army reached the Beas River (Greek: Hyphasis), beyond which the Nanda territory was located.

[31] According to Curtius, Alexander learned that Agrammes had 200,000 infantry; 20,000 cavalry; 3000 elephants; and 2,000 four-horse chariots.

nanda gita wikipedia

{INSERTKEYS} [7] [14] Diodorus gives the number of elephants as 4,000. [32] Plutarch inflates these numbers significantly, except the infantry: [33] according to him, the Nanda force included 200,000 infantry; 80,000 cavalry; 6,000 elephants; and 8,000 chariots.

[34] It is possible that the numbers reported to Alexander had been exaggerated by the local Indian population, who had the incentive to mislead the invaders. [31] The Nanda army did not have the opportunity to face Alexander, whose soldiers mutinied at the Beas River, refusing to go any further in the east.

Alexander's soldiers had first started to agitate to return to their homeland at Hecatompylos in 330 BCE, and the stiff resistance that they had met in north-western India in the subsequent years had demoralised them.

They mutinied, when faced with the prospect of facing the powerful Nanda army, forcing Alexander to withdraw from India. [35] Administration [ edit ] Little information survives on the Nanda administration today. [36] The Puranas describe the Nanda king as ekarat ("single ruler"), which suggests that the Nanda empire was an integrated monarchy rather than a group of virtually independent feudal states.

[37] However, the Greek accounts suggest the presence of a more federated system of governance. For example, Arrian mentions that the land beyond the Beas River was governed by "the aristocracy, who exercised their authority with justice and moderation." The Greek accounts mention the Gangaridai and the Prasii separately, although suggesting that these two were ruled by a common sovereign.

Historian H. C. Raychaudhuri theorises that the Nandas held centralised control over their core territories in present-day Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, but allowed considerable autonomy in the frontier parts of their empire.

[36] This is suggested by Buddhist legends, which state Chandragupta was unable to defeat the Nandas when he attacked their capital but was successful against them when he gradually conquered the frontier regions of their empire. [38] The Nanda kings appear to have strengthened the Magadha kingdom ruled by their Haryanka and Shaishunaga predecessors, creating the first great empire of northern India in the process.

Historians have put forward various theories to explain the political success of these dynasties of Magadha. Pataliputra, the capital of Magadha, was naturally protected because of its location at the junction of the Ganges and the Son rivers.

The Ganges and its tributaries connected the kingdom with important trade routes. It had fertile soil and access to lumber and elephants of the adjacent areas. Some historians have suggested that Magadha was relatively free from the Brahmanical orthodoxy, which may have played a role in its political success; however, it is difficult to assess the veracity of this claim.

D. D. Kosambi theorised that Magadha's monopoly over iron ore mines played a major role in its imperial expansion, but historian Upinder Singh has disputed this theory, pointing out that Magadha did not have a monopoly over these mines, and the iron mining in the historical Magadha region started much later.

Singh, however, notes that the adjoining Chota Nagpur Plateau was rich in many minerals and other raw materials, and access to these would have been an asset for Magadha. [14] Ministers and scholars [ edit ] According to the Jain tradition, Kalpaka was the minister of the first Nanda king. He became a minister reluctantly, but after assuming the office, he encouraged the king to adopt an aggressive expansionist policy.

The Jain texts suggest that the ministerial offices of the Nanda Empire were hereditary. For example, after the death of Shakatala, a minister of the last Nanda king, his position was offered to his son Sthulabhadra; when Sthulabhadra refused the offer, Shakatala's second son Shriyaka was appointed as the minister.

[14] The Brihatkatha tradition claims that under the Nanda rule, the city of Pataliputra not only became the abode of the goddess of material prosperity ( Lakshmi), but also of the goddess of learning ( Sarasvati).

According to this tradition, notable grammarians such as Varsha, Upavarsha, Panini, Katyayana, Vararuchi, and Vyadi lived during the Nanda period. [39] While much of this account is unreliable folklore, it is probable that some of the grammarians who preceded Patanjali lived during the Nanda period. [40] Wealth [ edit ] A silver coin of 1 karshapana of the Magadha Empire (ca 600–32 BCE), King Mahapadma Nanda or his sons (ca 346–321 BCE) Obv: different symbols Rev: different symbols including an elephant.

Dimensions: 17 mm Weight: 2.5 g. Several historical sources refer to the great wealth of the Nandas. According to the Mahavamsa, the last Nanda king was a treasure- hoarder, and amassed wealth worth 80 kotis (800 million). He buried these treasures in the bed of the Ganges river. He acquired further wealth by levying taxes on all sorts of objects, including skins, gums, trees, and stones.

[41] A verse by the Tamil poet Mamulanar refers to "the untold wealth of the Nandas", which was "swept away and submerged later on by the floods of the Ganges".

[42] Another interpretation of this verse states this wealth was hidden in the waters of the Ganges. The 7th-century Chinese traveller Xuanzang mentions the "five treasures of king Nanda's seven precious substances". [41] Greek writer Xenophon, in his Cyropaedia (4th century BCE), mentions that the king of India was very wealthy, and aspired to arbitrate in the disputes between the kingdoms of West Asia.

Although Xenophon's book describes the events of the 6th century BCE (the period of Cyrus the Great), historian H. C. Raychaudhuri speculates that the writer's image of the Indian king may be based on the contemporary Nanda king. [43] The Kashika, a commentary on Panini's grammar, mentions Nandopakramani manani – a measuring standard introduced by the Nandas.

This may be a reference to their introduction of a new currency system and punch-marked coins, which may have been responsible for much of their wealth. A hoard of coins found at the site of ancient Pataliputra probably belongs to the Nanda period. [44] Religion [ edit ] The Nanda Empire's population included adherents of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. [2] The Nandas and the Mauryas appear to have patronised the religions originating in the Greater Magadha region, namely Jainism, Ajivikism, and Buddhism.

[18] However, the rulers of the empire never engaged in conversion of their subjects to other religions [18] and there is no evidence that these rulers discriminated against any contemporary religion. [45] In the pre-Nanda period, the Vedic Brahmanism was supported by several smaller kings, who patronised the Brahmin priests.

The declining power of these kings under the more centralised Nanda and Maurya rule appears to have deprived the Brahmins of their patrons, resulting in the gradual decline of the traditional Vedic society. [46] The Jain tradition suggests that several Nanda ministers were inclined towards Jainism. When Shakatala, a minister of the last Nanda king, died, his son Sthulabhadra refused to inherit his father's office, and instead became a Jain monk.

Sthulabhadra's brother Shriyaka accepted the post. [14] Architecture [ edit ] Pataliputra Voussoir Arch A granite stone fragment of an arch discovered by K. P. Jayaswal from Kumhrar, Pataliputra has been analysed as a pre Maurya-Nanda period keystone fragment of a trefoil arch of gateway with mason's marks of three archaic Brahmi letters inscribed on it which probably decorated a Torana.

[47] [48] [49] The wedge-shaped stone with indentation has Mauryan polish on two sides and was suspended vertically. Nanda era [ edit ] According to K. P Jayaswal, Nanda era is mentioned in three sources.

Kharavela's Hathigumpha inscription mentions Nandaraja constructing canal 103 year in Nanda period. According to Al beruni The Sriharsha era was being used in areas of Kannauj and Mathura and there was a difference of 400 years between sriharsha era and Vikrama era which would make it 458 BC, the attributes of which matched with the Nanda kings.

According to 12th century Yedarava inscription of Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI, Nanda era along with vikram era and Shaka era were extent which were abolished in favour of a new Chalukyan era, but other scholars have opined that evidences are too meager to make anything conclusive. [50] Unpopularity and overthrow [ edit ] All historical accounts agree that the last Nanda king was unpopular among his subjects.

According to Diodorus, Porus told Alexander that the contemporary Nanda king was a man of "worthless character", and was not respected by his subjects as he was thought to be of low origin. Curtius also states that according to Porus, the Nanda king was despised by his subjects. [4] According to Plutarch, who claims that Androkottos (identified as Chandragupta) met Alexander, Androkottos later declared that Alexander could have easily conquered the Nanda territory (Gangaridai and Prasii) because the Nanda king was hated and despised by his subjects, as he was wicked and of low origin.

[51] The Sri Lankan Buddhist tradition blames the Nandas for being greedy and for imposing oppressive taxation. [33] The Puranas of India label the Nandas as adharmika, indicating that they did not follow the norms of dharma or righteous conduct. [10] The Nanda dynasty was overthrown by Chandragupta Maurya, who was supported by his mentor (and later minister) Chanakya. Some accounts mention Chandragupta as a member of the Nanda family. For example, the 11th century writers Kshemendra and Somadeva describe Chandragupta as a "son of the genuine Nanda" ( purva-Nanda-suta).

Dhundiraja, in his commentary on the Vishnu Purana, names Chandragupta's father as Maurya; he describes Maurya as a son of the Nanda king Sarvatha-siddhi and a hunter's daughter named Mura.

[14] The Buddhist text Milinda Panha mentions a war between the Nanda general Bhaddasala (Sanskrit: Bhadrashala) and Chandragupta. According to the text, this war led to the slaughter of 10,000 elephants; 100,000 horses; 5,000 charioteers; and a billion foot soldiers. While this is obviously an exaggeration, it suggests that the overthrow of the Nanda dynasty was a violent affair. [39] References [ edit ] • ^ Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (1978). {/INSERTKEYS}

nanda gita wikipedia

A Historical atlas of South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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p. 145, map XIV.1 (a). ISBN 0226742210. • ^ a b M. B. Chande (1998). Kautilyan Arthasastra. Atlantic Publishers. p. 313. ISBN 9788171567331. During the period of the Nanda Dynasty, the Hindu, Buddha and Jain religions had under their sway the population of the Empire • ^ a b c Irfan Habib & Vivekanand Jha 2004, p.

12. • ^ a b c d R. K. Mookerji 1966, p. 5. • ^ a b c H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, p.

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23. • ^ a b c Upinder Singh 2008, p. 272. • ^ Judge, Paramjit S. (September 2002). Jayaram, N. (ed.). "Religion, Caste, and Communalism in Punjab". Sociological Bulletin. Indian Sociological Society. 51 (2): 175–194. doi: 10.1177/0038022920020202. JSTOR 23619969. S2CID 147989946. • ^ a b H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, p. 23. • ^ H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, pp. 22–23. • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Upinder Singh 2008, p.

273. • ^ Jyoti Prasad Jain 2005, p. 25. • ^ R. C. Majumdar 1976, pp. 59–60. • ^ H. Nanda gita wikipedia. Raychaudhuri 1988, p. 140. • ^ a b c Johannes Bronkhorst 2011, p. 12. • ^ H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, pp. 17–20. • ^ H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, pp. 19–20. • ^ a b c d e H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, p. 17. • ^ Dilip Kumar Ganguly 1984, pp. 19–20. • ^ a b c d H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, p. 19. • ^ H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, pp.

18–19. • ^ H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, pp. 17–18. • ^ a b c d H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, p. 18. • ^ a b H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, p. 20. • ^ H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, p. 13. • ^ Bernholz, Peter; Vaubel, Roland (26 June 2014). Explaining Monetary and Financial Innovation: A Historical Analysis.

Springer. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-3-319-06109-2. • ^ Dilip Kumar Ganguly 1984, p. 36. • ^ a b Ian Worthington 2014, p. 252.

• ^ H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, p. 15. • ^ a b Irfan Habib & Vivekanand Jha 2004, p. 14. • ^ H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, p. 16. • ^ Ian Worthington 2014, pp.

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251–253. • ^ a b H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, p. 21. • ^ H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, p. 11. • ^ H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, pp. 21–22. • ^ a b H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, p. 25.

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• ^ H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, pp. 25–26. • ^ a b H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, p. 24. • ^ R. K. Mookerji 1966, p. 42. • ^ H. C. Raychaudhuri 1988, p. 12. • ^ R. K. Mookerji 1966, p.

215. • ^ Johannes Bronkhorst 2011, p. 17. • ^ Johannes Bronkhorst 2011, pp. 30–31. • ^ Nanda gita wikipedia Calcutta University (1923). Proceedinds And Transactions Of The Second Oriental Conference (1923). • ^ Spooner, Brainerd (1924). Annual Report Of The Archaeological Survey Of India 1921–22.

• ^ Chandra, Ramaprasad (1927). Memoirs of the archaeological survey of India no.30. • ^ Barua, Benimadhab (1929). Old Brahmi Inscriptions In The Udayagiri And Khandagiri Caves. • ^ R. K. Mookerji 1966, pp. 5–6. Bibliography [ edit ] • Dilip Kumar Ganguly (1984). History and Historians in Ancient India. Abhinav Publications.

p. 23. ISBN 978-0-391-03250-7. • H. C. Raychaudhuri (1988) [1967]. "India in the Age of the Nandas". In K. A. Nilakanta Sastri (ed.). Age of the Nandas and Mauryas (Second ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0466-1. • Ian Worthington (2014). By the Spear: Philip II, Alexander the Great, and the Rise and Fall of the Macedonian Empire.

Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-992986-3. • Johannes Bronkhorst (2011). Buddhism in the Shadow of Brahmanism. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-20140-8. • Jyoti Prasad Jain (2005) [1964].

Jaina Sources of the History of Ancient India: 100 BC - AD 900. Munshiram Manoharlal. ISBN 9788121511407. • Irfan Habib; Vivekanand Jha (2004). Mauryan India. A People's History of India. Aligarh Historians Society / Tulika Books.

ISBN 978-81-85229-92-8. • R. C. Majumdar (1976). Readings in political history of India: Ancient, Mediaeval, and Modern. B.R. / Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies.

ISBN 9788176467841. • R. K. Mookerji (1966). Chandragupta Maurya and His Times. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN nanda gita wikipedia. • Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century.

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Pearson Education India. ISBN 978-81-317-1677-9. Timeline and cultural period Northwestern India ( Punjab- Sapta Sindhu) Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India Upper Gangetic Plain ( Ganga-Yamuna doab) Middle Gangetic Plain Lower Gangetic Plain IRON AGE Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period ( Srauta culture) [a] Painted Grey Ware culture Late Vedic Period ( Shramanic culture) [b] Northern Black Polished Ware Pre-history 6th century BCE Gandhara Kuru- Panchala Magadha Adivasi (tribes) Assaka Culture Persian-Greek influences " Second Urbanisation" Rise of Shramana movements Jainism - Buddhism - Ājīvika - Yoga Pre-history 5th century BCE nanda gita wikipedia Persian conquests) Shaishunaga dynasty Adivasi (tribes) Assaka 4th century BCE ( Greek conquests) Nanda empire HISTORICAL AGE Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history 3rd century BCE Maurya Empire Satavahana dynasty Sangam period (300 BCE – 200 CE) Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Cheras Culture Preclassical Hinduism [c] - "Hindu Synthesis" [d] (ca.

200 BC - 300 CE) [e] [f] Epics - Puranas - Ramayana - Mahabharata - Bhagavad Gita - Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition Nanda gita wikipedia Buddhism 2nd century BCE Indo-Greek Kingdom Shunga Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty Satavahana dynasty Sangam period (300 BCE – 200 CE) Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Cheras 1st century BCE 1st century CE Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians Kuninda Kingdom 2nd century Kushan Empire 3rd century Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa kingdom Adivasi (tribes) Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca.

CE 320-650) [g] Puranas Co-existence of Hinduism and Buddhism 4th century Kidarites Gupta Empire Varman dynasty Andhra Ikshvakus Kalabhra dynasty Kadamba Dynasty Western Ganga Dynasty 5th century Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Vishnukundina Kalabhra dynasty 6th century Nezak Huns Kabul Shahi Maitraka Adivasi (tribes) Vishnukundina Badami Chalukyas Kalabhra dynasty Culture Late-Classical Hinduism (ca.

CE 650-1100) [h] Advaita Vedanta - Tantra Decline of Buddhism in India 7th century Indo-Sassanids Vakataka dynasty Empire of Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi (tribes) Badami Chalukyas Eastern Chalukyas Pandyan Kingdom (Revival) Pallava 8th century Kabul Shahi Pala Empire Eastern Chalukyas Pandyan Kingdom Kalachuri 9th century Gurjara-Pratihara Rashtrakuta dynasty Eastern Chalukyas Pandyan Kingdom Medieval Cholas Chera Perumals of Makkotai 10th century Ghaznavids Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty Kalyani Chalukyas Eastern Nanda gita wikipedia Medieval Cholas Chera Perumals of Makkotai Rashtrakuta • Flood, Gavin D.

(1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press • Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge • Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press • Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press • Symbols • Emblem • Song • Motto • Nanda gita wikipedia day • Departments • Environment and Forests • Police • Agencies • Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission • Election Commission • Information Commission • Human Rights Commission • Womens' Commission • Industrial Development Corporation • Urban Development Directorate • Waqf Board Edit links • This page was last edited on 11 April 2022, at 14:41 (UTC).

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