All of us are dead sub indo

all of us are dead sub indo

Sinopsis Di masa depan, Jepang telah menjadi sebuah padang pasir. Gurun besar kantou adalah gurun terik yang hanya terdiri dari reruntuhan dan pasir, dan satu-satunya yang tersisa dari Jepang pasca-apokaliptik. Di padang pasir mengerikan ini, mahluk yang paling kuatlah yang dapat bertahan hidup dan kemenangan adalah segalanya.

Di Gurun tersebut, bertebaran manusia yang bertahan hidup […] Read More Sinopsis Arc Phantom Blood ini bercerita tentang keluarga Joestar, bangsawan Inggris yg mempunyai topeng batu misterius. Mereka kedatangan anak bernama Dio Brando, anak dari orang yg sudah menyelamatkan nyawanya. Dan sejak kedatangan Dio, hidup pewaris kekayaan Joestar, Jonathan Joestar “Jojo” menjadi seperti neraka karena Dio yg bengis dan pandai cari muka.

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Tapi ketika dia lulus SMP, ayahnya justru menutup restoran tersebut dan pergi untuk memasak ke luar negeri. Sebagai tantangan, […] Read More Sinopsis Musim ketiga dari serial anime Shokugeki no Souma.

Anime ini bercerita tentang Yukihara Souma yang bermimpi menjadi koki profesional di restoran ayahnya, Jochirou Yukihara dan berusaha melampaui kemampuan memasak ayahnya. Akan tetapi, impian tersebut dihalangi oleh keputusan ayahnya untuk menutup restorannya dan pindah ke Amerika ketika dia lulus dari SMP. Dan semangatnya kembali muncul […] Read More Sinopsis Anime ini bercerita tentang Kinji Ninomiya seorang pria yang sangat suka hidup bersantai.

Namun suatu hari ia malah terlempar ke dunia lain, bukannya mendapatkan kehidupan yang nyaman seperti yang ia harapkan. Kinji malah terjebak dalam suatu masalah, dimana ia harus bekerja dengan keras dan mengerikan. Kenapa ia bisa seperti ini, karena doi menjadi budak […] Read More Sinopsis Anime ini menceritakan tentang perjuangan dari seorang pria yang bernama Ryo Hazuki untuk membalas dendam atas pembunuhan Ayahnya. Setelah dia menyaksikan pembunuhan ayahnya di dojo keluarga, Hazuki Ryou mendedikasikan hidupnya untuk menemukan orang yang memang bertanggung jawab.

Ia kemudian mencoba sebuah misi yang membawanya dari jalanan Yokosuka, Jepang ke kota metropolitan di Hongkong yang […] Read More Sinopsis Cerita berlatar di Tokyo, muncul sebuah gelembung yang menghujani bumi.

Terisolasi dari dunia luar, Tokyo telah menjadi medan pertempuran bagi sekelompok anak muda yang kehilangan keluarga dan bersaing dalam tim parkour dengan melompat dari satu gedung ke gedung lainnya.

Hibiki, yang terkenal dengan gayanya yang sembrono, ceroboh dalam satu gerakan dan selalu terburu-buru. Tapi […] Read More Sinopsis Film anime ini merupakan karya omnibus dari tiga seri Fruits Basket yang akan berfokus pada Kyouko dan Katsuya, serta penambahan adegan baru yang ditulis langsung oleh kreator aslinya Natsuki Takaya.

Informasi Tipe: Movie Jumlah Episode: 1 Musim Rilis: Winter 2022 Tanggal Tayang: 18 Februari 2022 Studio yang Memproduksi: TMS Entertainment Durasi per Episode: 1 […] Read More Sinopsis Movie kedua ini menceritakan misteri yang terjadi saat festival “Hari Keadilan” untuk merayakan dewi legendaris Sternbild. Informasi Tipe: Movie Jumlah Episode: 1 Musim Rilis: Winter 2014 Tanggal Tayang: 8 Februari 2014 Studio yang Memproduksi: Sunrise Durasi per Episode: 1 Jam 40 Menit Genre: Action, Comedy, Mystery, Super Power Skor di MyAnimeList: 7.77 Anime Terkait […] Read More Sinopsis Musim kedua dari serial anime Tiger & Bunny 2.

Di Stern Bild City, mereka yang memiliki kemampuan khusus disebut NEXT, dan dapat menggunakan kekuatan mereka untuk berbuat hal baik atau buruk. Sekelompok unik NEXT yang terorganisir muncul secara teratur di Hero TV, di mana mereka mengejar pelaku kejahatan untuk menjadikan pusat perhatian para sponsor […] Read More Sinopsis Anime ini berlatar di Sternbild City, sebuah rumah bagi orang yang disebut Next, yang menggunakan kemampuan khusus mereka untuk melindungi orang sebagai superhero.

Para superhero ini memecahkan kasus dan menyelamatkan nyawa sehingga mereka bisa memakai logo sponsor atau mendapatkan “Hero Points”. Dalam setiap aksinya, kegiatan mereka didokumentasikan oleh “Hero TV”, sebuah program populer yang […] Read More Sinopsis Suatu saat di masa depan, terorisme di Jepang telah menjadi hal biasa, dan polisi menjadi hampir sama brutalnya dengan penjahat.

Seorang anggota Pasukan Keamanan Khusus yang dikenal sebagai Angel, adalah yang terbaik dari yang terbaik, tanpa henti dalam perjuangannya untuk keadilan. Hal-hal menjadi menarik bagi Angel dan rekannya, Raiden, ketika mereka mulai menyelidiki serangkaian […] Read More Posts navigation Мы используем файлы cookie и подобные технологии на этом веб-сайте, чтобы собирать данные о вашей активности, которые применяются для анализа использования этого веб-сайта, а также для персонализации наших услуг и настройки интернет-рекламы.

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A man named Seligman finds a fainted wounded woman in an alley and he brings her home.

She tells him that her name is Joe and that she is nymphomaniac. Joe tells her life and sexual experiences with hundreds of men since she was a young teenager while Seligman tells about his hobbies, such as fly fishing, reading about Fibonacci numbers or listening to organ music. • Genre: Drama • Release: 2013-12-25 • Stars: Ananya Berg, Charlotte Gainsbourg, Christian Slater, Connie Nielsen, Jens Albinus, Shia LaBeouf, Sophie Kennedy Clark, Stacy Martin, Stellan Skarsgård, Uma Thurman • Duration: 118 min • Director: Lars von Trier • Country: DE, DK, FR, SE • Quality: HD Nonton Film Nymphomaniac: Vol.

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Contents • 1 Notes • 2 Kinship • 3 People • 4 Pronouns and particles • 5 Numbers • 6 Body • 7 Animals • 8 Food and farming • 9 Bodily functions and states • 10 Mental functions and states • 11 General conditions and states • 12 Natural features • 13 Directions • 14 Basic adjectives • 15 Light and color • 16 Positive qualities • 17 Construction, fabrication • 18 Self-motion, rest • 19 Object motion • 20 Time • 21 Ideas and rituals • 22 Unclassified • 23 Derivatives • 24 Footnotes • 25 Tabular notes • 26 References • 27 Bibliography • 28 Further reading • 29 External links Notes [ edit ] The following conventions are used: • Cognates are in general given in the oldest well-documented language of each family, although forms in modern languages are given for families in which the older stages of the languages are poorly documented or do not differ significantly from the modern languages.

In addition, modern English forms are given for comparison purposes. • Nouns are given in their nominative case, with the genitive case supplied in parentheses when its stem differs from that of the nominative. (For some languages, especially Sanskrit, the basic stem is given in place of the nominative.) • Verbs are given in their "dictionary form". The exact form given depends on the specific language: • For the Germanic languages and for Welsh, the infinitive is given.

• For Latin, the Baltic languages, and the Slavic languages, the first-person singular present indicative is given, with the infinitive supplied in parentheses. • For Greek, Old Irish, Armenian and Albanian (modern), only the first-person singular present indicative is given. • For Sanskrit, Avestan, Old Persian, Parthian, the third-person singular present indicative is given.

Where useful Sanskrit root forms are provided using the symbol √. • For Tocharian, the stem is given. • For Hittite, either the third-person singular present indicative or the stem is given. • In place of Latin, an Oscan or Umbrian cognate is occasionally given when no corresponding Latin cognate exists. Similarly, a cognate from another Anatolian language (e.g. Luvian, Lycian) may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Hittite.

• For Tocharian, both the Tocharian A and Tocharian B cognates are given whenever possible. • For the Celtic languages, both Old Irish and Welsh cognates are given when possible. For Welsh, normally the modern form is given, but occasionally the form from Old Welsh is supplied when it is known and displays important features lost in all of us are dead sub indo modern form.

A Middle Irish cognate is given when the Old Irish form is unknown, and Gaulish, Cornish and/or Breton (modern) cognates may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Welsh. • For the Baltic languages, Lithuanian (modern) and Old Prussian cognates are given when possible.

(Both Lithuanian and Old Prussian are included because Lithuanian often includes information missing in Old Prussian, e.g. due to lack of written accent marks in the latter.) Similarly to the Celtic situation, Old Lithuanian forms may occasionally be given in place of modern Lithuanian; Latvian (modern) may occasionally be given in place of or in addition to Lithuanian.

• For the Slavic languages, Old Church Slavonic cognates are given when possible. Forms from modern Slavic languages or other Church Slavic dialects may occasionally be given in place of Old Church Slavonic. • For English, a modern English cognate is given when it exists, along with the corresponding Old English form; otherwise, only an Old English form is given. • For Gothic, a form in another Germanic language ( Old Norse; Old High German; or Middle High German) is sometimes given in its place or in addition, when it reveals important features.

Kinship [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *méH₂tēr- "mother" [a] [1] [2] mother (< OE mōdor) mōdar "mother" māter "mother" ⇒ [note 1] mḗtēr "mother"; Dēmḗtēr Demeter; mētrópolis "metropolis, lit., mother-city" mā́tṛ, mātṛ́ "mother" Av mātar- "mother"; NPers mādar "mother"; Kurdish mak "mother" OCS mati, mater- "mother" Lith móteris "woman", motina; OPrus muti "mother" Gaul.

mātīr "mother", OIr māthir "mother"; W modryb "auntie" mayr "mother" motër "sister" A mācar, B mācer "mother" *pH₂tér- "father" [3] [4] [5] father (< OE fæder) fadar "father" pater "father" ⇒ [note 2] patḗr "father" (> patriarch) pitṛ́ "father"; Pitrs "spirits of the ancestors" (litt.

"the fathers") Av pitar- (nom. also pta, ta), OPers pita "father", NPers pedar otets "father" Russian OIr athir "father"; Welsh edrydd "paternal domain" hayr "father" atë "father" A pācar, B all of us are dead sub indo "father" *bʰréH₂ter- "brother" [6] [7] [8] brother (< OE brōþor) brōþar "brother" frāter "brother" ⇒ [note 3] pʰrā́tēr "member of a phratry (brotherhood)" (> phratry) bʰrā́tṛ "brother"; Rom phral "brother" (> pal) [9] [10] [c] Av brātar- OPers brātar- NPers brādar- Ossetian ärvád "brother, relative", NPers barādar, Kurdish bira OCS bratrŭ "brother" All of us are dead sub indo brõlis, OPrus brati "brother" Gaul Bratronos (pers.

name); [11] OIr brāth(a)ir, W brawd (pl. brodyr) "brother" ełbayr (gen. ełbawr) "brother" A pracar, B procer "brother" Lyd brafr(-sis) "brother" [12] *swésor "sister" [13] [14] [8] sister (< OE sweostor, influenced by ON systir) swistar "sister" soror "sister" ⇒ [note 4] éor "sister" svásṛ "sister" Av x̌vaŋhar- "sister"; NPers ḫwāhar "sister"; Kurdish xwişk "sister" sw- > xw- OCS sestra "sister" Lith sesuǫ(seser̃s), OPrus sestra "sister" Gaul suiorebe "with two sisters" ( dual) [15] OIr siur, W chwaer "sister" kʿoyr (kʿeṙ), nom.pl kʿor-kʿ "sister" [d] vashë, vajzë "girl" (< *varjë < *vëharë < PAlb *swesarā) A ṣar'B ṣer "sister" *somo-pH₂tōr "sibling, lit.

same-father(ed)" [3] [4] [5] ON samfeðra homopátōr OP hamapitar- A ṣomapacar *dʰugH₂-tér- "daughter" [16] [17] [18] [19] daughter (< OE dohtor) daúhtar "daughter" Oscan futír "daughter" θugátēr "daughter"; Myc tu-ka-te "daughter" [20] [e] dúhitṛ "daughter" Av dugədar- duɣδar- NPers doḫtar "daughter" Kurdish dot "daughter" OCS dŭšti, dŭšter- "daughter" Lith dukteris, OPrus dukti "daughter" Gaulish duxtir "daughter"; Celtib TuaTer ( duater) "daughter" [22] [23] dustr "daughter" A ckācar, B tkācer "daughter" HLuw túwatara "daughter"; [24] ?

Lyd datro "daughter"; CLuw/ Hitt duttarii̯ata-; [f] Lyc kbatra "daughter" [g] *suHnú- "son" [29] [30] [31] [32] (See also *sewh₁-) son (< OE sunu) sunus "son" huiós "son" sūnú- "son" Av hunuš "son" OCS synŭ "son" Lith sūnùs, OPrus suns "son" ? Celtib EBURSUNOS "son of Eburos (?)" [h] [i] ? Celt/ Lus EQUEUNUBO (< *ek wei-sūnu-bʰos) "to the sons on the horse" [j] ustr "son" çun "boy/son" A se, B soyä "son" *putló- "son" [31] [37] [38] Osc puklo- "son" paîs "son" putrá- "son" Av puθra- "son" *(h₂)népōts "nephew, grandson" [39] [40] obsolete neve "nephew, male cousin, grandson" (< OE nefa) OHG nevo "nephew" nepōs (nepōtis) "grandson, nephew" ⇒ [note 5] népodes "descendants" nápāt- "grandson, descendant" Av napāt- naptar- OPers napāt- NPers naveh- "grandson, descendant"; Kurdish nevî "grandchild" OCS netii "nephew" OLith nepotis, OPrus neputs "grandson" OIr nïæ "sister's son", W nai "nephew" nip "grandson, nephew" *néptih₂- "granddaughter, niece" obsolete nift "niece" (< OE nift) OHG nift "niece" neptis "granddaughter" naptī́ "granddaughter" OIr necht "niece" *dāiH₂u̯ēr- "husband's brother, brother-in-law" OE tācor "husband's brother" OHG zeihhor "husband's brother" levir "husband's brother" dāēr "husband's brother" devṛ́, devará "husband's brother" Past lewar "brother-in-law" OCS děverĭ "brother-in-law" Lith dieveris "husband's brother" W daw(f) "brother-in-law" taygr "husband's brother" dhëndër, dhëndër "son-in-law" from PAlb *ĝāmtḗr- or *dzanra or *jantura.All ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ǵem- (“to marry”).

*snusós "daughter-in-law" OE snoru "daughter-in-law" OHG snur "daughter-in-law" nurus "daughter-in-law" nuós "daughter-in-law" snuṣā- "daughter-in-law" Old Ir. *(s)nušáh Bactrian ασνωυο (asnōuo) NPers. sunoh / sunhār "daughter-in-law" OCS snŭxa "daughter-in-law" W gwaudd "daughter-in-law" nu "daughter-in-law" nuse "bride" B santse "daughter-in-law" [k] *wedʰ- "pledge, bind, secure, lead" [42] wed (< OE weddian "to pledge, wed") vadhū́ "bride" OCS voditi "to lead" *swéḱuros- "father-in-law" OE swēor "father-in-law" swaihra "father-in-law" socer "father-in-law" hekurós "father-in-law" śváśura "father-in-law" Av xᵛasura "father-in-law" OCS svekrŭ "father-in-law" Lith šešuras "father-in-law" vjehërr "father-in-law" *su̯ek̂rū́- "mother-in-law" OE sweger "mother-in-law" swaihro "mother-in-law" socrus "mother-in-law" ekurā "mother-in-law" śvaśrū́- "mother-in-law" Past xwāše "mother-in-law" OCS svekry "mother-in-law" Lith šešuras "father-in-law", OPrus swasri "mother-in-law" W chwegr "mother-in-law" skesur "mother-in-law" vjehrrë "mother-in-law" *h₂éwh₂os "maternal grandfather, maternal uncle" awō "grandmother" avus "grandfather"; avunculus "maternal uncle" ⇒ [note 6] Rus uj, vuj "uncle" (obsolete); Ukr vuyko "maternal uncle" [43] Lith avynas "maternal uncle", OPrus awis "uncle" MW ewythr, MBre eontr, MCo eviter "maternal uncle" (< PCelt awon-tīr "uncle"); OIr aue "descendant, grandchild" [44] OArm haw "grandfather" B āwe "grandfather" ḫuḫḫa- Lyc χuga- "grandfather"; CLuw ḫu-u-ḫa-ti "grandfather" (abl.-ins.) [45] *yemH- "twin; to hold" [46] [47] ON Ymir geminus "twin"; Remus "twin, Remus" yáma- "twin; first man to die" Av Yema OIr emon, Gaul Iemurioi "twin?" [48] h₁widʰéwh₂ "widow" < *h₁weydʰh₁- "to separate" [l] [49] widow (< OE widwe) widuwō "widow" vidua "widow" ēḯtheos "widow" vidhávā "widow" viδauua "widow" OCS vŭdova "widow" OP widdewū "widow" OI fedb "widow"; MW gweddw "widow, widower" vejë "widow" People [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *mon- "human beings" man (< OE "Mann") manna "human beings" Amazon (debatable) manuṣya "human being" Av manuš "human" OES/ OCS mǫžĭ "man" *dʰĝʰemon- "person, human (litt.

of the earth)" (See also *dʰeĝʰom-) OE guma "person, man", brȳd guma "bride groom" [m] guma "man" homō "person" ⇒ [note 7] khthōn "the earth" (> autochthonous); khamai "on the ground" kṣám, gen. gmás/jmás "ground, earth" OCS zem(l)janinъ "earthling" OLith žmuõ "person"; Lith žmoná "wife"; OPrus zmunents "human" OIr duine, W dyn "person" < *dʰĝʰom-yo- A śom "boy"; B śaumo "person" *H₂ner- "man, hero" All of us are dead sub indo Njǫrðr (name of a God) Ner-ō (personal name), neriōsus "strong" anḗr (andros) "man" (> Andreas, Andrew) nár- (nom.

nā) "man, person" Av nar- (nom. nā) "man, person", NPers nar- Kurdish nêr "male animal, masculine" OCS naravŭ "character, custom"; Lith nóras "wish, want", narsa; narsùs "brave;" OPrus nàrs "courage" W nêr "lord, prince, leader; hero"; Celt narto "strength" ayr (aṙn) "man, person" njer "man, person" *wiH-ro- "man" werewolf (< OE wer "man") waír "man" vir "man" ⇒ [note 8] hiérāx "a type of hawk" vīrá- "man, hero" Av vīra- "man, hero", NPers hooman- (a name for men) Belar ( Smolensk) вір "a rite of passage for young men into adulthood"; ( Mogilev) віра "a feast or meal organized by a young man, after reaching adulthood, for his companions" [o] Lith výras "man"; OPrus wirs "man, husband" OIr fer, W gŵr "man" burrë "man" A wir "young" *gʷén-eH₂- "woman, wife" queen (< OE cwēn "queen, woman, wife") qēns (qēnáis), qinō "woman, wife" gunḗ [p] (gunaikos) [q] "woman, wife" < *gʷ un-eH₂ (> gynecology); Boet baná "woman" gnā (gnā́s-) "wife of a god", jánis, jánī "woman, wife" Av gǝnā, γnā, ǰaini- NPers zan "woman, wife" Kurdish jin "woman, wife" OCS žena "woman, wife" OPrus gena "woman, wife" Gaul bnanom "of the women" (g.

pl.); [53] OIr ben (mná) "woman, wife" < *gʷén-eH₂ ( *gʷn-eH₂-s), bé (neut.) "wife < *gʷén; W benyw "woman" kin (knoǰ) "woman" zonjë "lady, wife, woman" < *gʷen-yeH₂; Gheg grue, Tosk grua "wife" < *gʷn-ōn A śäṁ (pl. śnu), B śana "woman, wife" Hitt ku(w)an(a) "woman"; [54] Luw wanatti "woman, wife"; Lyd kãna- "wife", [55] "woman" [56] *pótis "master, ruler, husband" [49] -faþs "lord, leader" potis "able, capable, possible" pósis "husband" páti "master, husband, ruler" Av paiti, Parthian pet, Old Persian fáti "master, lord, husband, commander" OCS gospodĭ "lord, master" hay "husband, chief of family" pata "in possession of something" déms pótis "master of the house" despótēs "lord, master, owner" (> despot) dámpati "lord of the house; (dual) husband and wife" gʰóstis "guest, host, stranger" [57] guest (< OE giest); host < Lat.

hostis; hospital, hostel, hotel < Lat. hospes gasts "guest" hostis "stranger, guest"; hostīlis "hostile"; hospes, hospit- "host, guest, visitor" < hostipotis < PIE *gʰóstipotis ( *gʰóstis + *pótis) OCS gostĭ "guest"; gospodĭ "lord, master" < PIE *gʰóstipotis *weyḱ- "settlement, to enter, settle" [42] -wick, -wich < Lat.

vīcus vīcus "village, settlement" oîkos "house, dwelling place"; oiko·nomía "management of household administration" (> economy) viś "settlement, dwelling space" OCS vĭsĭ "hamlet, village" *wiḱpótis "master of the household; lord, clan chief" [58] [59] viśpáti "chief of a tribe or settlement, lord" Lith viēšpats "lord" *h₃rḗǵs "king, ruler" [60] bishop ric (< OE rīċe "king, dominion") reiks, -ric (in personal names) "king" rēx, rēg- "king" ⇒ [note 9] archon "ruler, chief magistrate" rāj- rājan "king" (> maharaja, Raj (as in British Raj)) Gaulish *rīx "king" (In personal names.

E.g., Vercingeto rix, etc.) *teutéh₁- "community, people" [r] [s] [64] [65] OE þeod "people, nation" Goth thiuda "folk"; ModGerm Deutsch < Proto-Germ * þeudō Osc touto "community"; Umbr totam "tribe" [t] Lith tautà "people"; OPru tauto "country" OIr tuath "tribe, people" (e.g., Tuatha Dé Danann "tribe of goddess Danu"); Celt Toutatis (Teutates) "name of a god" ? Hitt tuzzi- "army"; ? Luw tuta "army" *h₁lewdʰ- "people" OE leode, lēod "a people, a group, nation", OHG liut "people, population" Proto-Italic *louðeros > Latin līber "free", Faliscan loiferto; Pael loufir "free man"; Ven louderos "child"; eleútheros "free"; Myc e-re-u-te-ro/a "a free allowance", e-re-u-te-ro-se "to make free, remit" [69] OCS ljudinŭ "free man"; Pol lud "people, folk" Lith liaudes "people" Pronouns and particles [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *egH₂ "I" I (< OE iċ) ik "I" egō "I" < *egoH₂ egṓ, egṓn "I" ahám "I" < *egH₂-om Av azǝm, OPers adam, Parth.

az "I" < *egH₂-om Kurdish ez "I (direct case)" OCS azŭ "I" Lith àš, OLith eš, OPrus as, Latv es "I" es "I" es "I" u, unë "I" (-në possibly originally a suffix) ñuk "I" ūk "I" influenced by ammuk "me" *H₁me- "me (acc.)" me (< OE mē, mec < *H₁me-ge) mik "me (acc.)" mē(d) "me (acc.)" emé, me "me (acc.)" mām "me (acc.)" < *H₁mē-m, mā "me (acc.

encl.)" Av mąm "me" OCS mę "me (acc.)" < *H₁mē-m Lith manè "me (acc.)" OIr me-sse, mé, W mi "I" is "me (acc.)"

encl.)" *H₁meĝʰi "me (dat.)", *(H₁)moi "me (dat. encl.)" me (< OE mē) mis "me (dat.)" mihi "me (dat.)" moi "me (dat., gen. encl.)" máhya(m) "me (dat.)", mḗ, me "me (dat. encl.)" Av maibya "me (dat.)" (? not in Pokorny), me ( Old Avestan moi) "me (dat. encl.)" OCS mi (dat enc.) < *(H₁)moi Lith man "for me", OPrus maiy "me (dat. encl.)" OIr infix -m- "me"; W -'m infixed accusative first person singular pronoun "me" inj "me (dat.)" meje ammuk "me (acc., dat.)" < *H₁me-ge, -mi "me (dat.

encl.)" *H₁meme- *H₁mene- "of me, mine"; *H₁mo-yo- * H₁me-yo- "my" my, mine (< OE mīn < *H₁mei-no-) meins "my"; meina "of me" meī "of me"; meus "my" < *H₁me-yo- emeĩo "of me"; emós "my" máma "of me"; ma/mā "my" < *H₁mo- Av mana, OPers manā "of me"; Av ma (m/n), mā (f) "my", NPers az āne man-; Kurdish a/ê min OCS mene "to me", moj/a/e (m/f/n) "mine" Lith mana(s), OPrus mais/maia "my" W fy n "of me, my"; Breton ma "of me, my" im "my" im "my" (article i + em) AB ñi "my" < Proto-Tocharian *mäñi miš "my" < *H₁me-yo- *tu "you" (nom.

sg.) thou (< OE þū "you") þu "you" tū "you" Doric tú (standard sú) t(u)vám "you"; Av tū "you" NPers to "you" OCS ty "you" Lith tù, OPr tu "you" OIr tū, tu-ssu, tu-sso, W ti du "you" ti "you" A tu, B t(u)we "you" zik, zikka "you" < *tega < *te + *egō *wei "we"; *n̥s-mé, encl. *nos "us" we (< OE wē), us (< OE ūs < PGerm *uns < *n̥s) weis "we", uns "us" nōs "we, us" hēm- "we, us"; [u] Aeol ámme "us" < *asme < *n̥sme vay-ám "we" < *wei-óm, asmān "us" < *n̥sme + acc. -ān, encl.

nas "us" < *nos Av vaēm "we", ahma "us", encl. nǝ̄, nā̊, nō "us" Bulg nìe "we", OCS gen. nasŭ "us" < *nōs-sōm Lith mès "we"; OPr gen. nōuson "ours" < *nōs-sōm OIr ni "we, us"

pl.)"; *us-wé, *us-mé, [70] encl. *wos "you (acc./dat. pl.)" ye (< OE gē "you (nom. pl.)"), you (< OE ēow [v] "you (acc./dat. pl.)") jūs "you (nom. pl.)", izwis [v] "you (acc./dat. pl.)" vōs "you (nom./acc. pl.)" hum- "you (pl.)"; Aeol úmme "you (acc. pl.)" < *usme yūyám "you (nom. pl.)", yuṣmā́n "you (acc. pl.)" < y- + *usme + acc. -ān, encl. vas "you (obl. pl.)" Av yūžǝm, yūš "you (nom. pl.)", yūšmat̃ "you (abl.

pl.)", encl. vā̊ "you (obl. pl.)" OCS vy "you (nom./acc. pl.)", vasŭ "yours (pl.)" Lith jũs "you (nom. pl.)", jũsų "yours (pl.)"; OPr iouson "yours (pl.)" OIr sī, sissi "you (nom. pl.)" < *sw- uai-b "of you (pl.)" < *ō-swī, NIr far n- "your (pl.)"; W chwi "you (nom. pl.)" < *sw- ju "you (nom. pl.)" < *u < *vos A yas, B yes "you (nom. pl.)" sumes < *usme *só "that" ( demonstrative pronoun) the (< OE se) sa, þata "the", "that" sī "if", tum "then" ho, to "the" sá "that, the" Avestan ha "this" OCS tŭ "this, that" Lith tàs "that" OIr so "this" ayd "this" tanë "whole" *s(w)e- "oneself"; ( reflexive pronoun) self (< OE self, seolf) swes (ref.

gn. pn.), OHG sih (ref. pn.) sē (ref. pn.) hé (ref. pn.) sva- (ref. pn.) Avestan hva- (ref. pn.) Bulg sèbe "oneself", OCS svoji (ref. gn. pn.) Lith sava(s), OPrus swajs "my own, myself" OIr fein (self, himself); W hun(an) "self, myself, himself/herself etc" iwr self, himself/herself vetë A ṣn-i, B ṣañ "(one's) own" Lydian s'fa- (ref.

pn.), Carian sfes (ref. pn.) *kʷid, kʷod "what" what (< OE hwæt) ƕa "what" quid "what?", quod "what…, that…" tí "what?", tì "what…" kím "what" NPers či, če "what" Bulg kakvò "what", OCS čь-to "what?" Lith kàd "that."; OPrus kawids "which, what a" OIr cid "what?" *i (ēr) ( < *hi), inčʿ ( < *hi-nč’) "what?" çfarë "what?" kuit (?) "what", kuit-ki "whatever"; Luvian kuit "what?" *kʷis, kʷos, kʷei/kʷoi "who" who (< OE hwā < *kʷoi) ƕas "who?" quis "who?", quī "who." tís, Thess kís, CyprArc sís "who?", tìs "who…" kás, kís "who?" Av kō (ka-hyā, ča-hyā) "who?, which?", čiš "who" Bulg kòj "who", OCS kъ-to (česo) "who?" Lith kàs "who?"; OPrus kas "who" OIr cia, W pwy "who" о (oyr) "who?" "who?" "A" kë "B" kush acc.

"who?" A kus, B k use "who, which" kuiš "who, which" *-kʷe "and; any" -(u)h "and", ƕaz-uh "whoever" -que "and", all of us are dead sub indo "each one, whoever"; Venetic -ke "and"; South Picenian -p "and" -te "and", tís te, hós-te "whoever" -ca "and", káś-ca "whoever" Av ča, OPers čā "and"; Av čiš-ca, OPers čiš-čiy "whoever" Bulg če "but, and, because"; Old Czech a-če, ač "if" OIr na-ch, MW nac "not" < "*and not"; [w] Lepontic -pe "and" o-kʿ "whoever" Lydian -k "and"; Hitt kuis-ki, Lycian ti-ke "whoever" *n̥- "not, un-" un- (< OE un-) un- "un-" in- (archaic en-) "un-" a- an- "un-" a- an- na- "un-" Av, OPers a- an- "un-", NPers nā- "un-" OCS ne- "not" < *ne- Lith ne- < *ne- OPrus ni- "not" OIr in- ē- an- W an- "un-" an- "un-" nuk "not" AB a(n)- am- e(n)- em- on- "un-" Numbers [ edit ] See also: Proto-Indo-European numerals and List of numbers in various languages PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *sem- "one, together" same (< ON samr); OE sam- "together"; [also German Language zusammen] sama "same" sem-el "once", sem-per "always", sim-plex "single, simple", sin-gulī "one each, single" heĩs, hén, mía "one" < *sems, *sem, *smiH₂ sam- "together", samá "same, equal, any" Av hama- OPers hama- "any, all" OCS samŭ "self, alone, one" Lith sam- są- "with"; OPrus sa- sen- "with, dividing" OIr samlith "at the same time"; W hafal "equal" mi "one" A sas, B ṣe "one" < *sems *ói-nos, ói-wos "one" one (< OE ān) ains "one" ūnus (archaic oinos) oĩnos "one (on a die)", oĩ(w)os "alone" ( ēka- < *oi-ko-; Mittani-Aryan aika-vartana all of us are dead sub indo turn (around a track)") [71] Av aēva- OPers aiva- ( NPers yek- "one, only, alone") OCS inŭ "one, another" Lith víenas, OPrus ains "one" OIr ōen, W un "one" andr-ēn "right there", ast-ēn "right here" ?

Gheg tânë, Tosk tërë "all" < PIE *tod-oino-; ??? një "one" < *ňân < PIE *eni-oino- [x] B -aiwenta "group" < "*unit" ās "one" *dwóH₁neut. *dwóy(H₁) "two" two (< OE twā) twái (fem. twōs, neut. twa) "two" duo "two" dúō "two" dvā́(u) "two" Av dva, fem. neut. baē "two" NPers do "two " OCS dŭva "two" Lith dù, OPrus dwai "two" OIr da, W dau (fem.

dwy) "two" erku "two" dy "two" A wu, B wi "two"(< PTC *tuwó) dā- ta-; HLuw tuwa/i- "two"; Lyc kbi- "two"; Mil tba "two" [y] [73] *tréyes (fem. *tisres, [74] neut. *tríH₂) "three" three (< OE þrīe) þreis "three" trēs "three" treĩs "three" tráyas (fem. tisrás) "three" Av θrayō, θrayas (fem. tisrō, neut. θri), OPers çi- Parth hrē "three" OCS trĭje "three" Lith trỹs, OPrus tris, Latg treis "three" OIr trí (fem.

téoir), W tri (fem. tair, teir) "three" erekʿ "three" tre masc., tri fem. "three" A tre, B trai "three" tri- "three"; teriyas- (gen. pl.) *kʷetwóres (fem. *kʷétesres, neut. *kʷetwṓr) "four" four (< OE fēower) fidwor "four" (In Germanic influenced by pénkʷe "five") quattuor "four" [z] téssares "four" masc. catvā́ras (acc. catúras), neut. catvā́ri, fem. cátasras "four" Av masc. čaθwārō (acc.

čaturąm), fem. čataŋrō "four"; NPers čahār "four" OCS četyre "four" Lith keturì, OPrus ketturei "four" [aa] Gaul petuar[ios] "four" [76] OIr ceth(a)ir (fem. cethēoir, influenced by fem. tēoir "three") "four"; W pedwar (fem. pedair) "four" čʿorkʿ, kʿaṙ (rare) "four katër "four" A śtwar, B śtwer "four" (remodelled in Hittite and Luwian) Lyc Teteri *pénkʷe "five" five (< OE fīf) fimf "five" quīnque "five" [ab] pénte "five" páñca "five"; Mittani-Aryan panza- "five" [71] Av panča "five" OCS pętĭ "five" Lith penkì, OPrus penkei "five" [ac] Gaul pinpe- pompe "five" [76] OIr cóic, W pum(p) "five" hing "five" pesë "five" A päñ, B piś "five" Luw paⁿta "five" *swék̂s "six" six (< OE siex) sáihs "six" sex "six" héx, dial.

wéx "six" ṣáṣ "six" Av xšvaš "six" OCS šestĭ "six" Lith šešì, OPrus uššai "six" Celtib sues "six"; [76] Gaul suexos "sixth"; OIr sé, W chwe(ch) "six" vecʿ "six" gjashtë "six" A ṣäk, B ṣkas "six" *septḿ̥ "seven" seven (< OE seofon) sibun "seven" septem "seven" heptá "seven" saptá "seven"; Mittani-Aryan šatta- "seven" [71] Av hapta, NPers Haft- "seven" OCS sedmĭ "seven" Lith septynì, OPrus septinnei "seven" OIr secht, W saith "seven" eawtʿn "seven" shtatë "seven" A ṣpät, B ṣukt "seven" sipta- "seven" *H₁ok̂tō(u) "eight" eight (< OE eahta) ahtáu "eight" octō "eight" oktṓ "eight" aṣṭā́(u) "eight" Av ašta "eight" OCS osmĭ "eight" [ad] Lith aštuonì, OPrus astonei, Latg ostoni "eight" Gaul oxtu- "eight" [76] OIr ocht n- "eight"; [ae] W wyth "eight" utʿ "eight" tetë "eight" < *H₁ok̂tō-t- A okät, B okt "eight" Lyc aitãta "eight" [79] *(H₁)néwn̥ "nine" nine (< OE nigon) niun "nine" novem "nine" ennéa "nine" náva "nine" Av nava, NPers noh- "nine" OCS devętĭ "nine" < *newn̥-ti- (Influenced by dékm̥t "ten") Lith all of us are dead sub indo (influenced by dékm̥t "ten"), OPrus newinei "nine" OIr noí n- W naw "nine" inn "nine" nëntë "nine" < *newn̥-ti- AB ñu Lyc nuñtãta "nine" [80] *dék̂m̥t "ten" ten (< OE tien) taíhun "ten" decem "ten" déka "ten" dáśa "ten" Av dasa NPers dah- "ten" OCS desętĭ "ten" Lith dẽšimt, OPrus desimtan "ten" Gaul decam- "ten"; [76] Celtib tekam- "ten"; [81] OIr deich, W deg, deng "ten" tasn "ten" dhjetë "ten" < *dék̂m̥t-i- A śäk, B śak "ten" [af] *wī́k̂m̥tiH₁ "twenty" < *dwi-dk̂m̥t-iH₁ "two tens" (remodelled) (remodelled) vīgintī "twenty" eíkosi "twenty" viṁśatí "twenty", dviṁśatí "twenty" Av vīsaiti, Ossetian insäi "twenty" (remodelled) Lith dvidešimt "twenty" OIr fiche (fichet), OW uceint "twenty" kʿsan "twenty" zet "twenty" A wiki, B ikäṃ "twenty" *k̂m̥tóm "hundred" < *dk̂m̥tóm hundred (< OE hund, hund-red) hunda (pl.) "hundred" centum "hundred" he-katón "hundred" śatám "hundred" Av satǝm "hundred" OCS sŭto "hundred" Lith šim̃tas, OPrus simtan "hundred" OIr cét, W can(t) "hundred" qind "hundred" (possibly borrowed from Latin centum) A känt, B kante "hundred" Body [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *krep- "body" [84] [85] (mid) riff (< OE hrif) corpus, corporis "body" ⇒ [note 10] kṛ́p "beautiful appearance, beauty" *káput ~ *kap-wét-s "head" [86] [87] head (< OE hēafod); OE hafela, hafola "head" caput, capitis "head" ⇒ [note 11] [ag] kapā́la "skull, cranium; bowl" *(d)ák̂ru- "tear" tear (< OE tēar, tæhher) tagr "tear" lacrima "tear" (> lachrymose) dákru "tear" áśru "tear" Av asrū- "tear"; Kurdish hêsir "tear" OPrus assara "tear", Lith ašara "tear OIr dēr, W deigr "tear"; Cornish dagr "tear" artawsr "tear" < *drak̂ur A ākär "tear", B pl.

akrūna "tears" isḫaḫru "tear" *dn̥ĝʰuH₂- *dn̥ĝʰwéH₂ "tongue" tongue (< OE tunge) tuggō "tongue" lingua "tongue" (archaic dingua) ⇒ [note 12] jihvā́ "tongue" < *ĝiĝʰwā, juhū́ Av hizvā < *ĝiĝʰwā, OPers hizān, Parth ezβān "tongue" [88] OCS języ-kŭ "tongue" < *n̥ĝʰū-k- OPrus inzuws "tongue", Lith liežuvis "tongue" teng "tongue"; W tafod "tongue, language" lezu "tongue" (influenced by lizem, "I lick") gjuhë "tongue" A käntu, B kantwo "tongue" ( *kantwa < *tankwa) *ésH₂r̥, *esH₂nés "blood" archaic aser, sanguis "blood" (< possibly h₁sh₂-én- obl.

stem + guen) (> sanguine, etc.) éar "blood" ásṛj, asnás "blood" OP ahr̥ "blood" Lat asins, Ltg asnis (gen. ašņa) "blood" ariwn "blood" A ysār "blood" ēsḫar (esḫanas) "blood" ĝ(o)nH₂dʰos "jaw, cheek, chin" chin (< OE c̣inn) kinnus "cheek" gena "cheek" génus (génuos) "chin, jaw"; gnátʰos, gnatʰmós "jaw" < *ĝnH₂dʰ- hánu-ṣ "jaw" < *ĝʰenu-s, gaṇḍa "cheek" Av zānu- "jaw-" < *ĝʰenu-s, OPers danūg < *danu-ka- Parth zanax "chin, jaw" NPers gune "cheek" chune "jaw" OPrus żauna "jaw", Lith žándas "cheek", žiaunos "gills" OIr gi(u)n "mouth"; W gên, pl.

geneu "cheek, chin"; Old Cornish pl. genau < *genewes "cheeks, chins" cn-awt "jaw, cheek" A śanwe-m "jaw" *ĝénu, ĝnéus "knee" knee (< OE cnēo) kniu "knee" genū "knee" (> genuflect) gónu ( Hom gen. gounós < *gonwós) "knee", pró-kʰnu "with outstretched knee" < *pró-gʰnu jā́nu- "knee", pra-jñus "bow-legged" Av zānu- acc. žnūm, dat./abl. pl. žnubyō "knee", fra-šnu- "holding the knee forward"; Parth zānūk, NPers zānū "knee" Rus zvenó "knee" OI glún "knee" cunr, nom pl.

cungkʿ "knee" gjuni "knee" < Post-PIE *ĝnu-n(o)- A kanweṃ, B keni "two knees" genu "knee" *ǵómbʰos "tooth, row of teeth" comb (< OE camb) OHG kamb "comb" gómphos "bolt, nail"; gómphíos "molar tooth" jámbha- "tooth, tusk; set of teeth (pl.)"; jámbhya- "molar teeth" Pash žâma "jawbone"; Khot ysīmä "tooth" [89] OCS zǫbŭ, Ukr zub, Pol ząb "tooth" Latv zùobs "tooth"; Lith žam̃bas "sharp edge" dhëmb "tooth, tusk" A kam, B keme "tooth" *H₁dónt- *H₁dn̥t- "tooth" tooth (< OE tōþ < *H₁dont-) tunþus "tooth" < *H₁dn̥t- dēns (dentis) "tooth" < *H₁dn̥t- (> dental) odṓn (odóntos) "tooth" < Proto-Greek *edónt- cf.

Aeol. édontes "teeth" (> orthodontist, etc.) dán, dántas "tooth" Av dantan- dātā "tooth"; NPers dandân "tooth"; Kurdish diran, didan "tooth" Russ. desná "gum" < *H₁dent-sn- OPrus dants "tooth", Lith dantis "tooth" OIr dēt "tooth", W dant "tooth" atamn "tooth" *H₂óst- "bone" os (ossis) "bone" ostéon "bone" ( osteoporosis, etc.) ásthi (asthnás) "bone" Av ast- asti- (gen. pl. astąm, instr. pl. azdbīš) "bone" NPers ostoxan "bone"; Kurdish hestî, hestû "bone" OCS kostĭ "bone" OIr asil "limb", MIr asna "rib"

*astonyo-; MW ass-en, asseu "rib", W asgwrn "bone" < *ost-ko- os-kr "bone" asht, ahstë "bone" B āy, pl. āsta "bone" ḫastāi- "bone" *H₂ous- "ear" ear (< OE ēare) áusō "ear" auris "ear" oũs "ear" ūṣa "cavity of the ear" Av uši "both ears"; NPers hoš "ear" OCS ucho (ušese) "ear" OPrus auss "ear", Lith ausis "ear" OIr āu, ō "ear" unkn, nom pl. akanǰkʿ "ear" vesh "ear" < *ōus, *ōs- *H₃okʷ- "eye" eye (< OE ēage) áugō "eye" oculus "eye" < *ōkʷelo-s ⇒ [note 13] ósse "both eyes"; ómma "eye" < *óp-mn̥; ökkon [90] "eye" ákṣi (akṣṇás) "eye" Av aši "both eyes" OCS oko "eye" OPrus aks "eye", Lith akis "eye" OIr enech, W enep "face" akn, nom pl.

ačʿkʿ "eye" sy "eye" A ak, B ek "eye" *h₃oh₁-(e)s- "mouth" Scot ure (< OE ōr, ōra) Nor óss "river mouth" ōs, ōris "mouth" (> oral) Ved ā́s "mouth, face" Av āh "mouth" OCS usta "mouth" Lith úostas "mouth of a river, harbor" OIr á "mouth" aiš, gen. iššāš "mouth" *k̂erd- "heart"; *k̂red-dʰē- "to believe" (See also ḱréd·dʰh₁eti) heart (< OE heorte) haírtō "heart" cor (cordis) "heart"; crēdō "I believe" < *krezdō- < *k̂red-dʰē- ⇒ [note 14] kardíā, Homeric kradíē, Cypriot korízdā "heart" < *k̂r̥d(y)ā; poetic kẽr (kẽros) "heart" < *k̂ērd (> cardiac, cardiology.

etc.) hṛd "heart" < post-PIE *ĝhr̥d; hṛdaya, hārdi "heart"; Av zǝrǝd "heart"Pashto Zre "heart" < post-PIE *ĝhr̥d; OCS sŭrdĭce "heart", serda "medium, core" OPrus siran "heart" (acc.), seyr "heart", serds "core", Lith širdis "heart", šerdis "core" OIr cride "heart"; W craidd "center"; Gaul crid "heart" [91] sirt "heart" A kri "will", B pl.

käryāñ "hearts" Hitt karz (kardias) "heart"; Luw zarza "heart" [92] *h₃nebʰ- "navel, hub"; *h₃nóbʰōl "navel" [93] [94] navel (< OE nafola); nave (< OE nafu) umbilīcus "navel"; umbō "elbow" omphalós "navel; umbilical cord" nā́bhi ""navel, belly button; center; nábhya "nave, center part of a wheel" NPers nāf- "navel" *kréwh₂- "gore, blood (blood outside the body)" [95] raw "uncooked food" (< OE hræw "corpse, carrion") ON hrár "raw" cruor "thick blood, gore"; crūdus "raw, bloody", crūdēlis "cruel, rude" ⇒ [note 15] kréas "flesh, meat"; kréa "raw flesh" krávis- "raw flesh"; kravyá "raw flesh, carrion", krūrá "bloody, raw" Av xrūra, xrūma "bloody"; vi-xrūmant- "bloodless"; xrvi.dru "of the bloody mace [of Aeshma]" YAv xrvišyant "grim, bloodthirsty" [96] OCS kry "blood"; Rus krovǐ "blood" OPrus crauyo, krawian; Lith kraũjas "blood"; Latv kreve "coagulated blood, [97] bloody scab" [98] [99] OIr crúaid, MIr crū "blood" *nas- "nose" nose (< OE nosu) ON nǫs "nose" nāsus, nāris "nose" (> nasal) nas- "nose" Av nāh- nā̊ŋhan- OPers acc.

sg. nāham "nose" OCS nosŭ "nose" OPrus nasi "nose", Lith nosis "nose" *pōds, *ped- "foot" (See also *ped-) foot (< OE fōt) fōtus "foot" pēs (pedis) "foot" (> pedal, etc.) poús (podós) "foot" ⇒ [note 16] pā́d- (padás) "foot" Av pad- OPers pād, Parth pāδ "foot" NPers pa "foot" OCS pěšǐ "on foot" OPrus pida "foot", Lith pėda "foot" OIr īs "below" < PIE loc. pl. *pēd-su; W is(od) "below, under; lower (than)" otn "foot", otkʿ "feet" poshtë "below" A pe "foot", B paiyye "foot" pata- CLuw pāta- Lyc pedi- "foot" *tpḗrsneh₂ "heel, upper thigh" [100] [101] [102] OE fiersn "heel, calx" fairzna "heel" perna "gammon"; Spa pierna "leg" ptérnē "heel, hoof; footstep" pā́rṣṇi "heel; rear of the army; kick" *h₂erH-mo- "arm, forequarter" [103] [104] [105] [106] arm (< OE earm) armus "shoulder, forequarter" harmós "joint (anatomy); link; bolt" īrmá- "arm, forequarter (of an animal)" OCS ramo "shoulder" *h₃nṓgʰs "nail (finger or toe)" [107] [108] [109] nail (< OE næġel) nagls "nail" unguis "fingernail, toenail; claw; hoof"; ungula "hoof, claw; an aromatic spice" ónux "claw, nail, hoof; a kind of aromatic substance; onyx (the gem)" nakhá "nail"; áṅghri "foot; foot of a seat; tree all of us are dead sub indo Npers nâxon "nail" OCS noga "foot, leg"; nogŭtĭ "nail" Lith nãgas "fingernail,talon" Irsh ionga "nail" ełung "nail" nyell "nail" A maku, B mekwa "nail" ša-an-ku-wa- "nail" *yḗkʷr̥, yekʷnés "liver" jecur (jecinoris) "liver" hẽpar (hḗpatos) "liver" yákr̥t (yaknás) "liver" Av yākarǝ, NPers ǰigar, Pashto yī̆na "liver" Serbian jetra "liver", Serbian and Macedonian ikra "fish roe" OPrus jakna, Lat aknas "liver", Lith jeknos [110] W (i)afu "liver"; MIr i(u)chair (i(u)chrach) "fish roe" leard "liver" Luwian ikkwar/n- "liver" [ah] *ǵʰésr̥ ~ *ǵʰs-r-és "hand" hir "hand" (rare, anatomical) kheír "hand" (> chiropractor, surgery (chirurgy), enchiridion, etc.) hás-ta "hand" Av zas-ta "hand" jeṙ "hand, arm" dorë "hand" A tsar, B ṣar "hand" keššar "hand", [112] Luwian īssaris "hand" *méh₂-r̥ ~ *mh₂-én- ~ *mh₂-nt-éh₂ "hand, the pointing one" [113] [114] [115] mound (< OE mund "hand, hand of protection, protector) Ger vor mund "legal guardian" manus, manūs "hand" ⇒ [note 17] márē "hand" *bʰeh₂ǵʰús "arm" [116] bough (< OE bōg) pêkhus "forearm" bāhú "arm" *h₃bʰrúHs "eyebrow" [117] brow, Scot broo (< OE brū) ophrū́s "eyebrow" bhrū́ "eyebrow" OCS bry "eyebrow" *péth₂r̥ "wing, feather" [118] [119] [115] [120] (See also *peth₂-) feather (< OE feþer) penna < *petna "wing; feather; quill pen" (> pen) pterón "feather, wing; winged creature" pát·tra- "wing, pinion, feather; leaf, petal (as the plumage of a tree)" Karšiptar ( Karšift) "black-winged" trnum "to fly" Animals [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *ék̂wos "horse", "fast animal" OE eoh "horse" aíƕa- "horse" [ai] equus "horse" híppos "horse"; Myc i-qo "horse" ( < *ïkkʷos) [121] áśva- "horse"; Mittani-Aryan aššu- "horse" Av aspa- OPers asa- "horse"; Ossetian yäfs "horse" < *yék̂wos NPers asp "horse"; Kurdish hesp "horse" OCS jastrębъ "hawk" (literally "a fast bird") OPrus kaiwi "mare", Lith ašva "mare OIr ech; MW ebawl "horse" < PBryth *ep-ālos ēš "donkey" A yuk, B yakwe "horse" Luwian ásùwa "horse"; Lycian esbe "horse" *gʷōus "cattle" [i] [122] cow (< OE cū) Old Saxon kō, OHG chuo "cow" bōs (bovis) "cattle"; [aj] Umbrian acc.

bum "cow" boũs, Dor bõs (bo(w)ós) "cattle, cow" gáus (gṓs) [i] "cow" Av gāuš (gāuš) [i] "cow"; NPers gāv "cow"; Kurdish ga "cow" Croatian gòvedo "cattle" < PSlav *govędo; OCS gu-mǐno "threshing floor" Latvian gùovs "cow", Lith galvijas "a cattle" OIr bó (bóu/báu) [ak] "cow"; Boand [al] < Proto-Celtic *bowo-windā "white cow (or) cow-finder" [am] > Boyne [an] [123] OW buch "cow" < *boukkā, bu-gail "cowherd" < *gʷou-kʷolyos kov "cow" ka "ox" A ko "cow", B ke u "cow" HierLuv wawa- Lycian wawa- uwa- "cow"; [124] ?

Pal kuwa(w)- "bull" [ao] *péḱu "livestock" [126] [127] fee; fief; feud (< OE feoh "livestock, property, money"); faihu "property, possessions, wealth, riches, money" pecū "cattle, domestic animals"; pecūnia "money" [ap] páśu, paśú "livestock" Lith pēkus "cattle" asr "wool" *h₂éwis "bird" [128] [129] [130] [131] (See also *h₂ōwyó·m) avis "bird" (> aviary, aviation, etc.); auceps "bird-catcher; fowler; eavesdropper"; LL avicellus, aucellus "little bird" > Fre oiseau; avispex, later, auspex "augur (from watching the flight of birds)" ⇒ [note 18] āetós "eagle; omen"; oiōnós "large bird, bird of prey; omen; bird used in augury"; oiōnoskópos "augur (from the flight of birds)"; oiōnistḗrion "place for watching bird flight; omen" ví "bird" Av vīš "bird" hav "chicken" *H₂ówi- "sheep " ewe (< OE ēow "sheep", ēowu "ewe") awistr "sheepfold"; OHG ouwi, ou "sheep" ovis "sheep" ó(w)is "sheep" ávi- "sheep" Wakhi yobc "ewe" < PIran *āvi-či- Bulg ovèn "ram", OCS ovĭ-ca "ewe" OPrus awwins "ram", Lith avis "female sheep" avinas "ram" OIr ōi "sheep"; W ewig "deer" hov-iw "shepherd" B eye "sheep", ā( u)w "ewe" Luvian hāwa/i- Lycian χawa- "sheep" *H₂rtk̂os "bear" [132] ursus "bear" árktos "bear" ŕ̥kṣa- "bear" YAv arša, Ossetian ars "bear"; NPers xers "bear"; Kurdish hirç "bear" Lith urgzti "to growl" MIr art, W arth "bear" arǰ "bear" arí "bear" ḫartaqqas (name of a beast of prey) *k̂won- "hound, dog" [133] hound (< OE hund "dog") hunds "dog" canis "dog" kúōn (kunós) "dog"; Myc ku-na-ke-ta-i, Att/ Ion kunegétes "huntsman" (litt.

"those all of us are dead sub indo guide dogs") [134] śvan(śunas) "dog" Av spā (acc. spānǝm, pl. gen. sū̆nam); MPers sak; Kurdish se, seg; Wakhi šač "dog" Bulg kùt͡ʃe "dog", OCS suka "bitch (female dog)" OPrus sunnis "dog", Lith šuo, šunis ( acc pl.) "dog", Latv suns "dog", Ltg suņs "dog" OIr cú (con), W ci "dog" šun "dog" possibly qen (disputed, possible Latin loan) AB ku "dog" (acc. A koṃ, B kweṃ) Hittite kuwaš ( nom.), kunaš ( gen.); HierLuv suwanni "dog"; [135] Pal kuwan- "dog"; [136] Lyd kan- "dog" *muH₁s- "mouse" mouse, Scot moose (< OE mūs) ON mús "mouse" mūs "mouse" mũs "mouse" mū́ṣ- "mouse" OPers muš "mouse" (?

not in Pokorny; Pokorny has NPers mūš "mouse"); Kurdish mişk "mouse" OCS myšĭ "mouse" mukn "mouse" mi "mouse" *uksḗn "ox, bull" [137] [138] ox (< OE oxa) auhsa "ox" ukṣán "bull, ox" uxšan "bull" MW ych; MidIr oss "stag, cow"; MBret ouhen B okso "draft-ox" *táwros "bull" taurus, Osc taurom ( acc.) taûros stawra- "bull" OSl turŭ Lith taüras; OPr tauris "bison" Gaul tarvos ( taruos) "bull"; OIr tarb tuar "cattle" tarok *suHs- "pig" sow (< OE sū) ON sýr "sow" sūs "pig" hũs, sũs "pig" sū-kara- "pig"; Hindi sūvar "pig" Av hū (gen.

sg.) "pig"NPers xuk "pig" Bulg svinjà "swine, sow" Latvian suvẽns, sivẽns "piglet" OIr socc all of us are dead sub indo "sea pig"; W hwch "sow, swine" khos "pig" thi "pig" B suwo "pig" še-hu-u "pig" *wl̥kʷos "wolf" wolf (< OE wulf) wulfs (wulfis) "wolf" lupus "wolf" lúkos "wolf" vŕ̥ka- "wolf" Av all of us are dead sub indo "wolf"; NPers gorg "wolf"; Kurdish gur "wolf" Bulg vɤ̞lk "wolf", OCS vlĭkŭ "wolf" OPrus wilks "wolf", Lith vilkas "wolf" OIr olc (uilc) "evil" aghves "fox" ujk < OAlb ulk "wolf" B walkwe "wolf" ulippana "wolf" *wl(o)p "fox" vulpes "fox" alṓpēx "fox" lopāśá "fox, jackal" Av urupis "dog", raopi- "fox, jackal"; Kurdish rovî, rûvî "fox" Lith lãpė "fox"; Lapskojis "fox's leg" (river name); vilpisÿs "wild cat"; Latv lapsa "fox" Bre louarn "fox" (< PCel *loɸernos) ałuēs "fox" Tosk dhelpër, Gheg dhelpen "fox" (< *dzelpina < *welpina) [139] ulipzas ( ú-li-ip-za-aš) "wolf"; [140] Luwian ú-li-ip-ni-eš (nom.

sg.), wa-li-ip-ni (dat.-loc. sg.) "fox" [140] *ĝʰans- "goose" goose (< OE gōs), gander (< OE ganra) OHG gans "goose" (h)ānser "goose" kʰḗn, Doric khā́n "goose"; Myc ka-no, ka-si ( dat. pl.) "goose" [141] haṁsá-"goose" Av zāō "goose" (? not in Pokorny); Sogdian z’γ "kind of bird"NPers ɣaz "goose" Bulg gɤ̞ska "goose", OCS gǫsǐ "goose" OPrus zansi "goose", Lith žąsis "goose" OIr gēiss "swan" W gwydd "goose" gatë "heron" B kents- "bird (goose?)" [142] [143] *H₂enH₂-t(i)- "duck" Scot ennet "duck" (< OE ened) OHG enita "duck" ānas "duck" nessa, netta "duck" ātí- "waterfowl" Ossetic acc "Wild duck"NPers ordak "duck"NPers ɣu "swan" Russ.

utka "duck" OPrus ants "duck", Lith antis "duck" W hwyad(en) "duck" baht "duck" rosë "duck" *H₁elH₁ēn "deer" élaphos "deer"; Hom ellós "young of the deer" OSl jeleni "deer"; Russ oleni "red deer" Lith élnis "red deer"; Lith élnė "hind" < *H₁elH₁ēniHx "hind, cow-elk" NWel elain "hind" < *H₁elH₁ēniHx "hind, cow-elk" OIr elit "doe" [144] ełn "hind" B yal, ylem "gazelle" [145] B ylaṃśke "young gazelle" [146] aliya(n)- "red deer" [147] *H₁eĝʰis "hedgehog" OE igil "hedgehog" (< Proto-Germanic *igilaz) ON ígull "sea-urchin" MycGr e-ki-no; [148] ekhînos "hedgehog" Oss wyzyn "hedgehog" OSl jezĭ "hedgehog"; Rus ež "hedgehog" Lith ežȳs "hedgehog" [aq] ozni "hedgehog" esh, eshk "porcupine, hedgehog" *bʰébʰrus "beaver" (See also *bʰer- bʰerH-) beaver (< OE beofer) OHG bibar "beaver"; OIc biorr "beaver" fīber "beaver" babʰrú "mongoose" Av baβra- "beaver" Ukr bober "beaver"; [149] Rus bobr "beaver" Lith bebrùs "beaver"; Pruss bebrus "beaver" Gaul bebru- ; OIr Bibar *H₃er-on "eagle" [150] erne "a sea eagle" < OE earn "eagle" ara "eagle"; OHG arn "eagle" ( Avernus "entrance to the underworld" (< AncGrk áornos "birdless")) [ar] órnis "bird"; Myc o-ni-ti-ja-pi "decorated with birds(?)" OSl orǐlŭ "eagle"; Rus orël "eagle" Lith ăras, ĕras, erẽlis "eagle"; Latv ērglis, OPrus arelie "eagle" MBret erer, MW eryr, MIr irar "eagle" (< *eriro) OArm oror "gull", MArm urur "kite" orr "eagle, falcon" (rare) Hitt ḫaran- "eagle"; CLuw ḫarrani(a/i) "a type of (oracular) bird"; Pala [ḫa-]a-ra-na-aš "eagle" [151] *h₂éngʷʰis; *h₁ógʷʰis "snake", "serpent" OHG unc "snake"; engiring "maggot" (diminutive of angar "large larva") anguis "snake, serpent, dragon"; Anguilla "eel" ópʰis "serpent, snake"; énkhelus "eel" [as] áhi "snake, serpent; name of Vrtra" Av aži "snake", Persian yağnij "grass snake" (archaic); Azhi Dahāka [at] OEstSl užĭ "snake", Rus už "grass snake"; Pol węgorz "eel" OPrus angis "snake", angurgis "eel"; Lith angis "viper", ungurys "eel"; Latv odze, all of us are dead sub indo (dialectal) "viper, adder"; OArm awj "snake", iž, iwž "viper" B auk "snake" Illuy anka "mythical snake foe" *h₂eyǵ- "goat" [156] aíx "goat" eḍa "a kind of sheep" ayts "goat" *h₂ōwyó·m (a vṛddhi-derivative of *h₂éwis) "egg" [157] [158] [130] [159] ey (obsolete) "egg" (< OE ǣġ) (> Cockney "cock-egg"); egg (< ON egg) ōvum "egg" (> ovum, ovary, oval, ovoid, ovulate, etc.) ōión "egg, seed" *h₂egʷnós "lamb" [160] yean "to give birth to" (< OE ēanian) agnus "lamb" amnós "lamb" OCS agnę "lamb" *laḱ- laḱs- "to be spotted; salmon, trout" [161] [162] [163] lax (< OE leax "salmon") Yiddish laks "salmon"⇒ [note 19] Russ losos "salmon" Lith lašiša "salmon" Food and farming [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *ǵr̥h₂-nó- "grain" [164] [165] [166] (See also *gʰreh₁-) corn (< OE corn "grain") kaúrn "corn" grānum "grain" ⇒ [note 20] jīrṇá- jūrṇá- "old, worn out, decayed" OCS zrŭno "grain" OPrus zirni "grain", Lith žirnis "pea", girna "millstone" OIr grān, W all of us are dead sub indo "grain" cʿorean "wheat, grain, corn" grurë Tosk grun, gruni Gheg "grain" *gʰreh₁- "to grow" [167] [168] [164] [169] (See also *ǵr̥h₂-nó-) grow (< OE grōwan); green (< OE grēne); grey, gray (< OE grǣġ); grass (< OE græs); groom (young boy, servant) (< ME grome) grōdjan "to green, grow; plant" grāmen "grass, turf; herb"; rāvus "gray, tawny"; herba "grass; weed; herb"; Fre gourmet (< ME grome) "gourmet" (similarly gourmand) gráō "I gnaw, eat"; gástris "gourmand, voracious eater"; gastḗr < grastér "belly, stomach; appetite" (> gastro- gastronomy, etc.); krástis "greenfodder"; grásos "smell of a goat"; gángraina "ulcer" (> gangrene) grásati "(s/he) eats, swallows, devours"; grasta- "swallowed, devoured"; grāsa- "swallowing, mouthful; food, nourishment" Kurdish gewre, gir "big", gewre bûn "to grow, to get big", giran "heavy", girîng "important, major, essential" OCS grěnŭ "green" *h₂éǵro- "field" acre (< OE æcer "field") akrs "field" ager (agrī) "field" ⇒ [note 21] agrós "field" ájra-"meadow" art "soil" arë "field" *H₂erH₃- "to plow" OE erian "to plow" arjan "to plow" arō (arāre) "to plow", arātrum "plow" aróō "I plow" < *H₂erH₃-oH₂, árotron "plow" hala- "plow" OCS orjǫ (orati) "to plow", ralo < *ar(ə)dhlom "plow" OPrus artun "to plow", Lith arti "to plow" MIr airim "I plow", W arddu "to plow" < *arj-; MIr arathar, W aradr "plow" < *arətrom < *H₂erH₃-trom ara-wr "plow" arë "arable land" *H₂r̥H₃-uer- AB āre "plow" *H₂melĝ- "to milk" milk (< OE meolc, mioluc) miluks (miluks) "milk" mulgeō (mulgēre) "to milk" ⇒ [note 22] amélgō "I milk" mā́ršti, mā́rjati, mr̥játi "(he) wipes, cleans" Av marǝzaiti, mǝrǝzaiti "(he) grazes (barely touches)" Russ.

CS mŭlzu (mlěsti) "to milk", Pol mleko "milk" OPrus milztun "to milk", Lith melžti "to milk" W blith "milk, dairy produce; full of milk", MIr bligim "I milk" < *mligim, melg "milk" miel, mil "I milk" A malke B malk-wer "milk" *melH₂- "to grind" [170] [171] meal (< OE melu); malm (< OE mealm) malan "to grind" molō (molere) "I grind"; mola "millstone; mill; ground meal, flour" ⇒ [note 23]; immolō "I immolate, sacrifice (lit. sprinkling flour on animals to be sacrificed)" ⇒ [note 24]; malleus "hammer, mallet" ⇒ [note 25]; milium "millet" múllō "I grind"; malthakós, malakós "soft, tender; gentle; all of us are dead sub indo melínē "millet" mr̥ṇāti, mr̥nati "(he) grinds" Av mrāta- "tanned soft" OCS meljǫ (mlětĭ) "to grind"; mlatŭ "hammer"; molĭ "moth"; mělŭ "chalk; fine ground substance" OPrus maltun "to grind", Lith malti "to grind" OIr melim "I grind"; W malu "grind" mał "sieve" mał-em "I grind, crush" mjell "flour" A malywët "you press"; B melye "they trample" mallai "grinds" *kwh₂et- "to ferment, become sour" [172] [173] [174] [175] OE hwaþerian "to roar, foam, surge" ƕaÞō "froth, foam, scum" cāseus all of us are dead sub indo (> cheese) kváthate "it boils" OCS kvasŭ "leaven; sour drink" > Kvass *yew- "to blend, mix, knead" [176] [177] [178] [179] ON ostr "cheese"; ysta "to curdle" iūs "gravy, broth, soup; sauce; juice" > juice ?zōmós "soup, sauce; grease" ⇒ [note 26] yūṣa- "soup, broth; water in which pulses are boiled" Russ uxá " Ukha" *bʰrewh₁- "to boil; to brew" all of us are dead sub indo [181] brew (< OE brēowan); burn (< OE biernan, beornan); bread (< OE brēad); broth (< OE broþ) ferveō "I burn, I'm hot" ⇒ [note 27]; fermentum "fermentation, leavening; ferment; anger" buran (< SE bura); "to raise bubbles, to make fuss" [182] Borvo "Gaulish deity of healing springs" *gʷréh₂wō "quern, millstone" [183] [127] quern (< OE cwerne) *qairnus grā́van "stone, rock, stone for pressing out the Soma juice" OCS žrĭny "millstone" Bret breo, breou, W breuan "quern" [184] *meli-t, *mel-nés "honey" mildew (< OE mele-dēaw "honeydew") miliþ "honey" mel (mellis) "honey" (> mellifluous) méli (mélit-) "honey"; Att mélitta "bee"; Myc me-ri, me-ri-to "honey" [185] milinda "honey-bee" OIr mil, W mêl "honey" mełr "honey" mjal, mjaltë "honey" milit "honey"; CLuw ma-al-li "honey"; [186] Pala malit- "honey" *médʰu "honey", "mead" mead (< OE medu) midus "mead" mēdus "a type of mead" [187] métʰu "wine" mádʰu "sweet drink, honey" Proto-Iranian mádu "honey, wine" OCS medŭ "honey"; Bulg med "honey" OPrus meddu "honey", Lith medus "honey", midus "a honey beverage"; [188] Ltg mads "honey" OIr mid "mead"; W medd "mead" B mit "honey" [189] CLuw maddu- "wine" (originally "sweet drink") *tuh₂-ró-s "cheese" [160] butter (< Gk.

boútūros "cow cheese") tūrós "cheese" *séh₂ls "salt" [190] [191] salt (< OE sealt) salt "salt" sāl (salis) "salt" ⇒ [note 28] háls (halós) "salt" sal-ilá- "salty" OCS solǐ "salt"; OCS sladŭkŭ "sweet"; Russ sólod "malt" OPrus sals "salt", saldus "sweet OIr salann, W halen "salt" ał "salt" ngjel-bëtë, ngjel-mëtë "salty", njel-m "to be salty" A sāle, B salyiye "salt" *seH₁- "to sow (seed)", *séH₁mn̥ "seed" sow (< OE sāwan), seed (< OE sēd "that which is sown") saian "to sow"; OHG sāmo "seed" serō (serere) "to sow" < *si-sH₁-oH₂, sēmen "seed" ⇒ [note 29] sasá- "corn, herb, grass", sasyá- "corn, grain, fruit, crop of corn", sī́ra- "Saatpflug" (seed plow?) OCS sějǫ (sějati) "to sow", sěmę "seeds" OPrus situn "to sow", simen "seed", Lith sėti "to sow", sekla "seed", semenis "linseed" OIr sīl, W hil "seed" < *seH₁-lo- sermn "seed" isḫūwāi "(he) sows" *yugóm "yoke" (See also *yewg-) yoke (< OE ġeoc) juk "yoke" iugum "yoke" zugón "yoke" yugá·m "yoke" Av yaoj- yuj- "to harness" OCS igo "yoke" OPrus jugtun "yoke", Lith jungas "yoke" W iau "yoke" luc "yoke" A yokäm "door" yugan "yoke" *yéwos "cereal, grain; spelt, barley" [192] [193] Epic zeiā́ "einkorn wheat"; Cretan deaí "barley" yáva "grain, cereal; barley" Av yauua- "cereal"; Pers jow "barley, grain"; Oss jäv "corn, grain" Rus ovín "barn, granary"; [au] Pol jewnia, jownia (dialectal) "granary" Lith jãvas "a type of cereal"; javaĩ (pl.) "cereals"; Latv javs, java "infused (with fermentation)" Ir eorna "barley" B yap "dressed barley" e(u)wa(n) "cereal (a kind of barley)" *mḗms "meat" [195] [127] mimz "flesh" membrum "limb, member" < mēms-rom “flesh” ⇒ [note 30] mā́ṃs, māmsá- "meat" OCS męso "meat" mis "meat" *h₂ébōl "apple" [126] [127] apple (< OE appel) apel ( Osc Abella "town name") OCS ablŭ·ko "apple" Lith obuolys "apple", OPr wobalne "apple"; Latv ābols "apple (fruit)", ābele "apple tree" Gaul Aballo "place name"; OIr aball, W afall, OBr aball(en) "apple tree" Bodily functions and states [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *H₂enH₁- "to breathe" OE ōþian "breathe hard" < PGerm *anþōjanã *uz-anan "to expire", ON anda "to breathe" anima "breath" ánemos "wind"; Anemoi "(deified) winds" ániti "(he) breathes" Av ā̊ntya, parā̊ntya (gen.) "breathing in and out" OCS vonja "smell" < *H₂en-yeH₂ [196] OIr anāl "breath" < *H₂enH̥₁-tlo- ; W anadl "breath" hołm "wind", anjn "person" Gheg âj Tosk ēnj "I swell" AB āñm- "spirit", B añiye "breath", B all of us are dead sub indo "breathe in" *swep- "to sleep", *swepnos "dream (n.)" archaic sweven "dream, vision" (< OE swefn); NoEng sweb "to swoon" (< OE swebban "to put to sleep, lull") ON sofa "sleep (v.)"; Svafnir [197] "Sleep-Bringer (a name of Odin)" somnus "sleep (n.)"; sōpiō [198] (v.) "make asleep" húpnos "sleep (n.)" svápna- "sleep, dream (n.)" Av xᵛafna- "sleep (n.)" NPers xwãb- "sleep"; Kurdish xew "sleep" OCS sŭpati [198] "sleep (v.)", sŭnŭ "sleep (n.), dream (n.)" OPrus supnas "dream", Lith sapnas "dream" OIr sūan, W hun "sleep (n.)" kʿnem "I sleep", kʿun "sleep (n.)" gjumë "sleep (n.)" TA ṣpäṃ, TB ṣpane "sleep (n.), dream (n.)" sup- suppariya- "to sleep" *der- *drem- "to sleep" [199] [200] [201] [202] dormiō "I sleep"; ⇒ [note 31] darthánō "I sleep" (epic) drā́yati "(s/he) sleeps"; nidrā́ "sleep, slumber, sleepiness, sloth" OCS drěmati "to doze, drowse, slumber" *bʰewdʰ- "to be awake, be aware" [203] bid (< OE bēodan); bede (< OE bēden); bode (< OE bodian) anabiudan punthánomai "I learn" bódhati "(s/he) is awake"; bodháyati "(s/he) awakens, arouses"; buddhá- "awake" OCS bljusti "to watch"; buditi "to wake (someone) up"; bŭždrĭ "alert, cheerful"; *sweid- "sweat" sweat (< OE swǣtan "to sweat") ON sveiti sūdor "sweat (n.)" (e)ĩdos "sweat (n.)" svḗda- "sweat (n.)" Av xᵛaēda- "sweat (n.)"; Kurdish xwê, xoy "sweat" Latvian sviêdri (pl.) "sweat (n.)" W chwys "sweat (n.)" < *swidso- kʿirtn "sweat (n.)" dirsë, djersë "sweat (n.)" < *swí-drō xty- B syā-lñe "sweating" < *swid-yé- *H₁ed- "to eat" eat (< OE etan) itan "to eat" edō (ēsse) "to eat", ēst "(he) eats" édō "I eat", Homeric athematic infinitive édmenai "to eat" ádmi "I eat", átti "(he) eats" Av subj.

aδāiti "(he) should eat" OCS jamĭ "I eat" < *H₁ēd-mi, jastŭ "(he) eats" OPrus istun "to eat", ėsti, Lith "to eat", ėdmi "I eat" OIr ci-ni estar "although he doesn't eat"; W ys "eats" < *H₁ed-ti utem "I eat" < *ōd- ha "to eat" ēdmi "I eat" *peH₃- "to drink" potable (< OF potable) imbibe (< Lat. bibere "to drink" via OF imbiber) bibō (bibere) "to drink", pōtus "drink (n.)"; pō·culo- < pō·clo- < *pō·tlo- "beaker" [av] (Compare Skt pā·tra-) pī́nō, pépomai "I drink" pā́ti, píbati "(he) drinks"; pā·tra- "cup, vessel" [av] Av vispo-pitay- "alltränkend" giving water/drinks to all OCS pijǫ (piti) "to drink", Proto-Slavic pȋvo "drink, beer, beverage" OPrus putun "to drink", puja "a party", Lith puota "party" OIr ibid "drinks" < *pibeti; W yfwn "we drink" əmpem "I drink" pī "I drink" pāsi "he swallows" *ǵews- "to test, to taste" choose (< OE ċēosan) Goth kiusan "to prove, to test", kausjan "taste"; OHG kiosan "choose" gustus "taste" geúomai "taste" juşate, joşati all of us are dead sub indo Av zaoś- "be pleased" OCS (vŭ)kušati "to offer a meal, to give for tasting" OIr do-goa "choose" zgjedh "choose" desha "I loved"; dashje "liking, taste, preference" (< PAlb *dāusnja) kukuš(-zi) "taste" *ǵenh₁- "to beget, give birth, produce" [204] [205] [206] [207] [208] kin (< OE cynn "kind, sort, family, generation") (> kindred); kind (< All of us are dead sub indo (ġe)cynd "generation, nature, race, kind"); king (< OE cyning); OE cennan "produce" -kunds "born"; knoþs "race, people"; OHG kind "child"; Ger könig, Dut koning "king" (< PGmc *kuningaz = *kunją "kin" + *-ingaz "from, belonging to") (> OCS kŭnędzĭ "prince"; Lith kùnigas "priest"; Fin, Est kuningas "king" (esp.

in chess)) (g)nāscor "I am born, begotten; grow, spring forth"; gignō "I beget, bear, bring forth, engender" ⇒ [note 32]; (g)natus "born, arisen, made" ⇒ [note 33]; nāscēns "being born, arising; emerging" ⇒ [note 34]; nātīvus "created; imparted by birth" ⇒ [note 35]; nātīvitās "birth" ⇒ [note 36]; nātūra "nature, quality, essence" ⇒ [note 37]; nātiō "birth; race, class; nation, folk" ⇒ [note 38]; nātālis "relating to birth, natal" ⇒ [note 39]; genus (generis) "birth, origin; kind; species; (grammar) gender" ⇒ [note 40]; gēns (gentis) "tribe; folk, family; Roman clan" ⇒ [note 41]; ingēns "huge, vast; extraordinary"; genitus "begotten, engendered" ⇒ [note 42]; genius "inborn trait, innate character; talent, wits" (> genius); ingenuus "natural, indigenous; freeborn" ⇒ [note 43]; ingenium "innate quality, nature, disposition; natural capacity; talent" ⇒ [note 44]; indigenus = indu (inside) + genus "native, indigenous" (> indigenous); genimen "product, fruit; progeny"; germen (germinis) "shoot, sprout; germ, origin, seed; fetus" ⇒ [note 45]; genitor "begetter, father, sire"; genetrīx "begetter, mother"; naevus "birthmark, mole" (> Lat Gnaeus); genitālis "relation to birth, generation; productive" ⇒ [note 46] geínomai "I am born; I beget"; gígnomai "I come into being; become"; gonḗ "offspring; seed" (> gonad); geneā́ "birth; race, descent; generation; offspring" (> genealogy, etc.); gnōtós "kinsman"; génos "offspring, descendant, family; nation, gender"; génna, génnā "descent, lineage; origin, offspring"; génesis "origin, source, manner of birth" ⇒ [note 47]; gónos "fruit, product; race, descent; begetting; seed"; genétēs, genétōr "begetter, ancestor; father" jánati "(she) gives birth"; jáyate "is born; becomes"; já- -ja- "born; born of, begotten from", e.g., dvi·já- "twice-born"; jantú "child, offspring; creature"; jñāt́í "kinsman, relative"; jananī "mother, birth-giver"; jána- "people, person, race"; jánana- "begetting, birth"; jánas "race, class, genus"; jánman, janmá- "birth, life"; jániman "generation, birth, origin"; janitṛ́ "begetter, father, parent"; jánitrī "begetter, mother"; janátā "people, folk, generation"; jātí "birth, form of existence fixed at birth, position assigned by birth, rank, lineage, caste" Av zīzǝnti, zīzanǝnti "they give birth"; Kurdish zayîn "to give birth" OCS zętĭ "son-in-law" OPrus gamintun "to give birth", gimdyti "to give birth" OIr -gainethar "who is born" < *ĝn̥-ye-tro; [196] W geni "to be born" cnanim "I am born, bear" dhëndër, dhândër "son-in-law, bridegroom" < *ĝenH̥₁-tr- [ax] AB kän- "to come to pass (of a wish), be realized" *sewh₁- or *sewh₃- "to bear, beget, give birth" [29] [30] [31] [32] [209] (See also *suHnú-) sū́te "(she) begets"; sūtá- "born, brought forth"; sūtí "birth, production" Av hunāhi “give birth, all of us are dead sub indo OIr suth "produce, offspring; milk" šunnai "fills" *H₂eug- H₂weg- "to grow, increase" [210] eke (< OE ēacian "to increase"); wax (of the moon) (< OE weaxan "to grow") aukan, auknan "to increase (intr.)", wahsjan "to grow" < orig.

caus. *H₂wog-s-éy-onom augeō (augēre) "to increase (tr.)" ⇒ [note 48]; auctor "grower - promoter, producer, author etc" ⇒ [note 49]; augmentum "growth, increase" ⇒ [note 50]; augur < augos "aggrandizement" ⇒ [note 51]; augustus "majestic, venerable" ⇒ [note 52]; auxilium "help, aid; remedy" ⇒ [note 53] a(w)éksō "I increase (intr.)", aúksō, auksánō "I increase (tr.)" úkṣati all of us are dead sub indo becomes stronger", vakṣáyati "(he) causes to grow"; ójas, ōjmán "strength, vitality, power"; [211] ugrá- "immense, strong, hard"; Av uxšyeiti "(he) grows", vaxšaiti "(he) causes to grow" OCS jugъ "south" (the direction to where the Sun rises) OPrus augtwei "to grow", Lith augti " to grow" OIr fēr, W gwêr "fat" < *weg- ačem "I grow, become big" A oksiṣ "(he) grows"; A okṣu, В aukṣu "grown" *weǵ- "fresh, strong; lively, awake" [212] wake (< OE wacian); watch (< OE wæċċan) gawaknan "wake up, arouse" vegeō (vegēre) "be alert, awake, smart"; vigor "id"; vigil "awake, watching" vā́ja- "strength, energy, vigour, spirit"; vájra- "hard; mace; thunderbolt; diamond"; vājáyati "(s/he) impels" *gʷiH₃wo- "alive", *gʷiH₃wo-teH₂ "life" quick (< OE cwicu "alive") qius "alive" vīvus "alive"; vīta "life" bíos, bíotos "life", zoo "animal" jīvá- jīvaka- "alive", jīvita·m, jīvā́tus, jīvathas "life" Av gayō, acc.

ǰyātum "life"; Gayōmart "living mortal"; -ǰyāiti- "life-"; Av ǰva- OPers ǰīva- "alive", NPers ǰavān- "alive"; Kurdish jiyan, jîn "life" OCS živŭ "alive", žitĭ, životŭ "life"; Živa "alive, living (Polabian deity)" OPrus giws "alive", giwata "life", Lith gyvas "alive", gyvatė "snake" Gaul biuo- bio- [213] [ay] OIr biu, beo, W byw "alive"; OIr bethu (bethad), W bywyd "life" < Proto-Celtic *bivo-tūts keam "I live" < *gʷi-yā-ye-mi [196] gjallë "alive"; gjatë "long"; jetë "life" B śai- "to live" < *gweiH₃-ō ḫuišu̯ant- "living; alive" [214] [215] [216] [217] *ǵerh₂- "to grow old, mature" [218] [219] [206] [220] [221] (See also *ǵr̥h₂-nó- *gʰreh₁-) churl (< OE ċeorl, ċiorl "free man") Karl (< PGmc "free man") (> Slav korlǐ "king") [az] gérōn, gérontos "old; elder" (> geronto-); graûs "old woman"; geraiós "old"; géras "gift of honor"; gerarós "honorable, majestic, respectable"; Graîa Graia > Graikós > Graeco- Greek járati, jī́ryati "grows old; wears out; is consumed, digested"; jīrṇá- "old, worn out; digested"; járan(t)- "old, infirm; decayed"; jarā́, jarás, jariman "old age" OCS zĭrěti "to ripen" *mer- "to die" murder (< OE morþor < *mr̥-tro-m) maúrþr "murder" morior (morī) "to die" < *mr̥-yōr, mortalis "mortal" brotós (< *mrotós), mortós "mortal" marati, máratē, mriyátē "(he) dies", mṛtá- "dead", márta- mortal Av merə- "to die", miryeite "dies"; OPers martiya- "man (someone who dies)", NPers mordan- "to die"; Kurdish mirin "to die" OCS mĭrǫ, mrěti "to die" Lith miŕštu (miŕti) "to die", merdėti "to die slowly" OIr marb, W marw "dead" < *mr̥-wós meṙanim "I die", mard "human" mert "died" *kl̥H- "bald, naked" [222] [223] [224] [225] calvus "bald, hairless" > Calvin; calva "skull, scalp" kulvá- "bald" *kʷeh₂s- "to cough" [226] [227] whoost "cough" (< OE hwōstan) kā́sate "(s/he) coughs" OCS kašĭljati "to cough" koll "cough" *perd- "fart" [228] [229] fart (< OE feortan) pérdomai párdate "(s/he) farts" Russian perdétь "to fart" bert "fart" pordhë "fart" Mental functions and states [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *k̂leu-(s)- "to hear" listen (< OE hlystan), loud (< OE hlūd) hliuma "hearing, ears (in pl.)" clueō (cluēre) "to be named" ékluon "I heard" śr̥ṇóti "(he) hears" < *k̂l̥-neu-; śrúti "that which is heard" Av surunaoiti "(he) hears" < *k̂lu-n- OCS slyšati "to hear"; slušati "to listen" OPrus klausytun "to hear", Lith klausyti "to listen" OIr ro-clui-nethar "hears"; W clywed "to hear"; Gaul cluiou "I hear" [230] lsem "I hear" Old Tosk kluaj (standard quaj) "to call, to name" < *k̂lu(H)-eH₁- A klyoṣ- B klyauṣ- "to hear" *h₂ew- or *h₃ew "to see, perceive, be aware of" [231] [232] [201] [233] OE ēawis "obvious" audiō "I hear, listen to; pay attention to" ⇒ [note 54] aḯō "I perceive, hear, see, obey"; aisthánomai "I perceive, feel, apprehend, notice" ⇒ [note 55] āvís "evidently, manifestly, before the eyes, openly" OCS aviti "to show, appear" Lith ovytis "to appear"; ovyje "in reality" *weid- "to see, find; to know" wit ( OE wit "intelligence", witan "to know" < PIE perfect tense) witan "to know" videō (vidēre) "to see" é(w)ide "he saw"; perf.

oĩda "I know (lit. I have seen)" vindáti "(he) finds", ávidat "found"; vetti, vēdate, vidáti "(he) knows"; perf. véda "I know" Av vī̆δaiti, vī̆nasti "(he) finds" OCS viždǫ (viděti) "to see" OPrus widatun "to see"; Lith veidas "face" W gweld "to see" gtanem "I find" *woid- "to know" Av perf. vaēδa "I know", vīdarǝ "they know" OCS věmĭ (věděti) "to know" OPrus waistun "to know", Lith vaistas "medicine", vyda "he sees, knows" OIr find, W gwn "(I) know" gitem "I know" B ūwe "learned" < PToch *wäwen- < *wid-wo- *ĝénH₃- *ĝnéH₃-sk̂- *ĝn̥-né-H₃- "to recognize, know" can (< OE cann "I know, he knows"), know (< OE cnāwan < *ĝnēH₃-yo-nom), Scot ken "to know" (< OE cennan "to cause to know" < PGerm *kann-jan) kunnan "to know" < *ĝn̥-n-H₃-onom, kann "I know" (g)nōscō ((g)nōscere) "to recognize", nōvī "I know" gignṓskō (aorist égnōn) "I recognize" jānā́mi "I know" < *janā́mi < *ĝn̥-nH₃-mi Av zanā-ṯ, zanąn < *ĝn̥-ne-H₃-ti; OPers a-dānā ( impf.) "he knew" < *ĝn̥-ne-H₃-mi, xšnāsātiy ( subj.) "he should know"; Kurdish zanîn "to know" OCS znajǫ (znati) "to know" < *ĝneH₃-yoH₂ OPrus all of us are dead sub indo "to recognize, know", Lith žinoti "to know" [234] [235] OIr itar-gninim, asa-gninaim "I am wise"; W adnabod "(I) know" čanačʿem, aorist caneay "I recognize" njoh "I know" < *ĝnēH₃-sk̂oH₂ A knā- e.g.

knānmaṃ "knowing" < *ĝneH₃- kñas-äṣt "you have become acquainted" < *ĝnēH₃-s- *n̥- + *ĝneH₃-tos "not" + "to know" uncouth (< OE uncūþ "unknown, strange") unkunþs "unknown" ignōtus, ignōrāntem "unknown, ignorant" agnṓs (agnõtos) "unknown" < *n̥- + *ĝnéH₃-ts ajñāta- "unknown" OPrus nezinatun "not to know", Lith nežinoti " not to know" OIr ingnad "foreign" an-can-awtʿ "ignorant, unknown" A ā-knats, B a-knātsa "ignorant" *lewbʰ- "to love; desire, covet, want; admire, praise" [236] [237] love (< OE lufu); lief "dear, beloved" (< OE lēof); lofe "praise, exalt; offer" (< OE lofian, lof) lubō "love" libet "it is pleasing, agreeable" lúbhyati "(s/he) desires greatly; longs for, covets; is perplexed"; lobháyati "(s/he) causes to desire, attract, allure; confound, bewilder"; lobhá "perplexity, confusion; impatience, eager desire, longing; covetousness"; lobhin "greedy, desirous of, longing after; covetous" OCS ljubiti "to love"; ljubŭ "sweet, pleasant"; ljuby "love"; Russ ljubímyj "favorite" lyp "beg" *men- "to think" [238] [239] mind (< All of us are dead sub indo (ġe)mynd "memory" < *mn̥t-ís); OE munan "to think"; minion munan "to think"; muns (pl.

muneis) "thought" < *mn̥-is; gamunds (gamundáis) "remembrance" < *ko(m)-mn̥t-ís meminī "I remember" ⇒ [note 56]; reminīscor "I recollect, remember" ⇒ [note 57] mēns (mentis) "mind" < *mn̥t-is; memor "mindful, remembering" ⇒ [note 58] commentus "devised, contrived; invented"; moneō "I remind, warn"; mōnstrum "a divine omen; portent" ⇒ [note 59]; Minerva mémona "I think of"; maínomai "I go mad"; mimnḗskō "I remind, recall"; mnáomai "I am mindful, remember; woo, court"; autómatos "self-willed, unbidden; self-moving, automatic"; ménos "mind; desire; anger"; Méntōr "mentor"; manthánō "I learn; know, understand; notices"; máthēma "something that is learned, lesson; learning, knowledge" ⇒ [note 60]; Promētheús] mányate "(he) thinks"; mántra- "thought, the instrument of thought"; [240] mánas "mind"; máti "thought intention; opinion, notion; perception, judgement"; mantṛ́ "thinker, adviser"; medhā́ "wisdom, intelligence" (See mazdā); mantrín "minister, councilor, counselor" > mandarin Av mainyeite "(he) thinks"; mazdā "wisdom, intelligence"; OPers mainyāhay "I think", NPers Došman- "Someone who has a bad mind"; Kurdish mejî "brain, mind" OCS mĭněti "to mean"; pamętĭ "memory"; myslĭ "thought" OPrus mintun "to guess", minisna "memory", mints "riddle", mentitun "to lie", Lith mintis " thought", minti "to guess", minėti "to mention" OIr do-moiniur "I believe, I mean" mendoj "I think" A mnu "thought"; B mañu "demand (n.)" memmāi "says" *(s)mer- "to remember, care for, be concerned, fall into thinking" [241] [242] [201] [243] mammer "to hesitate; to mumble, stammer from hesitation" (< OE māmrian, māmorian "to think through, deliberate, plan out"); mimmer "to dote, dream" (< OE mymerian "to keep in mind"); mourn (< OE murnan); OE mimor "mindful" memor "mindful, remembering" [ba] ⇒ [note 61]; mora "delay, any duration of time" ⇒ [note 62] mérmeros "baneful, mischievous; captious, fastidious"; mérimna "care, thought; anxious mind"; mártus, márturos "witness" ⇒ [note 63] smárati "(s/he) remembers, recollects" mariti(< SE "to care about something/someone") *teng- "to think" [244] [245] [201] think (< OE þenċan, þenċean); thank (< OE þanc "thought, thanks") tongeō "I know" *mers- "to bother, annoy, neglect, disturb, forget, ignore" [246] [247] [201] [248] mar (< OE mierran) mṛ́ṣyate "(s/he) forgets, neglects, disregards" Lith miršti "to forget, lose, become oblivious" mërzi "boredom" mërzit "bother, annoy" *sekʷ- "to see, to say" see (< OE sēon); say (< OE sec̣gan < PGerm *sag(w)jan < *sokʷéyonom) saíƕan "to see"; OHG sagen "say" < *sokʷē- īnseque "declare!" énnepe "tell!" śacate "(he) says" OCS sočiti "to announce" Lith sakyti "to say", sekti "to tell a story, to follow" OIr insce "I talk"; OIr rosc "eye" < *pro-skʷo-; OW hepp "(he) said" sheh "(he) sees" A ṣotre, B ṣotri "sign" sakuwāi- "to see" *derḱ- "to see" [249] [250] [251] [252] ME torhte "bright, shining, radiant" dérkomai "to see, see clearly; watch"; dérgma "look, glance; sight" dṛś- "see"; [bb] [note 64] darśayati "to cause to see, to show"; dṛṣṭá- "seen, visible, apparent, noticed" ndrri, ndrritje "bright, enlightened" *(s)péḱ- "to watch, be looking at, keep looking at" [253] [254] [251] [255] spy (< Fk *spehōn "to spy") -spex "watcher" > avispex, auspex "bird-watcher" ⇒ [note 18]; speciō "I observe, watch, look at" ⇒ [note 65]; speciēs "seeing, view, look; sight; appearance; point of view; kind, sort, type" ⇒ [note 66]; specimen "mark, token; example, pattern, model"; spectus "look, appearance, aspect"; spectrum "appearance, image; apparition, spectre" ⇒ [note 67]; speculum "looking-glass, mirror" ⇒ [note 68] skopéō "I look, behold; inspect" ⇒ [note 69]; skopós "watcher; proterctor, guardian" ⇒ [note 70]; sképtomai "I look at; examine; consider, think"; sképsis "viewing; observation; doubt" ⇒ [note 71] spáś "spy, watcher; messenger"; páśyati "(s/he) sees, looks, beholds"; spaṣṭá- "clear, visible; obvious, evident; intelligible" shpik "invent" shpikje "invention, creation" *kʷeḱ- "to see; to show; to seem" [256] [257] [251] [258] tékmar "goal, end; token" kā́śate "(it) is visible, appears; shines"; √caks- caṣṭe "to see, look; appear; inform"; cákṣu "eye"; cákṣman "seer" Av cašman "eye" OCS kazati "to show; say, testify" *wekʷ- "to say" OE wōma "noise" < *wōkʷ-mō(n) OHG giwahanen "mention" < PGerm *gawahnjan (denom.

built on *wokʷ-no-) vocō (vocāre) "to call", vōx (vōcis) "voice" eĩpon (aor.) "spoke" < *e-we-ikʷ-om < *e-we-ukʷ-om, (w)épos "word" vákti, vívakti "(he) says", vāk "voice", vácas- "word" Av vač- "speak, say", vāxš "voice", vačah "word", NPers vāk- "voice"; Kurdish vaj "voice", bivaj- "to say" OCS vikǫti "to call, to scream" OPrus enwackēmai "we call" OIr foccul "word", W gwaethl "fight" < * wokʷ-tlo-m gočem "I call" A wak, B wek "voice" ḫuek- ḫuk- to swear to" *bʰeh₂- "to speak, say" [259] ban (< PGmc *bannaną "to proclaim, order, summon") all of us are dead sub indo "fame"; fās "divine law; will of god, destiny"; for (fārī) "I speak, talk, say"; fātus "word, saying; oracle, prophecy; fate"; fateor (fatērī, fassus sum) "I confess, admit, acknowledge"; fābula "discourse, narrative; tale, fable"; Sp hablar, Pt falar "to speak" phōnḗ "voice"; phḗmē "prophetic voice; rumor; reputation"; phēmí "I speak, say"; prophḗtēs "one who speaks for a god: proclaimer, prophet"; phásis "utterance, statement, expression" bhā́ṣā "speech, language"; bhā́ṣati "(s/he) speaks" bajka "fable"; [bc] OCS balii "physician, (healer, enchanter)" *prek̂- *pr̥-sk̂- < *pr̥k̂-sk̂- "to ask" Scot frain "to ask" (< OE freġnan) fraíhnan "to ask"; OHG forscōn "to ask, to research" precor (precārī) "to pray", poscō (poscere) "to demand, ask" pr̥ccháti "(he) asks" Av pǝrǝsaiti "(he) asks, desires" < *pr̥-sk̂-; OPers aor.?

aparsam "(he) asked"; Kurdish pirs "question" OCS prositi "to pray" OPrus prasitun "to ask", Lith prašyti "to ask" OIr imm-chom-arc "mutual questions, greetings"; NIr arco, W archaf "I ask" harcʿanem "I ask" pyet "ask" porosit "recommend, order" (an article or a meal) A prak- B prek- all of us are dead sub indo ask" *kelh₁- (s)kel-dh- "to call, cry, summon" [260] [261] haul (< OE halian); scold (< ON skald) calō "I call, announce solemnly; call out"; concilium "a council, meeting" ⇒ [note 72]; classis "the armed forces; fleet; group or class" > class; kalendae "the Calends" > calendar; clāmō "I cry out, clamor, shout, yell" ⇒ [note 73]; clārus "clear, bright; renouwned, famous; loud, distinct" ⇒ [note 74] kaléō "I call, hail; summon, invite" klándati, krándati "(s/he) laments weeps; cries; sounds"; uṣaḥkala- uṣakala- "rooster, lit, dawn-call" Kurdish kalîn "to moan, to whine, to mourn", dikale "he/she mourns" OCS klakolŭ "bell"; Russ skulítʹ "to whine, whisper" Gheg kaj "weep, cry" *bʰeyh₂- "to fear, be afraid" [262] bive, bever "to shake, tremble" (< OE bifian) foedus all of us are dead sub indo, filthy, unseemly; vile" bháyate "(s/he) is afraid"; bhī, bhīti, bhayá- "fear" OCS bojati "to fear, be afraid" *H₁neH₃mn̥ or *H₁nomn̥- "name" name (< OE nama) namō (acc.

pl. namna) "name" nōmen "name" ónoma "name" nā́ma(n)(instrumental sg. nā́mnā) "name" Av nāma "name"; NPers nām- "name"; Kurdish nav "name" OCS imę "name" < Proto-Slavic *inmen < *n̥men OPrus emnes, emmens "name" < *enmen- OIr ainmm n- OW anu "name"; Gaul anuan < anman "name" [263] anun "name" Gheg emën, Tosk emër "name" < *enmen- A ñem, B ñom "name" lāman- "name" General conditions and states [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *(s)teyg- "to be sharp; to sting" [264] [265] [266] [267] stick (< OE sticca); stitch (< OE stiċe); thistle (< OE þistel) īn stīgō "I stimulate, incite, rouse" > instigate; stylus (later spelled stylus [bd]) "pointed instrument, spike" ⇒ [note 75] stizō "I tattoo; mark"; stíxis "marking; spot, mark"; stígma "mark, tattoo; spot, stain" téjate "become sharp; energize"; téjas "sharp ede of a knife; light, brilliance, glow; splendor; fiery power"; tīkṣṇá "sharp; hot, fiery, pungent; acute, keen"; tigmá "sharp, pointed; pungent, scorching, acrid" Per tez "sharp" *teh₂- "to melt, thaw; flow" [268] [269] [270] thaw (< OE þawian); thone "damp, moist, wet" (< OE þan) tābēs "decay, foulness; fluid from a wound"; tābeō "I melt; rot"; tābum "gore; viscous fluid" tîphos "pond, swamp"; tḗkō "melt" tāmara "water"; toyam "water"; toś- tośate "drip, distill, trickle"; tuṣāra "rain, mist, tickle, drizzle, wet" OCS tajati "melt" Natural features [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *H₂ster- "star" (See also: *h₂eHs-) star (< OE steorra) staírnō "star" stēlla "star" astḗr "star" [be] stṛ inst.

pl. stŕ̥bhis, nom. pl. tāra- fem. nom. sg. tarā "star" Av acc. stā̆rǝm (ablauting) [bf] "star"; Kurdish stêr "star" MIr ser, W seren, Breton sterenn "star"; Celtic Sirona (< *Tsirona) "astral", "stellar" astł "star"; Astłik "deity of love, fertility and skylight" pl.

A śreñ, B ściriñ "stars" ḫasterza "star" * dyēus, déiwos [ii] "sky, day, god" Tues-day (< OE Tīwes-dæġ lit. "day of Tīw" [bg]) tiws "god", All of us are dead sub indo Týr "Tīw" (the war god) Iuppiter (Iovis), Old Latin Diū-piter (Diovis) " Jupiter"; diēs "day", deus, dīvus "god" [bh] Zdeús (Di(w)ós) [ii] "Zeus" d(i)yāús (divás, dyōs) [ii] "heaven", dēvás "god", devī́ "goddess" Av daēva- "demon" ( OCS dĭnĭ (dĭne) "day" < *din-is), Ukr.

dyvo and Russ. divo "miracle" OPrus deina "day", deiws "god", Lith diena "day", dievas "god" OIr dīe, W dydd "day"; OIr dia (dē), OW duiu- "God" tiw (tuənǰean) "day" ( gdhinj "I make day"(?

mache Tag) < *-di-n-yoH₂) Šiuš " Hittite sky- or sun-god" [271] [bi] *seH₂wol- *sH₂un- "sun" sun (< OE sunne) sauil, sunnō "sun" sōl "sun" Homeric hēélios "sun" < *sāwélios; [bj] Helios "deity of the sun" súvar (súra-) "sun, light, heavens", sūra- sūrya "sun" Av hvarǝ (hūrō) "sun, light, heavens", Hvare-khshaeta "deity of the radiant sun" OCS slĭnŭce "sun" < *sulnika- Russ.

po-solon' "sunwise" OPrus sauli "sun", sawaiti "week", Lith saulė "sun", savaitė "week" OIr sūil "eye"; W haul "sun" ylli "star" < *sūlo- or *sūli- A swañceṃ; B swañco, swañciye "sunbeam" (< Common Tocharian * su̯āntœ) [273] DUTU-li-ya "Sun goddess" *meH₁ns- "moon, month" moon (< OE mōna), month (< OE mōnaþ) mēna "moon", mēnoþs "month" mēnsis "month" Att mḗn, Ion meis, Dor mḗs "month", mḗnē "moon" mā́s "moon"; mā́sa- "month" Av mā̊ (mā̊ŋhō) "moon"; NPers māh "moon, month"; Kurdish meh "month", mang "moon" OCS měsęcĭ "moon, month" < *mēs-n̥-ko- OPrus miniks "moon", mins "month", Lith mėnulis "moon", mėnesis "month" OIr mī (mīs) "month" < *mēns;; W mis "month" amis "month" muai "month" A mañ B meñe "month"; A mañ ñkät B meṃ "moon" * dʰeĝʰom- "earth" (See also *dʰĝʰemon-) humus "earth" kʰtʰṓn (kʰtʰonós) "earth", kʰamaí "on the earth" [bk] kṣā́s (acc.

kṣā́m, gen. jmá-) "earth" Av zā̊ (acc. ząm, gen. zǝmō) "earth"; Kurdish zevî "farmland", NPers zamin "ground, soil", zamindar "land owner" OCS zemĭ, zemlja "earth"; Russ Cherno zem "black soil" OPrus zemê "earth", semmai "on the earth" (adverb); Lith žemė " earth" OIr dū "place"; Welsh dyn "man" dhe "earth" A tkaṃ (tkanis), B keṃ "earth" tēkan (tagnās) "earth" *h₂éḱmō "stone" [275] [276] [277] [278] hammer (< OE hamer) ákmōn "anvil" áśman "stone"; aśmará "stony" OCS kamy, gen.

kamene "stone" Lith akmuõ, gen. akmeñs "stone" *lep- "stone" [279] [280] [281] lapis "stone" lépas "crag, bare rock" *wódr̥ (udéns) pl. *wédōr (udnés) "water" water (< OE wæter) watō (watins) "water" Umbrian utur "water", Latin unda "wave" húdōr (húdatos) "water"; Hydra (litt.) "water-animal" udaká- (loc. udán(i), pl. udá), udra "water"; sam udra "ocean" (litt. "gathering of waters") Av aoδa- "spring", vaiδi- "stream" OCS voda "water", Russ.

vedro "bucket"; Russ vódka "little water" OPrus undan "water", Lith vanduo "water" OIr u(i)sce "water" < *udeskyo-; Eng. Whisky < uisce beatha "water of life" get "river" ujë "water" A wär, B war "water" wātar (wetenas) "water" *doru, *dreu- "wood, tree" tree (< OE trēo) triu "tree, wood" dóru, drûs "tree, wood" dā́ru, drṓs, drú- "tree, wood" Av dāru- "tree, wood"; Kurdish dar "tree, wood" OCS drěvo "tree" OPrus drawê "hole in a tree, hollow tree", Lith drevė "hole in a tree", dirva "soil" OIr daur "oak", W derwen "oak" tram "firm" dru "tree" AB or "wood" taru "tree" *H₂weH₁n̥to- "wind", *H₂weH₁- "to blow" wind (< OE wind); OE wāwan "to blow" winds "wind"; waian "to blow" ventus "wind" áenta (acc.) "wind", áēsi "(he) blows" vā́ta- (vānt-) [282] "wind", vāti "(he) blows", Vāyu "lord of winds"; nir·vāṇa- "blow-out, extinction" [283] Av vātō "wind", vāiti "(he) blows", Vayu-Vata "a pair of deities: Vayu/Wind and Vata/Air"; Kurdish ba, wa, va "wind", hewa "air, weather" OCS vějǫ (vějetŭ) "to blow" OPrus witra "wind"; Lith vėjas "wind", vėtra "heavy wind", Vėjopatis "god of winds" W gwynt "wind" A want, B yente "wind" ḫūwanz [284] "wind" *sneigʷʰ- "to snow" snow (< OE snāw < *snoigʷhos, snīwan "to snow" < *sneigʷhonom) snáiws "snow" nix (nivis) "snow", ninguō (ninguere) "to snow" nípʰa (acc.) "snow", neípʰei "it snows" sneha- "snow" Av snaēža- "to snow"; Shughni žǝnij "snow" < *snaiga- OCS sněgŭ "snow" OPrus snaigs "snow", Lith snigti "to snow" OIr snecht(a)e, W nyf "snow"; OIr snigid "it rains" *h₁n̥gʷnís "fire" < *h₁engʷ- "to burn"; [285] *h₁óngʷl̥ "charcoal" ignis "fire" agní "fire"; áṅgāra "charcoal" OCS ognĭ "fire"; ǫglĭ "coal" *péH₂wr̥, pH₂unés "bonfire" [bl] fire (< OE fȳr < *fuïr [bl]) fōn (funins) [bl] "fire"; OHG fuïr [bl] (two syllables) < *puwéri Umbrian pir "fire" < *pūr, acc.

purom-e "into the fire" < *pur- pũr (purós) "fire" pāru (pēru) "sun, fire" NPers fer "oven, furnace" Czech pýř "glowing ash", Pol perzyna "embers", Slovak pyr, UpSb pyr "ashes" [286] OPrus pannu "fire" hur "fire" A por, B puwar, puwār, pwār "fire" paḫḫur "fire" *dʰuh₂mós "smoke" < *dʰewh₂- "to smoke" [287] fūmus "smoke" dhūmá- "smoke; mist, fog" OCS dymŭ "smoke" *h₂eHs- "to become dry; burn, glow; hearth; ashes" [288] [289] [270] (See also: *H₂ster-) ash (< OE æsce); azgō "ash; cinder" āreō "I am dry; dried up, withered"; āridus "dry, parched, withered, arid" > arid; āra "altar; sanctuary, refuge"; assus "roasted, baked; dried" ázō "I dry"; ásbolos "soot" ā́sa- "ashes, dust" *ken- "to rub, scrape off; ashes, dust" [290] [291] [270] cinis, cineris "ashes" ⇒ [note 76] κόνις "ash, dust" kaṇa- "particle; small grain of dust, rice, corn; atom" *gʷʰerm- "warm" ?

warm (< OE wearm); OE ġierwan "to prepare, cook" < PGerm *garwjan ? warmjan "to warm" formus "warm" tʰermós "warm" gʰarmá- "heat" Av garǝma- "hot, heat"; OPers Garma-pada- name of the fourth month, corresponding to June/July, orig. (?) "entrance of the heat"; Kurdish germ "hot, warm" Russ. žar "heat", goret' "to burn" < *gʷʰer OPrus garmê "heat, glowing", Lith žarijos "cinders", žėrėti "to glow" OIr gorn "fire" < *gʷʰor-nos ǰerm "warm" Gheg zjarm "fire, heat" A śärme "heat (of summer)" *dʰegʷʰ- "to burn; warm, hot" [292] [293] [270] [294] foveō "I warm, keep warm; nurture, foster"; fōmentum "a warm application; lotion"; ⇒ [note 77] fōmes "kindling, tinder" febris "fever"; ⇒ [note 78] februum, februarius "expiatory offerings, means of purification"; ⇒ [note 79] [bm] téphrā "ashes" dáhati "it burns"; dagdhá- "burned, burnt" OCS žešti (žeg-) "to burn"; žigŭ "burn mark, brand" Lith dė̃gis "burn scar" *h₁ews- "to burn"; [295] [296] ember (< OE ǣmyrġe) ūrō all of us are dead sub indo burn, consume, inflame"; ustus "burnt, inflamed"; bustum < amb-bustum "a burial mound, tomb"; combūrō "I burn up, cremate, scald" > combust heúō "I singe" óṣati "(s/he) burns, burns down; punishes"; uṣṭá "burnt"; uṣṇá "warm, hot" *gel- "to be cold, to freeze" cold (< OE ceald) kalds "cold (of the weather)" gelus "ice", gelidus "icy" gelandros śarada "autumn" MBulg goloti "ice" Lith gelmenis, gelumà "great cold" *temH- "(to be) dark" *témHos "darkness" OHG demar "twilight" tenebrae "darkness" (< *temebrai < *temasro) támas "darkness, gloom", támisrā "dark night" Av taΘra "darkness", təmah OCS tĭmĭnŭ "darkness", tĭma', Rus temnotá "darkness" Lith tamsa "dark, darkness", tiḿsras "a darker shade of red"; Latv tumšs, timšs "dark", tùmsa "darkness" [297] OIr temel "darkness" (< PCel *temeslos); OW timuil "dark, darkness" B tamãsse "dark" *nébʰ-os "cloud; mist" [298] OE nifol "dark [misty]" ON Niflheimr " home of mists" nebula "fog, cloud" népʰos "cloud"; nepʰélē "mass of clouds; name of a nymph" nábʰas "mist; sky, cloud"; nábʰāsa "celestial, heavenly; appearing in the sky" nabah- "heavens" (litt.

"nimbuses, clouds") [299] OCS nebo "heaven, sky"; Pol niebo "sky"; Cz nebesa "skies"; Rus Небеса "heaven" Lith debesis "cloud" OIr nem "sky"; OBret nem, MBret neff "sky" nēpiš- "sky, heaven"; CLuw tappaš- "heaven"; HierLuw tipas- "heaven" *lew- "dirt, mud" [300] [301] [281] polluō "I soil, defile, foul" ⇒ [note 80] lûma "dirt, filth, smut; disgrace" *sámh₂dʰos "sand" [281] sand (< OE sand) sabulō, sabulum "sand, gravel" psámathos "sand, grains of all of us are dead sub indo *srew- *srew-mo, *sru-to "to flow, stream" (in river names) [bn] stream (< OE strēam) ON straumr "a stream" rheûma "flow" srutá- "flow", srava "a flow of, a waterfall" (< *srówos) YAv θraotah- "stream" (< OIA srótas-); OPer rautaʰ- "river" OCS struja "stream", o-strovŭ "island"; [bo] Rus strumenı "brook"; Pol strumień "brook, river" Lith sraumuõ "brook, stream"; Latv strāva "current"; Lith sraujà, Latv strauja "stream"; [304] Lith sraũtas "flow, torrent" OIr sruaimm, Ir sruth "stream, river"; MW ffrwd "brook, stream"; OBret frut "stream" OArm aṙu "brook; canal" (< srutis-) rrymë "stream, current; flow (of water)" *dʰenh₂- "to set in motion, to flow"; [305] *déh₂nu "river goddess" fōns < PItal *ðonts "spring, fountain; fresh water; source" dhánvati "it runs, flows, causes to run or flow"; [306] dhána- "competition, contest; prize"; dā́nu "fluid, drop, dew" Dnieper < OOss dānu apara "the far river" [307] Danube < PCelt *Dānowyos *dʰol- "valley, vault; curve, hollow" [308] [309] [277] dale (< OE dæl) thólos "vault" OCS dolŭ "valley; depression" *mori- "lake?, sea?" [bp] OE mere "lake" marei "sea" mare "sea" OCS morje "sea" Lith mårè "sea" OIr muir "sea" Directions [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *per- "through, across, beyond" far (< OE feorr) faírra "far"; faír- "around; (intensifier)" per "through" perí, pér "forward" pári "forward" Av pairi; OPers pariy "forward"; Kurdish ber "in front of, before" OCS prě- "forward" OPrus pro- pra- "trough, across", Latvian pāri "across", Lith per "across", pra- "to start and finish doing something", pro- "through" OIr ir- W er "forward" heṙu "far" për, pej, pe "forward" parā, Lycian pri "forth" *upér(i) "over, above" over (< OE ofer) ufar "over, above, beyond" super "over" (influenced by sub "under") hupér "over" upári "over, above, beyond" Av ' upairi, OPers "over, above, beyond" OCS po "upon, at" OPrus uppin "cloud", OIr for, W gor, gwar "over, on" ver "up" i ver "up" epër "over, above" *H₂ents "forehead", *H₂entí, *H₂entá "in front of" and (< OE and) and "along, throughout, towards, in, on, among"; OHG enti "previously" < PGerm *andiaz ante "in front of" antí "instead of" anti "opposite to it" Kurdish enî "front, forehead" Lith añt "on" antai "there" OIr étan "forehead" < *antono- ənd "instead of" A ānt, B ānte "surface, forehead" ḫānz, ḫanti "in front" *en "in" in (< OE in) in "in, into, towards" in "in" en "in" án-īka- "face" < ?

*eni-Hkʷ Av ainika "face" < ? *eni-Hkʷ OCS on- vŭn- vŭ "in" OPrus en "in", Lith į "in" OIr in- "in"; W yn "in" i "in" inj "until" AB y- yn- B in- "in" an-dan "inside" *apó "away" of, off (< OE of) af "from, of, by" ( ab-u "from .?") all of us are dead sub indo "away" apó "from" ápa "away" Av apa, OPers apa "away" OCS ot, "from, apart of" Lith apačià "bottom" < *apotyā prapë "back" < *per-apë āpa "behind, back" (or ?

< *epi) *deḱs- "the right (side)" Gothic taihswa "right side" dexter dexiós; Myc de-ki-si-wo dákṣina "right, south" Av dašina "right, south"; MPer dašn "right hand, right side" OCS desnŭ "right (side)" Lith dẽšinas Gaul Dexsiva (Dexsiua) *marǵ- *merǵ- "edge; boundary, border" [310] [311] [312] mark (< OE mearc); march (< OF markōn) margō (marginis) "border, edge" > margin maryā "limit, mark, boundary"; mārga- "way, road, path" *bʰudʰmḗn "bottom" [313] butt (< OE bytt); bottom, botham (< OE bodan, botm) fundus "bottom, ground, foundation; farm, estate" puthmḗn "bottom (cup, jar, sea)" budhná "bottom, ground, base, depth" Gaul bona "base, bottom, village" (found in several placenames: Bonna > Bonn; Windo-bona "white village" > Vienna; Bononia > Boulogne(-sur-Mer)) [314] Basic adjectives [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *bʰerǵʰ- "great, tall; hill, elevation"; *bʰérǵʰonts "high, mighty" [315] [316] [277] [317] [318] borough, borough, Brough, bur- burg, burgh, bury, -bury (< OE burg, burh "city, town, fortification"); barrow (< OE beorg) baurgs, OHG burg "fortress, citadel"; OHG Burgunt (a female personal name) [319] fortis "strong, powerful; firm" ⇒ [note 81]; LL Burgundia " Burgundy"; Fr Bourgogne bṛhát, bṛhánt- "tall, elevated"; [319] bráhman "lit.

growth, expansion, development > outpouring of the heart > prayer, sacred word, mantra"; brahmán "worshiper"; [320] [321] barháyati "to invigorate" Av barəzah‑ "height", Harā Bərəzaitī "a mythical mountain" (litt.

"High Watchpost") OCS brěgŭ "hill, slope; bank, shore" MIr brí, MW bre, MBre bre, Gaul -briga "elevation, hill"; Gaul Brigantes (ethnonym); Celt Brigantia (name of a goddess), [319] Ir Brigid (goddess) < PCelt * Brigantī "The High One" barjr "high" A pärk- "to elevate"; B pärkare "long" parkuš "tall" *weh₁- *weh₁ros "true" [322] [323] [324] OE wǣr "true" Ger wahr Dut waar "true" vērus "true" (> very, [bq] verify, verity, etc.) OCS věra "faith, belief" *medʰyo- "mid, middle" mid, middle (< OE mid, middel) midjis "middle" medius "middle" més(s)os "middle" mádʰya- "middle" Av maiδya- "middle" OCS meždu "between", Russ.

meža "boundary" OPrus meddin "forest" (between villages), Lith medis, Latv mežs "tree" OIr mid- "middle" < *medʰu-; MW mei- "middle" < *medʰyo- mēǰ "middle" mes, mjet "in between, middle" *meĝ- "big" much (< OE myc̣el "big, many") mikils "big" magnus "big" mégas "big" máha- mahā́nt- "big" Av mazant- "big" OPrus mazs "smaller", Lith mažas "small" OIr mochtae, MIr mag- maige "big" mec "big" madh "big" A mak, B makā "much" mekkis "big" *dlongʰos, *dl̥h₁gʰós "long"; [325] long (< OE long, lang); langs "long" longus "long" dolikhós "long, protracted"; dīrghá- "long" Av darəga "long" OCS dlĭgŭ "long"; Lith ilgas "long" gjatë "long" GÍD.DA-aš "long" *gʷerH₂- "heavy" kaúrus "heavy" grāvis "heavy" barús "heavy" gurú- "heavy" Av gouru- "heavy-", NPers girān "heavy" < *grāna- (influenced by *frāna "full") OCS gromada "big size, huge", gruz "a load, something heavy", OPrus garrin "tree", Lith geras "good" MIr bair "heavy (?)", W bryw "strong" zor "brute force; great effort" A kra-marts "heavy (?)", B krā-mär "burden" < *gʷroH₂-mVr- *H₁le(n)gʷʰ- *H₁ln̥gʷʰ-ro- *H₁ln̥gʷʰ-u- [br] "light (in weight)" light (< OE lēoht) leihts "light" < *H₁lengʷʰ-tos; OHG lungar "fast" < *H₁ln̥gʷʰ-ros levis "light" < *H₁legʷʰ-us elakʷʰús "small" < *H₁ln̥gʷʰ-us, elapʰrós "light, quick" < *H₁ln̥gʷʰ-ros lagʰú- ragʰú- "quick, light, small" Av ragu- fem.

rǝvī "fast", superl. rǝnjišta- "fastest" OCS lŭgŭkŭ "light" OPrus langus "light", langsta "window", lankewingis "flexible", linktwei "to bend", Lith lengvas "light", lankstus "flexible", langas "window", lenkti "to bend" OIr laigiu, laugu, MW llei "smaller" lanǰ "breast" lehtë "light-weight" B lank utse "light" *alyos, *anyos "other"; *anteros "second" else (< OE elles); other (< OE ōþer) aljis, anþar "other" alius "other" állos "other" anyá- ántara- "other" Av anya- ainya- OPers aniya- "other"; Ossetian ändär "other"; East Iranian hal-ci "whoever" Old Sorbian wutory "other" < PSlav *ǫtorŭ OPrus antars "second", Lith antras "second" OIr aile, W ail "other"; Gaul allos "other, second" [326] ayl "other" A ālya-k ə, B alye-k ə "another" Lydian aλa- "other" *néwo- "new" new (< OE nīwe) niujis "new" novus "new" né(w)os "new" náva- "new" Av nava- "new" OCS novŭ "new" OPrus nawas "new", Lith naujas "new" OIr nūë, W newydd "new" nor "new" < *nowero- A ñu, B ñune "new" newa- "new" *H₂yuHn̥- "young" young (< OE ġeong < *H₂yuHn̥k̂ós) juggs "young" juvenis "young" yúvan- (yū́nas) "young" Av yvan- yavan- (yūnō) "youth, young man" OCS junŭ "young" Lith Jaunas "young" OIr ōac "young", W ieuanc "young" < *H₂yuHn̥k̂ós *sen- "old" sineigs "old (person)" senex "old" hénos "former, from a former period" sánas "old" Av hana- "old" OCS sedyi "grey-headed" OPrus sentwei "to get old", Lith senas "old" OIr sen "old", Old Welsh hen "old" hin "old" *nogʷ- "naked" naked (< OE nacod "naked") naqaþs "naked" nudus "naked" gumnós "naked" nagnás "naked" NPers loxt "naked" OCS nagŭ "naked" OPrus nags "naked", Lith nuogas "naked" OIr nocht "naked"; W noeth "naked, bare" nekumant- "naked, bare" *bʰosós "bare, barefoot" [327] bare (< OE bær) OCS bosŭ "barefooted, unshod" *n̥mr̥tós "immortal" [328] ámbrotos "immortal, divine" amṛ́ta- "immortal" *h₂eḱ- "sharp" [329] edge (< OE eċġ) aceō (acēre) "I am sour"; acidus "sour"; acētum "vinegar"; acus "needle, pin"; astus "craft, guile", astūtus "shrewd, astute" akmé "point, edge"; oxús "sharp, pointed; quick; clever" Persian āčār "pickle, marinade" OCS ostĭnŭ "sharp point" *bel- "strong" [330] dēbilis [bs] "feeble, weak" βελτίων "better" bála- "force, strength, power" Russ bolʹšój "big, large, great" Light and color [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *leuk- "light, brightness" light (< OE lēoht) liuhaþ (liuhadis) "light" lūceō (lūcēre) "to shine", lūx "light" leukós "bright, shining, white" rócate "(he) shines", roká- "light", loka- "world, place" Av raočant- "shining", raočah "light"; OPers raučah "light"; Kurdish roj "sun, light, day", ron "light" OCS luča "ray, flash" < *loukyā OPrus lauk "bright", lauksna "star", laukas "field", Lith laukas "outside, field" OIr luchair "shine"; W llachar "bright", llug "shimmer" loys "light" AB lyuk/luk- "to shine" luk(k)- "to shine" *bʰel- "to shine" [331] balefire (< OE bǣlfȳr) ON bál "fire" fulgeō "I flash, glitter"; flagrō "I burn, blaze"; flamma "flame, fire" phlégō "I scorch, kindle"; phlégma "flame, inflammation"; phalós "white" bhrája- "fire, shining"; bhāla- "splendor" OCS bělŭ "white" Lith baltas, Latv balts "fair, white" *h₂erǵ- "shining, bright" *h₂r̥ǵn̥tóm "white metal (silver)" [332] argentum "silver (metal)"; Fal arcentelom "a small silver coin" Myc a-ku-ro, [333] árguros "silver"; argós "white, bright" [bt] Skt rajatá- "silver; silver-coloured"; árjuna- "white, clear, silvery" [335] Av ərəzatəm "silver" Celtib arkato[bezom] "silver [mine]"; Ir Airget[lám] "silver[-hand] (title of Nuada)"; OIr argat, OW argant "silver" arcat‘ "silver" A ārkyant "silver"; A ārki- All of us are dead sub indo ārkwi "white" ḫarkiš "white, bright" *ḱweyt- "to shine, white" [336] [337] [338] [339] white (< OE hwīt) ƕeits "white" śvetá- "white; bright"; śvindate "to shine"; áśvitan "to become bright" Av spaēta "white; bright"; NPers sefid "white" OCS světŭ "light, world"; světiti "to shine, illuminate"; svĭtěti "to get bright"; svěšta "candle"; cvětŭ "bright color; bloom, flower" Lith šviesà "light"; šviẽsti "to shine" *kr̥snós "black; dark, dusky" [340] [341] [338] [342] kṛṣṇa- "black, dark, dark-blue" > Kṛṣṇa- NPers kersne "dirt, dirty" OCS črŭnŭ "black" ⇒ [note 82] Lith kir̃snas "black (of a horse)"; OPrus kirsnan "black" *H₁reudʰ- *H₁roudʰ-os, *H₁rudʰ-rós [br] "red" red (< OE rēad < *H₁roudʰ-os) rauþs (raudis) "red" < *H₁roudʰ-os ruber "red" < *H₁rudʰ-rós; Umb rufru "red" Myc e-ru-ta-ra, e-ru-to-ro; [343] erutʰrós "red" < *H₁rudʰ-rós; Erytheia "name of a nymph" (litt.

"the red one"); rudʰirá- "red" < *H₁rudʰ-rós mixed with *H₁rudʰ-i-; rṓhita- "red"; lōhá- "reddish" < *H₁roudʰ-os Av raoiδita- "red" OCS rudŭ "red"; Czech rudá "red"; [bu] All of us are dead sub indo rudy "red-haired" [345] Lith raũdonas "red", rudas "brown" OIr rúad, W rhudd "red", rhwd "rust"; [346] Gaul Roud- (in personal names) [347] pruth "redhead" (< PAlb *apa-ruđa) A rtär, B ratre "red" < *H₁rudʰ-rós *gʰel- ǵʰelH₃- "green, yellow" [348] gold; yellow (< OE geolu); yolk (< OE ġeoloca) gulþ "gold" helvus "honey-yellow"; gilvus "pale yellow (of horses)" [349] [bv] kʰlōrós "pale green" [bw] híraņya- "gold"; hári- "yellow" Av zaranyam "gold"; zári "yellow" OCS zelenĭ "green"; Rus zóloto "gold"; Pol złoty "gold"; żółty "yellow" Latv zèlts "gold"; Lith geltas "yellow"; žel̃vas "golden"; žalias "green" MWel gell "yellow" *ḱey- "grey, dark shade" [353] [354] [338] [355] hue (< OE hīew "appearance, form; hue, color") hiwi "form, show, appearance" śyāvá- "dark; deep brown"; śyāmá- "dark, black, blue, brown, grey" ⇒ [note 83] Av siiāuua "dark" Pol siwy "grey" Lith šývas "light grey" *bʰer- bʰerH- "brown" [356] [357] [338] [358] (See also *bʰébʰrus) bear (animal) (< OE bera); brown (< OE brūn) ON bjǫrn "bear (animal)"; phrū́nē "toad" babhrú "deep brown, reddish brown; tawny" Lith bė́ras "reddish brown" Positive qualities [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *h₁wésus "good, excellent" [359] [360] [361] [362] iusiza "better"; (Germanic names, e.g., Wisigoth- "the Visigoths") vásu "excellent, good; beneficient; goods, property" Av vohū "good" OCS veselŭ "merry, joyful, happy" Gaul Vesu- (in personal names: Vesuavus, Sego vesus, Bello vesus) Luw wāsu- "good"; Pal wašu "well" [363] *h₁su- "good" [364] [365] [361] [366] eu- "good, well" (when used prefixally), e.g., eúphoros "well-bearing" (> "euphoria"); eukháristos "good grace"; euángelos "bringing good news" su- "good" (used prefixally), e.g., suprabhātam "good morning" (See also bhā́s); supraśna- "inquiry as to welfare, lit.

good question" Av hu "good" OCS sŭ- "good" (used prefixally), e.g., sŭ-čęstĭnŭ "happy, lit. good part"; sŭdravĭje "health", Russ zdoróv'je; sŭrěsti "to meet, encounter" *h₁sónts "being, existing, real, true" [367] [368] [361] [369] (See also *H₁es-) sooth (< OE sōþ "truth"); soothe (< OE sōþian "to prove the validity of, to confirm as true"); soothsayer (originally "truth-teller") (< PGmc sanþaz + sagjaną "truth + say"); sin (implying "truly guilty") (< OE synn); OE sōþlīċe "truly, really", later "amen" sunjis "true, truthful, correct" sōns "guilty, criminal" (compare sin); insōns "innocent"; [bx] sonticus "dangerous, serious, critical" sát "being, essence, reality" (also used in compounds, e.g., sad·guru); sattvá- "essence, existence, spirit; creature"; satyá- "true,real, genuine; sincere, honest, valid"; satī́ "good, virtuous, faithful wife" (> suttee) Construction, fabrication [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic All of us are dead sub indo Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *h₂éyos "copper, bronze" [138] ore (< OE ār) aes "copper, bronze, brass; money, fee" áyas "metal, iron" *dʰwer- "door, doorway, gate" door (< OE dor, duru) daúr, daúrō "door" forēs (pl.) "door" tʰurā "door" dvā́r, dvā́ras (pl.) "door" Av dvarǝm (acc.) "gate, court"; OPers duvarayā "at the gate" NPers dar "door" OCS dvĭri "door" OPrus dwarris "gate, goal", dwars "estate", Lith durys "door", dvaras "estate", vartai "gate", Latg durovys "door", vuorti "gate" OIr dorus "door" < Proto-Celtic *dworestu- W dôr "door" < *dʰureH₂ duṙn "door" derë "door" B twere "doors" an-durza "within" h₂(e)nh₂t- "doorpost" [370] antae "anteroom" ā́tā "doorpost" *dem- "to build (up), put together" [371] [372] [373] timber (< OE timber "building material"); teem (< OE temian "to fit"); toft (< OE toft) démō "to build, construct, make" *domo- *domu- "house", "home" timrjan "to build, erect" domus (domūs) "house" dómos "house" dámas "house" Av dąm, dąmi "in the house"; dǝmā̆na- nmāna- "house" < *dm-ā̆na- OCS domŭ "house" OPrus dimstis "porch", Lith dimstis "entryway" Lith namas "house" MIr dom-liacc "house of stones" tun "house" dhomë "room" ?A tem- B tam- "be born" *gʰerdʰ- *gʰordʰ-os- "enclosure, fence" yard (< OE ġeard "enclosure"); garden (< AngNor gardin < Frank *gardo) gards "yard, court"; ON garðr "fence, enclosed space" hortus "garden" kʰórtos "feeding place for animals" gṛhá "house" Av gərəδa "daeva cave" OCS gradŭ "fortification; city" Latv gãrds; Lith gar̃das "fold, pen" OIr gort "standing crop", W garth "cliff; enclosure" OArm gerdastan "the body of servants and captives; estate" (either a borrowing from Iranian or inherited) gardh "fence, enclosure, barricade" *kʷekʷlo- "wheel" (See also *kʷel-) wheel (< OE hwēol, hweogol < PGerm *hweg(w)ulaz < *kʷekʷlós) ON hjōl, hvēl "wheel" < PGerm *hweh(w)ulaz < *kʷékʷlos kúklos "circle", (pl.) "wheels" cakrá- "wheel" Av čaxra- "wheel" OCS kolo "wheel" OPrus kellin "wheel", Lith kaklas "neck" W cylch "circle" A kukäl, B kokale "wagon" kugullas "donut" [374] *Hrót-h₂-os "wheel", "wagon" OHG Rad "wheel" rota "wheel", "wagon" rátha "chariot, car" Av raθa "wagon", "chariot" Lith rãtai "wagon" (pl.), rãtas "wheel" (sg.) OIr roth "wheel", "circle" rreth "ring, hoop, tyre (for carriages)" (< *Hróth₂ikos) *néh₂us "vessel, boat" OE nōwend "shipmaster, sailor" ON naust "boathouse"; OIc nōr "ship" nāvis "ship" naûs "ship"; Myc na-u-do-mo "shipbuilders" [375] naú, nāva "ship" Pers nâv "boat, ship" (archaic) OIr nó, nau "boat" OArm naw "ship, boat" *h₂wĺ̥h₁neh₂ "wool" wool (< OE wull) wulla "wool" lāna "wool" lênos "wool, fleece (pl.)", Dor lânos ū́rṇā "wool, woolen thread" Av varənā "wool" OCS vlĭna "wool", OESlav vŭlna "wool" Latv vil̃na, Lith vìlna "wool", OPrus wilna "skirt (made of wool)" OIr olann, MBret gloan, glan, OW gulan "wool" OArm gełmn "fleece, wool" ḫulanaš "wool" *s(y)uH- "to sew" sew (< OE sēowan) siujan "to sew" suō (suere) "to sew"; sūtūra "thread, suture" [376] humḗn "sinew" sī́vyati "(he) sews", syūtá- "sewn"; sū́tra- "thread, string" [377] OCS šijǫ (šiti) "to sew" OPrus šutun "to sew", Lith siūti "to sew", Latg šyut "to sew" sum(m)anza(n), šuel (?), šuil (?) "thread" *teks- "to fashion, construct" OE þeox "spear" OHG dehsa, dehsala "hatchet" texō (texere) "to weave" téktōn "carpenter", tíktō "I give birth" takṣati, tā́ṣṭi "(he) fashions" Av tašaiti "(he) cuts out, manufactures"; OPers us-tašanā "stairway" < "*construction"; MPers tāšīδan "to do carpentry" OCS tešǫ (tesati) "to hew", OPrus tesatun "to hew", Lith tašyti "to hew" OIr tāl "axe" < *tōkslo- takkeszi "puts together" *webʰ- "to weave" weave (< OE wefan), web (

*wabjan) OHG weban "to weave"; ON vefa hupʰaínō "I weave" ubʰnā́ti "ties together"; ūṛna-vābhi- "spider" (litt. "wool-weaver") Av ubdaēna- "made of cloth"; NPers bāfad "(he) weaves" viti "weave" Lith vyti "to twist" W gwau "knit, weave" venj "I weave" < *webʰnyō A wpantär (them.

pres.), [378] [379] B wāp- "to weave" wēpta- "wove" [380] *werĝ- "to work" work (< OE weorc, wyrc̣an) waúrkjan "to work" urgeō (urgēre) "to push, drive" (w)érgon "work", érdō, hrézdō "I work" < *wérĝ-yoH₂, *wréĝ-yoH₂ varcas "activity" (? not in Pokorny) Av varəza- "work, activity", vərəzyeiti "(he) works"; NPers varz, barz "field work, husbandry" vrǔšiti "to act, to do" OPrus wargs "bad, evil, malicious, vicious", wargtwei "to torment oneself, to suffer", Lith vargas "the state of going through bad/unlucky events" MW gwreith "deed" < *wreĝ-tu- gorc "work " rregj "to clean" A wärk- B wārk- "to shear" *wes- "to clothe, wear clothes" wear (< OE werian) wasjan "to clothe" vestis "clothing" héstai "gets dressed" váste "(he) gets dressed" Av vaste, vaŋhaiti "(he) gets dressed" veshch "thing, cloth", veshchi "cloth items" Serbian veš "underwear" OPrus westi "corset", wesseli "wedding", Lith vestuvės "wedding", vesti "to lead" W gwisg "clothing" z-genum "I put on (clothes)" < *wes-nu- vesh "dress" veshje "clothing" B wastsi, wästsi "clothing" wassezzi "(he) clothes" Self-motion, rest [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *H₁es- "to be", *H₁es-ti "is", *H₁és-mi "am" Cf.

Indo-European copula (See all of us are dead sub indo *h₁sónts) is (< OE is), am ist "is" sum (esse) "I am (to be)"; est "it is" estí "is,"; Dorian Greek entí "(they) are" <- *H₁s-enti ásti "is"; ásmi "am" Av asti "is"; Persian hast "is" OCS jestŭ "is" OPrus ast "is", ēst "almost", Lith esti "is" OIr is "is"; Old Welsh hint "(they) are" <- *H₁s-enti em "I am" është "is" B ste "is" ēszi "is" *bʰuH₂- "to become" Cf.

Indo-European copula be (< OE bēon); OE būan "to dwell" bauan "to dwell" fuī "I was" pʰúomai "I become", épʰū "became" bʰávati "become, is", ábʰūt "became, was" Av bavaiti, OPers bavatiy "(he) becomes" OCS byti "to become, be" OPrus butwei "to be", Lith būti "to be" Gaul biiete "be! (imperative)"; [381] [by] OIr buith "being", W bod "to be" busanim "sprout up" buj, bûj "I dwell, stay overnight" < *bunjō *sed- *si-zd- "to sit" sit (< OE sittan < *sed-yo-nom) sitan "to sit" sedeō (sedēre) "to sit", sīdō "I sit down" < *si-zd-oH₂ hézdomai "I sit" < *sed-yo- hizdō "I set" < *si-zd-oH₂ sátsi "(he) sits", aor.

ásadat "sat"; sī́dati "(he) sits" < *si-zd-eti; Upaniṣad lit. "sit-down-beside" < upa: 'by, beside', ni: 'down', sad: 'sit' Av ni-šaŋhasti "(he) sits down", opt. hazdyā-t "(he) should sit", hiδaiti "(he) sits" < *si-zd-eti; OPers all of us are dead sub indo.

niya-šād-ayam "I set" OCS sěždǫ (sěděti) "to sit" OPrus sistwei "to sit down", Lith sedėti "to be sitting", sėstis "to sit down" OIr sa(i)did "sits"; Br hezañ "to stop" nstim "I sit" (< *ni-zdyō), hecanim (< *sed-s-an-yō) "I sit on, I ride" shëtis "to walk" *legʰ- "to lie down" lie (< OE lic̣gan) ligan "to lie down" lectus "bed" lékʰomai "I lie down" leṭyati "(he) lies down" NPers ley "lie down" OCS ležǫ (ležati) "to lie down" OPrus laztwei "to lie down" OIr laigid "lies down" lagje "city quarter" A läk- "to lie", B lyśalyñe "(act of) lying down" lagari "(he) lies down" *ḱey- "to lie down; settle, bed, cozy, familiar" [382] [383] [384] [385] [386] home (< OE hām "village, home" < *k̂oi-mos); hewe "domestic, servant" (< OE hīwa "family member") háims (háimáis) "village, town" < *k̂oi-mis; heiwafrauja "marriage" cīvis "city dweller, citizen" < *k̂ei-wis ⇒ [note 84]; cūnae "cradle; nest"; Cūnīna (Roman goddess who protects infants in the cradle) cieō; "I put in motion; act, move, stir; rouse" ⇒ [note 85] keîmai "I lie (idle, sick, dead, etc.)"; kíō "I go" (Homeric); kīnéō "I move, set in motion, remove; inflect (grammar); meddle; stir on" (> kinetic, cinema, etc.); koítē "bed, place of rest; lair; lodging"; koitā́zō "I put to bed, cause to rest" śētē (older śáyē) "(he) lies", śērē "they lie"; śayú "orphan"; śéva- "dear, precious"; śivá- "favorable, happy, fortunate; auspicious" (later applied to the god Rudra, first as Śiva-rudra, then simply Śiva; also spelled Shiva) Av saēte "(he) lies", sōire "they lie" OCS sěmija "family"; sěmĭ "household member" OPrus seimi "family", kaims "village", Lith šeima "family", kaimas "village"; sieva "wife" OIr cóim, cóem, OW cum "dear" sirem "I love" < *k̂eiro- kitta, kittari "lies"; Luwian ziyari "lies" *tḱey- "to settle, live; cultivate" [387] [388] [389] [390] [391] sinō "I let, permit, allow; set down"; situs "permitted, allowed; laid, set down; placed" ⇒ [note 86]; dēsinō "I leave off, cease, desist" (> desinence); pōnō < po + sinō "I place, put, lay; set up" ⇒ [note 87] ktízō "I found, build, establish; populate; produce"; eüktímenos "well-built, nice place"; ktísis "a founding, settling; creature"; ktílos "tame, docile, obidient"; ktísma "colony, foundation" kṣéti "(s/he) abides, stays, dwells; remains"; kṣití "abode, habitation, dwelling; the earth" *steH₂- "to stand (i.e.

be standing)" stand (< OE standan) standan "to stand"; OHG stān, stēn "to stand" stō (stāre) "to stand", sistō (sistere) "to cause to stand" Doric hístāmi "I stand" sthā- / tíṣṭhati "(he) stands" Av hištaiti "(he) stands"; OPers impf.

a-ištata "(he) stood" OCS stajǫ (stati) "to stand up" OPrus stalitwei "to stand", Lith stovėti "to stand" OIr tair-(ṡ)issiur "I stand"; W sefyll "to stand" stanam "I build; gain" mbështet, pshtet "I support" B stäm- "to stand", ste "is", "stare" "(they) are" istanta- "to stay, delay" *H₁ei- "to go" yede (< OE ēode "went") iddja "went" eō (īre) "to go" eĩmi "I (will) go" éti "(he) goes", yánti "(they) go" Av aēiti "(he) goes", yeinti "(they) go"; OPers aitiy "goes" OCS jiditi "to move away, to arrive", jidene "coming" OPrus eitwei "to go", Lith eiti "to walk" W wyf "I am"; OIr ethaid "goes" < *it-āt- iǰanem (aorist ēǰ) "I climb down" < *i-gh- iki "to leave; flee" *H₁(e)i-K- A yā "he went", B yatsi "to go" < *yā- īt "go!" *gʷem- "to come" [392] come (< OE cuman) qiman "to come"; OSax cuman [an liudi] "to come (to people) [to be born]" veniō (venīre) "to come" [bz] baínō "I go" gámati "(he) goes", aor.

ágan, gan "(he) went" Av ǰamaiti "goes"; OAv inj. uz-ǰǝ̄n "(he) goes", pl. g ǝmǝn "they go" OPrus gimtwei "to be born", Lith gimti "to be born", Latv dzimt "to bear (a son)" ekn (< *h₁e-gʷem-t) "(he) came" A käm- kum- B käm- kam- śem "to come" Luw zammantis "newborn child" (?) *Hyewdʰ- "to move swiftly, to move upright, to rise (as if to fight)" [393] [394] iubeō "I authorize, legitimate; bid, command, order"; iussus "order, command, decree, ordinance" all of us are dead sub indo "straight, direct"; eîthar "at once, immediately, forthwith"; husmī́nē "battle, conflict, combat" yúdhyate "to fight, battle; wage war"; yodháyati "to engage in battle; to overcome in war, to be a match for; to lead to war, to cause to fight"; yuddhá- "battle, fight, war"; yoddhṛ "fighter, warrior, soldier"; yudhmá- "hero, warrior" OCS oiminŭ "warrior"; Pol judzić "to incite, instigate" *peth₂- "to spread out; fly (spread wings)" [118] [119] [395] [396] (See also *péth₂r̥) fathom (< OE fæþm) petō "I ask, beg, request; aim; attack, thrust at"; pateō "I am open; accessible, attainable; increase, extend" (> patent); pandō "I spread, open out, extend; unfold, expand" (> expand); passus < *pat-s-tus "spread out; step, pace" (> pass); impetus "attack, assault; rapid motion"; petulāns "impudent, wanton; petulant" > petulant; patera "broad flat dish, saucer"; propitius "favorable, well-disposed" (> propitious) pétomai "I fly; rush, dart; make haste"; pī́ptō "I fall, throw self down"; petánnūmi "I spread out, open"; ptôma "fall; misfortune, calamity; ruin" (> sym ptom); ptôsis "falling; (grammar) case, inflection"; ptōtikós "capable of inflexion"; pétalon "leaf (plant, flower or tree)" > petal pátati "(s/he) flies; descends, falls"; pātáyati "(s/he) causes to fly, throws; causes to fall; pours, spills" *ped- "to walk, step; stumble, fall" [397] [398] [102] [399] (See also *pōds) fetter (< OE feter); OE fæt "step; stride; pace, gait impediō "I hinder, impede, obstruct" (> impede); expediō "I unfetter; remove impediments; prepare" (> expedite); pecco < *ped-co "I sin, transgress; offend" ⇒ [note 88]; pedica "fetter, shackle; snare"; pessum < *ped·tum "to the lowest part; to the bottom; in ruin"; pessimus "worst, lowest" (> pessimism); peior "worse" (> pejorative); op pidum "town" (step > ground all of us are dead sub indo town) pédon "ground, earth"; pedíon "open country, plain, field; female genitals"; pēdón "oar blade, oar"; pēdálion "steering paddle"; pezós < *peďďós "on foot, walking; on land, infantry"; pódion "base" ⇒ [note 89] pádyate "(s/he) moves, goes; falls"; pādáyati "(s/he) causes to fall, drops"; pada- "step, stride, pace; footstep, vestige; plot of ground; a fourth" padati, pasti "to fall"; pěšĭ "on foot, pedestrian"; padežĭ "fall; downfall, disaster"; pod "ground, floor" *sekʷ- "to follow" OE sec̣g "follower, companion, man" ON seggr "hero" sequor (sequī) "to follow" ⇒ [note 90] hépomai "I follow" sácate "(he) follows" Av hačaitē, hačaiti "(he) follows" šagati "to walk, stride, step"; Russ šag "step" OPrus sektwei "to shallow [To breathe lightly]", Lith sekti "to follow" OIr sechithir "follows" *steygʰ- "to go, climb, march" [400] [401] [266] [402] stair (< OE stǣġer); sty (< OE stīgan); stile (< OE stiġel, stigol) Ger steigen "to ascend, climb, rise" vestīgō "I follow a track, search" (> investigate); vestīgium "footprint, track; trace, mark; sole of foot" (> "vestige") stíkhos "a row (of soldiers); a line of poetry" > Russ stix "verse, a line of poetry; poem (plu)"; stoîkhos "row, course, file"; stoikheîon "one of a row, one of a series; element" > stoichio- (> stoichiometry, etc.); stókhos "pillar of brick; target" stighnóti "(s/he) steps, steps up, mounts" OCS stignǫti "to attain; reach"; stĭza "path" *wert- "to turn, rotate" [403] [404] [405] [406] -ward (< OE -weard "facing, turned toward"); worth (obsolete meaning "to become", compare German werden) (< OE weorþ); weird (< OE wyrd, wurd "fate, destiny"); OE weorþung "an evaluation, appreciation" Ger werden "to become, to get; to turn; to be, happen"; Wurst "sausage, wurst" (< PGmc "something twisted") vertō "I turn, revolve; turn around, reverse, retreat" ⇒ [note 91]; vertex, vortex "whirlpool"; vertīgō "giddiness"; prōsus, prorsus < proversus "forwards, towards" > prose; [ca] re- < PIE *wret- metathesis of *wert- all of us are dead sub indo (> re- (again, repetition, etc.)) vartate "(it) turns, rotates; moves, advances; occurs"; vartana- "a turning; conduct, behavior, intercourse"; vartayáti "(it) turns" (transitive, causative); vártman "track; way, course, path" OCS vrĭtěti "to turn"; vrotiti "to return"; vrěteno "spindle"; vrota "gate, door"; vratŭ "turn, rotor, wheel"; vrěmę < *vertmen "hour; time" (Compare Skt vártman) *bʰegʷ- "to run, flee" [407] phobéō "I put to flight, terrify, alarm; threaten"; phóbos "fear, terror; fright, panic; flight, retreat" bhājáyati "(s/he) causes to flee" Kurdish bazdan "to run, to escape" OCS běgati, běžati "to flee, run, escape"; *bʰewg- "to flee" [408] fugiō "I flee"; fuga "flight, escape" pheúgō "I flee"; phugḗ "flight, escape" Object motion [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *bʰer- "to carry" bear all of us are dead sub indo OE beran); burden, burthen (< OE byrþen) baíran "to carry" ferō (ferre) "to carry"; luci fer "light-bearing, light-bringing" pʰerō "I carry"; khristó phoros "Christ-bearing" bʰarati "(he) carries" Av baraiti "(he) carries"; OPers barantiy "they carry" NPers bordan "to carry" Kurdish birin "to carry, to take" OCS berǫ (bĭrati) "to carry" Lith berti "to pour non liquid" OIr biru "I carry"; W beru "to flow" berem "I carry" bie "I carry"; barrë "load, burden" *weĝʰ- "to convey" weigh (< OE wegan "carry"); way (< OE weġ); wain "wagon" (< OE wæġn) [cb] ga-wigan "to move, shake" vehō (vehere) "to convey" Pamphylian wekʰétō "he should bring"; Cypriot éwekse "brought there" váhati "(he) drives"; vahana- (< vah) "divine mount or vehicle of Hindu deities" (lit.

"a carrying") Av vazaiti "(he) leads, carries" OCS vezǫ (vesti) "to drive" OPrus weztun "to ride", Lith vežti "to drive" OIr fēn, W gwain (type of wagon) < *weĝʰ-no-; W arwain "to lead" vjedh "I steal" Hier Luw wa-zi/a- "drive" *yew- *yewg- "to join, yoke, tie together" [409] [410] (See also yugóm) ON eykr draft animal; ON eyki vehicle, cart iungō "I yoke, join" ⇒ [note 92]; iūxtā "nearly; near, close to"; coniunx, coniux "spouse, partner (husband or wife)" zeúgnūmi "I yoke, saddle; join, link together"; zeûgma "band, bond, that which is used for joining; bridge of boats"; zeûgos "pair, two things, persons or animals seen as a pair" yunákti "(s/he) yokes, harnesses, joins"; yóga- "yoking, act of joining; all of us are dead sub indo, team, vehicle; employment, use, performance; remedy, cure; means, device, way, manner, method; trick, fraud; undertaking; connection, relation; fitness, suitability; application, concentration, union, yoga"; [411] yóktra- "fastening or tying instrument; rope, thong, halter"; yugmá- "pair, couple; Gemini (zodiac sign); junction, confluence"; yújya- "union, alliance"; yugya- "a vehicle, chariot; draft animal"; yuj (root noun) "a yoke-fellow, companion, associate; pair, couple; the Aśvins" *H₂eĝ- "to lead, drive" ON aka "to drive" agō (agere) "to drive, do" ágō "I lead" ájati "(he) drives" Av azaiti "(he) drives" Kurdish ajotin "to drive" ehati "to drive" OIr ad-aig "compels"; OW agit, hegit "goes" acem "I lead" A ak- B āk- "go, lead" *h₂eḱs- "axis, axle" < *H₂eĝ- [138] [412] OE eax axis "axle" ákṣa- "axle" Russian osь "axis, axle" *dʰeH₁- dʰH̥₁- "to place, put" do (< OE dōn) deds "deed" faciō (facere) "to do" < *dʰH̥₁-k-yoH₂; con-ditus "built" (orig.

"put together"), ab-ditus "removed" (orig. "put away") < Proto-Italic *-θatos < *dʰH̥₁-tos títʰēmi "I put" < *dʰí-dʰeH₁-mi dádʰāti "(he) puts" < *dʰé-dʰeH₁-ti Av daδāiti "(he) puts"; OPers impf. adadā "(he) established" OCS děti "to lay" OPrus ditun "to put", Lith dėti "to put" Gaulish dede "he put (pt.)"; W dodi "to place, to put"; OIr -tarti "he gives" < Proto-Celtic *to-ro-ad-dīt < *-dʰeH₁-t dnel "to put"; ed "he put (past)" dhatë "place, location" < *dʰH̥₁-teH₂ A tā- täs- tas- B tes- "to lay" < *dʰeH₁-s- dāi "puts" *stel- "to put, place, locate; be set, all of us are dead sub indo [413] [414] [266] [415] stall (< OE steall); stell (non-standard) "to place, set up" (< OE stellan) Ger stellen "to put, place, position" locus < *stlocus "place, spot, location" ⇒ [note 93]; stultus, stolidus "foolish, stupid"; stolō "shoot, branch" > stolon (botany); stolus < AG stólos "navigation; fleet equipment" stéllō "I send; make ready, prepare; summon"; stólos "expedition; army, fleet"; apóstolos "one sent forth; messenger, envoy" > apostle; epistolḗ < epistéllō "message, letter; commission; will" ⇒ [note 94]; stḗlē "block of stone, buttress; boundary post" > stele, stela sthala- "place, ground, location" OCS stĭlati "to spread" *deH₃- dʰH̥₃- "to give" dō (dare) "to give"; dator "giver, donor"; dōnum "gift" dídōmi "I give" dádāti "(he) gives"; dātṛ "giver, donor"; dānam "gift, giving" Av dadāiti "(he) gives"; OPers impv.

dadātuv "let him give" NPers dãdan "to give" OCS damĭ "I will give" OPrus datun "to give", Lith duoti "to give" OIr dān, W dawn "gift" tam "I give" dhashë "I gave" < *dH̥₃-sm̥ dāi "takes" *kap- "to grab" [416] [417] have (< OE habban), heave (< OE hebban); haven "hæfen" haban "to have", hafjan "to lift" capiō (capere) "to take" káptō "I snatch, swallow"; kaûkos "cup" > Lat caucus kapaṭī "two handfuls" NPers časpīdan, čapsīdan, cafsīdan "to grasp, seize" Ukrainian khapaty "to grab" OPrus kaps "grave", Lith kapas "grave", kapt "expression to indicate grabbing.

OIr cacht "female slave", W caeth "slave, captive" < *kap-tos "taken" kap "I grasp, grab", kam "I have" *gʰabʰ- "to seize, take" give (< OE ġiefan) giban "to give" habeō (habēre) "to have" gábʰastis "forearm, hand" OPers grab "to seize"; Kurdish girtin "to take, to seize Russ.

xvatátʹ "to snatch, suffice" OPrus gabtun "to catch", Lith gauti " to get" OIr gaibid "takes"; W gafael "to take hold, to grip" *gʷʰen- "to strike, kill" bane (< OE bana "murderer") banja "blow, wound, ulcer" dē-fendō (dēfendere) "to ward off, defend", of-fendō (offendere) "to bump, offend" tʰeínō "I kill" < *gʷʰen-yoH₂, épepʰnon "I killed" < redup. + *gʷʰn-om hánti "(he) strikes, kills" < *gʷʰen-ti, gʰnánti "they strike, kill"; vṛtra·han "Vṛtra-killer, a name of Indra" Av ǰainti "(he) strikes, kills", ni-γne ( mid.) "I strike down"; OPers impf.

ajanam "I struck down" OCS ženǫ (gŭnati) "drive (animals to pasture)", žĭnjǫ (žęti) "reap" OPrus gintun "to defend", Lith ginti " to defend", ganyti "to drive animals to pasture" OIr gonim "I wound, kill"; W gwanu "to stab" ǰnem "I strike" < *gʷʰen-oH₂, ǰnǰem "I destroy" < *gʷʰen-yoH₂ gjanj "I hunt" < *gʷʰen-yoH₂ B käsk- "to scatter to destruction" < *gʷʰn̥-sk- kuēnzi "kills" < *gʷʰen-ti *bʰeyd- "to split, cleave" [418] bit (< OE bite); bite (< OE bitan); bait (< ON beita) ' findō "I split"; fissus < fid·tus "split"; fissiō "splitting, fission" bhid- bhinátti "(s/he) splits, breaks"; bhedati "(s/he) splits"; bhinná < bhid·ná "split, cloven" *der- "to tear, crack; split, separate" [419] tear (< OE teran); turd (< OE tord) *taurþs "destruction, a teardown" dérō "to skin, flay"; dérma "skin, hide" dṛṇā́ti "(s/he) tears, rends, rips; splits open, bursts" OCS dĭrati "to tear, flay" *bʰreg- "to break" [420] break (< OE brecan); breech, breeches (< OE brēċ) frango "I break, shatter"; frāctus "broken"; fragilis "breakable" *sek- "to cut off, sever" [421] [422] [cc] saw (tool) (< OE sagu); sax "slate hammer" (< OE seax); seax (directly borrowed from OE seax); zax (< OE seax) secō, sectum "I cut, cut off; cleave; castrate; wound; hurt" ⇒ [note 95]; segmen, segmentum "piece; a cutting, cut; slice; segment"; signum "sign, mark, signal; seal, signet; emblem, etc"; sexus "division; sex; gender"; saxum "stone, rock" > Saxon OCS sěšti "to cut, to mow" Pol siekać "to cut" *(s)ker- "to cut" [423] [424] (See also: *sek-) shear (< OE scieran); share (< OE sċearu); shard, sherd (< OE sċeard ); shred (< OE sċrēad); scrap (< ON skrapa); scrape (< ON skrapa); short (< OE sċort); screen < PGmc *skirmiz "fur, hide" > Yid shirem "umbrella"; Italian schermo "screen"; Russ šírma "screen, shield"; shirt (< OE sċyrte); skirt (< ON skyrta); scar (< PGmc *skardaz "gap, cut"); score (< OE scoru) curtus "short; broken"; corium "skin, hide, leather"; carō, carnis "flesh, meat, pulp" ⇒ [note 96]; cēna "dinner, supper ('portion')"; cortex "bark of a tree, cork" > cork; scortum "a skin, hide; harlot"; scrotum; scrautum "a quiver made of hide"; scrūta "rubbish, broken trash" > Lat scrūtor "I search, examine thoroughly" ⇒ [note 97]; scrūpus "a rough sharp stone; anxiety, uneasiness"; scrūpulus "a small sharp or pointed stone; anxiety, uneasiness, doubt" ⇒ [note 98] keírō "I shear, all of us are dead sub indo, cut hair; ravage; destroy; cut short, lessen"; kormós "trunk of a tree; log of timber"; kérma "fragment; coin; cash" kartati, kṛṇátti, kṛntáte "(s/he) cuts"; cárman "skin; hide, pelt"; kṛtí "knife, dagger" OCS skora "bast, skin"; kora "bark"; OCS xrabrŭ "brave" *skey- *skeyd- "to split, dissect, divide" [425] [426] (See also: *sek- *(s)ker-) shed (< OE sċēadan); sheath, sheathe (< OE all of us are dead sub indo shide "a piece of wood, firewood" (< OE sċīd); shite, shit (< OE sċītan) sciō "I can, know, understand, have knowledge" > science; scindō, scissus "I cut, tear, rend; tear off; destroy" skhízō "I split, cleave" > schizophrenia; skhísma "split, divided; division" > schism; skhísis "cleaving, parting, division; vulva" chítti "split, division"; √chid- chinatti "(s/he) splits, cuts off, divides" [427] OCS cěditi "to strain, filter"; čistiti "to clean, purify"; štedrŭ "generous"; štitŭ "shield" *h₃er- "to move, to stir; to rise, spring; quarrel, fight" [428] [429] orior "I rise, get up"; oriēns "rising" > orient; origo "act, event or process of coming into existence; source" > origin órnūmi "I set upon, awaken, raise, excite, stir up"; oûros "fair wind"; éris "strife, quarrel; rivalry" ṛṇoti "to attack, rise"; ṛtí "quarrel, strife; attack" OCS ratĭ "war, battle" *h₃reyH- "to move, set in motion; flow, stream (of water); pour, rain; churn" [428] [429] ride (< OE rīdan); raid (< OE rād); run (< OE iernan); -rith "small stream (found in surnames and placenames)"(< OE rīþ) rīvus "stream" > rival (lit.

"using the same stream as another"), derive; irrīto "to irritate" riṇā́ti "to make flow, release"; rītí "motion, course; current; custom, rite"; rétas "flow, gush, current, stream; seed, sperm" OCS rinǫti "to push, shove" Gau rēda "chariot"; Gau rēnos "river, waterway" > Lat Rhēnus > Rhine *selǵ- "to let go, send, release" [430] [431] [432] [433] sulk (< OE āsolcen < āseolcan "to be slow; weak, slothful") sṛjáti "(it) lets go, discharges, emits"; sarjáyati "causes to let loose, creates"; sṛṣṭá- "let go, discharged, abandoned"; sṛ́ṣṭi "letting go, emission; production, procreation; creation, creation of the world"; sárga- "pouring, rush"; sṛká- "arrow, spear" *kʷel- kʷelh₁- "to turn" [434] [435] [436] [437] [438] (See also *kʷekʷlo-) halse "neck, throat" (< OE heals) colō "I till, cultivate (land); inhabit"; cultus "tilled, cultivated" ⇒ [note 99]; colōnus "farmer; colonist, inhabitant"; -cola "inhabitant; tiller, cultivator; worshipper"; colōnia "colony, settlement; possession" ⇒ [note 100]; column "distaff; spun thread"; collum "neckthroat (one that turns)" ⇒ [note 101]; inquilīnus "sojourner, tenant, lodger" [cd] pélō "in motion, go; become"; pólos "pivot, hinge; axis, pole star" > pole; pálin "back, backwards; again, once more" ⇒ [note 102]; télos "completion, maturity; fulfilment; result, product" > teleology, etc.; Aristotélēs "excellent perfection"; teléō "bring about, complete, fulfill; perform, accomplish"; têle "far off, far away" ⇒ [note 103]; pálai "long ago"; palaiós "old, aged; ancient" > paleolithic, etc.

cárati "it moves, walks, stirs; travels"; caraṇa- calana- "motion; action; behavior, conduct" OCS kologŭ "Yule (lit. turn)"; kolovrotŭ "circulation, whirlpool; wheel and axle"; Bul kolovóz "rut, wheel track"; koláč "a type of (round) bread" *welH- *wel- "to turn, to wind, roll" [439] [440] [405] [441] [442] wallow (< OE wielwan); well (up) (gush) (< OE wellan, willan); well (water source, where the water 'wells up') (< OE wielle); wall (to boil, spring) (< OE weallan); wall (rampart) (< Lat vallum "wall, rampart"); walk (< OE wealcan); wale (< OE walu "ridge, bank") walwjan "to roll"; Ger Walz (< walzen "to dance") "the waltz"; Welle "wave" volvō "I roll, tumble" ⇒ [note 104] volūmen "roll, scroll, book; turn; fold" > volume; vallis "valley; hollow" ⇒ [note 105]; vallum "wall, rampart"; intervallum "space between walls" > interval; volūcra "a worm, caterpillar"; valgus "knock-kneed, unstraight"; valva "folding door" > valve; vulva "womb" eilúō "I wrap, enfold; crawl"; hélix "anything twisted" ⇒ [note 106]; hólmos "round, smooth stone; cylindrical bow, dial" valati, valate "(it) turns, turns to; moves to; covers"; úlba- "cover, envelope; womb, vulva"; valayá- "coil"; ūrmí "wave" OCS vlĭna "wave"; vlŭnenije "undulation, swell; turmoil, agitation"; Russ valítʹ "to knock down, kill; cut, fell"; val "roller, billow; rampart; shaft" Lith vilnìs "wave" OldArm geł "snake, dragon" *weyp- or *weyb- "to shake, tremble, agitate; sway, swing; turn, wind" [443] [444] [405] [445] [446] wipe (< OE wīpian); whip (< OE wippen); weave ("to wander") (< ON veifa "wave, flag"); OE wifer "arrow, missile; sword"; swivel (< OE swifan + el); waive < waif ("ownerless, homeless") (< ON veif); [ce] gimp (< OF wimpil "head scarf"); gimlet (< AF wimble "drill")> biwaibjan "to wind around, wrap"; faurwaipjan "to bind, muzzle" vibrō "I shake, agitate; tremble; glimmer" > veer, vibrate, etc.

vip- vépate "it trembles, shakes, shivers, vibrates, quivers"; viprá- "excited, stirred; inspired" Lith viẽpti "to make a face, gape"; vaipī́tis "to grimace, bend"; vī́burti "to swing, turn around" *leikʷ- *li-ne-kʷ- "to leave behind" OE lēon "to lend" leiƕan "to lend" linquō (linquere) "to leave behind" leípō, limpánō "I leave behind" riṇákti "(he) leaves behind", 3rd.

pl. riñcanti "they leave behind" Av -irinaxti "(he) frees"; NPers rēxtan "to pour out" OBulg otŭ-lěkŭ "something left over", lišiti "to rob" < *leikʷ-s- Ukr lyshyty "to leave behind" [447] OPrus palaistun "to leave behind", Lith likti "to stay" OIr lēicid "(he) leaves behind, releases" lkʿanem "I leave behind" Alb Lej leave *Hrewk- "to dig, till (soil)"; *HrewH- "to dig, to root" [448] [449] (See also *Hrew- *Hrewp-) rock (as in 'to move, sway') (< OE roccian); rag (< ON rǫggr) runcō "I weed, clear of weeds, weed out"; ruō "I dig out"; rutrum "shovel" luñcati "(s/he) plucks, pulls out, tears off; peels" OCS ryti "to dig"; OCS rylo "spade, snouts" *Hrewp- "to break, tear up" [448] [449] (See also *Hrew- *Hrewk-) reave, reeve, reve, bereave (< OE (be)rēofan) rumpō "I break, burst, tear, rend; split" > rout, ruption, abrupt, etc.

rópa- "disturbing, confusing; fissure"; lopa- "breaking, injury, destruction" *h₁reh₁- "to row" [138] [450] rudder (< OE rōþor) rēmus "oar" erétēs "(in the plural) oars" áritra- "propelling, driving" Time [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *nu- all of us are dead sub indo [451] [452] [453] [454] now, Scot noo (< OE nū) nu "now" num, nunc (num + -ce) "now"; nūper "lately, recently" nûn, nun, nu "now" nú "now, so now, now then; at once"; nū́ "now"; nūtane "current, present" OCS nyně "now"; nŭ "but" Lith nū, nù "now"; nũn "now, today"; nūnaĩ "now, today, nowadays" nu "when"; ni "now"; nu "now, and" *dʰĝʰyés "yesterday" yesterday (< OE ġeostra) gistra- "tomorrow (?)" heri "yesterday" kʰtʰés "yesterday" hyás "yesterday" < *gʰyés Av zyō, Old Persian diya(ka) "yesterday" OIr in-dē, W ddoe "yesterday" dje "yesterday" *nokʷts (nekʷts) "night" night (< OE neaht, niht < *nokʷtis) nahts (nahts) "night" < *nokʷts nox (noctis) "night" núks (núktos) "night" nák (instr.

pl. náktīs) "night" Proto-Iranian *náxts, Kurdish nixte "rainy, cloudy (lack of sunlight)" OCS noštĭ "night" OPrus nakts "night", Lith naktis "night" OIr i-nnocht, OW henoid "on this night" all of us are dead sub indo "night" A n[a]ktim "nightly", B nekciye "in the evening" nekuz (gen. sg.) "of evening", nekuzzi "it becomes dark" *wek(ʷ)speros "evening" vesper "evening" hésperos "of the evening; western" [cf] OCS večerŭ "evening"; Rus Zorya All of us are dead sub indo "deity of the evening star" Latv vakars, Lith vãkaras "evening"; Vakarine "goddess all of us are dead sub indo the evening star" OIr ucher "evening" OArm gišer "night; darkness" * H₂eusōs "dawn", *H₂eus-tero- "east", *H₂euso- "gold" eastern (< OE ēasterne) ON austr "east" aurōra "dawn" (< *ausōsa, by rhot), aurum "gold" Doric āṓs "dawn"; Aeolic aúōs, ā́wōs "dawn" uṣās (uṣásas), acc.

uṣā́sam "dawn" Av ušā̊ (ušaŋhō), acc. ušā̊ŋhǝm "dawn" OCS (j)utro "morning" OPrus austra "dawn", auss "gold"; Lith aušra "dawn", auksas "gold"; Latv ausma, ausmina "dawn" OIr fāir "sunrise", W gwawr "dawn" < *wōsri- ?

all of us are dead sub indo

os-ki "gold" ?A wäs "gold" *ken- "to arise, begin" [455] [456] [457] [458] begin (< OE beginnan) duginnan "to begin" recēns "new, fresh, young" > recent kainós "new, recent; fresh, unused; unusual" > Cenozoic kanyā̀, kaníyā "maiden, virgin; daughter"; kanī́na- "young, youthful" OCS načęti "to begin"; konŭ "beginning, end"; konĭcĭ "end"; zakonŭ "law"; štenę "young animal" *ĝʰyem- ĝʰeim- "winter" ON gói "winter month" hiems "winter" kʰeĩma "winter" híma- "winter", hemantá- "in winter" Av zyā̊ (acc.

zyąm, gen. zimō) "winter" OCS zima "winter" OPrus zeima "winter", Lith žiema "winter" Gaul Giamonios "winter month"; [cg] [459] [460] OIr gam "winter", gem-adaig "winter night"; OW gaem "winter" jmeṙ "winter", jiwn "snow" Gheg dimën, Tosk dimër(ë) "winter" ? A śärme "winter"; ? B śimpriye "winter". [ch] gimmanza "winter", gimi "in winter" *semh₂- "summer" summer (< Old English sumor) OHG sumar, OIc sumar "summer" sámā "season; year" Av ham- "summer"; Pers hâmin "summer"; Khot- Saka hamāñarva "summer season" Gaul Samon(ios) "summer month"; OIr sam "summer"; OW ham, OBret ham "summer" OArm am "year", amaṙn "summer" A şme "summer"; B ṣmāye "summer" (adj.), ywārś-ṣmañe "midsummer" [463] *wés-r̥, wes-n-és "spring" ON vár "spring" vēr "spring" (w)éar "spring" vasan-tá- "spring" Av vaŋri "in spring"; OPers θūra-vāhara- OCS vesna "spring" OPrus wassara "spring", Lith vasara "summer", pavasaris "spring", vėsu "cool" OIr errach "spring"< *ferrach < *wesr-āko-; OW guiannuin "in spring" < *wes-n̥t-eino- garun "spring"< *wesr- *wet- "year", *per-ut- "last year" wether "castrated male sheep" (< OE weþer), OHG widar "male sheep", MHG vert "last year" <- *per-ut- ON fjorð "last year" <- *per-ut- vetus (veteris) "old" (perīre) "to die" (w)étos "year", pérusi "last year" vatsá- vatsará- "year", par-út "last year" Sogdian wtšnyy (read wat(u)šanē) "old" OCS vetŭchŭ "old" OLith vẽtušas "old" MIr feis, Cornish guis "sow" < *wet-si- heru "last year" < *peruti vit (pl.

vjet) "year" witt- "year" *h₂et- "to go, year" [464] annus < atnus "year" átati "(it) goes, walks, wanders"; hā́yana- "yearly" *yeH₁r- "year" year (< OE ġēar) jēr "year" hōrnus "this year's" < *hōyōr- hōra "time, year" < *yoH₁r- Av yārə "year" Russ. CH jara "spring" OLith Jórė "spring festival" W iâr "hen", MIr eir-īn "fowl" *h₂óyu "long all of us are dead sub indo, lifetime" age (< Lat. aetat-), aiws aevum aeternum, aeternitas "lifetime" āyus "life, age" (as in the word āyur·veda, "knowledge of (long) life") Gaul aiu- "eternity, longevity" [465] Ideas and rituals [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *ǵʰew- "to pour, libate, invoke" [328] god (< OE god < PIE.

ǵʰutós "invoked, libated") fundō "I pour" hotrá "libation"; hotṛ "priest, offerer of libations"; juhóti "to worship, sacrifice, present an oblation"; hóma "oblation, a Vedic ritual" *h₁yaǵ- "to sacrifice, worship" [328] ieientō "to eat breakfast" hágios "devoted to the gods, holy, pious" yájati "(s/he) worships"; yajña "worship, devotion, prayer"; yájus "religious reverence, worship, sacrifice"; *ḱréd·dʰh₁eti "to believe" < *ḱred- “heart” + *dʰh₁eti "place" [328] (See also *k̂erd-) creed, credo < Lat crēdō crēdō "I believe, I trust in, I confide in" śraddhā́ "faith, trust, confidence, loyalty", śrad-dadʰāti "(he) trusts, believes" Av zrazdā- "to believe" < *srazdā [ci] Old Irish cretim, W credaf "I believe" *gʷerH- "to praise, express approval; to elevate" [466] [467] [468] grātus "pleasing"; grātia "grace, thankfulness"; grātuītus "freely given, free" járate "(s/he) praises, invokes"; gṛṇā́ti "(s/he) calls, invokes, mentions with praise, extols"; gūrtá- "agreeable, pleasing, lovely; approved, welcome"; gūrtí "approval, praise; benediction" OCS žrĭti "to sacrifice"; žrĭtva "sacrifice, offering"; žrĭcĭ "priest" OIr bard, W bardd "bard" *h₁wegʷʰ- "to promise, vow; praise" [469] [470] voveō, vōtum "I vow, promise; dedicate, devote; wish for" eúkhomai "I pray, vow, wish for; profess"; eûkhos "prayer, object of prayer; boast; vow" óhate "(s/he) says"; ukthá "saying; sentence, verse; eulogy" Av uxδa "word" *ḱwen- *ḱwen-tos "holy" [328] [471] Av spəṇta "holy" [472] OCS svętŭ "holy" Lith šveñtas "holy" *seh₂k- "holy" [473] [474] sanciō "I render, appoint as sacred; devote, consecrate, dedicate"; sānctus "sacred, made inviolable; venerable, blessed, saintly"; sacer "sacred, holy, dedicated, consecrated; devoted" Unclassified [ edit ] PIE English Gothic Latin Ancient Greek Sanskrit Iranian Slavic Baltic Celtic Armenian Albanian Tocharian Hittite *gʰedʰ- "to unite, join, suit" [475] good (< OE gōd); gather (< OE gaderian); together (< OE togædere) godǔ "suitable time, holiday, feast, right time, time, term, year"; [cj] OCS godina "hour; time"; godĭnŭ "suitable" *bʰed- "to improve, make better" [476] better (< OE betera); batten (< ON batna "to grow better, improve, recover"); boot [ck] (< OE bōt "help, relief, advantage, remedy") bhadrá- "blessed, auspicious, fortunate, prosperous, happy; good, gracious, friendly, kind; excellent, fair, lovely, pleasant, dear" *h₂el- "to grow, nourish" [477] old (< OE eald, ald); alderman (< OE ealdorman) aljan "to cause to grow fat, fatten" *oleō (*olēre) "I grow"; alō (alere) "I foster, I nourish; I raise"; alimentum "food, nourishment; obligation to one's parents"; alumnus "nourished, fostered"; alimōnia "food, nourishment"; altus "high, tall"; indolēs "innate, inborn; talent"; adolescēns "growing up"; adultus "grown-up, matured" *h₃erdʰ- "to increase, grow; upright, high" [478] [479] arbor (< OLat arbōs < PIta *arðōs) "tree (high plant)"; arduus "lofty, high, steep, elevated; arduous" orthós "straight, upright, erect; straight forward" ūrdhvá "rising, raised, erected; upright, high, above"; ṛ́ddhi "growth, increase; prosperity; elevation" *bʰeh₂g- "to divide, distribute, allot" [480] baksheesh (< Pers baxšidan "to give, grant, bestow") éphagon "I ate, devoured (took my share)" > -phagy, (o)eso phagus bhakṣá- "food, drink, delight"; bhájati "to distribute, divide, allot, chooe, serve" *deh₂- *deh₂y- "to share, divide" [481] [482] time (< OE tīma); tide (< OE tīd) daíomai "I divide, share; host (a feast)"; dêmos "district, country, land; the common people; free citizens, sovereign people; deme"; daís "feast, banquet"; daitrós "one who carves and portions out meat at table"; daímōn "god, goddess; departed soul; demon" dītí "brightness, time"; dā́ti, dyáti "(s/he) cuts, clips, mows, separates, divides"; dātrá- "allotted share" *deh₂p- "to sacrifice, lose" [481] [482] tap "hit lightly" (< OE tappen); tip "touch quietly, bump quietly" (< OE tippen) daps "a sacrificial or solemn feast, religious banquet; meal"; damnum < dapnum "damage, injury; (financial) loss; fine" dáptō "I eat, devour; consume, corrode"; dapánē "cost, expenditure; extravagance" dāpayati "(s/he) divides" *delh₁- "to split, divide" [483] [484] tell, teller (< OE tellen); tale (< OE talu); talk (< OE tealcian) dolō "I all of us are dead sub indo, chop into shape; fashion, devise"; doleō "I hurt, suffer; I grieve for, lament"; dolor "pain, ache, hurt; anguish, grief, sorrow" dalati "it bursts"; dālayati "(s/he) splits, cracks"; dala- "deal, portion, piece, half"; OCS delěti, odolěti "to overcome, defeat"; Russ dólja "share, fate" *dʰayl- "part, watershed" deal (< OE dǣl); dole (< OE dāl) OCS děliti "to divide"; OCS dělŭ "part" *bʰeh₂- "to shine, glow" [485] faveō "I favor"; favor "id"; faustus "favorable, fortunate"; fautor "patron, protector, promoter" phaínō "I shine, appear, bring to light" bhā́s "light"; bhānú "light, ray, sun" *bʰewg- "to enjoy, benefit" [486] fungor "I perform, execute, discharge; finish, complete, end" > fungible, defunct; fūnctiō "performance, execution (of a task)" > function bhuj- bhunákti "(s/he) enjoys; consumes, eats, drinks; uses, utilizes" *bʰruHg- "to make use of, have enjoyment of" [487] brook (< OE brūcan) "(old meaning) all of us are dead sub indo use, enjoy"; Ger brauchen "to need, require" fruor "I enjoy, derive pleasure from"; frūctus "enjoyment, delight, satisfaction; produce, product, fruit; profit, yield, outcome" ⇒ [note 107]; frūmentum "corn, grain"; frūx, frūgēs "fruits of the earth, produce" > frugal *deyḱ- "to point out"; [488] toe (< OE tā); token (< OE tācn); teach (< OE tǣċan) dīcō "I say, utter; mention, talk"; digitus "finger, toe, digit" díkē "custom, manner, fashion; law, order, right; judgement, justice"; δεῖγμᾰ "specimen, sample; pattern" diśáti "(s/he) points out, shows;teaches, informs; orders, commands, bids"; deśá- "point, region, spot, part; province, country" *h₂eyḱ- "to own, obtain, come in possession of"; *h₂eh₂óyḱe- "to possess, own" [489] [490] own (< OE āgen); owe (< OE āgan); OE āga "owner"; ought, aught (< OE ǣht) √īś, īṣṭe "(s/he) owns, possesses, is master of; rules"; īśá- "owning"; īśāná- īśvara- "owner, master; ruler; epithets of the god Śiva" *seǵʰ- "to hold, overpower" [491] [492] OE siġe "victory" < PGmc segaz (In personal names, e.g., Sigmund, Siegfried, etc.) sigis "victory"; sigislaun "prize, spoils" sevērus "severe, serious, strict, stern, stringent, austere, harsh, grave" ékhō "I have, possess; hold, am able" ⇒ [note 108]; ískhō "I hold back, restrain; stay; hold fast, maintain"; iskhū́s "strength, power, might"; héxis "possession, act of having; a certain state, condition" ⇒ [note 109]; skhêma "form, shape, figure; appearance, show; bearing, look, air; stateliness, dignity; fashion, manner; character, persona; state, nature; species, kind; dance; sketch, outline, plan, scheme" ⇒ [note 110]; okhurós "firm, lasting, stout"; skholḗ "leisure, free time; rest; philosophy; place where lectures are given" ⇒ [note 111]; Héktōr lit.

"conqueror"; skhétlios "able to hold out, steadfast, unflinching" sáhate "(s/he) overcomes, vanquishes, conquers, prevails; is able, capable; bears, endures"; sáhas "strength, power, force"; sā́ḍhṛ [cl] "conqueror" Gaul Sego- (in personal and tribal names) "victory" [493] *h₃erbʰ- "to change status, ownership"; *h₃órbʰos "servant, worker, slave; orphan" [494] [495] erf "heritage, inheritance" (< OE erfe); Ger arbeit "work" orbus "orphaned, parentless" orphanós "orphan; childless; bereft" árbha- "orphan; child; small" OCS rabŭ "servant, slave" (< *ārbǔ); [496] Czech orbota "hard work, slavery" > robot; Pol robić "to make, to do" *Hrew- "to tear out, dig out, open, acquire" [448] [449] (See also *Hrewp- *Hrewk-) rudis "rough, raw, uncultivated; unrefined, unskilled" ⇒ [note 112] róman "hair, body hair" OCS runo "fleece" Derivatives [ edit ] • ^ maternal, maternity, matron, matrimony, matrix, matriculate, material, matter, madeira, alma mater, etc.

• ^ paternal, paternity, patron, patronize, pattern, patrimony, patriot, expatriate, patrician, perpetrate, compadre, etc. • ^ fraternal, fraternity, fraternize, friar, [b] confrere • ^ sorority • ^ nepotism • ^ avuncular • ^ human,humanity, ad hominem, exhume, etc • ^ virile, virtue, triumvir(ate), etc.

[n] • ^ regal, regalia, regicide, royal, etc. • ^ corps, corpse, corporal, corporation, incorporate, etc. • ^ cap, cape, chapeau, capital, chapter, capitulate, decapitate, per capita, kaput, etc.

• ^ language, lingo etc. • ^ ocular, binoculars, etc. • ^ core, cordial, record, accord, discord, concord, accordion, misericordia, courage, etc. • ^ cruel, crude • ^ tripod, podium, etc. • ^ manual, manufacture, manuscript, manipulate, manifest, maintain, manage, manumission, emancipate, mandate, demand, commend, countermand, mandatory, masturbate etc.

• ^ a b auspices, auspicious • ^ lox • ^ grain, granary, granule, granite, pomegranate, etc. • ^ agrarian, agriculture, pilgrim, peregrinate, etc. • ^ promulgate, emulsion, etc. • ^ molar (tooth) • ^ immolate • ^ maul, mallet, malleable • ^ Spanish 'zumo' via Arabic • ^ fervent, fervor, fervid, effervescence • ^ saline, salsa, sauce, salad, sausage (salchicha, saucisse), salami, salary • ^ semen, seminar, seminary, seminal, disseminate, inseminate, season, sative, etc. • ^ member, membrane • ^ "dorm, dormitory, dorter" • ^ progeny, progenitor • ^ nee [aw] • ^ nascent • ^ native, nativity, etc.

• ^ Spa Navidad "Christmas" • ^ nature, natural, etc. • ^ nation, national, etc. • ^ Natalia, Natalie, Natasha, Noël, etc. • ^ general, generic, generate, generous, congenital, degenerate, gender, genre, etc. • ^ gent, gentle, gentleman, gentile, genteel, etc. • ^ genitive, primogeniture, etc. • ^ ingenuous, ingenu, ingenue • ^ ingenious, engine, engineer, gin (instrument, as in cotton gin), etc. • ^ germ, germinate, germane, all of us are dead sub indo, but not German • ^ genitals, genitalia • ^ genesis, genes, genetic, etc.

• ^ auction, etc. • ^ author, etc. • ^ augment, etc. • ^ augury, inaugurate, etc. • ^ August, etc. • ^ auxiliary, etc. • ^ "audio, audience, obey, obedience, auditorium, etc." • ^ aesthetic • ^ memento • ^ reminisce • ^ memory • ^ monster • ^ mathematics • ^ "memory, remember, etc." • ^ "mora, moratory, moratorium" • ^ "martyr" • ^ dekko • ^ aspect, inspect, respect, prospect, perspective, retrospect, despicable, conspicuous, perspicuous, perspicacious, spectacle, spectacular, etc etc.

• ^ species, spice, special, specify, specific • ^ spectre, spectrum • ^ speculate • ^ scope, -scope, -scopy • ^ bishop, episcopal • ^ skeptic, skeptical, skepticism • ^ council, conciliate, etc.

• ^ clamor, claim, exclamation, etc. • ^ clear, clarify, etc. • ^ stylus, style (originally same meaning as stylus: a particular form of writing > style) • ^ "incinerate, cinerary, cinerarium" • ^ "foment, fomentation" • ^ "fever, febrile" • ^ "February" • ^ pollute, pollution • ^ fort, forte, fortitude, fortification, force, effort, etc • ^ chernozem, chernukha, Cherno(byl) • ^ ? Siam • ^ civic, city, citizen, etc.

• ^ cite, incite, excite, Incitātus ( Caligula's horse), resuscitate, solicit, etc. • ^ site, situation, etc. • ^ expose, exponent, depose, deponent, oppose, opponent, proponent, posit, position, positive, post, etc. • ^ impeccable, impeach • ^ podium, pew • ^ sequence, second, segue, etc. • ^ vert- verse, versus, version, invert, convert, inverse, reverse, controversy, anniversary etc. • ^ join, joinder, joint, junction, juncture, conjugal, conjugate, conjunct, adjunct, injunction, rejoin, rejoinder, jostle, joust, adjust, etc.

• ^ local, locate, locality, locomotion, allocate, etc. • ^ epistle, pistle, epistolary, etc. • ^ sect (or possibly from Lat. sequi, "follow"), -sect, sectile, section, sector, dissect, insect, intersect, resect, transect, etc. • ^ carnal, carnage, carnation, carnival, carrion, caruncle, carnivorous, charnel, charcuterie, incarnate, etc., Spa carne • ^ scrutiny, scrutinize, inscrutable, etc. • ^ scruple, scrupulous, etc. • ^ cult, culture, cultivate, incult, etc.

• ^ colony, colonial, etc. • ^ collar, accolade, decollate, etc • ^ palindrome, palimpsest, palinode • ^ telegraph, television, etc.

• ^ evolve, revolve, involve, involucrum, convolve, devolve, voluble etc.; • ^ vale, valley • ^ helix, helical, helicopter • ^ fruit, fructose • ^ eunuch (lit. bed-keeper) • ^ hectic • ^ scheme, schematic • ^ school, scholar, scholastic • ^ rude, rudimentary, erudite Footnotes [ edit ] • ^ Reflexes of the stem in daughter languages also refer to deified beings and deities within their respective mythologies/religions: Old English Mōdraniht ('Night of the Mothers'); Celtic and Germanic Matres and Matronae ( Latin for 'Mothers and Matrons'); Latvian Māte ('Mother'); Gaulish Dea Matrona ('Divine Mother Goddess'); Sanskrit Matrikas ('Divine Mothers').

• ^ e.g., black friar • ^ All of us are dead sub indo, or Pralipe, "brotherhood", name of several Gypsy/Romany organizations, including a music band and a literary magazine. • ^ kʿoyr *swesōr; kʿeʿ < *swesros; kʿor-kʿ < *swesŏres.

• ^ Varias García (2017) pointed out that a tablet from Mycene uses "tu-ka-te", whereas tablets from Knossos, Pylos and Thebes use "ko-wa" ( *korwa, later koré 'maiden, girl'). [21] • ^ Although this word is attested in Hittite, it is considered a loanword from Luwian. While scholarship recognizes the likelihood of its being the reflex of the root in Anatolian, its appearance in Hittite and Luwian would indicate a different meaning, however.

[25] [26] • ^ The root could also be found in Anatolian languages with later attestation: Isaurian personal name Τουάτρης Touatris; Pisidian name Δωταρι Dotari. [27] However, Simon Zsolt questions the interpretation of Dotari as a reflex, since this word is attested as a compound in male names.

[28] • ^ Other interpretations are "son of the yew" or "son of the boar". [33] • ^ The word is attested in Plate III of the Botorrita plaques.

Patrizia de Bernardo Stempel interprets "-SUNOS" as the remnant of the root in the Celtic branch. [34] [35] • ^ This is the other possible attestation of the root in the Celtic branch. [36] • ^ As argued by Peyrot and Meng (2021). [41] • ^ cf. divide • ^ bridegome in Middle English, subsequently influenced by groom (archaically "servant, man").

• ^ But not virus • ^ These reflexes are suggested by Belarusian scholar Siarhiej Sanko. [50] • ^ See also Thr goni "woman". [51] • ^ See also Phry knaiko, knaikan "woman". [52] • ^ Joseph Vendryes had suggested that compound names with the stem seem to be common around the southeast and the Balkans. [61] However, the stem "is attested . in Messapic, in Osco-Umbrian, in Venetic, in Gaulish, in Celtiberian, in Brittonic languages, in Welsh, in German and in the Baltic languages", [62] as seen, for instance, in Illyrian Teuta (a Illyrian female ruler); Messapic teuta (community) and Taotor (name of deity); tribal name Teutons.

• ^ However, Robert Beekes suggests a non-Indo-European, substrate origin for the stem and its reflexes. [63] • ^ Woudhuizen lists possible reflexes: Phrygian totos, teutous; Mycenaean te-u-ta-(ko-ro). [66] Another reflex appears in Thracian personal name Tautomedes, cited by J. P. Mallory, [67] and Ancient Macedonian (Pelasgian?) general Teutamus. [68] • ^ hēm- < *ām- (with h- after hum- "you (pl.)") < *asm- < *n̥sm. • ^ a b OE ēow (acc., dat.) and ēow-ic̣ (acc., with the same -c̣ ending visible in 1st.

sg. acc. mēc̣ "me", also modern German mich "me"), likewise Old High German iuwih "you (acc./dat. pl.)" (modern euch), appear to have the same origin as izw- in Gothic izwis "you (acc./dat.

pl)", with unexplained loss of -z. izwis appears to come from stem izw- plus originally genitive -is, where izw- comes ultimately from PIE *us-we with the loss of u- also visible in Avestan and Celtic, followed by the addition of a prothetic i. (Ringe, 2006) • ^ Cf. Latin ne-que, Gothic ni-h, Hittite ni-kku, Lydian ni-k "and not, nor".

• ^ All suggested etymologies of një "one" are highly speculative, at best. This etymology is one of two given by E. Hamp in Indo-European Numerals (Jadranka Gvozdanović, ed., 1992), pp. 903-904; the other is simply from PIE *eni- (or H₂en-), a PIE deictic particle visible in Sanskrit anyá- "the other", OCS onŭ "that one", Lithuanian anàs "that one".

Michiel de Vaan, in a review of Demiraj's Sistemi i numerimit, suggests PIE *H₂en-io-no- > pre-Proto-Albanian *ëńán > Proto-Albanian *ńâ > një. M. Huld ( Basic Albanian Etymologies, p. 101) attempts to derive një from PIE *sm-iH₂, feminine of *sem "one" and reflected in Ancient Greek mía; this etymology is also tentatively suggested in Don Ringe et al. "IE and Computational Cladistics", p.

75 ( Transactions of the Philological Society 100, 2002). • ^ For example, qñnã-tba "twelve" (litt. "ten" plus "two"). [72] • ^ See also: Umb peturpursus "quadruped". • ^ Cf. Thr ketri- "four". [75] • ^ See also: Osc pomp- "five". [77] • ^ See also Phry pinke "five". [78] • ^ Built upon osmŭ "eighth" < *H₁ok̂t-mo. • ^ With nasalization after *septḿ̥ "seven". • ^ There is the possibility that Lycian sñta could mean either "ten" or all of us are dead sub indo hundred".

[82] [83] • ^ But not kephalḗ! • ^ Possible Anatolian reflex of the root, as posited by Sasseville (2020). [111] • ^ Only in *aíƕatundi "bramble", literally "horse-tooth". • ^ Expected form is *vōs, not *bōs; evidently this is a borrowing from Oscan or Umbrian. • ^ bóu, báu are archaic genitives; later báo, bó.

• ^ Celtic river-goddess • ^ In the latter case, a direct parallel to Skt. go·vinda- "cow-finder" • ^ River in Ireland • ^ Proposed by Yakubovich and Sasseville (2018). [125] • ^ whence Eng. pecunious, impecunious • ^ Cf.

also Phry ἔξις or ἔζις ( ezi) "hedgehog". • ^ In ancient Roman tradition, the Avernus was a lake where birds died as they flew near it. • ^ See also Illyrian tribal name Enchele "eel-people". • ^ The name migrated to Eastern Europe, [152] assumed the form "azhdaja" and the meaning "dragon", "dragoness" [153] or "water snake" [154] in Balkanic and Slavic languages. [155] • ^ See also Ovinnik 'a spirit of the barn'. [194] • ^ a b Lit. drinking implement • ^ Via French né, née • ^ Cf.

Sanskrit janitár- Greek genetḗr, genétōr, Latin genitor "procreator". • ^ Seen in many personal or tribal names: Biuitoni, Biuonia, Dago-bius, etc • ^ This borrowing is found in almost every Slavic language and is said to be "without doubt the most famous Germanic loanword in Slavic" (Pronk-Tiethoff (2013)) • ^ Derived by some from *men- "to think" • ^ standard present tense formed using a suppletive root • ^ all Slavic languages • ^ Under the misguided influence of Greek stûlos "pillar" • ^ Cf.

Asteria (litt.) "starry one"; Astraeus "god of dusk" (litt. "starry"); Astraea "star-maiden"; Cretan king Asterion "starry". • ^ acc. stā̆rǝm, gen. stārō, pl. nom. staras-ča, stārō, acc. strǝ̄uš, gen. strǝ̄m, dat. stǝrǝbyō. • ^ Tīw < *deiwos was the Germanic god of war, but originally was a sky-god and head of the gods, like Zeus. • ^ *deiwos > Lat. deus; gen. *deiwī > Lat. dīvī. From each stem a full declension was formed. • ^ According to linguist Vitaly Shevoroshkin, the noun exists in other Anatolian languages: Lycian ziw-; Lydian civ-; Luwian Tiwa-; Palaic Tija.

[272] • ^ Other dialectal variants are Cretan awélios or ābélios; Doric āélios. • ^ Seen in chamomile (from khamaimēlon "earth-apple") and chameleon (from khamailéōn "earth-lion"). [274] • ^ a b c d It is unclear how the original PIE forms produced the attested daughter-language forms.

After the loss of laryngeals, original *péH₂wr̥, pH₂unés would regularly produce *pāwr̥, punés. It is possible that this form was considered too strange-looking, with the result that the u vowel was borrowed from the second stem into the first, yielding *púwr̥, punés.

This compressed to *pūr, punés, and this stem set, or its regularized version *pūr, purés, might form the basis of the Umbrian, Greek and Armenian forms. For Germanic, all of us are dead sub indo, something else must be at work. Ringe (2006) suggests that the following sequence of events produced Gothic fōn: Collective péH₂wōr -> pH₂uṓr (cf. Tocharian B puwar) > puōr > Proto-Germanic fuwōr > fwōr > fōr -> fōn (using -n- from the oblique stem), where -> indicates a change due to analogy, while > indicates a regular sound change.

His explanation of funins and fuïr is very tentative and complicated. Pokorny's suggestion for Germanic is rather different.

He derives fōn from *fwōn, with no further derivation, but probably different from Ringe's. fuïr comes from *puweri, a locative that could be formed from a nominative *púwr̥ or possibly from a stem *pur. It suffices to say that the processes involved are not well understood. • ^ Februārius mēnsis - Roman month of expiation • ^ Cf. Thracian river name Struma and river-god Strymon; Illyrian toponyms Stravianae and Strevintia; Lith.

(dial.) river name Straujà; Old Prussian place-names Strewe, Stromyke and Strowange. [302] Stravianae (or Stravijanu) is tentatively located by scholars near the modern day city of Našice, in east Croatia.

[303] • ^ The literal meaning is "place between the rivers". • ^ Scholarly opinion seems to agree that the word must have referred to a large body of water. • ^ Replaced OE sār, compare Ger sehr • ^ a b *H₁le(n)gʷʰ- and *H₁reudʰ- are both roots that form Caland-type adjectives. These roots are notable in that they form zero-stem adjectives with certain characteristic suffixes, especially -ro- and -u- along with -i- in compounds.

Other examples are *H₂erĝ- "white" (cf. Greek argós < *argrós "white", Sanskrit ṛjrá- "brilliant", Tocharian B ārkwi "white", Greek argi-kéraunos "with bright lightning") and *dʰeub- "deep" (cf. Lithuanian dubùs "hollow" < *dʰub-u- Tocharian B tapre "high" < *dhub-ro-).

• ^ contested • ^ Cf. also Thrac arzas "white". [334] • ^ Etymon rudá appears in idiomatic expressions denoting "anger". [344] • ^ Latin etymons galbus ("yellow") and galbinus ("greenish-yellow") are also suggested to derive from this root. [350] • ^ See also: Phr glouros "gold". [351] [352] • ^ Not cognate • ^ ibetis uciu andecari biiete - 'drink from here and be nice' - Limé (Aisne) inscrpition • ^ See also Umbrian benust (Latin uenerit) and Oscan kúm-bened (Latin conuentio).

• ^ Now compare 'prose' and 'verse' • ^ wagon is a loan-word from Dutch. • ^ Some of these words might instead derive from *sekʷ- "to follow" • ^ Not related to Spanish alquilar • ^ Probably • ^ See also Hesperus "evening star"; Hesperides "daughters of the evening; nymphs of the west". • ^ Attested in the Coligny calendar, written in Gaulish language. • ^ Douglas Q. Adams reads the words as "winter, wintry", although there are other interpretations. [461] [462] • ^ Influenced by zǝrǝd "heart".

• ^ Range of meanings across the different Slavic languages • ^ as in 'to boot', 'bootless' • ^ exact cognate of Héktōr Tabular notes [ edit ] • ^ a b c Complex ablauting stem: Singular Plural Language Nom Acc Gen Dat Nom Acc Gen PIE gʷōus gʷōm gʷous gʷówei gʷōwes gʷōs gʷowōm Sanskrit gáus gā́m gṓs gávē gā́vas gā́s gávām Avestan gāuš gąm gāuš gave gā̆vō gā̊ gavąm • ^ a b c Complex ablauting stem: Language Nom Acc Voc Gen Dat Loc Instr Pl PIE d(i)yēus dyēum dyĕu diw-és, -ós diwéi dyéwi and dyēu ?

Greek Zdeús Zdẽn Zdeũ Di(w)ós Di(w)í Sanskrit d(i)yāús dyā́m ? divás, dyōs divḗ dyáví, diví dyú-bhis References [ edit ] • ^ Dnghu, pp. 1993-1994. • ^ Pokorny, pp. 700-701. • ^ a b Dnghu, p. 2394. • ^ a b Pokorny, p. 829. • ^ a b Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 210. • ^ Dnghu, pp. 485-486. • ^ Pokorny, pp. 163-164. • ^ a b Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 214. • ^ Yūsuke, Sumi (2018). New Express Romani (Gypsy). p. 142. • ^ Kenrick, Donald (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies.

pp. 195, 204. ISBN 978-0-8108-5468-0. • ^ Zair, Nicholas (2012). The Reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European Laryngeals in Celtic.

Brill. p. 110. doi: 10.1163/9789004233096. ISBN 978-90-04-22539-8. • ^ Campbell, George L. with King, Gareth.

Compendium of the World's Languages. Routledge. 2013. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-415-62191-5 • ^ Dnghu, p. 3027. • ^ Pokorny, p. 1051. • ^ Witczak, Krzysztof Tomasz. "Gaulish SUIOREBE ‘with two sisters’". In: Lingua Posnaniensis. LVII (2). 2015. pp. 59-62. doi: 10.1515/linpo-2015-0011 • ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin.

"The accentuation of the PIE word for ‘daughter’". In: Accent Matters. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill-Rodopi, 2011. pp. 235–243. doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789401200325_009 • ^ Dnghu, pp.

757-758. • ^ Pokorny, p. 277. • ^ Mallory & Adams (2006), p. 213. • ^ García, Carlos Varias. " De synonymia Mycenaea: términos griegos equivalentes de distintos reinos micénicos". In: Conuentus Classicorum: temas y formas del Mundo Clásico. Coord. por Jesús de la Villa, Emma Falque Rey, José Francisco González Castro, María José Muñoz Jiménez, Vol.

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Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. • Dnghu. Proto-Indo-European Etymological Dictionary. (A revised edition of Julius Pokorny's Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, CCA-GNU) • Beekes, Robert (1995). Comparative Indo-European Linguistics.

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Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, 2018. pp. 2229–2279. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110542431-045 • Delamarre, Xavier. Le Vocabulaire Indo-Européen. Paris: Librairie d'Amérique et d'Orient. 1984. ISBN 2-7200-1028-6 • Delamarre, Xavier (2003). Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise: Une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental.

Errance. ISBN 9782877723695. • Kloekhorst, Alwin. Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon. Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series 5. Leiden, The Netherlands; Boston, 2008.

https://hdl.handle.net/1887/11996 • Matasovic, Ranko. Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. 2009. ISBN 978-90-04-17336-1 • Monier-Williams, Monier (1960). A Sanskrit-English. Oxford: Oxford Clarendon. Further reading [ edit ] On numerals: • Bjørn, Rasmus. "Nouns and Foreign Numerals: Anatolian ‘Four’ and the Development of the PIE Decimal System". In: Dispersals and Diversification. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2019.

pp. 54–76. doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004416192_004 • Bomhard, Allan R. "Some thoughts on the Proto-Indo-European cardinal numbers". In: In Hot Pursuit of Language in Prehistory: Essays in the four fields of anthropology. In honor of Harold Crane Fleming. Edited by John D. Bengtson. John Benjamins Publishing Company. all of us are dead sub indo. pp. 213–221. https://doi.org/10.1075/z.145.18bom • Prósper, Blanca María.

"The Indo-european ordinal numerals 'fourth' and 'fifth' and the reconstruction of the Celtic and Italic numeral systems". In: Die Sprache Vol. 51, Nº. 1, 2014–2015, pp. 1–50.

ISSN 0376-401X • de Vaan, Michiel. "Proto-Indo-European *sm and *si ‘one’". In: The Precursors of Proto-Indo-European. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill-Rodopi, 2019. pp. 203–218. doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004409354_015 On nature and the passage of time: • Huld, Martin E. "Proto- and Post-Indo-European Designations for ‘sun’." Zeitschrift Für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 99, no. 2 (1986): 194-202.

http://www.jstor.org/stable/40848835. • Maciuszak, Kinga (2002). “The Names of Seasons of the Year in Iranian Languages”. In: Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia 7: 67–78. On animals: • Gąsiorowski, Piotr. "Gruit grus: The Indo-European names of the crane".

In: Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia Vol. 18. Issue 1. 2013. pp. 51–68. doi: 10.4467/20843836SE.13.003.0940 • Hammer, All of us are dead sub indo. "Eurasian Cranes, Demoiselle Cranes, PIE *ger- and Onomatopoetics".

In: The Journal of Indo-European Studies (JIES), Vol. 43, nº. 1–2, 2015. pp. 81–99. ISSN 0092-2323 • Huld, Martin E. (2014). "Armenian agṙaw and an Indo-European Word for 'Crow, Raven'. In: JIES 42 (3-4): 294-301. • Huard, Athanaric. "On Tocharian B kents* and PIE *g̑hans- ‘goose’". In: wékwos: Revue d'études indo-européennes. Volume 5. Les Cent Chemins. 2019. ISBN 979-8581017487. • Palmér, Axel I., Anthony Jakob, Rasmus Thorsø, Paulus van Sluis, Cid Swanenvleugel, and Guus Kroonen.

"Proto-Indo-European ‘fox’ and the reconstruction of an athematic ḱ-stem". In: Indo-European Linguistics (published online ahead of print 2021). pp. 1–30. doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/22125892-bja10008 • Nurkiyazova, Sevindj. "The English Word That Hasn’t Changed in Sound or Meaning in 8,000 Years" https://nautil.us/blog/the-english-word-that-hasnt-changed-in-sound-or-meaning-in-8000-years On kinship and family: • Blažek, Václav.

"Indo-European *suHnu- 'son' and his relatives". In: Indogermanistik und Linguistik im Dialog. Akten der XIII. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft von 21. bis 27. September 2008 in Salzburg, hrg. Thomas Krisch & Thomas Lindner. Wiesbaden: Reichert, 2011. pp. 79–89. ISBN 978-3-89500-681-4 • Cooper, Brian. "The Lexicology and Etymology of Russian Family Relationships". In: Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia Vol.

14. Issue 1. Kraków: 2009. pp. 153–176. ISBN 978-83-233-2758-5 • Friedrich, Paul. "Proto-Indo-European Kinship." Ethnology 5, no. 1 (1966): 1-36. Accessed November 15, 2020. doi: 10.2307/3772899. • Galton, Herbert. "The Indo-European Kinship Terminology." Zeitschrift Für Ethnologie 82, no. 1 (1957): 121–38. Accessed November 15, 2020.

http://www.jstor.org/stable/25840433. • Hettrich, Heinrich. "Indo-European Kinship Terminology in Linguistics and Anthropology." Anthropological Linguistics 27, no. 4 (1985): 453–80. Accessed November 15, 2020. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30028080. • Heltoft, Lars. "The Malt stone as evidence for a morphological archaism: Reconstructing the Proto-Nordic and Proto-Germanic systems of kinship terms".

In: NOWELE - North-Western European Language Evolution, Volume 73, Issue 1, Apr 2020, p. 4 - 20 ISSN 0108-8416. [DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/nowele.00031.hel] • Humphreys, S. C. "Proto-Indo-European Kinship and Society: Kin Terms". In: Journal of Indo-European Studies. Washington Vol. 45, Ed. 3/4, (2017): 373–425. ISSN 0092-2323 • Kullanda, Sergey. "Indo‐European “Kinship Terms” Revisited." Current Anthropology 43, no.

1 (2002): 89-111. Accessed November 15, 2020. doi: 10.1086/324127. • Milanova, Veronika. "Brothers and Many Others: The Concept ‘Offspring’ and its Semantic Extensions in Indo-European Languages". In: Journal of Indo-European Studies (JIES).

Vol. 48/Numbers 1 & 2 (Spring/Summer 2020): 189–217. • Pârvulescu, Adrian. "Blood and IE. Kinship Terminology". In: Indogermanische Forschungen 94, no. 1 (1989): 67–88. https://doi.org/10.1515/if-1989-0107 • Rau, Jeremy. "Indo-European Kinship Terminology: *ph₂tr-ou̯-/ph₂tr̥-u̯- and Its Derivatives." Historische Sprachforschung / Historical Linguistics 124 (2011): 1-25.

http://www.jstor.org/stable/41553560. • Starke, Frank. "Die Vertretungen Von Uridg. *dHUgh₂tér- "Tochter“ in Den Luwischen Sprachen Und Ihre Stammbildung". In: Zeitschrift Für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 100, no. 2 (1987): 243–69. Accessed March 8, 2021. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40848875. On agriculture and produce: • Blažek, Václav.

" On Indo-European ‘barley’". In: Simmelkjaer Sandgaard Hansen, Bjarne; Nielsen Whitehead, Benedicte; Olander, Thomas; Olsen, Birgit Anette. Etymology and the European Lexicon. Proceedings of the 14th Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft (17-22 September 2012, Copenhagen).

Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag, 2016. pp. 53–68. ISBN 978-3-95490-202-6 • Hyllested, Adam. "Did Proto-Indo-European Have a Word for Wheat? Hittite šeppit(t)- Revisited and the Rise of Post-PIE Cereal Terminology". In: Dispersals and Diversification. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2019. pp. 130–143. doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004416192_007 • Mikić, Aleksandar. "A note on some Proto-Indo-European roots related to grain legumes", Indogermanische Forschungen 116, 2011 (2011): 60–71, doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110239485.60 • Mikić, Aleksandar.

"Palaeolinguistics and Ancient Eurasian Pulse Crops." Current Science 108, no. 1 (2015): 45–50. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24216173. • Romain Garnier, Laurent Sagart, Benoît Sagot. "Milk and the Indo-Europeans".

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In: Martine Robeets; Alexander Savalyev. Language Dispersal Beyond Farming. John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017. pp. 291–311. ISBN 978-90-272-1255-9. ff10.1075/z.215.13garff. ffhal-01667476f • Schürr, Diether. " Urindogermanisch Wein und Met in den anatolischen Sprachen". In: ARAMAZD: ARMENIAN JOURNAL OF NEAR EASTERN STUDIES VOLUME XIII, ISSUE 1, 2019. pp. 44–58. ISSN 1829-1376. On colors: • Shields, Kenneth.

“Indo-European Basic Colour Terms.” Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue Canadienne De Linguistique 24, no. 2 (1979): 142–46.

doi: 10.1017/S0008413100023409. On verbs related to action and motion: all of us are dead sub indo Verkerk, Annemarie (2015). "Where do all the motion verbs come from?

The speed of development of manner verbs and path verbs in Indo-European". In: Diachronica, 32(1): 69–104. doi: 10.1075/dia.32.1.03ver. On bodily functions: • Kocharov, Petr. "Proto-Indo-European lexical aspect and stem patterns". Faits de Langues 47, 1 (2016): 75–88, doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/19589514-047-01-900000005 [on PIE roots for sleep and dream] External links [ edit ] Look up Category:Proto-Indo-European terms by etymology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

• Query Julius Pokorny's landmark Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch [ dead link], the standard reference for Indo-European vocabulary. Complete coverage of cognates of each root (although Hittite and Tocharian coverage is spotty), highly accurate forms. Beware, roots are given in pre- laryngeal form and glosses are in German.

• American Heritage Indo-European All of us are dead sub indo Index • Database query to the online version of Pokorny's PIE dictionary • Index to the online version of Pokorny's PIE dictionary • Jonathan Slocum, Indo-European Lexicon from the University of Texas Linguistic Research Center • Dougas Harper's Etymonline Hidden categories: • CS1 German-language sources (de) • Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2021 • CS1 Ukrainian-language sources (uk) • Articles with short description • Short description matches Wikidata • All articles with dead external links • Articles with dead external links from March 2022 Edit links • This page was last edited on 5 May 2022, at 20:18 (UTC).

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