The rise of ottoman

the rise of ottoman

• Karga Seven Pictures • STX Television Distributor Netflix Release Original network Netflix Picture format 4K ( Ultra HD) Original release 24 January 2020 ( 2020-01-24) Rise of Empires: Ottoman is a Turkish historical docudrama, starring Cem Yiğit Üzümoğlu and Tommaso Basili.

Its first season, which consists of 6 episodes, is directed by Emre Şahin and written by Kelly McPherson. The series became available for streaming on Netflix on 24 January 2020.

[1] It deals with the Ottoman Empire and Mehmed the Conqueror and tells the story of the Fall of Constantinople. [2] Contents • 1 Premise • 2 Cast • 3 Episodes • 4 References • 5 External links Premise [ edit ] Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II wages an epic campaign to take the Eastern The rise of ottoman capital of Constantinople and shapes the course of history for centuries.

Cast [ edit ] • Cem Yiğit Üzümoğlu as Mehmet the Conqueror • Tommaso Basili as Constantine XI Palaiologos • Tuba Büyüküstün as Mara Branković • Damla Sönmez as Ana • Osman Sonant as Loukas Notaras • Tolga Tekin as Murat II • Ushan Çakır as Zaganos Pasha • Selim Bayraktar as Çandarlı Halil Pasha • Birkan Sokullu as Giovanni Giustiniani • Tansu Biçer as Orban • Nail Kırmızıgül as Hızır Çelebi • Eva Dedova as Katarina • Tuğrul Tülek as George Sphrantzes • İlayda Akdoğan as Therma Sphrantzes • Erdal Yıldız as Suleiman Baltoghlu • Baki Davrak as Đurađ Branković • Ryan The rise of ottoman as Genovese Nobleman • Roger Crowley, historian • Lars Brownworth, historian • Jason Goodwin, historian • Marios Philippides, historian • Michael Talbot, historian • Emrah Safa Gürkan, historian • Celâl Şengör, geologist Episodes [ edit ] No.

Title Directed by Written by Original release date [3] 1 "The New Sultan" Emre Şahin Liz Lake, Kelly McPherson, Emre Şahin 24 January 2020 ( 2020-01-24) After claiming the Ottoman throne, Mehmed II sends an unmistakable signal to Byzantine emperor Constantine XI. Enter Genoese mercenaries. 2 "Through the Walls" Emre Şahin Kelly McPherson, Emre Şahin, Liz Lake 24 January 2020 ( 2020-01-24) Mehmed launches an ambitious siege to break through the walls of Constantinople, but Giustiniani's mercenaries manage to forestall the Janissaries.

the rise of ottoman

3 "Into the Golden Horn" Emre Şahin Emre Şahin, Liz Lake, Kelly McPherson 24 January 2020 ( 2020-01-24) Mehmed's men dig underground tunnels in an attempt to shatter city walls. The tides turn against the Ottomans when a naval blockade founders.

4 "Loose Lips Sink Ships" The rise of ottoman Şahin Liz Lake, Kelly McPherson, Emre Şahin 24 January 2020 ( 2020-01-24) Mehmed moves his ships overland to the Golden Horn in a daring, visionary feat. In the shadow of betrayal, Giustiniani attacks the Ottoman fleet. 5 "Ancient Prophecies" Emre Şahin Kelly McPherson, Emre Şahin, Liz Lake 24 January 2020 ( 2020-01-24) Amid a spiral of brutality and low morale, Mehmed makes Giustiniani an enticing offer.

The grand vizier urges Mehmed to seek a truce with his rival. 6 "Ashes to Ashes" Emre Şahin Emre Şahin, Liz Lake, Kelly McPherson 24 January 2020 ( 2020-01-24) Ottoman cannons reduce the city walls to rubble, and Venetian reinforcements arrive too late. Mehmed ushers in a new era for the Ottoman Empire. References [ edit ] • ^ "Rise of Empires: Ottoman ne zaman başlayacak?

Rise of Empires: Ottoman oyuncuları". Hürriyet (in Turkish). 12 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019. • ^ Tan, Erhan (12 December 2019). "Netflix'in Yeni Belgesel Dizisi Rise of Empires: Ottoman" (in Turkish). Film Loverss. Retrieved 28 December 2019. • ^ "Rise the rise of ottoman Empires: Ottoman – Listings". The Futon Critic.

Retrieved January 19, 2020. External links [ edit ] • Official website • Rise of Empires: Ottoman at IMDb • How Historically Accurate is the Rise of Empires: Ottoman Series?

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• Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • • The landmark Suleymaniye Mosque is the largest mosque in Istanbul and was built on the order of Sultan Suleiman (Suleiman the Magnificent) during the Ottoman Empire.

Izzet Keribar/Getty Images The Ottoman Empire was one of the largest superpowers and longest-lived dynasties in world history. At its height, the Islamic empire extended far beyond modern-day Turkey — from Egypt and Northern Africa through the Middle East, Greece, the Balkans (Bulgaria, Romania, etc.), and right up to the gates of Vienna, Austria. In the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire was not only a dominant military force, but a diverse and multicultural society.

The glory wouldn't last, however, and after centuries of political crises, the Ottoman Empire was finally dismantled after World War I. It All Started with Osman Osman Gazi is known as the father of the Ottoman dynasty, the first in a long line of military leaders and sultans who came to rule the Ottoman Empire for six centuries.

In fact, the word Ottoman in English derives from the Italian pronunciation of Osman's name. Osman was born in 1258 in the Anatolian town of Söğüt (in modern-day Turkey). He led one of many small Islamic principalities in the region at the time, but Osman wasn't satisfied with a provincial kingdom.

He raised an army of fierce frontier warriors known as Ghazis and marched against Byzantine strongholds in Asia Minor. According to Ottoman lore, Osman had a dream in which all the known world was unified under Ottoman rule, symbolized by the canopy of a massive tree rising from his body and covering the world.

This vision, first published 150 years after Osman's death, provided divine authority for the Ottoman conquests to come, explained historian Caroline Finkel in " Osman's Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire." The Gunpowder Empire In 1453, Sultan Mehmed II, aka Mehmed the Conqueror, laid siege to the the rise of ottoman weakened Byzantine capital of Constantinople.

Although its population had dwindled, the fabled city still had its impenetrable walls. But the Ottomans came prepared with a new type of weaponry: cannons.

"The Ottomans were some of the first to employ artillery the rise of ottoman a mass scale in the 15th century," says Chris Gratien, a history professor at the University of Virginia and co-creator of the Ottoman History Podcast. Mehmed bombarded the fortified city walls for weeks before his army broke through, making Constantinople (later Istanbul) the new Ottoman capital, which it would remain for over four centuries. By unseating the Byzantine Empire, Sultan Mehmed could claim his place in the Roman imperial tradition.

It's at this moment, historians believe, that the Ottoman Empire was born. A Multicultural Caliphate The Ottomans and most of their functionaries were Muslim, but the sultans and the ruling elite were strategic and pragmatic about the role of religion in their ever-expanding empire.

For conquests of predominantly Muslim regions like Egypt, the Ottomans established themselves as the true caliphate without completely erasing their Muslim subjects' existing political structure. Non-Muslim communities throughout the Mediterranean governed much of their own affairs under the Ottomans, as Christians and Jews were considered "protected people" in the Islamic political tradition.

Gratien says that the Ottomans were able to successfully govern and maintain such an extensive land empire not only through military might but "a combination of cooption and compromise." André Koehne/CC BY-SA 3.0/Wikimedia Militarily, this was the "period of peak Ottoman dominance," says Gratien. Suleiman commanded an elite professional fighting force known as the Janissaries.

The fighters were taken by force from Christian families as youth, educated and trained as soldiers and made to convert the rise of ottoman Islam. Fearless in battle, the Janissaries were also accompanied by some of the world's first military bands. Suleiman's reign also coincided with a period of great wealth for the Ottoman Empire, which controlled some of the most productive agricultural land (Egypt) and most trafficked trade routes in Europe and the Mediterranean.

But Gratien says that the Age of Suleiman was about more than just power and money; it was also about justice. In Turkish, Suleiman's nickname was Kanuni — "the lawgiver" — and he sought to project the image of a just ruler in the Islamic tradition. In larger towns across the empire, citizens could take their disputes to local Islamic courts, the records of which are still around today.

Not just Muslims, but Christians and Jews. And not just men, but women. "These were places where women could go claim their rights in cases of inheritance or divorce, for example," says Gratien. Roxelana and the 'Sultanate of Women' A fascinating and somewhat overlooked figure in Ottoman history is Roxelana, the wife of Suleiman the Magnificent. As historian Leslie Peirce showed in his book " Empress of the East: How a European Slave Girl Became Queen of the Ottoman Empire," Roxelana, known as Hürrem Sultan in Turkish, ushered in a new age of female political power in the palace, sometimes known as the "Sultanate of Women." Roxelana was a non-Muslim kidnapped by slavers the rise of ottoman 13 and eventually sold into the sultan's harem.

According to Ottoman royal tradition, the sultan would stop sleeping with a concubine once she bore him a male heir. But Suleiman stuck with Roxelana, who bore him a total of six children and became one of his closest confidantes and political aides — and perhaps most shockingly, his wife. Thanks to Roxelana's example, the imperial harem took on a new role as an influential political body, and generations of Ottoman women ruled alongside their sultan husbands and sons.

Military Decline and Internal Reforms In 1683, the Ottomans tried for a second time to conquer Vienna but were repulsed by an unlikely alliance of the Hapsburg Dynasty, the The rise of ottoman Roman Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Not only did the Ottomans fail to capture Vienna, but they ended up losing Hungary and other territory in the ensuing war. The once unbeatable Ottoman fighters suffered loss after loss throughout the 18th and 19th centuries as more Ottoman territories declared independence or were snatched up by neighboring powers like Russia.

But Gratien says that while the Ottoman Empire shrunk in size, it also centralized its government and become more involved in the lives of its citizens. It raised more the rise of ottoman and opened public schools and hospitals. The economy and population density grew rapidly in the 19th century even as the military suffered painful losses. The Ottoman Empire also became the destination for millions of Muslim immigrants and refugees from former Ottoman lands and neighboring regions.

"Large-scale immigration is associated with places like the United States in the 19th century, but people don't think of the Ottoman Empire as something that was also growing and dynamic during that time," says Gratien. The Rise of the 'Young Turks' In the late 19th century, the Ottoman Empire experimented with a constitutional monarchy and an elected parliament, but that came to end in 1878 when Sultan Abdülhamid II dissolved the democratic institutions and ushered in 30 years of autocratic rule.

Abdülhamid's hardline approach sowed the seeds of revolution, and the leading Ottoman opposition group was the Committee of Union and Progress party (CUP), also known as the "Young Turks." Though its leaders were Turkish nationalists, the CUP formed a coalition of ethnoreligious groups, including Armenians, Jews, Arabs, Greeks and Albanians. The Young Turks wanted to restore the constitution, limit the monarchy and reestablish the greatness of the empire.

Their victory in the 1908 revolution was widely celebrated as a win for liberty, equality, and Ottoman brotherhood. But the revolution quickly soured as factions split and more ardent nationalists consolidated what became increasingly authoritarian rule. Coinciding with this internal turmoil was the First Balkan War in 1912, in which the Ottomans lost their remaining European territory in Albania and Macedonia.

And as World War I approached, the militarily weakened Ottomans threw their fate in with Germany, who they hoped would protect them from their bitter enemy Russia. The Armenian Genocide — The Empire's Final Shameful Chapter With the ultranationalist wing of the Young Turks in charge, the Ottoman government initiated a plan to deport and resettle millions of ethnic Greeks and Armenians, groups whose loyalty to the crumbling empire was in question.

Under the cover of "security concerns," the Ottoman government ordered the arrest of notable Armenian politicians and intellectuals on April 24, 1915, a day known as Red Sunday. What followed was the forced deportation of more than a million Armenian citizens, including death marches across the desert to Syria and alleged massacres by soldiers, irregulars, and other armed groups in the region. In all, an estimated 1.5 million Armenians (out of 2 million in the Ottoman Empire) were killed between 1915 and 1923, according to the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute.

Members of the local Armenian community in Berlin demonstrate for Turkey's recognition of the Armenian Genocide on its 100th anniversary on April 25, 2015. Turkey vehemently objects to the use of the term 'genocide' in reference to the deaths of the estimated 1.5 million Armenians who were killed by Ottoman Turks in the massacre beginning a century ago to the day.

Adam Berry/Getty Images Most scholars and historians agree that what happened to the Ottoman Armenians constitutes ethnic cleansing and genocide, but The rise of ottoman and a number of its allies still refuse to call it by that name.

Defeat in World War I was the final death blow to the Ottoman Empire, but the sultanate wasn't officially dissolved until 1922, when the Turkish nationalist resistance leader Mustafa Kemal Atatürk rose to power and established a secular republic.

Under his decades-long, one-party rule, Atatürk tried to erase Ottoman institutions and cultural symbols, brought in Western legal codes and laid the foundation the rise of ottoman modern Turkey.
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For the full article, see Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Empire, Former empire centred in Anatolia. The Ottoman Empire was named for Osman I (1259–1326), a Turkish Muslim prince in Bithynia who conquered neighbouring regions once held by the Seljūq dynasty and founded his own ruling line c. 1300. Ottoman troops first invaded Europe in 1345, sweeping through the Balkans.

Though defeated by Timur in 1402, the rise of ottoman 1453 the Ottomans, under Mehmed II (the Conquerer), had destroyed the Byzantine Empire and captured its capital, Constantinople (now Istanbul), which henceforth served as the Ottoman capital. Under Selim I (r. 1512–20) and his son Süleyman I (the Magnificent; r. 1520–66), the Ottoman Empire reached its greatest the rise of ottoman. Süleyman took control of parts of Persia, most of Arabia, and large sections of Hungary and the Balkans.

By the early 16th century the Ottomans had also defeated the Mamlūk dynasty in Syria and Egypt; and their navy under Barbarossa soon seized control of much of the Barbary Coast. Beginning with Selim, the Ottoman sultans also held the title of caliph, the spiritual head of Islam. Ottoman power began to decline in the late 16th century. Ottoman forces repeatedly besieged Vienna. After their final effort at taking the Austrian capital failed (1683), that and subsequent losses led them to relinquish Hungary in 1699.

Corruption and decadence gradually undermined the government. In the late 17th and 18th centuries the Russo-Turkish Wars and wars with Austria and Poland further weakened the empire, which in the 19th century came to be called the “sick man of Europe.” Most of its remaining European territory was lost in the Balkan Wars (1912–13). The Ottoman Empire sided with Germany in World War I (1914–18); postwar treaties dissolved the empire, and in 1922 the sultanate was abolished by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who proclaimed the Republic of Turkey the following year.

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Nancy Demerdash Apr.06.2022 1:00–1:30 pm eastern The Kaaba with Dr. Nancy Demerdash • Support • Browse this content A beginner's guide Introduction to Islam About chronological periods Arts of the Islamic world The Qur’an Gold in the Qur’an Illumination of the Qur’an The Five The rise of ottoman of Islam Islamic pilgrimages and sacred spaces Hajj The Kaaba Stories of the modern pilgrimage The complex geometry of Islamic design Introduction to mosque architecture Common types of mosque architecture Pre-Islamic Arabia Pilgrimage souvenirs Early the rise of ottoman Browse this content Arts of the Islamic world: The early period Mosaics in the early Islamic world Paintings in the early Islamic world The Samanid Mausoleum, Bukhara (Uzbekistan) Umayyad The Umayyads, an introduction The Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-Sakhra) The Great Mosque of Damascus Abbasid Arts of the Abbasid Caliphate Samarra, a palatial city The Islamic West The vibrant visual cultures of the Islamic West, an introduction The Great Mosque of Córdoba The Mosque of Bāb al-Mardūm (the Church of Santa Cruz), Toledo The Great Mosque of Kairouan Kairouan (from UNESCO) Medieval period Browse this content Arts of the Islamic world: The medieval period Folio from a Qur’an Ghaznavid Dado Panel, Courtyard of the Royal Palace of Mas’ud III Fatimid Gold pendant with inset enamel decoration Seljuq The Great Mosque (or Masjid-e Jameh) of Isfahan Two Royal Figures Ilkhanid Folio from a Shahnama, The Bier of Iskandar (Alexander the Great) Bahram Gur Fights the Karg (Horned Wolf) Bahram Gur in a Peasant’s House Mihrab from Isfahan (Iran) Mamluk Mohammed ibn al-Zain, Basin ( Baptistère de Saint Louis) Mamluk Qur’an Mamluk bindings Madrasa and Friday Mosque of Sultan Hasan, Cairo Aleppo Sultanates of South Asia The Qutb complex and early Sultanate architecture The Islamic West The rise of ottoman of al-Mughira Khalaf, Pyxis The Alhambra Conservation: The Nasrid plasterwork collection at the V&A Coronation Mantle Later period Browse this content Arts of the Islamic world: The later period Introduction to the court carpets of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires Ottoman The rise of the Ottoman Empire Mimar Sinan Mimar Sinan, Süleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul Mimar Sinan, Mosque of Selim II, Edirne Mimar Sinan, Rüstem Pasha Mosque, Istanbul Hagia Sophia as a mosque The Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmet Camii) Spherical Hanging Ornament (Iznik) Iznik ewer Tughra (Official Signature) of Sultan Süleiman the Magnificent from Istanbul Qa’a (The Damascus room) The Damascus Room at The Metropolitan Museum of Art Timurid The rise of ottoman of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi Samarkand, crossroad of cultures Safavid The Safavids, an introduction The Ardabil Carpet Looking at Persian painting The Court of Gayumars Wine bearers in landscape, a Safavid textile Riza-yi ‘Abbasi Portrait of a young page reading Seated calligrapher Mir Afzal of Tun, a reclining woman and her lapdog Groom and Rider drawing Divination Bowl with Inscriptions and Zodiac Signs Mughal Exploring Color in Mughal Paintings Illustration from the Akbarnama Humayun’s tomb The Taj Mahal Bichitr, Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings Portrait of Shah ‘Abbas I of Iran Qajar Khusraw Discovers Shirin Bathing Lacquer pen-case, signed by the artist Ashraf ibn Riza In the late 13th century, Osman I established a small principality sandwiched between a crumbling Byzantine Empire and a weakened Sultanate of the Seljuk of Rum, in what is now Turkey.

In just a few generations, this territory had outmaneuvered more powerful neighbors to become the vast Ottoman Empire. What enabled its rapid rise? Mostafa Minawi details the early days of the Ottomans.

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Explore the strategies and activities Smarthistory is a nonprofit organization At Smarthistory we believe art has the power to transform lives and to build understanding across cultures. We believe that the brilliant histories of art belong to everyone, no matter their background. Smarthistory’s free, award-winning digital content unlocks the expertise of hundreds of leading scholars, making the history of art accessible and engaging to more people, in more places, than any other publisher.
Home • Science, Tech, Math • Science • Math • Social Sciences • Computer Science • Animals & Nature • Humanities • History & Culture • Visual Arts • Literature • English • Geography • Philosophy • Issues • Languages • English as a Second Language • Spanish • French • German • Italian • Japanese • Mandarin • Russian • Resources • For Students & Parents • For Educators • For Adult Learners • About Us The Ottoman Empire was an imperial state that was founded in 1299 after growing out of the breakdown of several Turkish tribes.

The empire then grew to include many areas in what is now present-day Europe. It eventually became one of the largest, most powerful and longest-lasting empires in the history of the world. At its peak, the Ottoman Empire included the areas of Turkey, Egypt, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Macedonia, Hungary, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and parts of the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa.

It had a maximum area of 7.6 million square miles (19.9 million square kilometers) in 1595. The Ottoman Empire began to decline in the 18th century, but a portion of its land became what is now Turkey. Origin and Growth The Ottoman Empire began in the late 1200s during the breakup of the Seljuk Turk Empire. After that empire broke up, the Ottoman Turks began to take control of the other states belonging to the former empire and by the late 1400s, all other Turkish dynasties were controlled by the Ottoman Turks.

In the early days of the Ottoman Empire, the main goal of its leaders was expansion. The earliest phases of Ottoman expansion occurred under Osman I, Orkhan, and Murad I. Bursa, one of the Ottoman Empire's earliest capitals, fell in 1326. In the late 1300s, several important victories gained more land for the Ottomans and Europe began to prepare for Ottoman expansion. After some military defeats in the early 1400s, the Ottomans regained their power under Muhammad I.

In 1453, they captured Constantinople. The Ottoman Empire then entered its height and what is known as the Period of Great Expansion, during which time the empire came to include the lands of over ten different European and Middle Eastern states. It is believed that the rise of ottoman Ottoman Empire was able to grow so rapidly because other countries were weak and unorganized, and also because the Ottomans had advanced military organization and tactics for the time.

In the 1500s, the Ottoman Empire's expansion continued with the defeat of the Mamluks in Egypt and Syria in 1517, Algiers in 1518, and Hungary in 1526 and 1541. In addition, parts of Greece also fell under Ottoman control in the 1500s. In 1535, the reign of Sulayman I began and Turkey gained more power than it had under previous leaders. During the reign of Sulayman I, the Turkish judicial system was reorganized and Turkish culture began to grow significantly.

Following Sulayman I's death, the empire began to lose power when its military was defeated during the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. Decline and Collapse Throughout the rest of the 1500s and into the 1600s and 1700s, the Ottoman Empire began a considerable decline in power after several military defeats. In the mid-1600s, the empire was restored for a short time after military victories in Persia and Venice. In 1699, the empire again began to lose territory and power subsequently.

In the 1700s, the Ottoman Empire began to rapidly deteriorate following the Russo-Turkish Wars. A series of treaties created during that time caused the empire to lose some of its economic independence. The Crimean War, which lasted from 1853 to 1856, further exhausted the struggling empire. In 1856, the independence of the Ottoman Empire was recognized by the Congress of Paris but it was still losing its strength as a European power.

In the late 1800s, there were several rebellions and the Ottoman Empire continued to lose territory. Political and social instability in the 1890s created international negativity toward the empire. The Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913 and uprisings by Turkish nationalists further reduced the empire's territory and increased instability.

Following the end of World War I, the Ottoman Empire officially came to an end with the Treaty of Sevres. Importance of the Ottoman Empire Despite its collapse, the Ottoman Empire was one of the largest, longest-lasting, and most successful empires in the world's history. There are many reasons as to why the empire was as successful as it was, but some of them include its very strong and organized military and its centralized political structure. These early, successful governments make the Ottoman Empire one of the most important in history.

Briney, Amanda. "The Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire." ThoughtCo, Dec. 6, 2021, Briney, Amanda. (2021, December 6).

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• Documentary • Drama • History Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II wages an epic campaign to take the Byzantine capital of Constantinople and shapes the course of history for centuries.

Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II wages an epic campaign to take the Byzantine capital of Constantinople and shapes the course of history for centuries. Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II wages an epic campaign to take the Byzantine capital of Constantinople and shapes the course of history for centuries. George Sphrantzes was the Emperor Constantine XI's personal secretary and friend. According to his own account of the conquest of Constantinople, his daughter Thamar (named Therma in the series) was 12 years old when the city fell and was taken into captivity by the Turks, dying in the Sultan's harem in September 1455 of an infectious disease.

Therefore, the series inaccurately portrays her as having escaped to the island of Chios. There is also no evidence that Thamar and Giovanni Giustiniani Longo, the leader of the Genoese mercenaries, were in a romantic relationship.

The rise of ottoman found this mix of drama and documentary highly entertaining, visually impressive, and educational. I've read a few books about the siege of Constantinople, and always thought "what a great story, why doesn't anyone make a movie out of it?".

When I found out that this was a Turkish production, I was afraid it'd be based as they are too close to the subject to be objective, but the basics of the story are accurately displayed.

Yes, they puffed up Giustiniani and added a couple of female characters while other protagonists are missing. They simplified a lot of stuff and didn't go in depth into what preceded the siege and the motivations of the characters.

But most of what made the cut is historically accurate, always allowing for the conflicting accounts and various viewpoints. Choices were obviously made on basis of which made better dramaturgical sense and which were more realistic, not in order to glorify this or that side. Some Turkish reviewers insist that "this isn't how it happened" (meaning "not what was I taught at school") and even believe that sultan Mehmet actually designed his cannons himself.

Now maybe that's reported by one of his biographers but how possible is it that a 20-year old prince with no knowledge of metallurgy designed the most advanced weapons of his time? Anyway, I found that the producers used the source material well and come out with a gripping docu-drama that generally respected historical truth.

If you want more nuances, read some books! I'm already looking forward to the next series.This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Rise of the Ottoman Empire" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( November 2007) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) • v • t • e The the rise of ottoman and rise of the Ottoman Empire is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality (Osmanlı Beyliği) in c.

1299, and ended circa 1453. This period witnessed the foundation of a political entity ruled by the Ottoman Dynasty in the northwestern Anatolian region of Bithynia, and its transformation from a small principality on the Byzantine frontier into an empire spanning the Balkans, Anatolia, Middle East and North Africa.

For this reason, this period in the empire's history has been described as the "Proto-Imperial Era". [1] Throughout most of this period, the Ottomans were merely one of many competing states in the region, and relied upon the support of local warlords Ghazis and vassals (Beys) to maintain control over their realm. By the middle of the fifteenth century the Ottoman sultans were able to accumulate enough personal power and authority to establish a centralized imperial state, a process which was brought to fruition by Sultan Mehmed II (r.

1451-1481). [2] The conquest of Constantinople in 1453 is seen as the symbolic moment when the emerging Ottoman state shifted from a mere principality into an empire therefore marking a major turning point in its history.

[3] The cause of Ottoman success cannot be attributed to any single factor, and they varied throughout the period as the Ottomans continually adapted to changing circumstances. [4] The earlier part of this period, the fourteenth century, is particularly difficult for historians to study due to the scarcity of sources. Not a single written document survives from the reign of Osman I, and very little survives from the rest of the century.

[5] The Ottomans, furthermore, did not begin to record their own history until the rise of ottoman fifteenth century, more than a hundred years after many of the events they describe.

[6] It is thus a great challenge for historians to differentiate between fact and myth in analyzing the stories contained in these later chronicles, [7] so much so that one historian has even declared it impossible, describing the earliest period of Ottoman history as a "black hole." [8] Contents • 1 Anatolia before the Ottomans • 2 Origin of the Ottoman state • 2.1 Gaza and gazis in early Ottoman history • 3 Demography • 4 Government • 4.1 State centralization • 5 Military • 6 Cultural and intellectual life • 7 Political history • 7.1 Osman I (c.

1299–1323/4) • 7.2 Orhan (1323/4–1362) • 7.3 Murad I (1362–1389) • 7.3.1 Edirne, 1362 • 7.3.2 Gallipoli, 1366 • 7.3.3 Maritsa, 1371 • 7.3.4 Dubravnica, 1381 • 7.3.5 Saurian Field, 1385 • 7.3.6 Plocnik, 1386 • 7.3.7 Bileća, 1388 • 7.3.8 Kosovo, 1389 • 7.4 Bayezid I (1389–1402) • 7.4.1 Nicopolis • 7.4.2 Ankara, 1402 • 7.5 Ottoman Interregnum (1402–1413) • 7.6 Mehmed I (1413–1421) • 7.7 Murad II (1421–1451) • 7.7.1 Constantinople, 1422 • 7.7.2 Thessalonika, 1430 • 7.7.3 Varna, 1444 • 7.7.4 Kosovo, 1448 • 7.8 Mehmed II (1451–1481) • 7.8.1 Constantinople, 1453 • 8 Gallery • 9 Notes • 10 References • 11 Bibliography • 12 Further reading • 12.1 Surveys • 12.2 State formation Anatolia before the Ottomans [ edit ] A rough map of Anatolian beyliks in c.

1300 At the beginning of the thirteenth century Anatolia was divided between two relatively powerful states: the Byzantine Empire in the west and the Anatolian Seljuks in the central plateau. Equilibrium between them was disrupted by the Mongol invasion and conquest of the Seljuks following the Battle of Köse Dağ in 1243, and the reconquest of Constantinople by the Byzantine Palaiologos dynasty in 1261, which shifted Byzantine attention away from the Anatolian frontier. Mongol pressure pushed nomadic Turkish tribes to migrate westward, into the now poorly-defended Byzantine territory.

For the next two centuries, Anatolian Beyliks were under the suzerainty of the Mongols, especially the Ilkhanate. All coins minted during this period in Anatolia show Ilkhanate rulers. From the 1260s onward Anatolia increasingly began to slip from Byzantine control, as Turkish Anatolian beyliks were established both in formerly Byzantine lands and in the territory of the fragmenting Seljuk Sultanate.

[9] Political authority in western Anatolia was thus extremely fragmented by the end of the thirteenth century, split between locally established rulers, tribal groups, holy figures, and warlords, with Byzantine and Seljuk authority ever present but rapidly weakening. [10] The fragmentation of authority has led several historians to describe the political entities of thirteenth and fourteenth-century Anatolia as Taifas, or "petty kings", a comparison with the history of late-medieval Muslim Spain.

the rise of ottoman

{INSERTKEYS} [11] [12] The power of these groups was largely dependent upon their ability to attract military manpower. Western Anatolia was then a hotbed of raiding activity, with warriors switching allegiance at will to whichever chief seemed most able to provide them with opportunities for plunder and glory. [13] Origin of the Ottoman state [ edit ] The Ottoman dynasty is named after the first ruler of the Ottoman polity, Osman I. According to later Ottoman tradition, he was descended from a Turkic tribe which migrated out of Central Asia in the wake of the Mongol Conquests.

As evidenced by coins minted during his reign, Osman's father was named Ertuğrul, [14] but beyond this the details "are too mythological to be taken for granted." [15] The origin of the Ottoman dynasty isn't known for sure but it is known that it was established by Turks from Central Asia, who migrated to Anatolia and were under Mongol suzerainty.

[16] Likewise, nothing is known about how Osman first established his principality ( beylik) as the sources, none of them contemporary, provide many different and conflicting origin stories. What is certain is that at some point in the late thirteenth century Osman emerged as the leader of a small principality centered on the town of Söğüt in the north-western Anatolian region of Bithynia.

The emergence of Osman as a leader is marked by him issuing coins in his name, unlike his predecessors in the last two centuries who issued coins in the name of the Illkhanates. [17] Osman's principality was initially supported by the tribal manpower of nomadic Turkish groups, whom he led in raids against the Byzantine territories of the region. [18] This Ottoman tribe was based not on blood-ties, but on political expedience. Thus it was inclusive of all who wished to join, including people of Byzantine origin.

[19] The Ottoman enterprise came to be led by several great warrior families, including the family of Köse Mihal, which had a Greek Christian origin [20] and the family of Hranislav, which was Bulgarian. Islam and Persian culture were part of Ottoman self-identity from the start, as evidenced by a land grant issued by Osman's son Orhan in 1324, describing him as "Champion of the Faith".

[21] Gaza and gazis in early Ottoman history [ edit ] Main article: Gaza Thesis In 1938 the Austrian historian Paul Wittek published an influential work entitled The Rise of the Ottoman Empire, in which he put forth the argument that the early Ottoman state was constructed upon an ideology of Islamic holy war against non-Muslims. Such a war was known as gaza, and a warrior fighting in it was called a gazi. [22] Wittek's formulation, subsequently known as the "Gaza Thesis," was influential for much of the twentieth century, and led historians to portray the early Ottomans as zealous religious warriors dedicated to the spread of Islam.

Beginning in the 1980s, historians increasingly criticized Wittek's thesis. [23] Scholars now recognize that the terms gaza and gazi did not have strictly religious connotations for the early Ottomans, and were often used in a secular sense to simply refer to raids.

[24] Additionally, the early Ottomans were neither strict orthodox Muslims nor were they unwilling to cooperate with non-Muslims, and several of the companions of the first Ottoman rulers were either non-Muslims or recent converts.

[25] The idea of holy war existed during the fourteenth century, but it was only one of many factors influencing Ottoman behavior. It was only later, in the fifteenth century, that Ottoman writers retroactively began to portray the early Ottomans as zealous Islamic warriors, in order to provide a noble origin for their dynasty which, by then, had constructed an intercontinental Islamic empire.

[26] Demography [ edit ] Anatolia and the Balkans were greatly impacted by the arrival of the Black Death after 1347.

Urban centers and settled regions were devastated, while nomadic groups suffered less of an impact. The first Ottoman incursions into the Balkans began shortly thereafter. Depopulation resulting from the plague was thus almost certainly a major factor in the success of early Ottoman expansion into the Balkans, and contributed to the weakening of the Byzantine Empire and the depopulation of Constantinople.

[27] Government [ edit ] During this early period, before the Ottomans were able to establish a centralized system of government in the middle of the fifteenth century, the rulers' powers were "far more circumscribed, and depended heavily upon coalitions of support and alliances reached" among various power-holders within the empire, including Turkic tribal leaders and Balkan allies and vassals. [28] When the Ottoman polity first emerged at the end of the thirteenth century under the leadership of Osman I, it had a tribal organization without a complex administrative apparatus.

As Ottoman territory expanded, its rulers were faced with the challenge of administering an ever-larger population. Early on, the Ottomans adopted the Seljuks of Rum as models for administration and the Illkhanates as models for military warfare, and by 1324 were able to produce Persian-language bureaucratic documents in the Seljuk style. [29] The early Ottoman state's expansion was fueled by the military activity of frontier warriors ( Turkish: gazi), of whom the Ottoman ruler was initially merely primus inter pares.

Much of the state's centralization was carried out in opposition to these frontier warriors, who resented Ottoman efforts to control them. Ultimately, the Ottomans managed to harness gazi military power while increasingly subordinating them. [30] The early Ottomans were noteworthy for the low tax rates which they imposed on their subjects.

This reflected both an ideological concern for the well-being of their subjects, and also a pragmatic need to earn the loyalty of newly conquered populations. In the fifteenth century, the Ottoman state became more centralized and the tax burden increased, prompting criticism from writers.

[31] An important factor in Ottoman success was their ability to preserve the empire across generations. Other Turkic groups frequently divided their realms between the sons of a deceased ruler. The Ottomans consistently kept the empire united under a single heir.

[32] State centralization [ edit ] The process of centralization is closely connected with an influx of Muslim scholars from Central Anatolia, where a more urban and bureaucratic Turkish civilization had developed under the Seljuks of Rum.

Particularly influential was the Çandarlı family, which supplied several Grand Viziers to the early Ottomans and influenced their institutional development. Some time after 1376, Kara Halil, the head of the Çandarlı family, encouraged Murad I to institute a tax of one-fifth on slaves taken in war, known as the pençik.

This gave the Ottoman rulers a source of manpower from which they could construct a new personal army, known as the Janissaries ( yeniçeri). Such measures frustrated the gazi, who sustained Ottoman military conquests, and created lasting tensions within the state.

[33] It was also during the reign of Murad I that the office of military judge ( Kazasker) was created, indicating an increasing level of social stratification between the emerging military-administrative class ( askeri) and the rest of society. [34] Murad I also instituted the practice of appointing specific frontier warriors as "Lords of the Frontier" ( uc begleri). Such power of appointment indicates that the Ottoman rulers were no longer merely primus inter pares. As a way of openly declaring this new status, Murad became the first Ottoman ruler to adopt the title of sultan.

[34] Beginning in the 1430s, but most likely earlier, the Ottomans conducted regular cadastral surveys of the territory under their rule, producing record-books known as tahrir defters. These surveys enabled the Ottoman state to organize the distribution of agricultural taxation rights to the military class of timariots, cavalrymen who collected revenue from the land in exchange for serving in the Ottoman army.

Timariots came from diverse backgrounds. Some achieved their position as a reward for military service, while others were descended from the Byzantine aristocracy and simply continued to collect revenue from their old lands, now serving in the Ottoman army as well. Of the latter, many were converts to Islam, while others remained Christian.

[35] Of great symbolic importance for Ottoman centralization was the practice of Ottoman rulers to stand upon hearing martial music, indicating their willingness to participate in gaza. {/INSERTKEYS}

the rise of ottoman

Shortly after the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453, Mehmed II discontinued this practice, indicating that the Ottoman ruler was no longer a simple frontier warrior, but the sovereign of an empire. [36] The empire's capital shifted from Edirne, the city symbolically connected with the frontier warrior ethos of gaza, to Constantinople, a city with deeply imperial connotations due to its long history as the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

This was seen, both symbolically and practically, as the moment of the empire's definitive shift from the rise of ottoman frontier principality into an empire. [37] Military [ edit ] Osman's army at the beginning of the fourteenth century consisted largely of mounted warriors. [38] These he used in raids, ambushes, and hit-and-run attacks, allowing him to control the countryside of Bithynia.

However, he initially lacked the means to conduct sieges. Bursa, the first major town conquered by the Ottomans, surrendered under threat of starvation following a long blockade rather than from an assault. It was under Orhan (r. 1323/4-1362) and Murad I (r. 1362-1389) that the Ottomans mastered the techniques of siege warfare. [39] The warriors in Osman's service came from diverse backgrounds.

Known variously as gazis [nb 1] and akıncıs (raiders), they were attracted to his success and joined out of a desire to win plunder and glory. Most of Osman's early followers were Muslim Turks of tribal origin, while others were of Byzantine origin, either Christians or recent converts to Islam.

[26] The Ottomans began employing gunpowder weapons in the 1380s at the latest. By the 1420s they were regularly using cannons in siege warfare. Cannons were also used for fortress defense, and shore batteries allowed the Ottomans to bypass a Crusader blockade of the Dardanelles in 1444. By that time, handheld firearms had also come into use, and were adopted by some of the janissaries. [40] Cultural and intellectual life [ edit ] By the early fifteenth century, the Ottoman court was actively fostering literary output, much of it borrowing from the longstanding literary tradition of other Islamic courts further east.

The first extant account of Ottoman history ever written was produced by the poet Ahmedi, originally meant to be presented to Sultan Bayezid I but, following the latter's death in 1402, written for his son Süleyman Çelebi instead.

[41] This work, entitled the İskendernāme, ("The Book of Alexander") was part of a genre known as "mirror for princes" ( naṣīḥatnāme), meant to provide advice and guidance to the ruler with regard to statecraft. Thus rather than providing a factual account of the dynasty's history, Ahmedi's goal was to indirectly criticize the sultan by depicting his ancestors as model rulers, in contrast to the perceived deviance of Bayezid.

Specifically, Ahmedi took issue with Bayezid's the rise of ottoman campaigns against fellow Muslims in Anatolia, and thus depicted his ancestors as totally devoted to holy war against the Christian states of the Balkans. [42] Political history [ edit ] Osman I (c.

1299–1323/4) [ edit ] See also: Osman I Osman's origins are extremely obscure, and almost nothing is known about his career before the beginning of the fourteenth century. [43] The date of 1299 is frequently given as the beginning of his reign, however this the rise of ottoman does not correspond with any historical event, and is purely symbolic.

[44] By 1300 he had become the leader of a group of Turkish pastoral tribes, through which he ruled over a small territory around the town of Söğüt in the north-western Anatolian region of Bithynia. He led frequent raids against the neighboring Byzantine Empire. Success attracted the rise of ottoman to his following, particularly after his victory over a Byzantine army in the Battle of Bapheus in 1301 or 1302. [45] Osman's military activity was largely limited to raiding because, by the time of his death, in 1323-4, the Ottomans had not yet developed effective techniques for siege warfare.

[46] Although he is famous for his raids against the Byzantines, Osman also had many military confrontations with Tatar groups and with the neighboring principality of Germiyan.

[47] Osman was adept at forging political and commercial relationships with nearby groups, Muslim as well as Christian. [48] Early on, he attracted several notable figures to his side, including Köse Mihal, a Byzantine village headman whose descendants (known as the Mihaloğulları) enjoyed primacy among the frontier warriors in Ottoman service.

Köse Mihal was noteworthy for having been a Christian Greek; while he eventually converted to Islam, his prominent historical role indicates Osman's willingness to cooperate with non-Muslims and to incorporate them in his political enterprise. [49] Osman I strengthened his legitimacy by marrying the daughter of Sheikh Edebali, a prominent local religious leader who was said to have been at the head of a community of dervishes on the frontier.

Later Ottoman writers embellished this event by depicting Osman as having experienced a dream while staying with Edebali, in which it was foretold that his descendants would rule over a vast empire. [50] Orhan (1323/4–1362) [ edit ] See also: Battle of Pelekanon, Siege of Nicaea (1328–1331), and Siege of Nicomedia Upon Osman's death his son Orhan succeeded him as leader of the Ottomans.

Orhan oversaw the conquest of Bithynia's major towns, as Bursa (Prusa) was conquered in 1326 and the rest of the region's towns fell shortly thereafter.

[51] Already by 1324, the Ottomans were making use of Seljuk bureaucratic practices, [29] and had developed the capacity to mint coins and utilize siege tactics. It was under Orhan that the Ottomans began to attract Islamic scholars from the east to act as administrators and judges, and the first medrese (University) was established in Iznik in 1331.

[52] In addition to fighting the Byzantines, Orhan also conquered the Turkish principality of Karesi in 1345-6, thus placing all potential crossing points to Europe in Ottoman hands. [53] The experienced Karesi warriors were incorporated into the Ottoman military, and were a valuable asset in subsequent campaigns into the Balkans. [54] Orhan married Theodora, the daughter of Byzantine prince John VI Cantacuzenus. In 1346 Orhan openly supported John VI in the overthrowing of the emperor John V Palaeologus.

When John VI became co-emperor (1347–1354) he allowed Orhan to raid the peninsula of Gallipoli in 1352, after which the Ottomans gained their first permanent stronghold in Europe at Çimpe Castle in 1354. Orhan decided to pursue war against Europe, Anatolian Turks were settled in and around Gallipoli to secure it as a springboard for military operations in Thrace against the Byzantines and Bulgarians. Most of eastern Thrace was overrun by Ottoman forces within a decade and was permanently brought under Orhan's control by means of heavy colonization.

The initial Thracian conquests placed the Ottomans strategically astride all of the major overland communication routes linking Constantinople to the Balkan frontiers, facilitating their expanded military operations.

ln addition, control of the highways in Thrace isolated Byzantium from direct overland contact with any of its potential allies in the Balkans and in Western Europe. Byzantine Emperor John V was forced to sign an unfavorable treaty with Orhan in 1356 that recognized his Thracian losses. [ citation needed] For the next 50 years, the Ottomans went on to conquer vast territories in the Balkans, reaching as far north as modern-day Serbia. In taking control over the passageways to Europe, the Ottomans gained a significant advantage over their rival Turkish principalities in Anatolia, as they now could gain immense prestige and wealth from conquests carried out on the Balkan frontier.

[52] Murad I (1362–1389) [ edit ] Soon after Orhan's death in 1362, Murad I became Sultan. Edirne, 1362 [ edit ] See also: Conquest of Adrianople Murad's first major offensive was the conquest of the Byzantine city of Adrianople in 1362.

He renamed it to Edirne and made it his new capital in 1363. [55] [ better source needed] By transferring his capital from Bursa in Anatolia to that newly won city in Thrace, Murad signaled his intentions to continue Ottoman expansion in Southeast Europe. Before the conquest of Edirne, most Christian Europeans regarded the Ottoman presence in Thrace as merely the latest unpleasant episode in a long string of chaotic events in the Balkans.

After Murad I designated Edirne as his capital, they realized that the Ottomans intended to remain in Europe. The Balkan states of Byzantium, Bulgaria, and Serbia were frightened by Ottoman conquests in Thrace, and were ill-prepared to deal with the threat.

the rise of ottoman

Byzantine territory was reduced and fragmented. It consisted mostly of the capital, Constantinople and its Thracian environs, the city of Thessaloniki and its immediate surroundings, and the Despotate of the Morea in the Peloponnese. Contact between Constantinople and the two other regions was only feasible via a tenuous sea route through the Dardanelles, kept open by the Italian maritime powers of Venice and Genoa. The weakened Byzantine Empire no longer possessed the resources to defeat Murad on its own.

Concerted action on the part of the Byzantines, often divided by civil war, was impossible. The survival of Constantinople itself depended on its legendary defensive walls, the lack of an Ottoman navy, and the willingness of Murad to honor provisions in the 1356 treaty, which permitted the city to be provisioned.

Bulgaria under Tsar Ivan Aleksandar was expanding and prosperous. However, at the end of his rule, the Bulgarian Tsar made the fatal mistake to divide the Second Bulgarian Empire the rise of ottoman three appanages held by his sons. Bulgaria's cohesion was shattered further in the 1350s by a rivalry between the holder of Vidin, Ivan Sratsimir, Ivan Aleksandar's sole surviving son by his first wife, and Ivan Shishman, the product of Aleksandar's second marriage and the tsar's designated successor.

In addition to internal problems, Bulgaria was further crippled by a Hungarian attack. In 1365 Hungarian King Louis I invaded and seized Vidin province, whose ruler Ivan Sratsimir was taken captive. Despite the concurrent loss of most Bulgarian Thracian holdings to Murad, Ivan Aleksandar became fixated on the Hungarians in Vidin. He formed a coalition against them with the Bulgarian ruler of Dobrudja Dobrotitsa and Voievod Vladislav I Vlaicu of Wallachia.

Although the Hungarians were repulsed and Ivan Sratsimir restored to his throne, Bulgaria emerged more intensely divided. Ivan Sratsimir proclaimed himself tsar of the rise of ottoman "Empire" of Vidin in 1370, and Dobrotitsa received de facto recognition as independent despot in Dobrudzha.

Bulgaria's efforts were squandered to little domestic purpose and against the wrong enemy. Given Serbia's preeminence in the Balkans under Tsar Stefan Dušan, its rapid dissolution following his death in 1355 was dramatic. The powerful regional Serb nobles demonstrated little respect for his successor, Stefan The rise of ottoman V. Young, weak Uroš was incapable of ruling as his father had.

The separatist-minded bojars were quick to take advantage of the situation, and Serbia fragmented. First to throw off Serbian control were the Greek provinces of Thessaly and Epiros as well as Dušan's former Albanian holdings. A series of small independent principalities arose in western and southern Macedonia, while the Hungarians encroached deeper into Serb lands in the north. Uros held only the core Serbian lands, whose nobles, although more powerful than their prince, generally remained loyal.

These core lands consisted of: The western lands, including Montenegro ( Zeta); the southern lands, held by Jovan Uglješa in Serres, encompassing all of eastern Macedonia; and the central Serbian lands, stretching from the Danube south into central Macedonia, co-ruled by Uroš and the powerful noble Vukasin Mrnjavcevic, who held Prilep in Macedonia.

Far from preserving Serb unity, Uroš's loosely amalgamated domains were wracked by constant civil war among the regional nobles, leaving Serbia vulnerable to the rising Ottoman threat. Murad I did rise to the power of the Ottoman Empire in 1362.

Gallipoli, 1366 [ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

( October 2016) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) By 1370 Murad controlled most of Thrace, bringing him into direct contact with Bulgaria and the southeastern Serbian lands ruled by Uglješa. Uglješa, the most powerful Serb regional ruler, unsuccessfully attempted to forge an anti-Ottoman alliance of Balkan states in 1371.

Byzantium, vulnerable to the Turks because of its food supply situation, refused to cooperate. Bulgaria, following Ivan Aleksandar's death early that year, lay officially divided into the "Empire" of Vidin, ruled by Stratsimir (1370–96), and Aleksandar's direct successor Tsar Ivan Shishman (1371–95), who ruled central Bulgaria from Turnovo.

Young, his hold on the throne unsteady, threatened by Stratsimir, and probably pressured by the Turks, Shishman could not afford to participate in Uglješa's scheme.

Of the regional Serb bojars, only Vukašin, protector of Uroš and Uglješa's brother, joined in the effort. The others either failed to recognize the rise of ottoman Ottoman danger or refused to participate lest competitors attacked while they were in the field. Maritsa, 1371 [ edit ] The Ottoman advance after the Battle of Maritsa The Battle of Maritsa took place at the Maritsa River near the village of Chernomen on September 26, 1371 with sultan Murad's lieutenant Lala Shahin Pasha and the Serbs numbering some 70,000 men under the command of the Serbian king of Prilep Vukašin Mrnjavčević and his brother despot Uglješa.

Despot Uglješa wanted to make a surprise attack in their capital city, Edirne, while Murad I was in Asia Minor. The Ottoman army was much smaller, but due to superior tactics (night raid on the allied camp), Şâhin Paşa was able to defeat the Christian army and kill King Vukašin and despot Uglješa. Macedonia and parts of Greece fell under Ottoman power after this battle.

Both Uglješa and Vukašin perished in the carnage. So overwhelming was the Ottoman victory that the Turks referred to the battle as the Rout (or Destruction) of the Serbs. What little unity Serbia possessed collapsed after the catastrophe at Ormenion (Chernomen).

Uroš died before the year was out, ending the Nemanjić dynasty, and large areas of central Serbia broke away as independent principalities, reducing it to half of its former size. No future ruler ever again officially held the office of car, and no single bojar enjoyed enough power or respect to gain recognition as a unifying leader. Vukasin's son, Marko, survived the slaughter and proclaimed himself Serbian "king" ( kralj) but was unable to enforce his claim beyond his lands around Prilep, in central Macedonia.

Serbia slipped into accelerated fragmentation and internecine warfare among the proliferating regional princes. In the aftermath of the Ormenion battle, Ottoman raids into Serbia and Bulgaria intensified. The enormity of the victory and the incessant raids into his lands convinced Turnovo Bulgarian Tsar Shishman of the necessity for coming to terms with the Ottomans.

By 1376 at the latest, Shishman accepted vassal status under Murad and sent his sister as the sultan's "wife" to the harem at Edirne. The arrangement did not prevent Ottoman raiders from continuing to plunder inside Shishman's borders. As for Byzantium, Emperor John V definitively accepted Ottoman vassalage soon after the battle, opening the door to Murad's direct interference in Byzantine domestic politics.

The Bulgarians and Serbs enjoyed a brief respite during the 1370s and into the 1380s when matters in Anatolia and increased meddling in Byzantium's political affairs kept Murad preoccupied. In Serbia, the lull permitted the northern Serb ‘’bojar’’ Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic (1371-89), with the support of powerful Bulgarian and Montenegrin nobles and the backing of the Serbian Orthodox Patriarchate of Pec, to consolidate control over much of the core Serbian lands.

Most of the Serb regional rulers in Macedonia, including Marko, accepted vassalage under Murad to preserve their positions, and many of them led Serb forces in the sultan's army operating in Anatolia against his Turkish rivals. Dubravnica, 1381 [ edit ] See also: Battle of Dubravnica By the mid-1380s Murad's attention once again focused on the Balkans.

With his Bulgarian vassal Shishman preoccupied by a war with Wallachian Voievod Dan I of Wallachia (ca. 1383-86), in 1385 Murad took Sofia, the last remaining Bulgarian possession south of the Balkan Mountains, opening the way toward strategically located Niš, the northern terminus of the important Vardar-Morava highway. Saurian Field, 1385 [ edit ] See also: Battle of Plocnik Murad captured Niš in 1386, perhaps forcing Lazar of Serbia to accept Ottoman vassalage soon afterward.

While he pushed deeper into the north—central Balkans, Murad also had forces moving west along the ‘’Via Ingatia’’ into Macedonia, forcing vassal status on regional rulers who until that time had escaped that fate. One contingent reached the Albanian Adriatic coast in 1385. Another took and occupied Thessaloniki in 1387. The danger to the continued independence of the Balkan Christian states grew alarmingly apparent.

When Anatolian affairs forced Murad to leave the Balkans in 1387, his Serbian and Bulgarian vassals attempted to sever their ties to him. Lazar formed a coalition with Tvrtko I of Bosnia and Stratsimir of Vidin. After he refused an Ottoman demand that he live up to his vassal obligations, troops were dispatched against him.

Lazar and Tvrtko met the Turks and defeated them at Plocnik, west of Niš. The victory by his the rise of ottoman Christian princes encouraged Shishman to shed Ottoman vassalage and reassert Bulgarian independence. Bileća, 1388 [ edit ] See also: Battle of Bileća Murad returned from Anatolia in 1388 and launched a lightning campaign against the Bulgarian rulers Shishman and Sratsimir, who swiftly were forced into vassal submission.

He then demanded that Lazar proclaim his vassalage and pay tribute. Confident because of the victory at Plocnik, the Serbian prince refused and turned to Tvrtko of Bosnia and Vuk Brankovic, his son-in-law and independent ruler of northern Macedonia and Kosovo, for aid against the certain Ottoman retaliatory offensive.

Kosovo, 1389 [ edit ] Battle on Kosovo, by Adam Stefanovic, 1870 On St. Vitus' Day, June 15, 1389, the Ottoman army, personally commanded by Sultan Murad, fought the Serbian army led by Serbian Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović, which also included contingents led by Vuk Branković, and a contingent sent from Bosnia by King Tvrtko I, commanded by Vlatko Vuković. [56] Estimates of army sizes vary, with the Ottomans having greater numbers (27,000–40,000) than the Orthodox army (12,000–30,000).

The battle resulted in a draw. [57] Both armies were mostly wiped out. Both Lazar and Murad lost their lives. Although the The rise of ottoman managed to annihilate the Serbian army, they also suffered high casualties which delayed their progress. The Serbs were left with too few men to effectively defend their lands, while the Turks had many more troops in the east. Consequently, one after the other, the Serbian principalities that were not already Ottoman vassals became so in the following years.

[56] The Battle of Kosovo is particularly important to modern Serbian history, tradition, and national identity. [58] Lazar's young and weak successor Stefan Lazarević (1389–1427) concluded a vassal agreement with Bayezid in 1390 to counter Hungarian moves into northern Serbia, while Vuk Branković, the last independent Serb prince, held out until 1392.

Bayezid I (1389–1402) [ edit ] Further information: the Sultan's personal information Bayezid I Bayezid I (often given the epithet Yıldırım, "the Thunderbolt") succeeded to the sultanship upon the assassination of his father Murad. In a rage over the attack, he ordered all Serbian captives killed; Beyazid became known as Yıldırım, the lightning bolt, for the speed with which his empire expanded. [ citation needed] Bayezid, "the Thunderbolt", lost little time in expanding Ottoman Balkan conquests.

He followed the rise of ottoman on his victory by raiding throughout Serbia and southern Albania, forcing most of the local princes into vassalage. Both to secure the southern stretch of the Vardar-Morava highway and to establish a firm base for permanent expansion westward to the Adriatic coast, Bayezid settled large numbers of ‘’yürüks’’ along the Vardar River valley in Macedonia. The appearance of Turk raiders at Hungary's southern borders awakened the Hungarian King Sigismund of Luxemburg (1387–1437) to the danger that the Ottomans posed to his kingdom, and he sought out Balkan allies for a new anti-Ottoman coalition.

By early 1393 Turnovo Bulgaria's Ivan Shishman, hoping to throw off his onerous vassalage, was in secret negotiations with Sigismund, along with Wallachian Voievod Mircea the Old (1386–1418) and, possibly, Vidin's Ivan Sratsimir.

Bayezid got wind of the talks and launched a devastating campaign against Shishman. Turnovo was captured after a lengthy siege, and Shishman fled to Nikopol.

When that town fell to Bayezid, Shishman was captured and beheaded. All his lands were annexed by the sultan, and Sratsimir, whose Vidin holdings had escaped Bayezid's wrath, was forced to reaffirm his vassalage. Having dealt harshly and effectively with his disloyal Bulgarian vassals, Bayezid then turned his attention south to Thessaly and the Morea, whose Greek lords had accepted Ottoman vassalage in the 1380s.

Their incessant bickering among themselves, especially those of the Greek Morean magnates, required Bayezid's intervention. He summoned a meeting of all his Balkan vassals at Serres in 1394 to settle these and other outstanding matters. Among the sultan's attending vassals were the Thessalian and Morean nobles, Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos (1391–1425), and Serbian Prince Lazarevic.

At the meeting, Bayezid acquired possession of all disputed territories, and all of the attendees were required to reaffirm their vassal status. When the Moreans later reneged on their Serres agreement with Bayezid, the angered Ottoman ruler blockaded the Morean despot's imperial brother Manuel II in Constantinople and then marched southward and annexed Thessaly. The Duchy of Athens accepted Ottoman overlordship when Turkish forces appeared on its border. Although a massive Ottoman punitive raid into the Peloponnese in 1395 netted much booty, events in the Balkans’ northeast saved Morea from further direct attack at the time.

While Bayezid was occupied in Greece, Mircea of Wallachia conducted a series of raids across the Danube into Ottoman territory. In retaliation, Bayezid's forces, which included Serb vassal troops led by Lazarevic and Kralj Marko, struck into Wallachia in 1395 but were defeated at Rovine, [ citation needed] where Marko was killed.

The victory saved Wallachia from Turkish occupation, but Mircea accepted vassalage under Bayezid to avert further Ottoman intervention. [ citation needed] The sultan took consolation for his less than victorious efforts in annexing Dobrudzha and in supporting a pretender, Vlad I (1395–97), the rise of ottoman the Wallachian throne.

Two years of civil war ensued before Mircea regained complete control of the principality. Nicopolis [ edit ] Battle of Nicopolis (1396) In 1396 Hungarian King Sigismund finally pulled together a crusade against the Ottomans.

The crusader army was composed primarily of Hungarian and French knights, but included some Wallachian troops. Though nominally led by Sigismund, it lacked command cohesion. The crusaders crossed the Danube, marched through Vidin, and arrived at Nikopol, where they met the Turks. The headstrong French knights refused to follow Sigismund's battle plans, resulting in their crushing defeat.

Because The rise of ottoman had permitted the crusaders to pass through Vidin, Bayezid invaded his lands, took him prisoner, and annexed his territories. With Vidin's fall, Bulgaria ceased to exist, becoming the first major Balkan Christian state to disappear completely by direct Ottoman conquest. Following Nikopol, Bayezid contented himself with raiding Hungary, Wallachia, and Bosnia.

He conquered most of Albania and forced the remaining northern Albanian lords into vassalage. A new, halfhearted siege of Constantinople was undertaken but lifted in 1397 after Emperor Manuel II, Bayezid's vassal, agreed that the sultan the rise of ottoman confirm all future Byzantine emperors.

Soon thereafter Bayezid was called back to Anatolia to deal with continuing problems with the Ottomans’ Turkish rivals and never returned to the Balkans.

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Ankara, 1402 [ edit ] Painting by Stanisław Chlebowski, Sultan Bayezid prisoned by Timur, 1878, depicting the capture of Bayezid by Timur. Bayezid took with him an army composed primarily of Balkan vassal troops, including Serbs led by Lazarevic. He soon faced an invasion of Anatolia by the Central Asian ruler Timur Lenk.

Around 1400, Timur entered the Middle East. Timur Lenk pillaged a few villages in eastern Anatolia and commenced the conflict with the Ottoman Empire.

In August, 1400, Timur and his horde burned the town of Sivas to the ground and advanced the rise of ottoman the mainland. Their armies met outside of Ankara, at the Battle of Ankara, in 1402. The Ottomans were routed and Bayezid was taken prisoner, later dying in captivity. A civil war, lasting from 1402 to 1413, broke out among Bayezid's surviving sons. Known in Ottoman history as the Interregnum, that struggle temporarily halted active Ottoman expansion in the Balkans.

Ottoman Interregnum (1402–1413) [ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ( September 2016) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) After the defeat at Ankara followed a time of total chaos in the Empire. Mongols roamed free in Anatolia and the political power of the sultan was broken. After Beyazid was captured, his remaining sons, Suleiman Çelebi, İsa Çelebi, Mehmed Çelebi, and Musa Çelebi fought each other in what became known as the Ottoman Interregnum.

The Ottoman Interregnum brought a brief period the rise of ottoman semi-independence to the vassal Christian Balkan states. Suleyman, one of the late sultan's sons, held the Ottoman capital at Edirne and proclaimed himself ruler, but his brothers refused to recognize him. He then concluded alliances with Byzantium, to which Thessaloniki was returned, and with Venice in 1403 to bolster his position. Suleyman's imperious character, however, turned his Balkan vassals against him.

In 1410 he was defeated and killed by his brother Musa, who won the Ottoman Balkans with the support of Byzantine Emperor Manuel II, Serbian Despot Stefan Lazarevic, Wallachian Voievod Mircea, and the two last Bulgarian rulers’ sons. Musa then the rise of ottoman confronted for sole control of the Ottoman throne by his younger brother Mehmed, who had freed himself of Mongol vassalage and held Ottoman Anatolia.

Concerned over the growing independence of his Balkan Christian vassals, Musa turned on them. Unfortunately, he alienated the Islamic bureaucratic and commercial classes in his Balkan lands by continually favoring the lower social elements to gain wide popular support. Alarmed, the Balkan Christian vassal rulers turned to Mehmed, as did the chief Ottoman military, religious, and commercial leaders.

In 1412 Mehmed invaded the Balkans, took Sofia and Nis, and joined forces with Lazarevicys Serbs. In the following year, Mehmed decisively defeated Musa outside of Sofia.

Musa was killed, and Mehmed I (1413–21) emerged as the sole ruler of a reunited Ottoman state. Mehmed I (1413–1421) [ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ( September 2016) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) When Mehmed Çelebi stood as victor in 1413 he crowned himself in Edirne (Adrianople) as Mehmed I. His was the duty to restore the Ottoman Empire to its former glory. The Empire had suffered hard from the interregnum; the Mongols were still at large in the east, even though Timur had died in 1405; many of the Christian kingdoms of the Balkans had broken free of Ottoman control; and the land, especially Anatolia, had suffered hard from the war.

Mehmed moved the capital from Bursa to Adrianople. He faced a delicate political situation in the Balkans. His Bulgarian, Serbian, Wallachian, and Byzantine vassals were virtually independent. The Albanian tribes were uniting into a single state, and Bosnia remained completely independent, as did Moldavia.

Hungary retained territorial ambitions in the Balkans, and Venice held numerous Balkan coastal possessions. Prior to Bayezid's death, Ottoman control of the Balkans appeared a certainty. At the end of the interregnum, that certainty seemed open to question. Mehmed generally resorted to diplomacy rather than militancy in dealing with the situation. While he did conduct raiding expeditions into neighboring European lands, which returned much of Albania to Ottoman control and forced Bosnian King-Ban Tvrtko II Kotromanić (1404–09, 1421–45), along with many Bosnian regional nobles, to accept formal Ottoman vassalage, Mehmed conducted only one actual war with the Europeans — a short and indecisive conflict with Venice.

The new sultan had grave domestic problems. Musa's former policies sparked discontent among the Ottoman Balkans’ lower classes. In 1416 a popular revolt of Muslims and Christians broke out in Dobruja, led by Musa's former confidant, the scholar-mystic Şeyh Bedreddin, and supported by Wallachian voivode Mircea I.

Bedreddin preached such concepts as merging Islam, Christianity, and Judaism into a single faith and the social betterment of free peasants and nomads at the expense of the Ottoman bureaucratic and professional classes. Mehmed crushed the revolt and Bedreddin died. Mircea then occupied Dobruja, but Mehmed wrested the region back in 1419, capturing the Danubian fort of Giurgiu and forcing Wallachia back into vassalage.

Mehmed spent the rest of his reign reorganizing Ottoman state structures disrupted by the interregnum. When Mehmed died in 1421, one of his sons, Murad, became sultan. Murad II (1421–1451) [ edit ] Murad II spent his early years on the throne disposing of rivals and rebellions, most notably the revolts of the Serbs.

He also had problems at home. He subdued the rebels of his uncle Mustafa Çelebi and brother Küçük Mustafa. Constantinople, 1422 [ edit ] See also: Siege of Constantinople (1422) In 1422, Murad II laid siege to Constantinople for several months and lifted it only after forcing the Byzantine emperor, Manuel II Palaiologos to pay additional tribute.

In 1422 the first regular war against Venice began with the Siege of Thessalonica (1422–30). Byzantine involvement in the war ended with the transfer of the city to the Venetian Republic in 1423, which ended Murad's siege of Constantinople. Thessalonica continued to be under siege until 1430, the rise of ottoman the Turkish sack of the city. Thessalonika, 1430 [ edit ] See also: Siege of Thessalonica (1422–1430) On the request of its inhabitants, Venetian troops took control of the city of Salonika ( Thessaloniki).

The Ottoman army that laid siege to the city knew nothing of the transfer of power, and a number of Venetian soldiers were killed by Ottoman troops, believing them to the rise of ottoman Greeks. Murad II had been on peaceful terms with Venice, so the Venetians deemed the act unacceptable and declared full war. Murad acted swiftly, besieging Constantinople and sending his armies to Salonika. The Venetians had gained reinforcements by sea but, when the Ottomans stormed the city, the outcome was forgone and the Venetians fled to their ships.

But when the Turks entered and began plundering the city, the Venetian fleet started bombarding the city from the sea-side. The Ottomans fled and the fleet was able to hold off the Ottomans until new Venetian reinforcements arrived to recapture the city.

The outcome of the Battle of Salonika was a setback for Murad. Serbia and Hungary allied themselves with Venice. Pope Martin V encouraged other Christian states to join the war against the Ottomans, though only Austria ever sent troops to the Balkans.

The war in the Balkans began as the Ottoman army moved to recapture Wallachia, which the Ottomans had lost to Mircea I of Wallachia during the Interregnum and that now was a Hungarian vassal state. The rise of ottoman the Ottoman army entered Wallachia, the Serbs started attacking Bulgaria and, at the same time, urged by the Pope, the Anatolian emirate of Karamanid attacked the Empire from the back.

Murad had to split his army. The main force went to defend Sofia and the reserves had to be called to Anatolia. The remaining troops in Wallachia were crushed by the Hungarian army that was now moving south into Bulgaria where the Serbian and Ottoman armies battled each other.

The Serbs were defeated and the Ottomans turned to face the Hungarians who fled back into Wallachia when they realized they were unable to attack the Ottomans from the back. Murad fortified his borders against Serbia and Hungary but did not try to retake Wallachia.

Instead, he sent his armies to Anatolia where they defeated Karaman in the rise of ottoman. In 1430 a large Ottoman fleet attacked Salonika by surprise. The Venetians signed a peace treaty in 1432. The treaty gave the Ottomans the city of Salonika and the surrounding land.

The war by Serbia and Hungary against the Ottoman Empire had come to a standstill in 1441, when the Holy Roman Empire, Poland, Albania, and the Jandarid and Karamanid emirates (in violation of the peace treaty) intervened against the Ottomans. Niš and Sofia fell to the Christians in 1443. In 1444, the Empire suffered a major defeat in the Battle of Jalowaz. On July 12, 1444, Murad signed a treaty which gave Wallachia and the Bulgarian province of Varna to Hungary and gave western Bulgaria (including Sofia) to Serbia.

It forced Murad to abdicate in favor of his twelve-year-old son Mehmed. Later the same year the Christians violated the peace treaty and attacked anew. Varna, 1444 [ edit ] See also: Battle of Varna On November 11, 1444, Murad defeated the Polish– Hungarian army of Wladislaus III of Poland led by Janos Hunyadi at the Battle of Varna. Murad was reinstated with the help of the Janissaries in 1446. Another peace the rise of ottoman was signed in 1448 giving the Empire Wallachia and Bulgaria and a part of Albania.

After the Balkan front was secured, Murad turned east and defeated Timur Lenk's son, Shah Rukh, and the emirates of Candar and Karaman in Anatolia. Kosovo, 1448 [ edit ] See also: Battle of Kosovo (1448) At 1448, John Hunyadi saw the right moment to lead a campaign against the Ottoman Empire. After the Defeat of Varna (1444), he raised another army to attack the Ottomans.

His strategy based on possible revolt of Balkan people and the surprise attack, also the assumption to destroy the main force of the Ottomans in a single battle. Hunyadi was totally immodest and led his forces without leaving any escort behind.

Murad died in the winter 1450–1451 in Edirne. Some have it that he was wounded in a battle against Skanderbeg's Albanian guerillas. Mehmed II (1451–1481) [ edit ] The Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the second reign the rise of ottoman Mehmed II. Mehmed II (called Fatih, the Conqueror) again came to the Ottoman throne following Murad's death in 1451.

But by conquering and annexing the emirate of Karamanid (May–June, 1451) and by renewing the peace treaties with Venice (September 10) and Hungary (November 20) Mehmed II proved his skills both on the military and the political front and was soon accepted by the noble class of the Ottoman court.

Older and a good deal wiser, he made capturing Constantinople his first priority, believing that it would solidify his power over the high military and administrative officials who had caused him such problems during his earlier reign.

Good reasons underlay his decision. So long as Constantinople remained in Christian hands, his enemies could use it as either a potential base for splitting the empire at its center or as an excuse for the Christian West's continued military efforts. Constantinople's location also made it the natural "middleman" center for both land and sea trade between the eastern Mediterranean and central Asia, possession of which would ensure immense wealth.

Just as important, Constantinople was a fabled imperial city, and its capture and possession would bestow untold prestige on its conqueror, who would be seen by Muslims as a hero and by Muslims and Christians alike as a great and powerful emperor.

Mehmed spent two years preparing for his attempt on the Byzantine capital. He built a navy to cut the city off from outside help the rise of ottoman sea; he purchased an arsenal of large cannons from the Hungarian gunsmith Urban; he sealed the Bosphorus north of the city by erecting a powerful fortress on its European shore to prevent succor arriving from the Black Sea; and he meticulously concentrated in Thrace every available military unit in his lands.

A trade agreement with Venice prevented the Venetians from intervening on behalf of the Byzantines, and the rest of Western Europe unwittingly cooperated with Mehmed's plans by being totally absorbed in internecine wars and political rivalries.

Constantinople, 1453 [ edit ] See also: Fall of Constantinople When in 1451 the bankrupt Byzantines asked Mehmed to double the tribute for holding an Ottoman pretender for the throne, he used the request as a pretext for annulling all treaties with the Byzantine Empire.

Nevertheless, when he proposed in 1452 to siege Constantinople most of the divan, and especially the Grand Vizier, Çandarlı Halil Pasha, was against it and criticized the Sultan for being too rash and overconfident in his abilities. On April 15, 1452, Mehmed ordered preparations to be made for the siege of Constantinople. In April 1453, Mehmed laid siege to Constantinople. Although the city's defenders, led by Giovanni Giustiniani under Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos's (1448–53) authority, put up a heroic defense, without the benefit of outside aid their efforts were doomed.

The formerly impregnable land walls were breached after two months of constant pounding by Mehmed's heavy artillery. In the predawn hours of 29 May 1453, Mehmed ordered an all-out assault on the battered ramparts. After a brief but vicious melee at the walls in which Giustiniani was severely injured coupled with Ottoman troops breaching the walls through a sally port door left open, the Ottoman troops were able to breach the walls and rout the defenders.

According to Christian sources, Emperor Constantine died bravely rushing into the oncoming Ottoman troops not to be seen again. However, according to Ottoman sources such as Tursun Beg he threw off his mantle and attempted to flee before being cut down by an injured Ottoman soldier. The Ottoman Army broke through and swept over the city. Constantinople, for a millennium considered by many Europeans the divinely ordained capital of the Christian Roman Empire, fell to Mehmed and was transformed into what many Muslims considered the divinely ordained capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire.

The fabled city's imperial legacy the rise of ottoman on. After the conquest, the sultan had his grand vizier Çandarlı Halil Pasha killed. His following four granviziers were of devshirme origin. During the growth of the Empire Turks seldom were appointed to the high positions. The Conquest of Constantinople on 29 May 1453 by Mehmed The Conqueror ( Fatih Sultan Mehmed Khan Ghazi ) Fatih Sultan Mehmed’s Land Transport the rise of ottoman The Ottoman Navy from Galata into Golden Horn by Fausto Zonaro (1854–1929).

Entry of Mehmed II into Constantinople by Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant (1845–1902). The Conquest of Constantinople by Fausto Zonaro (1854–1929).

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The Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmed) by Gentile Bellini, 1479 (70 x 52; National Gallery, London). Following the capture of Constantinople, Mehmed built the Topkapı Palace in 1462 and moved the Ottoman capital there from Adrianople. Mehmed had himself titled " Kaiser-i-Rum", or "Roman Caesar", and modelled the state after the old Byzantine Empire, thinking of himself as the successor to the Roman throne. Later, when he invaded Otranto, his goal was to capture Rome and reunite the Roman Empire for the first time since 751.

Justinian's cathedral of Hagia Sophia was converted into an imperial mosque, as eventually were numerous other churches and monasteries. The rights of non-Muslim inhabitants were protected to ensure continuity and stability for commercial activities. Never fully recovered from the sack of 1204, and suffering from Byzantium's two centuries of near poverty, Constantinople by the time of Mehmed's conquest was but a hollow shell of its former self.

Its population had dwindled, and much property was either abandoned or in a state of disrepair. The sultan immediately began to repopulate the rise of ottoman city. Civic and private properties were offered to the public to entice much-needed skilled artisans, craftsmen, and traders of all religions and ethnicities back to the city. Newly conquered Constantinople rapidly grew into a multiethnic, multicultured, and bustling economic, political, and cultural center for the Ottoman state, [ the rise of ottoman needed] whose distant frontiers guaranteed it peace, security, and prosperity.

Gallery [ edit ] • • ^ Murphey, Rhoads (2008). Exploring Ottoman Sovereignty: Tradition, Image, and Practice in the Ottoman Imperial Household, 1400-1800. London: Continuum. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-84725-220-3. • ^ Murphey, Rhoads (2008). Exploring Ottoman Sovereignty: Tradition, Image, and Practice in the The rise of ottoman Imperial Household, 1400-1800. London: Continuum. pp. 41–3. ISBN 978-1-84725-220-3. • ^ Atçıl, Abdurrahman (2017). Scholars and Sultans in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 212. The conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 can be taken as a watershed moment for Ottoman power, ideology, and governance that is usually characterized as a transition from principality to empire. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 120.

• ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. xii. There is still not one authentic written document known from the time of ʿO smān, and there are not many from the fourteenth century altogether. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p.

93. • ^ Finkel, Caroline (2005). Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1923. Basic Books. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-465-02396-7. Modern historians attempt to sift historical fact from the myths contained in the later stories in which the Ottoman chroniclers accounted for the origins of the dynasty • ^ Imber, Colin (1991).

Elizabeth Zachariadou (ed.). The Ottoman Emirate (1300-1389). Rethymnon: Crete University Press. p. 75. Almost all the traditional tales about Osman Gazi are fictitious. The best thing a modern historian can do is to admit frankly that the earliest history of the Ottomans is a black hole. Any attempt to fill this hole will result simply in more fables. • ^ Imber, Colin (2009). The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power (2 ed.).

New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 6–7. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. pp. 125–6. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (2007).

"A Rome of One's Own: Cultural Geography and Identity in the Lands of Rum".

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Muqarnas. 24: 8. • ^ Murphey, Rhoads (2008). Exploring Ottoman Sovereignty: Tradition, Image, and Practice in the Ottoman Imperial Household, 1400-1800. London: Continuum. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-84725-220-3. • ^ Kafadar, The rise of ottoman (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 130. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State.

p. 60. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 122. The Ottoman historical tradition maintains, with some exceptions, that the tribe that later represented the core of Osman's earliest base of power came to Asia Minor in his grandfather's generation in the wake of the Chingisid conquest in central Asia.

This makes chronological and historical sense, but otherwise the details of their story, including the identity of the grandfather, are too mythological to be taken for granted. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 122. That they hailed from the Kayı branch of the Oğuz confederacy seems to be a creative "rediscovery" in the genealogical concoction of the fifteenth century.

It is missing not only in Ahmedi but also, and more importantly, in the Yahşi Fakih-Aşıkpaşazade narrative, which gives its own version of an elaborate genealogical family tree going back to Noah. If there was a particularly significant claim to Kayı lineage, it is hard to imagine that Yahşi Fakih would not have heard of it.

• Lindner, Rudi Paul (1983). Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia. Indiana University Press. p. 10. In fact, no matter how one were to try, the sources simply do not allow the recovery of a family tree linking the antecedents of Osman to the Kayı of the Oğuz tribe.

• ^ Lindner, Rudi Paul (1983). Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia. Indiana University Press. pp. 20–1. • ^ Lindner, Rudi Paul (1983). Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia. Indiana University Press. pp. 23–5. • ^ Lindner, Rudi Paul (1983). Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia. Indiana University Press. p. 33. • ^ Lowry, Heath (2003). The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. SUNY Press.

p. 59. • Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 127. • ^ Finkel, Caroline (2005). Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1923. Basic Books. pp. 9–10. • ^ Wittek, Paul (1938). The Rise of the Ottoman Empire. Royal Asiatic Society.

• ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. xi-xii. • ^ Ágoston, Gábor (2009). "Ghaza (gaza)". In Ágoston, Gábor; Bruce Masters (eds.).

Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. p. 231. In recent times, the word ghaza has been understood in the West as meaning “Holy War against the infidels” and as referring to religiously inspired military actions taken by the early Ottomans against their Christian neighbors. Despite being commonly used in this way, however, the meaning of this term has come to be widely contested by scholars. The early Ottoman military activity described as ghaza is now thought to have been the rise of ottoman much more fluid undertaking, sometimes referring to actions that were nothing more than raids, sometimes meaning a deliberate holy war, but most often combining a mixture of these elements.

• ^ Ágoston, The rise of ottoman (2009). "Ghaza (gaza)". In Ágoston, Gábor; Bruce Masters (eds.). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. p. 231. the closest comrades and fellow-fighters of the first two Ottoman rulers, Osman Ghazi (d. 1324) and Orhan I (r. 1324–62), included several Orthodox Christian Greeks and recent Christian converts to Islam. • ^ a b Ágoston, Gábor (2009). "Ghaza (gaza)". In Ágoston, Gábor; Bruce Masters (eds.).

Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. pp. 231–2. • ^ Schamiloglu, Uli (2004). "The Rise of the Ottoman Empire: The Black Death in Medieval Anatolia and its Impact on Turkish Civilization". In Yavari, Neguin; Lawrence G.

Potter; Jean-Marc Ran Oppenheim (eds.). Views From the Edge: Essays in Honor of Richard W. Bulliet. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 270–2. ISBN 0-23113472-X. • ^ Murphey, Rhoads (2008). Exploring Ottoman Sovereignty: Tradition, Image, and Practice in the Ottoman Imperial Household, 1400-1800. London: Continuum. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-84725-220-3.

• ^ a b Lowry, Heath (2003). The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. SUNY Press. pp. 72–3. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State.

p. 121. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. pp. 131–2. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 136. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State.

pp. 111–3. • ^ a b Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. pp. 142–3. • ^ Lowry, Heath (2003). The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. SUNY Press. pp. 90–1. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p.

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146. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 148. • ^ Lindner, Rudi Paul (1983). Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia. Indiana University Press. pp. 29–30. • ^ Imber, Colin (2009). The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power (2 ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

pp. 262–4. • ^ Ágoston, Gábor (2014). "Firearms and Military Adaptation: The Ottomans and the European Military Revolution, 1450–1800". Journal of World History.

25: 88–94. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. pp. 93–4. the rise of ottoman ^ Lowry, Heath (2003). The Nature of the Early Ottoman State.

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SUNY Press. pp. 15–25. • ^ Kermeli, Eugenia (2009). "Osman I". In Ágoston, Gábor; Bruce Masters (eds.). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire.

p. 444. Reliable information regarding Osman is scarce. His birth date is unknown and his symbolic significance as the father of the dynasty has encouraged the development of mythic tales regarding the ruler’s life and origins, however, historians agree that before 1300, Osman was simply one among a number of Turkoman tribal leaders operating in the Sakarya region.

• Lindner, Rudi P. (1983). Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-933070-12-8. The chronology of Osman's activities until 1302 cannot be accurately determined.

• ^ Finkel, Caroline. Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1923. p. 2. • ^ Imber, Colin (2009). The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power (2 ed.).

New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 8. • Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 129. Of [military undertakings] we know nothing with certainty until the Battle of Bapheus, Osman's triumphant confrontation with a Byzantine force in 1301 (or 1302), which is the first datable incident in his life.

• ^ Imber, Colin (2009). The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power (2 ed.). New The rise of ottoman Palgrave Macmillan. p. 8. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995).

Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. pp. 128–9. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 126. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 127. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 128.

• ^ Imber, Colin (2009). The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power (2 ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 8–9. • ^ a b Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 16. • ^ Imber, Colin (2009). The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power (2 ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 9. • ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State.

p. 138. • ^ "In 1363 the Ottoman capital moved from Bursa to Edirne, although Bursa retained its spiritual and economic importance." Ottoman Capital Bursa. Official website of Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Turkey. Retrieved 19 December 2014. • ^ a b Fine (1994), pp.

409–11 • ^ Daniel Waley; Peter Denley (2013). Later Medieval Europe: 1250-1520. Routledge. p. 255. ISBN 978-1-317-89018-8. The outcome of the battle itself was inconclusive. • ^ Isabelle Dierauer (16 May 2013). Disequilibrium, Polarization, and Crisis Model: An International Relations Theory Explaining Conflict. University Press of America.

p. 88. ISBN 978-0-7618-6106-5. Bibliography [ edit ] • Ágoston, Gábor; Bruce Masters, eds. (2009). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-8160-6259-1.

• Finkel, Caroline (2005). Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1923. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-02396-7. • Imber, Colin (2009). The Ottoman Empire, 1300–1650: The Structure of Power (Second ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-1370-1406-1.

• Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20600-7. • Kafadar, Cemal (2007). "A Rome of One's Own: Cultural Geography and Identity in the Lands of Rum". Muqarnas. 24: 7–25.

• Lindner, Rudi P. (1983). Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-933070-12-8. • Lowry, The rise of ottoman (2003). The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. Albany: SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-5636-6. • Murphey, Rhoads (2008).

Exploring Ottoman Sovereignty: Tradition, Image, and Practice in the Ottoman Imperial Household, 1400-1800. London: Continuum. ISBN 978-1-84725-220-3. • Schamiloglu, Uli (2004). "The Rise of the Ottoman Empire: The Black Death in Medieval Anatolia and its Impact on Turkish Civilization".

In Yavari, Neguin; Lawrence G. Potter; Jean-Marc Ran Oppenheim (eds.). Views From the Edge: Essays in Honor of Richard W. Bulliet. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-23113472-X. • Wittek, Paul (1938). The Rise of the Ottoman Empire. Royal Asiatic Society. • Zachariadou, Elizabeth, ed. (1991). The Ottoman Emirate (1300-1389). Rethymnon: Crete University Press. Further reading [ edit ] Surveys [ edit ] • Howard, Douglas The rise of ottoman.

(2017). A History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-72730-3. • Finkel, Caroline (2005). Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1923. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-02396-7. • Imber, Colin (2009). The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power (2 ed.).

New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-57451-9. State formation [ edit ] • Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. University of California Press.

ISBN 978-0-520-20600-7. • Lowry, Heath (2003). The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-5636-6. • Ottoman dynasty • List of Ottoman sultans • Ottoman Caliphate • Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques • Imperial Harem • Valide sultan • Haseki sultan • Kadınefendi • Hanımefendi • List of Ottoman sultans' mothers • List of Ottoman sultans' consorts • Kizlar Agha • Inner Palace Service • Kapi Agha • Palace Schools Central ( Porte) Hidden categories: • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Articles needing additional references from November 2007 • All articles needing additional references • Articles containing Turkish-language text • All articles with unsourced statements • Articles with unsourced statements from September 2016 • Articles needing additional references from September 2016 • All articles lacking reliable references • Articles lacking reliable references from September 2016 • Articles needing additional references from October 2016 • Articles with unsourced statements from February 2009 • Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019 • Articles with LCCN identifiers Edit links • This page was last edited on 1 September 2021, at 04:58 (UTC).

• Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 the rise of ottoman additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • •
Contents • Origins of the Ottoman Empire • Rise of the Ottoman Empire • What Countries Were Part of the Ottoman Empire?

• Ottoman Art and Science • Fratricide • Topkapi • The Ottoman Empire and Other Religions • Devshirme • Decline of the Ottoman Empire • When Did the Ottoman Empire Fall? • Armenian Genocide • The Ottoman Legacy • Sources The Ottoman Empire was one of the mightiest and longest-lasting dynasties in world history.

This Islamic-run superpower ruled large areas of the Middle East, Eastern Europe and North Africa for more than 600 years. The chief leader, known as the Sultan, was given absolute religious and political authority over his people. While Western Europeans generally viewed them as a threat, many historians regard the Ottoman Empire as a source of great regional stability and security, as well as important achievements in the arts, science, religion and culture.

Origins of the Ottoman Empire Osman I, a leader of the Turkish tribes in Anatolia, founded the Ottoman Empire around 1299. The term “Ottoman” is derived from Osman’s name, which was “Uthman” in Arabic.

the rise of ottoman

The Ottoman Turks set up a formal government and expanded their territory under the leadership of Osman I, Orhan, Murad I and Bayezid I. In 1453, Mehmed II the Conqueror led the Ottoman Turks in seizing the ancient city of Constantinople, the Byzantine Empire’s capital.

This put an end to 1,000-year reign of the Byzantine Empire. Rise of the Ottoman Empire By 1517, Bayezid’s son, Selim I, brought Syria, Arabia, Palestine, and Egypt under Ottoman control.

The Ottoman Empire reached its peak between 1520 and 1566, during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. This period was marked by great power, stability and wealth. Suleiman created a uniform system of law and welcomed different forms of arts and literature. Many Muslims considered Suleiman a religious leader as well as a political ruler. Throughout Sultan Suleiman’s rule, the empire expanded and included areas of Eastern Europe.

What Countries Were Part of the Ottoman Empire? At its height, the Ottoman Empire included the following regions: • Turkey • Greece • Bulgaria • Egypt • Hungary • Macedonia the rise of ottoman Romania • Jordan • Palestine • Lebanon • Syria • Some of Arabia • A considerable amount of the North African coastal strip Ottoman Art and Science The Ottomans were known for their achievements in art, science and medicine.

Istanbul and other major cities throughout the empire were recognized as artistic hubs, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. Some of the most popular forms of art included calligraphy, painting, poetry, textiles and carpet weaving, ceramics and music.

Ottoman architecture also helped define the culture of the time. Elaborate mosques and public buildings were constructed during this period. Science was regarded as an important field of study. The Ottomans learned and practiced advanced mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, physics, geography and chemistry.

Additionally, some of the greatest advances the rise of ottoman medicine were made by the Ottomans. They invented several surgical instruments that are still used today, such as forceps, catheters, scalpels, pincers and lancets. Fratricide Under Sultan Selim, a new policy emerged, which included fratricide, or the murder of brothers.

When a new Sultan was crowned, his brothers would be imprisoned. When the Sultan’s first son was born, his brothers and their sons would be killed. This system ensured that the rightful heir would take the throne. But, not every Sultan followed this harsh ritual.

Over time, the practice evolved. In the later years, the brothers would only be put in prison—not killed. Topkapi A total of 36 Sultans ruled the Ottoman Empire between 1299 and 1922.

For many of these years, the Ottoman Sultan would live in the elaborate Topkapi palace complex in Istanbul. It contained dozens of gardens, courtyards and residential and administrative buildings. Inside Theodore Roosevelt's Gilded Age Upbringing Part of the Topkapi palace included the harem, a separate quarters reserved for wives, concubines and female slaves.

These women were positioned to serve the Sultan, while the men in the harem complex were typically eunuchs. The threat of assassination was always a concern for a Sultan. He relocated every night as a safety measure.

the rise of ottoman

The Ottoman Empire and Other Religions Most scholars agree that the Ottoman Turk rulers were tolerant of other religions. Those who weren’t Muslim were categorized by the millet system, a community structure that gave minority groups a limited amount of power to control their own affairs while still under Ottoman rule. Some millets paid taxes, while others were exempt. Devshirme In the 14th century, the devshirme system was created.

This required conquered Christians to give up 20 percent of their male children to the state. The children were forced to convert to Islam and become slaves. Although they served as slaves, some of the converts became powerful and wealthy. Many were trained for government service or the Ottoman military. The elite military group, known as the Janissaries, was primarily made up of forced Christian converts.

The devshirme system lasted until the end of the 17th century. Decline of the Ottoman Empire Starting in the 1600s, the Ottoman Empire began to lose its economic and military dominance to Europe. Around this time, Europe had strengthened rapidly with the Renaissance and the dawn of the Industrial Revolution.

Other factors, such as poor leadership and having to compete with trade from the Americas and India, led to the weakening of the empire. In 1683, the Ottoman Turks were defeated at the Battle of Vienna. This loss added to their already waning status. Over the next hundred years, the empire began to lose key regions of land.

After a revolt, Greece won their independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830. In 1878, the Congress of Berlin declared the independence of Romania, Serbia and Bulgaria. During the Balkan Wars, the rise of ottoman took place in 1912 and 1913, the Ottoman Empire lost nearly all their territories in Europe. When Did the Ottoman Empire Fall? At the start of World War I, the Ottoman Empire was already in decline. The Ottoman army entered the war in 1914 on the side of the Central Powers (including Germany and Austria-Hungary) and were defeated in October 1918.

Following the Armistice of Mudros, most Ottoman territories were divided between Britain, France, Greece and Russia. The Ottoman empire officially ended in 1922 when the title of Ottoman Sultan was eliminated. Turkey was declared a republic on October 29, 1923, when Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938), an army officer, founded the independent Republic of Turkey.

He then served as Turkey’s first president from 1923 until his death in 1938, implementing reforms that rapidly secularized and westernized the country. Armenian Genocide The Armenian Genocide was perhaps the most controversial and damning event associated with the Ottomans. For years, the Turkish government has denied responsibility for a genocide. In fact, it’s illegal, even today, to talk about the Armenian Genocide in Turkey.

The Ottoman Legacy After ruling for more than 600 years, the Ottoman Turks are often remembered for their powerful military, ethnic diversity, artistic ventures, religious tolerance and architectural marvels.

The mighty empire’s influence is still very much alive in the present-day Turkish Republic, a modern, mostly secular nation thought of by many scholars as a continuation of the Ottoman Empire. Sources The Ottoman Empire, BBC.

History, Ottoman Legacy in the Turkish History, 8 Things You The rise of ottoman to Know About the Mass Killings of Armenians 100 Years Ago, CNN. Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire was a vast and powerful civilization with origins that can be traced to 330 A.D., when the Roman emperor Constantine I dedicated a “New Rome” on the site of the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium. Though the western half of the Roman Empire crumbled and fell .read more Six Reasons Why the Ottoman Empire Fell At its peak in the 1500s, the Ottoman Empire was one of the biggest military and economic powers in the world, controlling an expanse that included not just its base in Asia Minor but also much of southeastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa.

The empire controlled .read more Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938) was an army officer who founded an independent Republic of Turkey out of the ruins of the Ottoman Empire. He then served as Turkey’s first president from 1923 until his death in 1938, implementing reforms that rapidly secularized and westernized .read more Constantinople Constantinople is an ancient city in modern-day Turkey that’s now known as Istanbul. First settled in the seventh century B.C., Constantinople developed into a thriving port thanks to its prime geographic location between Europe and Asia and its natural harbor.

In 330 A.D., it .read the rise of ottoman Persian Empire The Persian Empire is the name given to a series of dynasties centered in modern-day Iran that spanned several centuries—from the sixth century B.C. to the twentieth century A.D. The first Persian Empire, founded by Cyrus the Great around 550 B.C., became one of the largest .read more Ancient Rome Beginning in the eighth century B.C., Ancient Rome grew from a small town on central Italy’s Tiber River into an empire that at its peak encompassed most of continental Europe, Britain, much of western Asia, northern Africa and the Mediterranean islands.

Among the many legacies .read more Armenian Genocide The Armenian genocide was the systematic killing and deportation of Armenians by the Turks of the Ottoman Empire. In 1915, during World War I, leaders of the The rise of ottoman government set in motion a plan to expel and massacre Armenians. By the early 1920s, when the massacres and .read more

Best Scene Rise of the Empire Ottoman Netflix Turkish English Web series Sultan Mehmed The conqueror