Genre angst adalah

genre angst adalah

the Who Released 17 May 1969 ( 1969-05-17) Recorded 19 September 1968 – 7 March 1969 Genre angst adalah IBC, London Genre Hard rock Length 75: 15 Label Track (UK) • Decca (US) Producer Kit Lambert The Who UK chronology Direct Hits (1968) Tommy (1969) Live at Leeds (1970) The Who US chronology Magic Bus: The Who On Tour (1968) Tommy (1969) Genre angst adalah at Leeds (1970) Singles from Tommy • " Pinball Wizard" / "Dogs (Part Two)" Released: 7 March 1969 • " I'm Free" / " We're Not Gonna Take It" Released: July 1969 • " See Me, Feel Me" / " Overture from Tommy" Released: October 1970 Tommy is the fourth studio album by the English rock band the Who, a double album first released on 17 May 1969.

The album was mostly composed by guitarist Pete Townshend, and is a rock opera that tells the story of Tommy Walker, a "deaf, dumb and blind" boy, including his experiences with life and his relationship with his family. Townshend came up with the concept of Tommy after being introduced to the work of Meher Baba, and attempted to translate Baba's teachings into music. Recording on the album began genre angst adalah September 1968, but took six months to complete as material needed to be arranged and re-recorded in the studio.

Tommy was acclaimed upon its release by critics, who hailed it as the Who's breakthrough. Its critical standing diminished slightly in later years; nonetheless, several writers view it as an important and influential album in the history of rock music.

The Who promoted the album's release with an extensive tour, including a live version of Tommy, which lasted throughout 1969 and 1970. Key gigs from the tour included appearances at Woodstock, the 1969 Isle of Wight Festival, the University of Leeds, the Metropolitan Opera House, and the 1970 Isle of Wight Festival. The live performances of Tommy drew critical praise and revitalized the band's career.

Subsequently, the rock opera developed into other media, including a Seattle Opera production in 1971, an orchestral version by Lou Reizner in 1972, a film in 1975, and a Broadway musical in 1992.

The original album has sold 20 million copies and has been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. It has been reissued several times on CD, including a remix by Jon Astley in 1996, a deluxe Super Audio CD in 2003, and a super deluxe box set in 2013, including previously unreleased demos and live material. Contents • 1 Synopsis • 2 Background • 3 Recording • 4 Release and reception • 5 Legacy and reappraisal • 6 Editions and cover art • 7 Live performances • 8 Other incarnations • 8.1 1970 Les Grands Ballets Canadiens • 8.2 1971 Seattle Opera production • 8.3 London Symphony Orchestra version • 8.4 1975 film • 8.5 Broadway musical • 9 Track listing • 9.1 2003 bonus disc: Demos and outtakes • 9.2 2013 live disc • 10 B-sides • 11 Personnel • 12 Charts • 13 Certifications • 14 See also • 15 References • 15.1 Bibliography • 16 Further reading • 17 External links Synopsis [ edit ] Tommy has never had a definitive plot, but the following synopsis was published following the original album's release.

[1] British Army Captain Walker goes missing during an expedition and is believed dead (" Overture"). His wife, Mrs. Walker, gives birth to their son, Tommy ("It's a Boy"). Years later, Captain Walker returns home and discovers that his wife has found a new lover. Genre angst adalah Captain kills the lover in an altercation.

Tommy's mother brainwashes Tommy into believing he did not see or hear anything, shutting down his senses and making him deaf, dumb and blind to the outside world ("1921"). Tommy now relies on his sense of touch and imagination, developing an inner psyche ("Amazing Journey/Sparks"). [2] A quack claims his wife can cure Tommy (" The Hawker"), while Tommy's parents are increasingly frustrated that he will never find religion in the midst of his isolation ("Christmas"). They begin to neglect him, leaving him to be tortured by his sadistic "Cousin Kevin" and molested by his uncle Ernie ("Fiddle About").

The Hawker's drug-addicted wife, " The Acid Queen", gives Tommy a dose of LSD, causing a hallucinogenic experience that is expressed musically ("Underture"). [2] As Tommy grows older, he discovers that he can feel vibrations sufficiently well to become an expert pinball player (" Pinball Wizard").

genre angst adalah

His parents take him to a respected doctor ("There's a Doctor"), who determines that the boy's disabilities are psychosomatic rather than physical. Tommy is told by the Doctor to " Go to the Mirror!", and his parents notice he can stare at his reflection.

After seeing Tommy spend extended periods staring at a mirror in the house, his mother smashes it out of frustration ("Smash the Mirror"). This removes Tommy's mental block, and he recovers his senses, realising he can become a powerful leader ("Sensation"). He starts a religious movement (" I'm Free"), which generates fervor among its adherents ("Sally Simpson") and expands into a holiday camp ("Welcome" / "Tommy's Holiday Camp").

However, Tommy's followers ultimately reject his teachings and leave the camp (" We're Not Gonna Take It"). Tommy retreats inward again (" See Me, Feel Me") with his "continuing statement of wonder at that which encompasses him". [2] Background [ edit ] Townshend had been looking at ways of progressing beyond the standard three-minute pop single format since 1966.

[3] Co-manager Kit Lambert shared Townshend's views and encouraged him to develop musical ideas, [4] coming up with the term " rock opera". The first use of the term was applied to a suite called "Quads", set in a future where parents could choose the sex of their children. A couple want four girls but instead receive three girls and a boy, raising him as a girl anyway.

The opera was abandoned after writing a single song, the hit single, " I'm a Boy". [5] When the Who's second album, A Quick One, ran short of material during recording, Lambert suggested that Townshend should write a "mini-opera" to fill the gap. Townshend initially objected, but eventually agreed to do so, coming up with " A Quick One, While He's Away", which joined short pieces of music together into a continuous narrative.

genre angst adalah During 1967, Townshend learned how to play the piano and began writing songs on it, taking his work more seriously. [7] That year's The Who Sell Out included a mini-opera in the last track, "Rael", which like "A Quick One ." was a suite of musical segments joined.

[8] The package I hope is going to be called "Deaf, Dumb and Blind Boy." It's a story about a kid that's born deaf, dumb and blind and what happens to him throughout his life . But what it's really all about is the fact that . he's seeing things basically as vibrations which we translate as music. That's really what we want to do: create this feeling that when you listen to the music you can actually become aware of the boy, and aware of what he is all about, because we are creating him as we play." Pete Townshend talking to Jann Wenner, August 1968 [9] By 1968, Townshend was unsure about how the Who should progress musically.

The group were no longer teenagers, but he wanted their music to remain relevant. [10] His friend, International Times art director Mike McInnerney, told him about the Genre angst adalah spiritual mentor Meher Baba, [11] and Townshend became fascinated with Baba's values of compassion, love and introspection. [12] The Who's commercial success was on the wane after the single "Dogs" failed to make the top 20, and there was a genuine risk of the band breaking up.

[13] The group still performed well live and spent most of the spring and summer touring the US and Canada, [14] but their stage act relied on Townshend smashing his guitar or Keith Moon demolishing his drums, which kept the group in debt.

Townshend and Kit Lambert realised they needed a larger vehicle for their music than hit singles and a new stage show, and Townshend hoped to incorporate his love of Meher Baba into this concept. [15] He decided that the Who should record a series of songs that stood well in genre angst adalah, but formed a cohesive whole on the album. He also wanted the material performed in concert, to counter the trend of bands like the Beatles and the Beach Boys producing studio output that was not designed for live performance.

[16] In August 1968, in an interview to Rolling Stone, Townshend talked about a new rock opera, which had the working title of Deaf, Dumb and Blind Boy, and described the entire plot in great genre angst adalah, which ran to 11 pages. [17] The Who biographer Dave Marsh subsequently said the interview described the narrative better than the finished album. [18] Townshend later regretted publishing so much detail, as he felt it forced him to write the album according to that blueprint.

[19] The rest of the Who, however, were enthusiastic about the idea, and let him have artistic control over the project. [20] Recording [ edit ] The Who started recording the album at IBC Studios on 19 September 1968.

[21] There was no firm title at this point, which was variously referred to as Deaf, Dumb and Blind Boy, Amazing Journey, Journey into Space, The Brain Opera and Omnibus. Townshend eventually settled on Tommy because it was a common British name, and a nickname for soldiers in the First World War.

[22] Kit Lambert took charge of the production, with Damon Lyon-Shaw as engineer. Sessions were block-booked from 2pm – 10pm, but recording often spilled over into the early morning. [21] The album was recorded using an eight-track system, which allowed various instruments to be overdubbed.

Townshend used several guitars in the studio, but genre angst adalah particular use of the Gibson J-200 acoustic and the Gibson SG. [23] As well as their usual instruments, Townshend played piano and organ and bassist John Entwistle doubled on french horn.

Keith Moon used a new genre angst adalah bass drum kit owned by roadie Tony Haslam, after Premier had refused to loan him any more equipment due to the items repeatedly being abused.

[21] Though Townshend wrote the majority of the material, the arrangements came from the entire band. Singer Roger Daltrey later said that Townshend often came in with a half-finished demo recording, adding "we probably did as much talking as we did recording, sorting out arrangements and things." [24] Townshend asked Genre angst adalah to write two songs ("Cousin Kevin" and "Fiddle About") that covered the darker themes of bullying and abuse.

"Tommy's Holiday Camp" was Keith Moon's suggestion of what kind of religious movement Tommy could lead. Moon got the songwriting credit for suggesting the idea, though the music was composed and played by Townshend.

[25] A significant amount of material had a lighter style than earlier recordings, with greater prominence put on the vocals. Moon later said, "It was, at the time, genre angst adalah un-Wholike.

A lot of the songs were soft. We never played like that." [26] Some of the material had already been written for other projects. "Sensation" was written about a girl Townshend had met on the Who's tour of Australia in early 1968, "Welcome" and " I'm Free" were about peace found through Meher Baba and "Sally Simpson" was based on a gig with the Doors which was marred by violence.

[27] Other songs had been previously recorded by the Who and were recycled; "It's A Boy" was derived from "Glow Girl", an out-take from The Who Sell Out, while "Sparks" and "Underture" re-used and expanded one of the instrumental themes in "Rael". [28] "Amazing Journey" was, according to Townshend, "the absolute beginning" of the opera and summarised the entire plot. [28] "The Hawker" was a cover of Sonny Boy Williamson's "Eyesight to the Blind".

A cover of Mercy Dee Walton's "One Room Country Shack" was also recorded but was scrapped from the final track listing as Townshend could not figure out a way to incorporate it in the plot. [29] Recording at IBC was slow, due to a lack of a full plot and a full selection of songs. The group hoped that the album would be ready by Christmas, but sessions dragged on.

Melody Maker 's Chris Welch visited IBC studios in November and while he was impressed with the working environment and the material, [30] the project still did not have a title and there was no coherent plotline. [25] The Who's US record company, Decca Records, got so impatient waiting for new product that they released the compilation album Magic Bus: The Who on Tour which received a scathing review from Greil Marcus in Rolling Stone over its poor selection of material and misleading name (as the album contained studio recordings and was not live).

[31] The Who took a break from recording at the end of 1968 to tour, including a well received appearance at The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus on 10 December.

[32] They resumed sessions at IBC in January 1969, block booking Monday to Thursday, but had to do gigs every weekend to stop going further into debt. [33] A major tour was booked for the end of April, and the group's management insisted that the album would have to be finished by then, as it had been well over a year since The Who Sell Out.

[34] Kit Lambert wrote a script, Tommy (1914–1984) which he professionally printed, and gave copies to the band, which helped them focus the storyline, and also decide to make the album a double. [33] The group were still coming up with new material; Lambert insisted that the piece should have a proper overture, [34] genre angst adalah Townshend wrote " Pinball Wizard" so that Nik Cohn, a pinball fan, would give the album a favourable review in the New York Times.

[35] Lambert wanted an orchestra to appear on the album, but Townshend was strongly against the idea, and time and budget constraints meant it could not happen anyway.

[34] By March 1969, some songs had been recorded several times, yet Townshend still thought there were missing pieces. [36] Entwistle had become fed up with recording, later saying "we had to keep going back and rejuvenating the numbers . it just started to drive us mad." [23] The final recording session took place on 7 March, the same day that "Pinball Wizard" was released as a single. [37] The group started tour rehearsals and promotional activities for the single and Lambert went on holiday in Cairo.

The mixing was left to Damon Lyon-Shaw and assistant engineer Ted Sharp, who did not think IBC was well suited for the task. [38] The album overshot its April deadline, as stereo mastering continued into the end of the month. [39] Release and reception [ edit ] After delays surrounding the cover artwork, Tommy was released on 17 May 1969 in the US by Decca and 23 May in the UK by Track Records.

[40] The original double album was configured with sides 1 and 4 on one disc, and sides 2 and 3 on the other, to accommodate record changers. [41] The album was commercially successful, reaching No. 2 in the UK album charts. It peaked at No. 7 in the US in 1969, [42] but in 1970 it re-entered the charts, at which time it went on to peak at No.

4. [43] It sold 200,000 copies in the first two weeks in the US alone, and was awarded a gold record for sales of 500,000 on 18 August. [44] " Pinball Wizard", " I'm Free" and " See Me, Feel Me" were released as singles and received airplay on the radio.

"Pinball Wizard" reached the top 20 in the US and the top five in the UK. "See Me, Feel Me" reached the top 20 in the US and "I'm Free" reached the top 40. An EP of selections from the album was planned to be released in the UK in November 1970, but was withdrawn.

[45] As of 2012, Tommy has sold 20 million copies worldwide. [23] [46] When it was released, critics were split between those who thought the album was a masterpiece, the beginnings of a new genre, and those that felt it was exploitative. The album had a hostile reception with the BBC and certain US radio stations, with Tony Blackburn describing " Pinball Wizard" as "distasteful".

[39] Nevertheless, BBC Radio 1 received an advance copy of the album at the start of May and gave the material its first airplay on Pete Drummond's show on 3 May. [41] Townshend promoted the album's release with interviews in which he attempted to explain the plotline.

genre angst adalah

Unfortunately, because it fundamentally dealt with the abstract concept of Meher Baba's spiritual precepts, the genre angst adalah often gave confusing and contradictory details.

[47] For Melody Maker, Chris Welch went to the album's press launch show at Ronnie Scott's and although the volume left his ears ringing for 20 hours, he concluded "we wanted more." Disc and Music Echo ran a front-page headline saying "Who's Tommy: A Masterpiece".

[44] Critics and fans were confused by the storyline, but Kit Lambert pointed out this made Tommy no less confusing than the operas of Richard Wagner or Giacomo Puccini a century earlier. [48] In a 1969 column for The Village Voice, music critic Robert Christgau said that, apart from the Mothers of Invention's We're Only in It for the Money, Tommy is the first successful "extended work" in rock music, but Townshend's parodic side is more "profound and equivocal" than Frank Zappa.

He praised Townshend for deliberately constructing the album so that each song can be enjoyed individually and felt that he is determined to "give his audience what it wants without burying his own peculiarity". [49] Albert Goldman, writing in Life magazine, said that the Who play through "all the kinky complications" of the narrative in a hard rock style that is the antithesis of most contemporary "serious" rock.

Goldman asserted that, based on innovation, performance, and "sheer power", Tommy surpasses anything else in studio-recorded rock. [50] Robert Christgau named Tommy the best album of 1969 in his year-end list for Jazz & Pop magazine. [51] Legacy and reappraisal [ edit ] Genre angst adalah professional reviews Review scores Source Rating AllMusic [52] Encyclopedia of Popular Music [53] MusicHound Rock 4/5 [54] Q [55] Robert Christgau A– [56] Rolling Stone [57] The Rolling Stone Album Guide [58] Tom Hull – on the Web A– [59] Uncut [60] According to music journalist Richie Unterberger, Tommy was hailed by contemporary genre angst adalah as the Who's breakthrough".

[52] Robert Christgau wrote in 1983, " Tommy 's operatic pretensions were so transparent that for years it seemed safe to guess that Townshend's musical ideas would never catch up with his lyrics." [61] In his review for AllMusic, Unterberger said that, despite its slight flaws, the album has "many excellent songs" permeated with "a suitably powerful grace", while Townshend's ability to devise a lengthy narrative introduced "new possibilities to rock music." [52] Uncut wrote that the album "doesn't quite realise its ambitions, though it achieves a lot on the way", and felt it was not as well developed as their later album, Quadrophenia.

[60] Mark Kemp, writing in The Rolling Stone Album Guide (2004), felt that "in retrospect, Tommy isn't quite the masterpiece it was originally hyped to be", suggesting The Who Sell Out was better, though because of Townshend, it produced several "bona fide classic songs".

[62] "Rock opera may seem like a laughable concept these days, but when the Who brought it to the world via Tommy in 1969, it was an unmatched thrill", writes Mac Randall of Rolling Stone in 2004 in a more positive appraisal.

"Almost thirty-five years later, this classic-rock touchstone still has the power to enthrall." [63] In genre angst adalah, the genre angst adalah was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame for "historical, artistic and significant value". [46] In 2000 it was voted number 52 in Colin Larkin's All Time Top 1000 Albums.

[64] Genre angst adalah 2003, Rolling Stone magazine ranked Tommy number 96 on genre angst adalah list of the 500 greatest albums of all time, [65] it maintainined the rating in a 2012 revised list, [66] and was re-ranked at number 190 on the 2020 list.

[67] The album is one of several by the Who to appear in 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die. [68] According to Acclaimed Music, it is the 132nd most ranked record on critics' all-time lists. [69] According to music critic Martha Bayles, Tommy did not mix rock with classical music, as its "rock opera" title may have suggested, but instead was "dominated by the Who's mature style: ponderous, rhythmically monotonous hard rock".

[70] Bayles argued that it was more acceptable to audiences than the art rock "concoctions" of the time because of the cultural climate during the late 1960s: " Tommy was considered more authentic, precisely because it consists of hard rock, rather than doctored-up Mussorgsky . and avoids the typical pseudoromantic themes of art rock (fairy-tale bliss and apocalyptic angst) in favor of the more up-to-date subject of popular culture itself." [70] High Fidelity magazine also characterized the Who's album as a "reasonably hard-rock version" of the opera.

[71] Dave Marsh thought the problem with the album's narrative is that there isn't enough transitional material provided by the lyrics. There are genre angst adalah stage directions, no cast, and narration is restricted to key phrases (such as "Tommy can you hear me?") [47] Key problems included an unclear explanation of what Tommy didn't hear or see in "1921", how or why he plays pinball, why "Smash the Mirror" leads into "I overwhelm as I approach you" (the opening line in "Sensation"), why Tommy tells his followers in "We're Not Gonna Take It" they cannot drink or smoke but can play pinball, and what the "you" is in "Listening to you, I get the music".

[72] Editions and cover art [ edit ] Tommy was originally released as a two- LP set with artwork designed by Mike McInnerney, which included a booklet including lyrics and images to illustrate parts of the story. Townshend asked McInnerney to do the cover artwork for Tommy in September 1968.

[73] Townshend had originally considered Alan Aldridge for the cover. [73] The cover is presented as part of a triptych-style fold-out cover, and the booklet contained abstract artwork that outlined the story. [1] Although the album included lyrics to all the songs, indicating individual characters, it did genre angst adalah outline the plot, which led to a concert programme being prepared for shows, that carried a detailed synopsis. genre angst adalah Townshend thought Mike McInnerney, a fellow follower of Meher Baba, would be a suitable choice to do the cover.

As recording was near completion, McInnerney received a number of cassettes with completed songs and a brief outline for the story, which he immediately recognised as being based on Baba's genre angst adalah. [74] He wanted to try and convey the world of a deaf, dumb and blind boy, and decided to "depict a kind of breaking out of a certain restricted plane into freedom." [75] The finished cover contained a blue and white web of clouds, a fist punching into the black void to the left of it.

The inner triptych, meanwhile, showed a hand reaching out to light and a light shining in a dark void. [75] Townshend was too busy finishing the recording to properly approve the artwork, but Kit Lambert strongly approved of it, and said it would work.

The final step was for genre angst adalah company approval from Polydor, making one concession that pictures of the band should appear on the cover. These were added to the globe on the front. [76] These pictures were later removed on the 1996 CD remastered reissue. [77] Tommy was first genre angst adalah on CD in 1984 as a two disc set. [78] Mobile Fidelity Sound Lab subsequently released a special single-disc edition of the album in 1990, featuring an alternate take of "Eyesight to the Blind" and a low volume extensive break on the glass in "Smash The Mirror".

[79] It was also remastered by Erick Labson for single disc release in 1993. [80] Polydor and MCA released a newly remastered version on single disc in 1996, which had been remixed by Jon Astley. Astley was able to access the original 8 track tapes and bring out instruments that had been buried, such as the guitar in "Christmas", the French horn in "Sparks", the cymbals in " The Acid Queen" and the organ in "We're Not Gonna Take it".

[81] This release came with Mike McInnerney's complete artwork and a written introduction by Richard Barnes. [76] For this edition, the cover was revised to remove The Who's faces, which were originally placed at the request of the record label. [77] In 2003 Tommy was made available as a deluxe two-disc hybrid Super Audio CD with a 5.1 multi-channel mix.

The remastering was done under the supervision of Townshend and also includes related material not on the original album, including "Dogs-Part 2" (the B-Side to "Pinball Wizard"), "Cousin Kevin Model Child" and "Young Man Blues", plus demos for the album and other unreleased songs that were dropped from the final running order.

[82] Rolling Stone considered the disc sonically "murkier" than the 1996 CD and was critical of the absence of the original libretto. [63] In 2013, a super deluxe version of Tommy was released as a 3-CD / Blu-ray box set. As well as the original album, the package includes additional demos, and a live performance mostly taken from the Who's show at the Capital Theatre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada on 15 October 1969.

The live disc was significant, as it debunked a long-standing myth that the tapes for the tour were burned in preference for the Leeds University show in February 1970 that made up Live at Leeds.

[83] Live performances [ edit ] Main article: Tommy Tour The Who had planned to perform Tommy live since starting the project. The group spent April 1969 rehearsing a live version of the show at the Hanwell Community Centre in Ealing including a final run down of the entire stage piece on 23 April. [39] The running order was changed, and four songs ("Cousin Kevin", "Underture", "Sensation" and "Welcome") were dropped entirely.

[84] Townshend later said the group "did the whole thing from start to finish and that was when we first realized we had something cohesive and playable." [85] Roger Daltrey's voice had improved substantially since the group's early tours, and they realised their new live act could completely change their career.

[39] After a few warm up gigs towards the end of April, [41] the group gave a preview concert to the press at Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club, London on 1 May. Realising the opera's narrative was difficult to understand, Townshend explained a synopsis of the story, before the Who played Tommy all the way through at full stage volume. [44] The next day, the group flew out to New York to start the US tour, with the first gig on 9 May at the Grande Ballroom, Detroit.

[41] At the end of May, the group genre angst adalah four nights at the Kinetic Playground, Chicago, and they noticed the audience would all stand up at the same time, and stay standing. This indicated that live performances of Tommy had a genre angst adalah positive response.

[86] The group continued to play genre angst adalah halls in the US, organised by tour promoter Frank Barsalona, and generally avoided festivals, [87] but made an important exception with the Woodstock festival on 16 August.

After spending all night arguing with Barsalona, the band agreed to perform at Woodstock for $12,500. [88] The festival ran late and the Who did genre angst adalah take to the stage until the early morning of 17 August. During " Pinball Wizard", Abbie Hoffman took to the stage to protest about the imprisonment of John Sinclair before being kicked offstage by Townshend, while during " See Me, Feel Me", the sun rose, almost as if on cue. [89] Two weeks later, the group played the second Isle of Wight Festival, using one of the largest live PAs available.

[90] Though media attention was on Bob Dylan playing his first major live concert since 1966, the Who stole the show. Townshend later said, "We know that the stage act we had, with Tommy in it, would work under any circumstances, because it had worked many times on tour." [91] By 1970, Tommy had achieved sufficient critical acclaim to be performed live in the Metropolitan Opera House.

Tommy remained in the Who's live set through the rest of the year and into 1970. In October 1969, the Who played six shows at the Fillmore East, where Leonard Bernstein praised them for their new music. [92] The group's show on 14 December at the London Coliseum was filmed for a possible future Tommy feature. [93] Lambert was keen for Tommy to be taken seriously and wanted the Who to perform at opera houses.

[94] In June 1970, the group performed two shows at the Metropolitan Opera House, which was the first time Townshend announced the show as being the "last Tommy ever". [95] The group made a second trip to the Isle of Wight, appearing at the 1970 festival on 29 August, before an audience of 600,000.

[84] The last live performance for 1970 was at The Roundhouse, London on 20 December. Townshend said "This is the very last time we'll play Tommy on stage", to which Keith Moon genre angst adalah cried, "Thank Christ for that!" [96] Public reaction to the Who's concerts that included Tommy was overwhelmingly positive. The touring helped keep the album in the public eye, and cleared the band's debts.

[97] Several live recordings of Tommy from the Who's 1969–70 tours have been released. A complete performance is available on the 2002 Deluxe Edition of the live album Live at Leeds, recorded on 14 February 1970. The second Isle of Wight performance is available on Live at the Isle of Wight Festival 1970, released in 1996. [84] The Coliseum Theatre gig is available on the 2007 video release At Kilburn 1977 + Live at the Coliseum. Portions of the Woodstock performance of Tommy were released on the documentaries Woodstock and The Kids Are Alright.

[98] The complete show was recorded, but has never been officially released. [99] The Who continued to play a smaller selection of Tommy live in subsequent tours throughout the 1970s.

[100] They revived Tommy as a whole for its twentieth anniversary during their 1989 reunion tour, reinstating the previously overlooked "Cousin Kevin" and "Sensation", but still omitting "Underture" and "Welcome".

Recordings from this tour can genre angst adalah found on the Join Together live genre angst adalah and the Tommy and Quadrophenia Live DVD. The Los Angeles version of this show featured Phil Collins as Uncle Ernie, Patti LaBelle as the Acid Queen, Steve Winwood as the Hawker, Elton John as the Pinball Wizard, and Billy Idol as Cousin Kevin.

[101] [102] Other incarnations [ edit ] 1970 Les Grands Ballets Canadiens [ edit ] In 1970 Ferdinand Nault of the Montreal ballet group Les Grands Ballets Canadiens created the first dance-based adaptation of Tommy. [103] The ballet performance toured New York in April 1971, which included a light show and accompanying films by the Quebec Film Bureau.

[104] [105] 1971 Seattle Opera production [ edit ] In 1971, the Seattle Opera under director Richard Pearlman produced the first ever fully staged professional production of Tommy at Seattle's Moore Theatre. The production included Bette Midler playing the role genre angst adalah the Acid Queen and Mrs. Walker, and music by the Syracuse, New York band Comstock, Ltd. [106] London Symphony Orchestra version [ edit ] Main article: Tommy (London Symphony Orchestra album) On 9 December 1972, entrepreneur Lou Reizner genre angst adalah a concert version of Tommy at the Rainbow Theatre, London.

There were two performances that took place on the same evening. The concerts featured the Who, plus a guest cast, backed by the London Symphony Orchestra conducted by David Measham. [107] The concerts were held to promote the release of Reizner's new studio recording of this symphonic version of Tommy.

[108] The album and concerts featured an all-star cast, including Graham Bell (as The Lover), Maggie Bell (as The Mother), Sandy Denny (as The Nurse), Steve Winwood (as The Father), Rod Stewart (as The Local Lad), Richie Havens (as The Hawker), Merry Clayton (as The Acid Queen) and Ringo Starr (as Uncle Ernie).

Townshend played some guitar, but otherwise the music was predominantly orchestral. [109] Richard Harris played the role of the specialist on the record, but he was replaced by Peter Sellers for the stage production. The stage show had a second run on 13 and 14 December 1973 with a different cast including David Essex, Elkie Brooks, Marsha Hunt, Vivian Stanshall, Roy Wood, and Jon Pertwee.

[110] The orchestral version was also performed twice in Australia on 31 March 1973 at Melbourne's Myer Music Bowl and on 1 April at Sydney's Randwick Racecourse. Keith Moon appeared as Uncle Ernie (in Melbourne only), Graham Bell as the Narrator, with local stars Daryl Braithwaite (as Tommy), Billy Thorpe, Doug Parkinson, Wendy Saddington, Jim Keays, Broderick Smith, Colleen Hewett, Linda George, Ross Wilson, Bobby Bright, Ian Meldrum (as Uncle Ernie in Sydney), and a full orchestra.

[111] [112] The Melbourne concert was videotaped, then televised by Channel 7 on 13 April 1973. [113] 1975 film [ edit ] Main article: Tommy (1975 film) In 1975 Tommy was adapted as a film, produced by expatriate Australian entrepreneur Robert Stigwood and directed by British auteur Ken Russell.

The movie version starred Roger Daltrey as Tommy, and featured the other members of the Who, plus a supporting cast that included Ann-Margret as Tommy's mother, Oliver Reed as "the Lover", with appearances by Elton John, Tina Turner, Eric Clapton, Arthur Brown, and Jack Nicholson. Russell insisted on having a known cast, though Townshend wanted people who could sing the material, and was particularly disappointed at not being allowed to cast Stevie Wonder as the Pinball Wizard.

[114] In several cinemas, the film supported a multi-track soundtrack billed as quintaphonic sound, which placed speaker banks in the four quadrants of the house and directly behind the centre of the screen. [115] Townshend also oversaw the production of a soundtrack album, on which the unrecorded orchestral arrangements Kit Lambert had envisaged for the original Tommy LP were realised by the extensive use of synthesizer.

[116] He started work on the soundtrack album immediately after the Who's 1973 US tour in December, and worked genre angst adalah it almost continuously for the next four months.

[114] As well as the Who, the film's music track and the original soundtrack LP also employed several session musicians including Caleb Quaye, Ronnie Wood, Nicky Hopkins, Chris Stainton, and longtime Who associate John "Rabbit" Bundrick. [117] Due to Keith Moon's commitments with the filming of Stardust, Kenney Jones (who would take over as the Who's drummer after Moon's death in 1978) played drums on much of the soundtrack album.

[118] " Pinball Wizard" was a major hit when released as a single. This sequence in the film depicts Elton John being backed by the Who (dressed in pound-note suits); the band portrayed the Pinball Wizard's band for filming, [119] but on the music track and soundtrack album, the music was performed entirely by him and his regular touring band.

[117] Most of the extras were students at Portsmouth Polytechnic and were paid with tickets to a Who concert after filming wrapped. [120] The film and its soundtrack album featured six new songs, all written by Townshend, and an alteration to the running order compared to the original album.

The CD reissue of the film soundtrack also included an additional Overture. [121] Broadway musical [ edit ] Main article: The Who's Tommy In 1991, Townshend broke his wrist in a cycling accident and could not play guitar. Looking for alternative work while recuperating, he responded to a request from the PACE Theatrical Group for the rights to a Broadway musical adaptation of Tommy.

The group introduced him to La Jolla Playhouse director Des McAnuff, and the pair began to develop the musical together. It opened at La Jolla in summer 1992, and was an immediate commercial success. [122] Townshend wrote a new song, "I Believe My Own Eyes", to explain the relationship between Tommy's parents, but otherwise tried to be faithful to the music on genre angst adalah original album.

[123] The musical had a mixed response from critics, [124] while Roger Daltrey and John Entwistle thought the show was too passive. [123] Anthony DeCurtis, writing in Rolling Stone, said the orchestra drummer had "the thankless task of having to reproduce Keith Moon's parts". [125] Townshend and Des McAnuff rewrote parts of the musical when it moved from La Jolla to Broadway, to show a darker side for the title character. [126] McAnuff won a Tony Award in 1993 for Best Director, while Wayne Cilento won the award for Best Choreographer.

[127] The Broadway run lasted from 1993 to 1995. [128] McAnuff revisited Tommy during the 2013 season of the Stratford Shakespeare Festival. [129] Track listing [ edit ] Track names and timings vary across editions; some editions have two tracks merged into one and vice versa.

" See Me, Feel Me", for example, is the second half genre angst adalah "We're Not Gonna Take It", but is its own track as a single and on the 2003 deluxe edition. [79] All tracks are written by Pete Townshend, except where noted. Side one No. Title Writer(s) Lead vocals Length 1.

" Overture" Townshend 3:50 2. "It's a Boy" Townshend 2:07 genre angst adalah. "1921" Townshend, with John Entwistle and Roger Daltrey on chorus 3:14 4. "Amazing Journey" Daltrey 3:25 5. "Sparks" instrumental 3:45 6. " The Hawker" Sonny Boy Williamson II Daltrey 2:15 Total length: 18:36 Side two No.

Title Writer(s) Lead vocals Length 1. " Christmas" Daltrey, Townshend on bridge 5:30 2. "Cousin Kevin" John Entwistle Townshend and Entwistle 4:03 3. " The Acid Queen" Townshend 3:31 4.

"Underture" instrumental 9:55 Total length: 22:59 Side three No. Title Writer(s) Lead vocals Length 1. "Do You Think It's Alright?" Townshend and Daltrey 0:24 2.

"Fiddle About" Entwistle Entwistle 1:26 3. " Pinball Wizard" Daltrey, Townshend on bridge 3:50 4. "There's a Doctor" Townshend, with Entwistle and Daltrey 0:25 5. " Go to the Mirror!" Daltrey, Townshend on bridge 3:50 6.

"Tommy Can You Hear Me?" Townshend, Entwistle, and Daltrey 1:35 7. "Smash the Mirror" Daltrey 1:20 8. "Sensation" Townshend 2:32 Total length: 15:12 Side four No. Title Writer(s) Lead vocals Length 1. "Miracle Cure" Townshend, Entwistle, and Daltrey 0:10 2. "Sally Simpson" Daltrey 4:10 3. " I'm Free" Daltrey 2:40 4. "Welcome" Daltrey, Townshend on bridge, Entwistle on spoken word 4:30 5.

"Tommy's Holiday Camp" Keith Moon Townshend 0:57 6. " We're Not Gonna Take It" Daltrey, with Townshend and Entwistle 6:45 Total length: 19:12 2003 bonus disc: Demos and outtakes [ edit ] This is a CD/SACD hybrid disc containing 5.1 mixes of all but the last five of these tracks • "I Was" – 0:17 • "Christmas" (Outtake 3) – 4:43 • "Cousin Kevin Model Child" – 1:25 • "Young Man Blues" (Version one) ( Allison) – 2:51 • "Tommy Can You Hear Me?" (Alternate version) – 1:59 • "Trying to Get Through" – 2:51 • "Sally Simpson" (Outtake) – 4:09 • "Miss Simpson" – 4:18 • "Welcome" (Take two) – 3:44 • "Tommy's Holiday Camp" (Band's version) – 1:07 • "We're Not Gonna Take It" (Alternate version) – 6:08 • "Dogs (Part Two)" (Moon) – 2:26 • "It's a Boy" – 0:43 • "Amazing Journey" – 3:41 • "Christmas" – 1:55 • "Do You Think It's Alright" – 0:28 • "Pinball Wizard" – 3:46 2013 live disc [ edit ] All tracks are from the Capitol Theatre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 15 October 1969, [130] except for "I'm Free", "Tommy's Holiday Camp", "We're Not Gonna Take It" and "See Me, Feel Me" which are from Swansea City Football Club, 12 June 1976.

[131] • "Overture" (including introduction) – 7:00 • "It's a Boy" – 0:39 • "1921" – 2:29 • "Amazing Journey" – 5:07 • "Sparks" – 2:49 • "The Hawker (Eyesight to the Blind)" – 1:54 • "Christmas" – 3:11 • "The Acid Queen" – 3:30 • "Pinball Wizard" – 2:47 • "Do You Think It's Alright?" – 0:21 • "Fiddle About" – 1:12 • "Tommy, Can You Hear Me?" – 0:55 • "There's a Doctor" – 0:24 • "Go to the Mirror!" – 3:12 • "Smash the Mirror" – 1:10 • "Miracle Cure" – 0:12 • "Sally Simpson" – 4:01 • "I'm Free" – 2:12 • "Tommy's Holiday Camp" – 0:48 • "We're Not Gonna Take It" – 3:28 • "See Me, Feel Me" – 7:51 B-sides [ edit ] Song Single Writer "Dogs Part Two" " Pinball Wizard" Keith Moon Personnel [ edit ] The Who • Roger Daltrey – vocals, harmonica • Pete Townshend – vocals, guitar, keyboards, banjo • John Entwistle – bass, french horn, vocals • Keith Moon – drums, vocals Charts [ edit ] Album Year Chart Peak position 1969 Billboard Pop Albums 4 [132] 1969 UK Chart Albums 2 [133] 1975 UK Chart Albums 37 [134] Singles Year Single Chart Peak position 1969 " Pinball Wizard" Billboard Pop Singles 19 [135] 1969 "Pinball Wizard" UK Genre angst adalah Charts 4 [41] 1969 "Pinball Wizard" Dutch Singles Charts 12 [136] 1969 " I'm Free" Billboard Pop Singles 37 [135] 1969 "I'm Free" Dutch Singles Charts 20 [137] 1970 " See Me, Feel Me" Billboard Pop Singles 12 [138] 1970 "See Me, Feel Me" Dutch Singles Charts 2 [139] Certifications [ edit ] Region Certification Certified units/sales France ( SNEP) [140] Gold 100,000 * Italy ( FIMI) [141] Gold 25,000 * New Zealand ( RMNZ) [142] Gold 7,500 ^ United Kingdom ( BPI) [143] Awarded to the soundtrack to the genre angst adalah too Gold 100,000 ^ United States ( RIAA) [144] 2× Platinum 2,000,000 ^ * Sales figures based on certification alone.

^ Shipments figures based on certification alone. See also [ edit ] • Album era References [ edit ] • ^ a b c Atkins 2000, p. 121. • ^ a b c Atkins 2000, pp. 121–122. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 214. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 215.

• ^ Marsh 1983, p. 217. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 227. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 283. • ^ Marsh 1983, pp. 282, 283. • ^ Marsh 1983, pp. 313, 314. • ^ Marsh 1983, pp. 293–294. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 294. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 296. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 308. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 190. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 309. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 310. • ^ Marsh 1983, pp. 313–316. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 316. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 191. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 192. • ^ a b c Neill & Kent 2002, p.

210. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 317. • ^ a b c Drozdowski, Ted (3 May 2012). "Pinball Wizard: Pete Townshend Finds His Signature Guitar Sound". Gibson Guitars. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 219. • ^ a b Marsh 1983, p. 323. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p.

220. • ^ Marsh 1983, pp. 316, 318. • ^ a b Marsh 1983, p. 318. • ^ Atkins genre angst adalah, p. 114. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 321. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 319,320. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 216. • ^ a b Marsh 1983, p. 324. • ^ a b c Marsh 1983, p. 325. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 221. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 327. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, pp. 227, 228. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 228. • ^ a b c d Neill & Kent 2002, p. 230. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p.

232; Atkins 2000, p. 282. • ^ a b c d e Neill & Kent 2002, p. 231. • ^ "Billboard 200 Chart". Billboard. Retrieved 2 September 2020. • ^ "Billboard, 19 September 1970" (PDF). • ^ a b c Marsh 1983, p. 340. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 421. • ^ a b Perry, Andrew (22 June 2006). "Hope I don't have a heart attack". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 25 May 2010. • ^ a b Marsh 1983, p. 330. • ^ Marsh 1983, p.

329. • ^ Christgau, Robert (12 June 1969). "Whooopee!". The Village Voice. New York. Retrieved 3 July 2013. • ^ "A Grand Opera in Rock".

Life Magazine: 20. 17 October 1969. Retrieved 3 July 2013. • ^ Christgau, Robert (1969). "Robert Christgau's 1969 Jazz & Pop Ballot". Jazz & Pop. Retrieved 17 April 2014. • ^ a b c Unterberger, Richie. "Tommy – The Who". AllMusic. Retrieved 3 July 2013.

• ^ Larkin, Colin (2007). Encyclopedia of Popular Music (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195313734.

genre angst adalah

• ^ Graff & Durchholz 1999, p. 1227. • ^ "Review: Tommy". Q. London: 116–7. March 2004. • ^ Christgau, Robert (27 August 2019). "Xgau Sez". Retrieved 14 March 2020. • ^ Randall, Mac (22 January 2004). "Tommy Deluxe Edition". Rolling Stone. New York. Retrieved 3 July 2013. • ^ Kemp 2004, p. 871. • ^ Hull, Tom (n.d.). "Grade List: The Who". Tom Hull – on the Web. Retrieved 19 July 2020. • ^ a b "Review: Tommy". Uncut. London: 110. March 2004. • ^ Christgau, Robert (25 January 1983).

"Consumer Guide". The Village Voice. New York. Retrieved 3 July 2013. • ^ Kemp 2004, p. 872. • ^ a b Randall, Mac. "Tommy (Deluxe Edition)". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media. Retrieved 19 September 2018. • ^ Colin Larkin (2000). All Time Top 1000 Albums (3rd ed.). Virgin Books.

p. 59. ISBN 0-7535-0493-6. • ^ "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. New York: 118. 11 December 2013. • ^ "500 Greatest Albums of All Time Rolling Stone's definitive list of the 500 greatest albums of all time". Rolling Stone. 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2019. genre angst adalah ^ "Tommy ranked 190th greatest album by Rolling Stone magazine". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2 March 2022. • ^ Dimery, Robert; Lydon, Michael (2011). 1001 Albums: You Must Hear Before You Die.

Hachette UK. p. 455. ISBN 978-1-84403-714-8. • ^ "Tommy ranked 132nd most genre angst adalah album". Acclaimed Music.

Retrieved 2 March 2022. • ^ a b Bayles, Martha (1994). Hole in Our Soul:The Loss of Genre angst adalah and Meaning in American Popular Music. University of Chicago Press. p. 224. ISBN 0-226-03959-5. • ^ "Tommy".

High Fidelity. 23 (6): 418. June 1973. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 332. • ^ a b "Biography". Mike McInnerney. Retrieved 6 October 2019. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 336. • ^ a b Marsh 1983, p. 337. • ^ a b Tommy (Media notes). The Who. Polydor. 531–043–2. {{ cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) ( link) • ^ a b Segretto, Mike (2014).

The Who FAQ: All That's Left to Know About Fifty Years of Maximum R&B. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-480-39253-3. Retrieved 6 October 2019. • ^ "Tommy [Mobile Fidelty]". AllMusic. Retrieved 18 August 2014. • ^ a b Atkins 2000, p. 282. • ^ Tommy (Media notes). The Who. MCA. MCAD-10801. {{ cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) ( link) • ^ Atkins 2000, pp. 120, 121. • ^ JoneUnterbergers, Richie (15 August 2014).

"Tommy [Deluxe Edition]". AllMusic. • ^ "The Who to release Super Deluxe Box Set and Deluxe Edition". The Who (official website). 11 November 2013. Archived from the original on 15 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014. • ^ a b c Atkins 2000, p. 136. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 339. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 343. • ^ Marsh 1983, genre angst adalah.

346. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 348. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 350. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, pp. 239. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 240. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, pp. 241–242. • genre angst adalah Neill & Kent 2002, p. 243. • ^ Graham, Bill; greenfield, Robert (1922). Bill Graham Presents: My Life Inside Rock and Out. Da Capo Press. p. 321. ISBN 978-0-306-81349-8. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 353. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p.

271. • ^ Atkins 2000, p. 137. • ^ Atkins 2000, pp. 127–128. • ^ Atkins 2000, p. 128. • ^ Marsh 1983, p. 391. • ^ "Live:Featuring Rock Opera Tommy". AllMusic. Retrieved 27 September 2013. • ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. " Join Together – The Who". AllMusic. Retrieved 27 September 2013. • ^ "Les Grands Ballets Canadiens de Montreal".

The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 10 October 2014. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 199. • ^ Kisselgoff, Anna (9 February 1981). "Fance: Ballets Canadiens". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2014. • ^ Bargreen, Melinda (22 July 2005). "Glynn Ross, 90, turned Seattle into opera destination". Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, pp. 313–314. • ^ Marsh 1983, p.

400. • ^ Eder, Bruce. "Tommy – As Performed by the London Symphony Orchestra". AllMusic. Retrieved 18 August 2014. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 340. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, pp. 325, 326. • ^ genre angst adalah Australian concert production 1973". Retrieved 13 April 2011. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 326. • ^ a b Marsh 1983, p. 440. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 369. • ^ Marsh 1983, p.

442. • ^ a b Marsh 1983, p. 441. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 344. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 350. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 353. • ^ "Tommy (Original Soundtrack)".

AllMusic. Retrieved 15 August 2014. • ^ Wollman 2006, p. 161. • ^ a b Wollman 2006, p. 165. • ^ Wollman 2006, p. 168. • ^ Wollman 2006, p. 169. • ^ Wollman 2006, p. 166. • ^ Hurwitz, Nathan (2014). A History of the American Musical Theatre: No Business Like It. Routledge. p. 225. ISBN 978-1-317-91205-7. • ^ Washburne, Christopher; Derno, Maiken, eds. (2013). Bad Music: The Music We Love to Hate. Routledge. p. 314. ISBN 978-1-135-38547-7. • ^ "Tommy". Stratford Festival.

Archived from the original on 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 241. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p. 387. • ^ "Artist Chart History – The Who". Allmusic. Retrieved 25 November 2009. • ^ Neill & Kent 2002, p.

232. • ^ "The Official Charts Company – Tommy by The Who Search". The Official Charts Company. 6 May 2013. • ^ a b "The Who Billboard singles". AllMusic. Retrieved 28 November 2011. • ^ "Pinball Wizard". Hung Medien / Retrieved 28 November 2011. • ^ "I'm Free". Hung Medien / Retrieved 28 November 2011. • ^ "Billboard Hot 100".

genre angst adalah

Billboard Magazine. 5 December 1970. p. 75. Retrieved 28 November 2011. • ^ "See Me, Feel Me". Hung Medien / Retrieved 28 November 2011. • ^ "French album certifications – The Who – Tommy" (in French). InfoDisc. Select THE WHO and click OK. • genre angst adalah "Italian album certifications – The Who – Tommy" (in Italian).

Federazione Industria Musicale Italiana. Retrieved 21 December 2016. Select "2016" in the "Anno" drop-down menu. Select "Tommy" in the "Filtra" field. Select "Album e Compilation" under "Sezione". • ^ "New Zealand album certifications – The Who – Tommy". Recorded Music NZ. Retrieved 15 June 2017. • ^ "British album certifications – Original Soundtrack – Tommy OST".

British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 12 August 2012. Select albums in the Format field. Select Gold in the Certification field. Type Tommy OST in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter.

genre angst adalah

• ^ "American album certifications – The Who – Tommy". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 12 August 2012. Bibliography [ edit ] • Atkins, John (2000). The Who on Record: A Critical History, 1963–1998. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-0609-8. • Graff, Gary; Durchholz, Daniel, eds. (1999). MusicHound Rock: The Essential Album Guide. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Visible Ink Press. ISBN 1-57859-061-2.

• Marsh, Dave (1983). Before I Get Old: The Story of The Who. Plexus. ISBN 978-0-85965-083-0. • Neill, Andy; Kent, Matt (2002). Anywhere Anyhow Anywhere: The Complete Chronicle of The Who. Virgin Books. ISBN 978-0-7535-1217-3. • Kemp, Mark (2004). Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian (eds.). The New Rolling Stone Album Guide (4th ed.). Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-0169-8. • Wollman, Elizabeth (2006). The Theater Will Genre angst adalah A History of the Rock Musical, from Hair to Hedwig.

University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-11576-1. Further reading [ edit ] • Genre angst adalah, Richard and Townshend, Pete (1977). The Story of Tommy. Eel Pie Publishing. 128 pp. • Cawthorne, Nigel (2005). The Who and the making of Tommy. Unanimous Ltd (Vinyl Frontier 5). 224 pp.

ISBN 1-903318-76-9 • Townshend, Pete (1993). Tommy : The Musical. Pantheon. 173 pp. + a CD w/ the song I Can't Believe My Own Eyes. ISBN 0-679-43066-0. Also titled The Who's Tommy: The Musical. • Townshend, Pete (1996). Tommy : The Interactive Adventure Then and Now.

Eel Pie Publishing. Kardana & Interplay Productions. Cdrom for PC (CD-MCR-263-0 / CD-C95-263-0) or for Mac (CD-MCD −263-UK) • Charlesworth, Chris and McInnerney, Mike, (foreword) Townshend, Pete (2019).

Tommy at 50: The Mood, the Music, the Look, and the Legacy of The Who’s Legendary Genre angst adalah Opera. Apollo Publishers. 178 pp. ISBN 978-194806-240-4 External links [ edit ] • Tommy at Discogs (list of releases) • Lyrics • A number of interviews where Pete Townshend has commented on the concept and meaning of Tommy: • a 1968 Rolling Stone Interview (by Jann Wenner), • Pete and Tommy, among others by Rick Sanders & David Dalton – Rolling Stone (no. 37 12 July 1969) genre angst adalah Interview with Pete Townshend at Manchester Arena, England, 12 December 1996, by Stephen Gallagher (British Youth & Popular Culture Editor, Ubu).

• Genre angst adalah notes – Song-by-song notes • Live at Leeds • Who's Last • Join Together • Live at the Isle of Wight Festival 1970 • BBC Sessions • Blues to the Bush • Live at the Royal Albert Hall • Live from Toronto • View from a Backstage Pass • Greatest Hits Live • Live at Hull 1970 • Quadrophenia Live genre angst adalah London • Live at the Fillmore East 1968 Compilations • Magic Bus: The Who on Tour • Direct Hits • Meaty Beaty Big and Bouncy • Odds & Sods • The Story of The Who • Phases • Hooligans • Who's Greatest Hits • Rarities Volume I & Volume II • The Singles • The Who Collection • Who's Missing • Two's Missing • Who's Better, Who's Best • Thirty Years of Maximum R&B • My Generation: The Very Best of The Who • Encore Series • The Ultimate Collection • Then and Now • The 1st Singles Box • Greatest Hits • The Who Hits 50!

Extended plays • Tommy • The Kids Are Alright • Quadrophenia • Who's Better, Who's Best • Thirty Years of Maximum R&B Live • Live at the Isle of Wight Festival 1970 • The Who & Special Guests: Live at the Royal Albert Hall • The Who Special Edition EP • Live in Boston • Tommy and Quadrophenia Live • The Vegas Job • Amazing Journey: The Story of The Who • The Who at Kilburn: 1977 • Quadrophenia Live in London • Lambert & Stamp Discographies • 1962–1963 performances • Tommy Tour • The Who by Numbers Tour • 1979 tour ( 1979 Cincinnati human crush) • 1980 tour • 2000 tour • 2001 The Concert for New York City appearance • 2003 The 46664 Concert appearance • 2006–2007 tour • Quadrophenia and More • The Who Hits 50!

• Back to the Who Tour 51! • 2017 Tommy & More • Moving On! Tour Members • Mitch Mitchell • Julian Covey • Chris Townson • Scot Halpin • John "Rabbit" Bundrick • Tim Gorman • Steve "Boltz" Bolton • Simon Phillips • Jon Carin • Steve White • Brian Kehew • J.

J. Blair • Danny Thompson • Simon Townshend • Jon Button • Loren Gold • Frank Simes • J. Greg Miller • Pino Palladino • Reggie Grisham • Morgan Nicholls • Chris Stainton • Scott Devours • Zak Starkey Associated places • Songs • Awards and nominations • Band members • Musical equipment • The Boy Who Heard Music • Lifehouse • The Who's Tommy • Rock Is Dead—Long Live Rock!

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• The Who's Tommy Pinball Wizard • Who Covers Who? • " A Tale of Two Springfields" • " In Concert" • Double O • The Genre angst adalah Stones Rock and Roll Circus • No Plan B • Kim McLagan • Richard Barnes • Genre angst adalah Butler • Chris Charlesworth • Kit Lambert • Chris Stamp • Bill Curbishley • Track Records • Shel Talmy Hidden categories: • CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) • CS1 French-language sources (fr) • CS1 Italian-language sources (it) • Cite certification used for United Kingdom without ID • Good articles • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Articles with hAudio microformats • Album articles lacking alt text for covers • Certification Table Entry usages for France • Pages using certification Table Entry with sales figures • Certification Table Entry usages for Italy • Certification Table Entry usages for New Zealand • Pages using certification Table Entry with shipments figures • Certification Table Entry usages for United Kingdom • Certification Table Entry usages for United States • Pages using certification Table Entry with sales footnote • Pages using certification Table Entry with shipments footnote • Use British English from August 2010 • Use dmy dates from August 2020 • Articles with MusicBrainz release group identifiers • Alemannisch • Ænglisc • Čeština • Deutsch • Eesti • Ελληνικά • Español • فارسی • Français • Galego • 한국어 • Bahasa Indonesia • Íslenska • Italiano • עברית • ქართული • Latviešu • Magyar • Nederlands • 日本語 • Norsk nynorsk • Polski • Português • Română • Русский • Suomi • Svenska • Українська • Tiếng Việt Edit links • Genre angst adalah page was last edited on 5 May 2022, at 01:27 (UTC).

• Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • • Joe Alwyn started dating Taylor Swift on 28th Sep 2016.

view relationship Relationships Taylor Swift has been in relationships with Tom Hiddleston (2016), Calvin Harris (2015 - 2016), Harry Styles (2012 - 2013), Conor Kennedy (2012), Jake Gyllenhaal (2010 - 2011), John Mayer (2009 - 2010), Taylor Lautner (2009) and Joe Jonas genre angst adalah.

About Taylor Swift is a 32 year old American Singer. Born Taylor Alison Swift on 13th December, 1989 in West Reading, Pennsylvania, USA, she is famous for Tim McGraw, Teardrops On My Guitar in a career that spans 2006–present and 2003–present.

Her zodiac sign is Sagittarius. Taylor Swift has been in 15 on-screen matchups, including Justin Gaston in Taylor Swift: Love Story (2008), Taylor Lautner in Valentine's Day (2010), Clayton Collins in Taylor Swift: Tim McGraw (2006), Dianna Agron in Hello, Dolly!

(1969) and Justin Sandy in Taylor Swift: Picture to Burn (2008). Taylor Swift is a member of the following lists: Emmy Award winners, American film actors and American women singers.

Contribute Who is Taylor Swift dating? Taylor Swift boyfriend, husband list. Help us build our profile of Taylor Swift! Login to add information, pictures and relationships, join in discussions and get credit for your contributions. Relationship Statistics Type Total Longest Average Shortest Dating 9 5 years, 7 months 11 months, 20 days 1 month, 7 days Total 9 5 years, 7 months 11 months, 20 days 1 month, 7 days Details First Name Taylor Middle Name Alison Last Name Swift Full Name at Birth Taylor Alison Swift Alternative Name Tay, T-Swizzle, Tay-Tay, Taylor Alison Swift, Taylor Swift, Nils Sjöberg Genre angst adalah 32 years Birthday 13th December, 1989 Birthplace West Reading, Pennsylvania, USA Height 5' 11" (180 cm) Weight 132lbs (60 kg) Build Slim Eye Color Blue Hair Color Blonde Distinctive Feature Blonde hair, Red lips Zodiac Sign Sagittarius Sexuality Straight Ethnicity White Nationality American High School Hendersonville High School Occupation Text Singer-songwriter, record producer, guitarist, actress Occupation Singer Claim to Fame Tim McGraw, Teardrops On My Guitar Music Genre (Text) Pop, Country, Country (early), Rock, Pop Rock, Country Pop, Synth-Pop, Folk, Indie, Alternative Music Genre Country Year(s) Active 2004–present, 2006–present, 2003–present Music Style Contemporary Country, Country-Pop Music Mood Earnest, Sentimental, Warm, Exuberant, Reflective, Gentle, Sweet, Playful, Amiable/Good-Natured, Angst-Ridden Instrument Guitar, Vocals Instrument (text) Vocals, Guitar, Banjo, Piano, Ukulele, Drums Record Label Big Machine, RCA, Republic, UMG, Taylor Swift Productions, Inc., Taylor Swift Productions Associated Acts Tim McGraw, Ed Sheeran, Jack Antonoff, Aaron Dessner, Liz Rose, Bon Iver, Justin Vernon, Haim Brand Endorsement Verizon Wireless’ Mobile Music Campaign (2007), (2010) TV commercials: Sony's Panorama digital camera Bust (inches) 34 Cup Size A Waist (inches) 24 Hips (inches) 33 Official Websites,,,,,,, Father Scott Swift Mother Andrea Finlay Swift Brother Austin Swift Friend Jaime King, Selena Gomez, Este Haim, Gigi Hadid, Lorde, Karlie Kloss, Ed Sheeran, Cara Delevingne, Sam Smith, Emma Stone, Lena Dunham, Hailee Steinfeld, Lily Aldridge, Martha Hunt, Ellie Goulding, Danielle Haim, Alana Haim, Nick Jonas, Serayah, Justin Timberlake, Bailee Madison, Hayley Williams, Ariana Grande, Ruby Rose, Blake Lively, Uzo Aduba, Dakota Johnson, Suki Waterhouse, Ryan Reynolds Associated People Scott Borchetta (label president), Tree Paine (publicist) Pets Meredith Grey (female cat), Olivia Benson (female cat), Benjamin Button (male cat) Favorite Movies Love Actually [2003] Favorite TV Shows Grey's Anatomy [2005], Law & Order: Special Victims Unit [1999], Friends [1994], Orange Is The New Black [2013], CSI: Crime Scene Investigation [2000] Favorite Songs What Makes You Beautiful" - One Direction Favorite Places New York City, Nashville, Los Angeles Favorite Colors Red Taylor Alison Swift (born December 13, 1989) is an American singer-songwriter.

genre angst adalah

Her discography spans multiple genres, and her narrative songwriting—often inspired by her personal life—has received critical praise and widespread media coverage. Born in West Reading, Pennsylvania, Swift relocated to Nashville, Tennessee, at the age of 14 to pursue a career in country music. She signed a songwriting contract with Sony/ATV Music Publishing in 2004 and a recording deal with Big Machine Records in 2005, before releasing her eponymous debut studio album in 2006.

# Partner Type Start End Length 9 Joe Alwyn Relationship Sep 2016 present 5 years 8 Tom Hiddleston Relationship Jun 2016 Aug 2016 2 months 7 Calvin Harris Relationship Mar 2015 May 2016 1 year 6 Harry Styles Relationship Sep 2012 Jan 2013 4 months 5 Conor Kennedy Relationship 26th Jul 2012 Sep 2012 1 month 4 Jake Gyllenhaal Relationship Oct 2010 Mar 2011 5 months 3 John Mayer Relationship Dec 2009 Mar 2010 3 months 2 Taylor Lautner Relationship Sep 2009 Dec 2009 3 months 1 Joe Jonas Relationship Jun 2008 Oct 2008 4 months Name Age Zodiac Occupation Nationality Taylor Swift 32 Sagittarius Singer American Joe Genre angst adalah 31 Pisces Actor British Tom Hiddleston 41 Aquarius Actor British Calvin Harris 38 Capricorn Electronic Musician Scottish Harry Styles 28 Aquarius Singer British Conor Kennedy 27 Leo Socialite American Jake Gyllenhaal 41 Sagittarius Actor American John Mayer 44 Libra Musician American Taylor Lautner 30 Aquarius Actor American Joe Jonas 32 Leo Singer American Film Year Character Type Amsterdam 2022 Movie All Too Well: The Short Film 2021 Her, later on Short Film Taylor Swift: I Bet You Think About Me (Taylor's Version) 2021 Taylor Swift Movie Cats 2019 Bombalurina Movie The Giver 2014 Rosemary Movie The Lorax 2012 Audrey (voice) Movie New Girl 2011 Elaine TV Show Valentine's Day 2010 Felicia Movie 2009 MTV Movie Awards 2009 Forks High School Student - Cold Open Skit TV Show CSI: Crime Scene Investigation 2000 Haley Jones TV Show • Justin Gaston • Taylor Swift: Love Story 2008 [view matchup] • Taylor Lautner • Valentine's Day 2010 [view matchup] • Clayton Collins • Taylor Swift: Tim McGraw 2006 [view matchup] • Dianna Agron • Hello, Dolly!

1969 [+1 more] • Justin Sandy • Taylor Swift: Picture to Burn 2008 [view matchup] • Lucas Till • Taylor Swift: You Belong with Me 2009 [view matchup] • Noah Mills • Taylor Swift: We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together 2012 [view matchup] • Reeve Carney • Taylor Swift: I Knew You Were Trouble 2012 [view matchup] • Scott Eastwood • Taylor Swift: Wildest Dreams 2015 [view matchup] • Sean O'Pry • Taylor Swift: Blank Space 2014 [view matchup] • Stephen Colletti • Taylor Swift: White Horse 2008 [view matchup] • Tyler Hilton • Taylor Swift: Teardrops on My Guitar 2007 [view matchup] • Vladimir Perrin • Taylor Swift: Begin Again 2012 [view matchup] • Zach Gilford • Taylor Swift: Ours 2011 [view matchup] • Zac Efron • The Lorax 2012 [view matchup]
none • v • t • e Desires are states of mind that are expressed by terms like " wanting", " wishing", "longing" or "craving".

A great variety of features is commonly associated with desires. They are seen as propositional attitudes towards conceivable states of affairs. They aim to change the world by representing how the world should be, unlike beliefs, which aim to represent how the world actually is. Desires are closely related to agency: they genre angst adalah the agent to realize them. For this to be possible, a desire has to be combined with a belief about which action would realize it.

Desires present their objects in a favorable light, as something that appears to be good. Their fulfillment is normally experienced as pleasurable in contrast to the negative experience of failing to do so. Conscious desires are usually accompanied by some form of emotional response. While many researchers roughly agree on these general features, there is significant disagreement about how to define desires, i.e.

which of these features are essential and which ones are merely accidental. Action-based theories define desires as structures that incline us toward actions. Pleasure-based theories focus on the tendency of desires to cause pleasure when fulfilled. Value-based theories identify desires with attitudes toward values, like judging or having an appearance that something is good.

Genre angst adalah can be grouped into various types according to a few basic distinctions. Intrinsic desires concern what the subject wants for its own sake while instrumental desires are about what the subject wants for the sake of something else. Occurrent desires are either conscious or otherwise causally active, in contrast to standing desires, which exist somewhere in the back of one's mind.

Propositional desires are directed at possible states of affairs while object-desires are directly about objects. Various authors distinguish between higher desires associated with spiritual or religious goals and lower desires, which are concerned with bodily or sensory pleasures. Desires play a role in many different fields. There is disagreement whether desires should be understood as practical reasons or whether we can have practical reasons without genre angst adalah a desire to follow them.

According to fitting-attitude theories of value, an object is valuable if it is fitting to desire this object or if we ought to genre angst adalah it. Desire-satisfaction theories of well-being state that a person's well-being is determined by whether that person's desires are satisfied. Marketing and advertising companies have used psychological research on how desire is stimulated to find more effective ways to induce consumers into buying a given product or service.

Techniques include creating a sense of lack in the viewer or associating the product with desirable attributes. Desire plays a key role in art. The theme of desire is at the core of romance novels, which often create drama by showing cases where human desire is impeded by social conventions, class, or cultural barriers. Melodrama films use plots that appeal to the heightened emotions of the audience by showing "crises of human emotion, failed romance or friendship", in which desire is thwarted or unrequited.

Contents • 1 Theories of desire • 1.1 General features • 1.2 Action-based theories • 1.3 Pleasure-based theories • 1.4 Value-based theories • 1.5 Others • 2 Types • 2.1 Intrinsic and instrumental genre angst adalah 2.2 Occurrent and standing • 2.3 Propositional desires and object-desires • 2.4 Higher and lower • 3 Roles of desire • 3.1 Action, practical reasons and morality • 3.2 Value and well-being • 3.3 Preferences • 3.4 Persons, personhood and higher-order desires • 4 Formation and passing away of desires • 5 In philosophy • 6 In religion • 6.1 Buddhism • 6.2 Christianity • 6.3 Hinduism • 7 Scientific perspectives • 7.1 Neuropsychology • 7.2 Psychoanalysis • 8 In marketing • 9 In fiction and art • 9.1 Written fiction • 9.2 Film • 10 See also • 11 References • 12 Further reading Theories of desire [ edit ] Theories of desire aim to define desires in terms of their essential features.

[1] A great variety of features is ascribed to desires, like that they are propositional attitudes, that they lead to actions, that their fulfillment tends to bring pleasure, etc. [2] [3] Across the different theories of desires, there is a broad agreement about what these features are.

Their disagreement concerns which of these features belong to the essence of desires and which ones are merely accidental or contingent. [1] Traditionally, the two most important theories define desires in terms of dispositions to cause actions or concerning their tendency to bring pleasure upon being fulfilled.

An important alternative of more recent origin holds that desiring something means seeing the object of desire as valuable. [3] General features [ edit ] A great variety of features is ascribed to desires. They are usually seen as attitudes toward conceivable genre angst adalah of affairs, often referred to as propositional attitudes.

[4] They differ from beliefs, which are also commonly seen as propositional attitudes, by their direction of fit. [4] Both beliefs and desires are representations of the world. But while beliefs aim at truth, i.e.

to represent how the world actually is, desires aim to change the world by representing how the world should be. These two modes of representation have been termed mind-to-world and world-to-mind direction genre angst adalah fit respectively. [4] [1] Desires can be either positive, in the sense that the subject wants a desirable state to be the case, or negative, in the sense that the subject wants an undesirable state not to be the case.

[5] It is usually held that desires come in varying strengths: some things are desired more strongly than other things. [6] We desire things in regard to some features they have but usually not in regard to all of their features. [7] Desires are also closely related to agency: we normally try to realize our desires when acting.

[4] It is usually held that desires by themselves are not sufficient for actions: they have to be combined with beliefs. The desire to own a new mobile phone, for example, can only result in the action of ordering one online if paired with the belief that ordering it would contribute to the desire being genre angst adalah. [1] The fulfillment of desires is normally experienced as pleasurable in contrast to the negative experience of failing to do so.

[3] But independently of whether the desire is fulfilled or not, there is a sense in which the desire presents its object in a favorable light, as something that appears to be good.

[8] Besides causing actions and pleasures, desires also have various effects on the mental life. One of these effects is to frequently move the subject's attention to the object of desire, specifically to its positive features. [3] Another effect of special interest to psychology is the tendency of desires to promote reward-based learning, for example, in the form of operant conditioning.

[1] Action-based theories [ edit ] Action-based or motivational theories have traditionally been dominant.

[3] They can take different forms but they all have in common that they define desires as structures that incline us toward actions. [1] [7] This is especially relevant when ascribing desires, not from a first-person perspective, but from a third-person perspective. Action-based theories usually include some reference to beliefs in their definition, for example, that "to desire that P is to be disposed to bring it about that P, assuming one’s beliefs are true".

[1] Despite their popularity and their usefulness for empirical investigations, action-based theories face various criticisms.

These criticisms can roughly be divided into two groups. On the one hand, there are inclinations to act that are not based on desires. [1] [3] Evaluative beliefs about what we should do, for example, incline us toward doing it, even if we do not want to do it. [4] There are also mental disorders that have a similar effect, like the tics associated with Tourette syndrome.

On the other hand, there are desires that do not incline us toward action. [1] [3] These include desires for things we cannot change, for example, a mathematician's desire that the number Pi be a rational number. In some extreme cases, such desires may be very common, for example, a totally paralyzed person may have all kinds of regular desires but lacks any disposition to act due to the paralysis.

[1] Pleasure-based theories [ edit ] It is one important feature of desires that their fulfillment is pleasurable. Pleasure-based or hedonic theories use this feature as part of their definition of desires. [2] According to one version, "to desire p is . to be disposed to take pleasure genre angst adalah it seeming that p and displeasure in it seeming that not-p".

[1] Hedonic theories avoid many of the problems faced by action-based theories: they allow that other things besides desires incline us to actions and they have no problems explaining how a paralyzed person can still have desires. [3] But they also come with new problems of their own. One is that it is usually assumed that there is a causal relation between desires and pleasure: the satisfaction of desires is seen as the cause of the resulting pleasure.

But this is only possible if cause and effect are two distinct things, not if they are identical. [3] Apart from this, there may also be bad or misleading desires whose fulfillment does not bring the pleasure they originally seemed to promise. [9] Value-based theories [ edit ] Value-based theories are of more recent origin than action-based theories and hedonic theories.

They identify desires with attitudes toward values. Cognitivist versions, sometimes referred to as desire-as-belief theses, equate desires with beliefs that something is good, thereby categorizing desires as one type of belief. [1] [4] [10] But such versions face the difficulty of explaining how we can have beliefs about what we should do despite not wanting to do it.

A more promising approach identifies desires not with value-beliefs but with value-seemings. [8] On this view, to desire to have one more drink is the same as it seeming good to the subject to have one more drink. But such a seeming is compatible with the subject having the opposite belief that having one more drink would be a bad idea. [1] A closely related theory is due to T. M. Scanlon, who holds that desires are judgments of what we have reasons to do.

[1] Critics have pointed out that value-based theories have difficulties explaining how animals, like cats or dogs, can have desires, since they arguably cannot represent things as being good in the relevant sense. [3] Others [ edit ] A great variety of other theories of desires have been proposed.

Attention-based theories take the tendency of attention to keep returning to the desired object as the defining feature of desires. [3] Learning-based theories define desires in terms of their tendency to promote reward-based learning, for example, in the form of operant conditioning. [3] Functionalist theories define desires in terms of the causal roles played by internal states while interpretationist theories ascribe desires to persons or animals based on what would best explain their behavior.

[1] Holistic theories combine various of the aforementioned features in their definition of desires. [1] Types [ edit ] Desires can be grouped into various types according to a few basic distinctions. Something is desired intrinsically if the subject desires it for its own sake. Otherwise, the desire is instrumental or extrinsic. [2] Occurrent desires are causally active while standing desires exist somewhere in the back of one's mind.

[11] Propositional desires are directed at possible states of affairs, in contrast to object-desires, which are directly about objects. [12] Intrinsic and instrumental [ edit ] The distinction between intrinsic and instrumental or extrinsic desires is central to many issues concerning desires.

[2] [3] Something is desired intrinsically if the subject desires it for its own sake. [1] [9] Pleasure is a common object of intrinsic desires. According to psychological hedonism, it is the only thing desired intrinsically. [2] Intrinsic desires have a special status in that they do not depend on other desires.

They contrast with instrumental desires, in which something is desired for the sake of something else. genre angst adalah [9] [3] For example, Haruto enjoys movies, which is why he has an intrinsic desire to watch them. But in order to watch them, he has to step into his car, navigate through the traffic to the nearby cinema, wait in line, pay for the ticket, etc.

He desires to do all these things as well, but only in an instrumental genre angst adalah. He would not do all these things were it not for his intrinsic desire to watch the movie. It is possible to desire the same thing both intrinsically and instrumentally at the same time. [1] So if Haruto was a driving enthusiast, he might have both an intrinsic and an instrumental desire to drive to the cinema.

Instrumental desires are usually about causal means to bring the object of another desire about. [1] [3] Driving to the cinema, for example, is one of the causal requirements for watching the movie there. But there are also constitutive means besides causal means. [13] Constitutive means are not causes but ways of doing something. Watching the movie while sitting in seat 13F, for example, is one way of watching the movie, but not an antecedent cause.

Desires corresponding to constitutive means are sometimes termed "realizer desires". [1] [3] Occurrent and standing [ edit ] Occurrent desires are desires that are currently active.

[11] They are either conscious or at least have unconscious effects, for example, on the subject's reasoning or behavior. [14] Desires we engage in and try to realize are occurrent.

[1] But we have many desires that are not relevant to our present situation and do not influence us currently. Such desires are called standing or dispositional.

[11] [14] They exist somewhere in the back of our minds and are different from not desiring at all despite lacking causal effects at the moment. [1] If Dhanvi is busy convincing her friend to go hiking this weekend, for example, then her desire to go hiking is occurrent. But many of her other desires, like to sell her old car or to talk with her boss about a promotion, are merely standing during this conversation.

Standing desires remain part of the mind even while the subject is sound asleep. [11] It has been questioned whether standing desires should be considered desires at all in a strict sense. One motivation for raising this doubt is that desires are attitudes toward contents but a disposition to genre angst adalah a certain attitude is not automatically an attitude itself.

[15] Desires can be occurrent even if they do not influence our behavior. This is the case, for example, if the agent has a genre angst adalah desire to do something but successfully resists it. This desire is occurrent because it plays some role in the agents mental life, even if it is not action-guiding.

[1] Propositional desires and object-desires [ edit ] The dominant view is that all desires are to be understood as propositional attitudes. [4] But a contrasting view allows that at least some desires are directed not at propositions or possible states of affairs but directly at objects. [1] [12] This difference is also reflected on a linguistic level. Object-desires can genre angst adalah expressed through a direct object, for example, Louis desires an omelet.

[1] Propositional desires, on the other hand, are usually expressed through a that-clause, for example, Arielle desires that she has an omelet for breakfast. [16] Propositionalist theories hold that direct-object-expressions are just a short form for that-clause-expressions while object-desire-theorists contend that they correspond to a different form of desire. [1] One argument in favor of the latter position is that talk of object-desire is very common and natural in everyday language.

But one important objection to this view is that object-desires lack proper conditions of satisfaction necessary for desires. [1] [12] Conditions of satisfaction determine under which situations a desire is satisfied. [17] Arielle's desire is satisfied if the that-clause expressing her desire has been realized, i.e. she is having an omelet for breakfast. But Louis's desire is not satisfied by the mere existence of omelets nor by his coming into possession of an omelet at some indeterminate point in his life.

So it seems that, when pressed for the details, object-desire-theorists have to resort to propositional expressions to articulate what exactly these desires entail. This threatens to collapse object-desires into propositional desires. [1] [12] Higher and lower [ edit ] In religion and philosophy, a distinction is sometimes made between higher and lower desires.

Higher desires are commonly associated with spiritual or religious goals in contrast to lower desires, sometimes termed passions, which are concerned with bodily or sensory pleasures. This difference is closely related to John Stuart Mill's distinction between the higher pleasures of the mind and the lower pleasures of the body. [18] In some religions, genre angst adalah desires are outright rejected as a negative influence on our well-being.

The second Noble Truth in Buddhism, for example, states that desiring is the cause of all suffering. [19] A related doctrine is also found in the Hindu tradition of karma yoga, which recommends that we act without a desire for the fruits of our actions, referred to as " Nishkam Karma". [20] [21] But other strands in Hinduism explicitly distinguish lower or bad desires for worldly things from higher or good desires for closeness or oneness with God.

This distinction is found, for example, in the Bhagavad Gita or in genre angst adalah tradition of bhakti yoga. [20] [22] A similar line of thought is present in the teachings of Christianity. In the doctrine of the seven deadly sins, for example, various vices are listed, which have been defined as perverse or corrupt versions of love.

Explicit reference to bad forms of desiring is found, for example, in the sins of lust, gluttony and greed. [5] [23] The seven sins are contrasted with the seven virtues, which include the corresponding positive counterparts. [24] A desire for God is explicitly encouraged in various doctrines. [25] Existentialists sometimes distinguish between authentic and inauthentic desires.

Authentic desires express what the agent truly wants from deep within. An agent wants something inauthentically, on the other hand, if the agent is not fully identified with this desire, despite having it.

[26] Roles of desire [ edit ] Desire is a quite fundamental concept. As such, it is relevant for many different fields. Various definitions and theories of other concepts have been expressed in terms of desires. Actions depend on desires and moral praiseworthiness is sometimes defined in terms of being motivated by the right desire. [1] A popular contemporary approach defines genre angst adalah as that which it is fitting to desire.

[27] Desire-satisfaction theories of well-being state that a person's well-being is determined by whether that person's desires are satisfied. [28] It has been suggested that to prefer one thing to another is just to have a stronger desire for the former thing. [29] An influential theory of personhood holds that only entities with higher-order desires can be persons. [30] Action, practical reasons and morality [ edit ] Desires play a central role in actions as what motivates them.

It is usually held that a desire by itself is not sufficient: it has to be combined with a belief that the action in question would contribute to the fulfillment of the desire. [31] The notion of practical reasons is closely related to motivation and desire. Some philosophers, often from a Humean tradition, simply identify an agent's desires with the practical reasons he has. A closely related view holds that desires are not reasons themselves but present reasons to the agent.

[1] A strength of these positions is that they can give a straightforward explanation of how practical reasons can act as motivation. But an important objection is that we may genre angst adalah reasons to do things without a desire to do them. [1] This is especially relevant in the field of morality. Peter Singer, for example, suggests that most people living in developed countries have a moral obligation to donate a significant portion of their income to charities.

[32] [33] Such an obligation would constitute a practical reason to act accordingly even for people who feel no desire to do so. A closely related issue in morality asks not what reasons we have but for what reasons we act. This idea goes back to Immanuel Kant, who holds that doing the right thing is not sufficient from the moral perspective.

Instead, we have to do the right thing for genre angst adalah right reason. [34] He refers to this distinction as the difference between legality ( Legalität), i.e. acting in accordance with outer norms, and morality ( Moralität), i.e. being motivated by the right inward attitude.

[35] [36] On this view, donating a significant portion of one's income to charities is not a moral action if the motivating desire is to improve one's reputation by convincing other people of one's wealth and generosity. Instead, from a Kantian perspective, it should be performed out of a desire to do one's duty. These issues are often discussed in contemporary philosophy under the terms of moral praiseworthiness and blameworthiness. One important position in this field is that the praiseworthiness of an action depends on the desire motivating this action.

[1] [37] Value and well-being [ edit ] It is common in axiology to define value in relation to desire. Such approaches fall under the category of fitting-attitude theories.

According to them, an object is valuable if it is fitting to desire this object or if we ought to desire it. [27] [38] This is sometimes expressed by saying that the object is desirable, appropriately desired or worthy of desire. Two important aspects of this type of position are that it reduces values to deontic notions, or what we ought to feel, and that it makes values dependent on human responses and attitudes.

[27] [38] [39] Despite their popularity, fitting-attitude theories of value face various theoretical objections. An often-cited one is the wrong kind of reason problem, which is based on the consideration that facts independent of the value of an object may affect whether this object ought to be desired.

[27] [38] In one thought experiment, an evil demon threatens the agent to kill her family unless she desires him. In such a situation, it is fitting for the agent to desire the demon in order to save her family, despite the fact that the demon does not possess positive value.

[27] [38] Well-being is usually considered a special type of value: the well-being of a person is what is ultimately good for this person. [40] Desire-satisfaction theories are among the major theories of well-being. They state that a person's well-being is determined by whether that person's desires are satisfied: the higher the number of satisfied desires, the higher the well-being.

[28] One problem for some versions of desire theory is that not all desires genre angst adalah good: some desires may even have terrible consequences for the agent. Desire theorists have tried to avoid this objection by holding that what matters are not actual desires but the desires the agent would have if she was fully informed.

[28] [41] Preferences [ edit ] Desires and preferences are two closely related notions: they are both conative states that genre angst adalah our behavior. [29] The difference between the two is that desires are directed at one genre angst adalah while preferences concern a comparison between two alternatives, of which one is preferred to the other.

[4] [29] The focus on preferences instead of desires is very common genre angst adalah the field of decision theory. It has been argued that desire is the more fundamental notion and that preferences are to be defined in terms of desires.

[1] [4] [29] For this to work, desire has to be understood as involving genre angst adalah degree or intensity. Given this assumption, a preference can be defined as a comparison of two desires.

[1] That Nadia prefers tea over coffee, for example, just means that her desire for tea is stronger than her desire for coffee. One argument for this approach is due to considerations of parsimony: a great number of preferences can be derived from a very small number of desires. [1] [29] One objection to this theory is that our introspective access is much more immediate in cases of preferences than in cases of desires.

So it is usually much easier for us to know which of two options we prefer than to know the degree with which we desire a particular object. This consideration has been used genre angst adalah suggest that maybe preference, and not desire, is the more fundamental notion. [1] Persons, personhood and higher-order desires [ edit ] Personhood is what persons have. There are various theories about what constitutes personhood.

Most agree that being a person has to do with having certain mental abilities and is connected to having a certain moral and legal status. [42] [43] [44] An influential theory of persons is due to Harry Frankfurt. He defines persons in terms of higher-order desires. [30] [45] [46] Many of the desires we have, like the desire to have ice cream or to take a vacation, are first-order desires. Higher-order desires, on the other hand, are desires about other desires.

They are most prominent in cases where a person has a desire he does not want to have. [30] [45] [46] A recovering addict, for example, may have both a first-order desire to take drugs and a second-order desire of not following this first-order desire. [30] [45] Or a religious ascetic may still have sexual desires while at the same genre angst adalah wanting to be free of these desires.

According to Frankfurt, having second-order volitions, i.e. second-order desires about which first-order desires are followed, is the mark of personhood. It is a form of caring about oneself, of being concerned with who one is and what one does. Not all entities with a mind have higher-order volitions. Frankfurt terms them "wantons" in contrast to "persons". On his view, animals and maybe also some human beings are wantons. [30] [45] [46] Formation and passing away of desires [ edit ] Both psychology and philosophy are interested in where desires come from or how they form.

An important distinction for this investigation is between intrinsic desires, i.e. what the subject wants for its own sake, and instrumental desires, i.e. what the subject wants for the sake of something else. [2] [3] Instrumental desires depend for their formation and existence on other desires.

[9] For example, Aisha has a desire to find a charging station at the airport. This desire is instrumental because it is based on another desire: to keep her mobile phone from dying. Without the latter desire, the former would not have come into existence.

[1] Genre angst adalah an additional requirement, a possibly unconscious belief or judgment is necessary to the effect that the fulfillment of the instrumental desire would somehow contribute to the fulfillment of the desire it is based on.

genre angst adalah

{INSERTKEYS} [9] Instrumental desires usually pass away after the desires they are based on cease to exist. [1] But defective cases are possible where, often due to absentmindedness, the instrumental desire remains. Such cases are sometimes termed "motivational inertia". [9] Something like this might be the case when the agent finds himself with a desire to go to the kitchen, only to realize upon arriving that he does not know what he wants there. [9] Intrinsic desires, on the other hand, do not depend on other desires.

[9] Some authors hold that all or at least some intrinsic desires are inborn or innate, for example, desires for pleasure or for nutrition. [1] But other authors suggest that even these relatively basic desires may depend to some extent on experience: before we can desire a pleasurable object, we have to learn, through a hedonic experience of this object for example, that it is pleasurable.

[47] But it is also conceivable that reason by itself generates intrinsic desires. On this view, reasoning to the conclusion that it would be rational to have a certain intrinsic desire causes the subject to have this desire.

[1] [4] It has also been proposed that instrumental desires may be transformed into intrinsic desires under the right conditions. This could be possible through processes of reward-based learning. [3] The idea is that whatever reliably predicts the fulfillment of intrinsic desires may itself become the object of an intrinsic desire. So a baby may initially only instrumentally desire its mother because of the warmth, hugs and milk she provides. But over time, this instrumental desire may become an intrinsic desire.

[3] The death-of-desire thesis holds that desires cannot continue to exist once their object is realized. [8] This would mean that an agent cannot desire to have something if he believes that he already has it.

[48] One objection to the death-of-desire thesis comes from the fact that our preferences usually do not change upon desire-satisfaction. [8] So if Samuel prefers to wear dry clothes rather than wet clothes, he would continue to hold this preference even after having come home from a rainy day and having changed his clothes.

This would indicate against the death-of-desire thesis that no change on the level of the agent's conative states takes place. [8] In philosophy [ edit ] Main article: Philosophy of desire In philosophy, desire has been identified as a philosophical problem since Antiquity.

In The Republic, Plato argues that individual desires must be postponed in the name of the higher ideal. In De Anima, Aristotle claims that desire is implicated in animal interactions and the propensity of animals to motion; at the same time, he acknowledges that reasoning also interacts with desire. Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) proposed the concept of psychological hedonism, which asserts that the "fundamental motivation of all human action is the desire for pleasure." Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677) had a view which contrasted with Hobbes, in that "he saw natural desires as a form of bondage" that are not chosen by a person of their own free will.

David Hume (1711–1776) claimed that desires and passions are non-cognitive, automatic bodily responses, and he argued that reasoning is "capable only of devising means to ends set by [bodily] desire". [49] Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) called any action based on desires a hypothetical imperative, which means they are a command of reason, applying only if one desires the goal in question.

[50] Kant also established a relation between the beautiful and pleasure in Critique of Judgment. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel claimed that " self-consciousness is desire". Because desire can cause humans to become obsessed and embittered, it has been called one of the causes of woe for mankind. [51] In religion [ edit ] Buddhism [ edit ] In Buddhism, craving (see taṇhā) is thought to be the cause of all suffering that one experiences in human existence.

The eradication of craving leads one to ultimate happiness, or Nirvana. However, desire for wholesome things is seen as liberating and enhancing. [52] While the stream of desire for sense-pleasures must be cut eventually, a practitioner on the path to liberation is encouraged by the Buddha to "generate desire" for the fostering of skillful qualities and the abandoning of unskillful ones.

[53] For an individual to effect his or her liberation, the flow of sense-desire must be cut completely; however, while training, he or she must work with motivational processes based on skillfully applied desire. [54] According to the early Buddhist scriptures, the Buddha stated that monks should "generate desire" for the sake of fostering skillful qualities and abandoning unskillful ones.

[53] Christianity [ edit ] Within Christianity, desire is seen as something that can either lead a person towards God or away from him. Desire is not considered to be a bad thing in and of itself; rather, it is a powerful force within the human that, once submitted to the Lordship of Christ, can become a tool for good, for advancement, and for abundant living.

Hinduism [ edit ] In Hinduism, the Rig Veda's creation myth Nasadiya Sukta states regarding the one (ekam) spirit: "In the beginning there was Desire (kama) that was first seed of mind.

Poets found the bond of being in non-being in their heart's thought". Scientific perspectives [ edit ] Neuropsychology [ edit ] Main article: Motivational salience While desires are often classified as emotions by laypersons, psychologists often describe desires as ur-emotions, or feelings that do not quite fit the category of basic emotions.

[55] For psychologists, desires arise from bodily structures and functions (e.g., the stomach needing food and the blood needing oxygen). On the other hand, emotions arise from a person's mental state. A 2008 study by the University of Michigan indicated that, while humans experience desire and fear as psychological opposites, they share the same brain circuit.

[56] A 2008 study entitled "The Neural Correlates of Desire" showed that the human brain categorizes stimuli according to its desirability by activating three different brain areas: the superior orbitofrontal cortex, the mid- cingulate cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex. [57] [ non-primary source needed] In affective neuroscience, "desire" and "wanting" are operationally defined as motivational salience; [58] [59] the form of "desire" or "wanting" associated with a rewarding stimulus (i.e., a stimulus which acts as a positive reinforcer, such as palatable food, an attractive mate, or an addictive drug) is called " incentive salience" and research has demonstrated that incentive salience, the sensation of pleasure, and positive reinforcement are all derived from neuronal activity within the reward system.

[58] [60] [61] Studies have shown that dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens shell and endogenous opioid signaling in the ventral pallidum are at least partially responsible for mediating an individual's desire (i.e., incentive salience) for a rewarding stimulus and the subjective perception of pleasure derived from experiencing or "consuming" a rewarding stimulus (e.g., pleasure derived from eating palatable food, sexual pleasure from intercourse with an attractive mate, or euphoria from using an addictive drug).

[59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] Research also shows that the orbitofrontal cortex has connections to both the opioid and dopamine systems, and stimulating this cortex is associated with subjective reports of pleasure.

[65] Psychoanalysis [ edit ] See also: Philosophy_of_desire § Psychoanalysis Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud, who is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind and the defense mechanism of repression and for creating the clinical practice of psychoanalysis, proposed the notion of the Oedipus complex, which argues that desire for the mother creates neuroses in their sons.

Freud used the Greek myth of Oedipus to argue that people desire incest and must repress that desire. He claimed that children pass through several stages, including a stage in which they fixate on the mother as a sexual object.

That this "complex" is universal has long since been disputed. Even if it were true, that would not explain those neuroses in daughters, but only in sons.

While it is true that sexual confusion can be aberrative in a few cases, there is no credible evidence to suggest that it is a universal scenario.

While Freud was correct in labeling the various symptoms behind most compulsions, phobias and disorders, he was largely incorrect in his theories regarding the etiology of what he identified. [66] French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist Jacques Lacan (1901–1981) argues that desire first occurs during a "mirror phase" of a baby's development, when the baby sees an image of wholeness in a mirror which gives them a desire for that being.

As a person matures, Lacan claims that they still feel separated from themselves by language, which is incomplete, and so a person continually strives to become whole. He uses the term " jouissance" to refer to the lost object or feeling of absence (see manque) which a person believes to be unobtainable. [67] In marketing [ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Find sources: "Desire" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( May 2021) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) In the field of marketing, desire is the human appetite for a given object of attention.

Desire for a product is stimulated by advertising, which attempts to give buyers a sense of lack or wanting. In store retailing, merchants attempt to increase the desire of the buyer by showcasing the product attractively, in the case of clothes or jewellery, or, for food stores, by offering samples. With print, TV, and radio advertising, desire is created by giving the potential buyer a sense of lacking ("Are you still driving that old car?") or by associating the product with desirable attributes, either by showing a celebrity using or wearing the product, or by giving the product a " halo effect" by showing attractive models with the product.

Nike's "Just Do It" ads for sports shoes are appealing to consumers' desires for self-betterment. In some cases, the potential buyer already has the desire for the product before they enter the store, as in the case of a decorating buff entering their favorite furniture store.

The role of the salespeople in these cases is simply to guide the customer towards making a choice; they do not have to try to "sell" the general idea of making a purchase, because the customer already wants the products. In other cases, the potential buyer does not have a desire for the product or service, and so the company has to create the sense of desire.

An example of this situation is for life insurance. Most young adults are not thinking about dying, so they are not naturally thinking about how they need to have accidental death insurance. Life insurance companies, though, are attempting to create a desire for life insurance with advertising that shows pictures of children and asks "If anything happens to you, who will pay for the children's upkeep?".

[ citation needed] Marketing theorists call desire the third stage in the hierarchy of effects, which occurs when the buyer develops a sense that if they felt the need for the type of product in question, the advertised product is what would quench their desire. [68] In fiction and art [ edit ] Written fiction [ edit ] The theme of desire is at the core of the romance novel. Novels which are based around the theme of desire, which can range from a long aching feeling to an unstoppable torrent, include Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert; Love in the Time of Cholera by Gabriel Garcia Marquez; Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov; Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë, and Dracula by Bram Stoker.

Brontë's characterization of Jane Eyre depicts her as torn by an inner conflict between reason and desire, because "customs" and "conventionalities" stand in the way of her romantic desires. [69] E.M. Forster's novels use homoerotic codes to describe same-sex desire and longing.

Close male friendships with subtle homoerotic undercurrents occur in every novel, which subverts the conventional, heterosexual plot of the novels. [70] In the Gothic-themed Dracula, Stoker depicts the theme of desire which is coupled with fear.

When the character Lucy is seduced by Dracula, she describes her sensations in the graveyard as a mixture of fear and blissful emotion. Poet W.B. Yeats depicts the positive and negative aspects of desire in his poems such as "The Rose for the World", "Adam's Curse", "No Second Troy", "All Things can Tempt me", and "Meditations in Time of Civil War".

Some poems depict desire as a poison for the soul; Yeats worked through his desire for his beloved, Maud Gonne, and realized that "Our longing, our craving, our thirsting for something other than Reality is what dissatisfies us". In "The Rose for the World", he admires her beauty, but feels pain because he cannot be with her.

In the poem "No Second Troy", Yeats overflows with anger and bitterness because of their unrequited love. [71] Poet T. S. Eliot dealt with the themes of desire and homoeroticism in his poetry, prose and drama. [72] Other poems on the theme of desire include John Donne's poem "To His Mistress Going to Bed", Carol Ann Duffy's longings in "Warming Her Pearls"; Ted Hughes' "Lovesong" about the savage intensity of desire; and Wendy Cope's humorous poem "Song". Philippe Borgeaud's novels analyse how emotions such as erotic desire and seduction are connected to fear and wrath by examining cases where people are worried about issues of impurity, sin, and shame.

Film [ edit ] Just as desire is central to the written fiction genre of romance, it is the central theme of melodrama films, which are a subgenre of the drama film. Like drama, a melodrama depends mostly on in-depth character development, interaction, and highly emotional themes. Melodramatic films tend to use plots that appeal to the heightened emotions of the audience. Melodramatic plots often deal with "crises of human emotion, failed romance or friendship, strained familial situations, tragedy, illness, neuroses, or emotional and physical hardship." Film critics sometimes use the term "pejoratively to connote an unrealistic, bathos-filled, campy tale of romance or domestic situations with stereotypical characters (often including a central female character) that would directly appeal to feminine audiences." [73] Also called "women's movies", "weepies", tearjerkers, or "chick flicks".

"Melodrama… is Hollywood's fairly consistent way of treating desire and subject identity", as can be seen in well-known films such as Gone with the Wind, in which "desire is the driving force for both Scarlett and the hero, Rhett". Scarlett desires love, money, the attention of men, and the vision of being a virtuous "true lady". Rhett Butler desires to be with Scarlett, which builds to a burning longing that is ultimately his undoing, because Scarlett keeps refusing his advances; when she finally confesses her secret desire, Rhett is worn out and his longing is spent.

In Cathy Cupitt's article on "Desire and Vision in Blade Runner", she argues that film, as a "visual narrative form, plays with the voyeuristic desires of its audience". Focusing on the dystopian 1980s science fiction film Blade Runner, she calls the film an "Object of Visual Desire", in which it plays to an "expectation of an audience's delight in visual texture, with the 'retro-fitted' spectacle of the post-modern city to ogle" and with the use of the "motif of the 'eye'". In the film, "desire is a key motivating influence on the narrative of the film, both in the 'real world', and within the text." [74] See also [ edit ] • Motivation • Saudade • Taṇhā • Trishna (Vedic thought) • Valence (psychology) References [ edit ] • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao Schroeder, Tim (2020).

"Desire". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University . Retrieved 3 May 2021. • ^ a b c d e f Honderich, Ted (2005). "desire". The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford University Press. • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Schroeder, Timothy (2010).

"Desire: philosophical issues". WIREs Cognitive Science. 1 (3): 363–370. doi: 10.1002/wcs.3. ISSN 1939-5086.

PMID 26271376. • ^ a b c d e f g h i j Pettit, Philip. {/INSERTKEYS}

genre angst adalah

"Desire - Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy". Retrieved 4 May 2021. • ^ a b Sandkühler, Hans Jörg (2010). "Begehren/Begierde". Enzyklopädie Philosophie. Meiner. • ^ Mele, Alfred R. (2003). "7. Motivational Strength". Motivation and Agency. Oxford University Press.

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• ^ a b Swinburne, Richard (1985). "Desire". Philosophy. 60 (234): 429–445. doi: 10.1017/S0031819100042492. • ^ a b c d e Oddie, Graham. "Desire and the Good: In Search of the Right Fit". The Nature of Desire. Oxford University Press. • ^ a b c d e f g h Audi, Robert (2001). "3. Action, Belief, and Desire". The Architecture of Reason: The Structure and Substance of Rationality. Oxford University Press.

• ^ Bradley, Richard; Stefansson, H. Orii (2016). "Desire, Expectation, and Invariance". Mind. 125 (499): 691–725. doi: 10.1093/mind/fzv200. • ^ a b c d Strandberg, Caj (2012). "Expressivism and Dispositional Desires: 2. a distinction in mind". American Philosophical Quarterly.

49 (1): 81–91. • ^ a b c d Lycan, William G. (2012). "Desire Considered as a Propositional Attitude". Philosophical Perspectives. 26 (1): 201–215. genre angst adalah 10.1111/phpe.12003. • ^ Audi, Robert (2001). "4.

genre angst adalah

The Sources of Practical Reasons". The Architecture of Reason: The Structure and Substance of Rationality. Oxford University Press. • ^ a b Bartlett, Gary (2018). "Occurrent States". Canadian Journal of Philosophy. 48 (1): 1–17. doi: 10.1080/00455091.2017.1323531. S2CID 220316213. • ^ Mele, Alfred R. (2003). "1. Motivation and Desire". Motivation and Agency. Oxford University Press. • ^ Nelson, Michael (2019). "Propositional Attitude Reports". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 4 May 2021. • ^ Siewert, Charles (2017). "Consciousness and Intentionality: 2. The Interpretation of "Intentionality" ". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 4 May 2021. • ^ Heydt, Colin. "John Stuart Mill: ii. Basic Argument". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 3 February 2021. • ^ Shulman, Eviatar (2014). "1. The Structural Relationship between Philosophy and Meditation".

Rethinking the Buddha: Early Buddhist Philosophy as Meditative Perception. Cambridge Genre angst adalah Press. • ^ a b Framarin, Christopher G. (2007). "Good and Bad Desires: Implications of the Dialogue Between Ka and Arjuna".

International Journal of Hindu Studies. 11 (2): 147–170. doi: 10.1007/s11407-007-9046-4. S2CID 145772857. • ^ Sri Aurobindo (1948). "Self-Surrender in Works — The Way of the Gita". The Synthesis of Yoga.

Madras, Sri Aurobindo Library. • ^ Sri Aurobindo (1948). "The Motives of Devotion". The Synthesis of Yoga. Madras, Sri Aurobindo Library. • ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church: 1866, 1871". Retrieved 6 May 2021. • ^ genre angst adalah in Christianity". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 6 May 2021. • ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church: 27". • ^ Varga, Somogy; Guignon, Charles (2020).

"Authenticity". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. • ^ a b c d e Jacobson, Daniel (2011). "Fitting Attitude Theories of Value". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 5 May 2021. • ^ a b c Crisp, Roger (2017). "Well-Being: 4.2 Desire Theories". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.

Retrieved 5 May 2021. • ^ a b c d e Schulz, Armin W. (2015). "Preferences Vs. Desires: Debating the Fundamental Structure of Conative States". Economics and Philosophy.

31 (2): genre angst adalah. doi: 10.1017/S0266267115000115. S2CID 155414997. • ^ a b c d e Frankfurt, Harry G. (1971). "Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person" (PDF). Journal of Philosophy. 68 (1): 5–20. doi: 10.2307/2024717. JSTOR 2024717. • ^ Wilson, George; Shpall, Samuel (2016).

"Action". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 5 May 2021. • ^ Singer, Peter (2016). "The Most Good You Can Do: A Response to the Commentaries". Journal of Global Ethics. 12 (2): 161–169. doi: 10.1080/17449626.2016.1191523.

S2CID genre angst adalah. • ^ Kanygina, Yuliya (2011). "Introduction". The Demandingness Objection to Peter Singer's Account of Our Obligations to the World's Poor. Budapest, Hungary: Central European University. • ^ Johnson, Robert; Cureton, Adam (2021). "Kant's Moral Philosophy: 2. Good Will, Moral Worth and Duty". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.

Retrieved 5 May 2021. • ^ Weigelin, Ernst (1917). "Legalität und Moralität". Archiv für Rechts- und Wirtschaftsphilosophie. 10 (4): 367–376. ISSN 0177-1108. JSTOR 23683644.

• ^ Zaczyk, Rainer (2006). "Einheit des Grundes, Grund der Differenz von Moralität und Legalität". Jahrbuch für Recht und Ethik / Annual Review of Law and Ethics. 14: 311–321. ISSN 0944-4610. JSTOR 43593317. • ^ Talbert, Matthew (2019).

"Moral Responsibility". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 5 May 2021. • ^ a b c d Schroeder, Mark (2021). "Value Theory".

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 5 May 2021. • ^ Zimmerman, Michal J. (2015). "1. Value and Normativity". The Oxford Handbook of Value Theory. Oxford University Press USA. • ^ Sumner, L. W. (2005). "Happiness". Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Macmillan Reference. • ^ Heathwood, Chris genre angst adalah. Desire-Satisfaction Theories of Welfare (PhD Thesis). Scholarworks@Umass Amherst. • ^ Craig, Edward (1996). "Persons". Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Routledge. • ^ Sandkühler, Hans Jörg (2010). "Person/Persönlichkeit". Enzyklopädie Philosophie. Meiner. • ^ Borchert, Donald (2006). "Persons". Macmillan Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2nd Edition. Genre angst adalah. • ^ a b c d Vezér, Martin Alexander (2007).

"On the Concept of Personhood: A Comparative Analysis of Three Accounts". LYCEUM. IX (1). • ^ a b c Norris, Christopher (2010). "Frankfurt on Second-Order Desires and the Concept of a Person". Prolegomena. 9 (2): 199–242. • ^ Audi, Robert (2011). Rationality and Religious Commitment. Oxford University Press. p. 20. • ^ Lauria, Federico (2017). "The "Guise of the Ought to Be": A Deontic View of the Intentionality of Desire".

The Nature of Desire. New York: Oxford University Press. • ^ Ethics Chapter. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy CD-ROM, V. 1.0, London: Routledge Edward Craig (ed).

"Morality and emotions". By Martha C. Nussbaum • ^ "desire - behaviour". Encyclopædia Britannica. • ^ Hagen, Steve. Buddhism Plain and Simple. New York: Broadway Books, 1997. • ^ Charles S. Prebish, and Damien Keown, Buddhism - the EBook. Journal of Buddhist Ethics Online Books, 2005, page 83. • ^ a b Thanissaro Bhikkhu, " The Wings to Awakening". • ^ Steven Collins, Selfless Persons: Thought and Imagery in Theravada Buddhism. Cambridge University Press, 1982, page 251: "In the end, the flowing streams of sense-desire must be 'cut' or 'crossed' completely; nevertheless, for the duration of the Path, a monk must perforce work with motivational and perceptual processes as they ordinarily are, that is to say, based on desire .

Thus, during mental training, the stream is not to be 'cut' immediately, but guided, like water along viaducts. The meditative steadying of the mind by counting in- and out-breaths (in the mindfulness of breathing) is compared to the steadying of a boat in 'a fierce current' by its rudder.

The disturbance of the flow of a mountain stream by irrigation channels cut into its sides it used to illustrate the weakening of insight by the five 'hindrances'." • ^ Berridge, Kent C. (2018). "Evolving Concepts of Emotion and Motivation".

Frontiers in Psychology. 9: 1647. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01647. ISSN 1664-1078. PMC 6137142. PMID 30245654. • ^ "Changing stress levels can make brain flip from 'desire' to 'dread '". Mar. 19, 2008 • ^ Kawabata H, Zeki S (2008). "The Neural Correlates of Desire". PLOS ONE.

3 (8): e3027. Bibcode: 2008PLoSO.3.3027K. CiteSeerX doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003027. PMC 2518616. PMID 18728753. S2CID 3290147. • ^ a b Schultz W (2015). "Neuronal reward and decision signals: from theories to data". Physiological Reviews. 95 (3): 853–951.

doi: 10.1152/physrev.00023.2014. PMC 4491543. PMID 26109341. Rewards in operant conditioning are positive reinforcers. . Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards.

Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive reinforcer and therefore a reward. Although it provides a good definition, positive reinforcement is only one of several reward functions. . Rewards are attractive. They are motivating and make us exert an effort. . Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. . Thus any stimulus, object, event, activity, or situation that has the potential to make us approach and consume it is by definition a reward.

. Rewarding stimuli, objects, events, situations, and activities consist of several major components. First, rewards have basic sensory components (visual, auditory, somatosensory, gustatory, and olfactory) . Second, rewards are salient and thus elicit attention, which are manifested as orienting responses (FIGURE 1, middle). The salience of rewards derives from three principal factors, namely, their physical intensity and impact (physical salience), their novelty and surprise (novelty/surprise salience), and their general motivational impact shared with punishers (motivational salience).

A separate form not included in this scheme, incentive salience, primarily addresses dopamine function in addiction and refers only to approach behavior (as opposed to learning) . These emotions are also called liking (for pleasure) and wanting (for desire) in addiction research (471) and strongly support the learning and approach generating functions of reward.

• ^ a b Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 147–148, 367, 376. ISBN 978-0-07-148127-4.

VTA DA neurons play a critical role in motivation, reward-related behavior (Chapter 15), attention, and multiple forms of memory. Genre angst adalah organization of the DA system, wide projection from a limited number of cell bodies, permits coordinated responses to potent new rewards.

Thus, acting in diverse terminal fields, dopamine confers motivational salience ("wanting") on the reward itself or associated cues (nucleus accumbens shell region), updates the value placed on different goals in light of this new experience (orbital prefrontal cortex), helps consolidate multiple forms of memory (amygdala and hippocampus), and encodes new motor programs that will facilitate obtaining this reward in the future (nucleus accumbens core region and dorsal striatum).

In this example, dopamine modulates the processing of sensorimotor information in diverse neural circuits to maximize the ability of the organism to obtain future rewards. • ^ a b Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders".

Genre angst adalah Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.

pp. 365–366, 376. ISBN 9780071481274. The neural substrates that underlie the perception of reward and the phenomenon of positive reinforcement are a set of interconnected forebrain structures called brain reward pathways; these include the nucleus accumbens (NAc; the major component of the ventral striatum), the basal forebrain (components of which have been termed the extended amygdala, as discussed later in this chapter), hippocampus, hypothalamus, and frontal regions of cerebral cortex.

These structures receive rich dopaminergic innervation from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain.

Addictive drugs are rewarding and reinforcing because they act in brain reward pathways to enhance either dopamine release or the effects of dopamine in the NAc or related structures, or because they produce effects similar to dopamine. . A macrostructure postulated to integrate many of the functions of this circuit is described by some investigators as the extended amygdala. The extended amygdala is said to comprise several basal forebrain structures that share similar morphology, immunocytochemical features, and connectivity and that are well suited to mediating aspects of reward function; these include the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the central medial amygdala, the shell of the NAc, and the sublenticular substantia innominata.

• ^ a b Berridge KC, Kringelbach ML (May 2015). "Pleasure systems in the brain". Neuron. 86 (3): 646–664. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.018. PMC 4425246. PMID 25950633. In the prefrontal cortex, recent evidence indicates that the OFC and insula cortex may each contain their own additional hot spots (D.C.

Castro et al., Soc. Neurosci., abstract). In specific subregions of each area, either opioid-stimulating or orexin-stimulating microinjections appear to enhance the number of ‘‘liking’’ reactions elicited by sweetness, similar to the NAc and VP hot spots. Successful confirmation of hedonic hot spots in the OFC or insula would be genre angst adalah and possibly relevant to the orbitofrontal mid-anterior site mentioned earlier that especially tracks the subjective pleasure of foods in humans (Georgiadis et al., 2012; Kringelbach, 2005; Kringelbach et al., 2003; Small et al., 2001; Veldhuizen et al., 2010).

Finally, in the brainstem, a hindbrain site near the parabrachial nucleus of dorsal pons also appears able to contribute to hedonic gains of function (Söderpalm and Berridge, 2000). A brainstem mechanism for pleasure may seem more surprising than forebrain hot spots to anyone who views the brainstem as merely reflexive, but the pontine parabrachial nucleus contributes to taste, pain, and many visceral sensations from the body and has also been suggested to play an important role in motivation (Wu et genre angst adalah, 2012) and in human emotion (especially related to the somatic marker hypothesis) (Damasio, 2010).

• ^ Kringelbach ML, Berridge KC (2013). "The Joyful Mind". From Abuse to Recovery: Genre angst adalah Addiction. Macmillan. pp.

genre angst adalah

199–207. ISBN 9781466842557. Retrieved 8 April 2016. So it makes sense that the real pleasure centers in the brain—those directly responsible for generating pleasurable sensations—turn out to lie within some of the structures previously identified as part of the reward circuit. One of these so-called hedonic hotspots lies in a subregion of the nucleus accumbens called the medial shell.

A second is found within the ventral pallidum, a deep-seated structure genre angst adalah the base of the forebrain that receives most of its signals from the nucleus accumbens. . On the other hand, intense euphoria is harder to come by than everyday pleasures. The reason may be that strong enhancement of pleasure—like the chemically induced pleasure bump we produced in lab animals—seems to require activation of the entire network at once.

Defection of any single component dampens the high. • ^ Grall-Bronnec M, Sauvaget A (2014). "The use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for modulating craving and addictive behaviours: a critical literature review of efficacy, technical and methodological considerations".

Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 47: 592–613. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.10.013. PMID 25454360. Studies have shown that cravings are underpinned by activation of the reward and motivation circuits (McBride et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2007, Wing et al., 2012, Goldman et al., 2013, Jansen et al., 2013 and Volkow et al., 2013). According to these authors, the main neural structures involved are: the nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), amygdala, hippocampus and insula.

• ^ Koob GF, Volkow ND (August 2016). "Neurobiology of addiction: a neurocircuitry analysis". Lancet Psychiatry. 3 (8): 760–773. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(16)00104-8. PMC 6135092. PMID 27475769. Drug addiction represents a dramatic dysregulation of motivational circuits that is caused by a combination of exaggerated incentive salience and habit formation, reward deficits and stress surfeits, and compromised executive function in three stages.

The rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, development of incentive salience, and development of drug-seeking habits in the binge/intoxication stage involve changes in dopamine and opioid peptides in the basal ganglia. The increases in negative emotional states and dysphoric and stress-like responses in the withdrawal/negative affect stage involve decreases in the function of the dopamine component of the reward system and genre angst adalah of brain stress neurotransmitters, such as corticotropin-releasing factor and dynorphin, in the neurocircuitry of the extended amygdala.

The craving and deficits in genre angst adalah function in the so-called preoccupation/anticipation stage involve the dysregulation of key afferent projections from the prefrontal cortex and insula, including glutamate, to the basal ganglia and extended amygdala. Molecular genetic studies have identified transduction and transcription factors that act in neurocircuitry associated with the development and maintenance of addiction that might mediate initial vulnerability, maintenance, and relapse associated with addiction.

. Substance-induced changes in transcription factors can also produce competing effects on reward function. 141 For example, repeated substance use activates accumulating levels of ΔFosB, and animals with elevated ΔFosB exhibit exaggerated sensitivity to the rewarding eff ects of drugs of abuse, leading to the hypothesis that ΔFosB might be a sustained molecular trigger or switch that helps initiate and maintain a state of addiction.

141,142 • ^ Kringelbach, Morten L. (May 2, 2006). "Searching the brain for happiness". BBC News. Archived from the original on October 19, 2006. • ^ "Sigmund Freud (1856—1939)". The University of Tennessee, Martin.

March 11, 2012. Retrieved January 16, 2018. • ^ "A Systemic Perspective on Cognition and Mathematics". Lin Forrest Publishers. June 30, genre angst adalah. Retrieved January 16, 2018. • ^ "Parked Domain". Archived from the original on 2008-09-14. Retrieved 2019-07-23. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown ( link) • ^ Desire, Class Position, and Gender in Jane Eyre and Pickwick Papers Benjamin Graves '97 (English 73 Brown University, 1996) • ^ Distant Desire: Homoerotic Codes and the Subversion of the English Novel in E.M.

Forster's Fiction (Sexuality and Literature) by Parminder Kaur Bakshi • ^ "Sepulveda - Desire: Can't Live With It, Can't Live Without It". • ^ Gender, Desire, and Sexuality in T.

S. Eliot. Edited by Cassandra Laity. Drew University, New Jersey. Nancy K. Gish. University of Southern Maine ( ISBN 978-0-521-80688-6 - ISBN 0-521-80688-7) • ^ "Melodramas Films". • ^ "Cathy Cupitt, Eyeballing the Simulacra Desire and Vision in Blade Runner". Archived from the original on October 22, 1999. Retrieved 2017-03-29. {{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown ( link) Further reading [ edit ] • Marks, Joel.

The Ways of Desire: New Essays in Philosophical Psychology on the Concept of Wanting. Transaction Publishers, 1986 • Jadranka Skorin-Kapov, The Aesthetics of Desire and Surprise: Phenomenology and Speculation. Lexington Books 2015 • Affect • consciousness • in education • measures • in psychology • Affective • computing • forecasting • neuroscience • science • spectrum • Affectivity • positive • negative • Appeal to emotion • Emotion • and art • and memory • and music • and sex • classification • evolution • genre angst adalah • functional accounts • group • homeostatic • in animals • perception • recognition • in conversation • regulation • interpersonal • work • Emotional • aperture • bias • blackmail • competence • conflict • contagion • detachment • dysregulation • eating • exhaustion • expression • and gender • intelligence • and bullying • intimacy • isolation • lability • labor • lateralization • literacy • prosody • reasoning • responsivity • security • symbiosis • well-being • Emotionality • bounded • Emotions • and culture • history • in decision-making • in the workplace • in virtual communication • moral • self-conscious • social • social sharing • sociology • Feeling • Group affective tone • Interactions between the emotional and executive brain systems • Jealousy in art • Meta-emotion • Pathognomy • Pathos • Social emotional development • Stoic passions • Theory • affect • appraisal • constructed emotion • discrete emotion • somatic marker Hidden categories: • CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Articles needing additional references from May 2021 • All articles needing additional references • All articles with unsourced statements • Articles with unsourced statements genre angst adalah February 2016 • Articles containing Welsh-language text • Articles containing Danish-language text • Articles containing Japanese-language text • Articles containing Portuguese-language text • Articles containing German-language text • Articles with GND identifiers • Articles with J9U identifiers • Articles with LCCN identifiers • العربية • Български • ÄŒeÅ¡tina • Deutsch • Eesti • Español • Esperanto • Euskara • Français • Gaeilge • 한국어 genre angst adalah हिन्दी • ಕನ್ನಡ • Magyar • नेपाल भाषा • 日本語 • Norsk bokmÃ¥l • Occitan • ਪੰਜਾਬੀ • Português • Română • Simple English • Slovenčina • Suomi • Tagalog • தமிழ் • తెలుగు • Türkçe • اردو • 粵語 • 中文 Edit links • This page was last edited on 30 April 2022, at 15:06 (UTC).

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• Hapus tag/templat ini. Fiksi penggemar (lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Fanfiction, FF, atau Fanfic) merupakan sebutan yang dikenal untuk karya-karya yang dibuat penggemar yang berhubungan dengan cerita tokoh fiksi atau latar yang dibuat oleh penggemar dari sebuah karya asli, alih-alih sang pembuat karya tersebut.

Penulisan karya fiksi penggemar jarang diberi kuasa oleh pemilik karya asli, pembuat, atau penerbit. Tulisan-tulisan itu juga hampir tidak pernah dipublikasikan genre angst adalah profesional. Oleh karena itu, banyak karya fiksi penggemar yang ditulis mengandung sebuah pernyataan yang menyatakan bahwa penulis karya fiksi penggemar tidak memiliki tokoh-tokoh yang ada di cerita.

Karya fiksi penggemar didefinisikan sebagai karya yang berhubungan dengan dunia fiksi 'resmi' dari subjeknya dan bersamaan berada di luar dunia fiksi 'resmi' tersebut. [1] Daftar isi • 1 Definisi • 2 Rating • 3 Panjang/ Length • 4 Latar Dan Karaterisasi • 5 Genre • 6 Istilah lainya • 7 Referensi Definisi [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Fan Fiction adalah sebuah cerita fiksi yang dibuat oleh penggemar berdasarkan kisah, karakter, atau latar yang sudah ada.

Fanfic bisa berlaku untuk film, komik, novel, selebritis, dan karakter terkenal lainnya. Terkadang sejumlah fanfic menyertakan penulisnya atau nama orang lain sebagai karakter cerita (sering disebut OC atau original character), ada pula yang tidak. Adapula jenis fanfic yang menggunakan reader insert atau memasukkan pembaca sebagai salah satu tokoh cerita.

Plot sebuah fanfiksi merupakan hasil imajinasi para fans. Konsep sederhana yang digunakan dalam menulis sebuah fanfic adalah “ What if…” atau “Bagaimana jika…”. Dengan konsep itu, fans bebas berimajinasi mengenai karakter kesayangan mereka. Fanfic menjadi sebuah art-project yang menyenangkan bagi seorang fans di samping proyek lain seperti membuat wallpaper, scrap book, craft design, atau art work lainnya yang menyangkut bintang atau karakter.

Untuk menghindari tuntutan mengenai hak cipta, penulis fanfiksi biasanya mencantumkan kategori “fanfic” dalam tulisannya dan memberikan penjelasan di awal tulisan berupa pengakuan hak cipta untuk penulis aslinya. Sedangkan untuk menghindari protes atau pertanyaan dari fans lain, biasanya para penulis fanfiksi selalu memberikan sedikit catatan-catatan “peringatan” atas variasi-variasi eksperimen yang dia gunakan dalam fanfiksinya.

Rating [ sunting - sunting genre angst adalah ] Rating adalah klasifikasi berdasarkan adegan, penggunaan bahasa, dan unsur-unsur lain yang berada dalam sebuah fanfiksi, biasanya berkaitan dengan tahap umur mana yang sesuai untuk membaca FF ini. Kategori rating ini kebanyakan didasarkan pada MPAA Rating ( Motion Picture Association of America) yang digunakan pada film.

Rating ini terdiri atas: • G - General Audiences: Semua Umur. • PG - Parental Guidance Suggested: Beberapa hal mungkin tidak sesuai untuk anak. • PG-13 - Parents Strongly Cautioned: Beberapa hal mungkin tidak sesuai untuk anak di bawah usia 13. • R - Restricted: Mereka yang di bawah 17 tahun memerlukan pendampingan orang tua (usia bervariasi, tergantung tempat). • NC-17 - No One 17 and Under Admitted: Jelas-jelas tidak boleh dibaca oleh mereka yang berusia di bawah 17. • M - Mature (FF mengandung mature content) Panjang/ Length [ sunting - sunting sumber ] • Drabble: Terdiri dari 100-200 kata.

Meskipun tidak tepat berjumlah 100-200 kata, yang penting drabble itu sangat pendek. • Ficlet: Lebih panjang dari drabble. Kira-kira sekitar 500-800/900 kata. • Oneshot: Dalam dunia penulisan biasa, dikenal sebagai cerpen. Biasanya terdiri dari 2000-3000 kata. Akan tetapi juga bisa sampai beribu-ribu kata, asal langsung tamat. • Double shot/Two shots: Cerita yang terdiri atas dua bagian. • Short story: Cerita bersambung yang hanya memiliki chapter/section/part lebih sedikit dari “Chaptered Fic”.

Short story biasanya hanya terdiri dari 4-5 shots. • Chaptered/Series Fic: Seperti novel. Memiliki banyak sekali chapter, konflik boleh lebih dari satu.

• Universe: Ruang, tokoh, dan inti cerita sama, tetapi tiap cerita bisa tidak berkesinambungan. Bisa membaca salah satu saja tanpa membaca cerita yang lain. Bisa dibaca satu saja sebagai oneshot. Tokoh dan konteksnya sama walaupun banyak bagian dalam fanfic itu, tetapi kita bisa tetap mengerti walau hanya membaca satu bagian saja karena ceritanya tidak bersambung. • Crossover: Fanfic yang dibuat dengan menggabungkan dua cerita atau lebih.

Misalnya, menggabungkan karakter Harry Potter dengan Star Wars. Tidak hanya karakter, elemen cerita juga dapat digabungkan (dua dunia digabung), seperti Harry Potter dengan Lord of the Rings. Latar Dan Karaterisasi [ sunting - sunting sumber ] • Universe • Crossover Genre [ sunting - sunting sumber ] • Action/Adventure: FF yang berisi kisah petualangan tokohnya, dengan genre angst adalah adegan perkelahian/pertempuran.

• AU - Alternate Universe: Situasi yang berbeda dengan yang dibangun dalam canon-nya/kehidupan sebenarnya/cerita aslinya. • Angst: FF yang melibatkan tingkat kecemasan tinggi dengan permainan emosional, fisik dan mental yang membuat pembacanya dapat merasakan perasan yang sesak dan dapat menitikkan air mata.

• Band Fic: FF yang memfokuskan pada keseluruhan grup tokoh. • Bromance: FF dimana tokoh laki-laki menunjukkan sifat kasih sayang non-romantis kepada tokoh laki-laki lainnya. • Brothership: FF yang berkisah tentang hubungan tokoh laki-laki dengan tokoh laki-laki lainnya sebagai kakak atau adik.

• Comedy/Humor: FF yang mengandung unsur komedi dan humor. • Crack: FF dengan plot cerita yang mengejutkan, tiba-tiba berubah, dan tidak umum. • Crossgender: FF dengan tokoh berubah gender dari karakter/tokoh aslinya. • Death Fic: FF yang tokoh utama atau salah satu tokohnya mati dengan tragis. • Drama: FF mengutamakan pada konflik emosi dan bertujuan membuat pembaca terhanyut genre angst adalah cerita. • Divergence: Cerita yang mulanya berangkat dari fakta yang sama dengan karakter aslinya, kemudian pada titik tertentu berbelok memasuki situasi karangan penulisnya yang berbeda dengan karakter aslinya.

• Family: FF yang berkisah tentang hubungan kekeluargaan. • Fantasy: FF di mana author menciptakan dunianya sendiri. Sebuah dunia alternatif yang berada dalam legenda atau mitos. • Fem Slash atau Female Slash: FF yang mengandung hubungan romantis antar perempuan. Disebut juga Yuri atau Shoujo-ai.

• Fluff: FF yang pendek dengan cerita yang manis/menyenangkan dan berakhir happy ending. • Friendship: FF yang berkisah tentang persahabatan. • Gore: FF yang penuh dengan darah, kekerasan, pembunuhan, dan sejenisnya. • Het Fic atau Hetero Fic: FF berkisah tentang hubungan normal ( genre angst adalah antara laki-laki dan perempuan. • Historical: FF yang mengambil latar waktu berbeda. Waktu/masa dalam cerita fanfic itu berbeda dengan waktu/masa pada cerita yang nyata.

Bisa juga mengadaptasi kisah historis yang ada di dunia nyata. • Horror: FF yang berisikan cerita seram dan menakutkan. • Hurt/Comfort: FF yang memiliki sisi kesedihan tetapi juga memiliki sisi menyenangkan • Male Slash: FF yang bercerita tentang hubungan romantis antar sesama lelaki.

Disebut juga Yaoi atau Shounen-ai. • Married-life: FF berkisah tentang kehidupan sebuah pernikahan. • Mystery/Suspense: FF yang berisikan cerita misteri/menegangkan. • Non-Canon: FF yang berkisah tentang hal-hal yang bertentangan dengan kehidupan karakter aslinya.

• Psychology: FF yang berisikan unsur-unsur psikologi seperti kepribadian genre angst adalah dan gangguan kejiwaan lainnya. • PWP: Plot What Plot, FF yang tidak memiliki plot yang jelas dan biasanya sangat pendek. • Romance: FF yang berkisah tentang percintaan. • Sad: FF yang berakhir (atau sepanjang alur ceritanya) menyedihkan. • Science Fic: FF yang mengandung unsur ilmiah, genre angst adalah sains dan IPTEK yang melibatkan teknologi dan hal-hal yang modern. • School-life: FF yang berkisah tentang kehidupan dengan latar sekolahan.

• Song Fic: FF yang terinspirasi dari lagu. • Slash Fic: FF yang mengandung hubungan percintaan antara sesama jenis. • Smut: FF yang berisi penggambaran adegan seks. • Supernatural: FF yang bercerita mengenai kemampuan yang di luar batas kemampuan manusia normal. • Thriller: Fokus ke adegannya yang dipenuhi kejutan dengan alur cepat dan melibatkan ancaman fisik karakter. • Tragedy: FF yang menceritakan kesedihan dan hal-hal tragis yang menguras air mata.

Istilah lainya [ sunting - sunting sumber ] • Beta-read: Istilah untuk orang yang membaca ulang FF orang lain, mengubah dan memperbaiki kesalahan diksi, struktur, penggunaan tanda baca, huruf besar, keefektifan kalimat, dan lain sebagainya. Orang yang melakukan beta-read dinamakan beta-reader. • Canon: Cenderung pada sifat, karakter, peristiwa, plotline, yang terjadi secara nyata dalam sumber resmi yang mendasari suatu FF. • Disclaimer: Pernyataan untuk mendisklaim sesuatu dalam FF bahwa itu bukan orisinil milik penulis, contohnya tokoh atau plot ceritanya.

• Genre angst adalah Informasi atau karakterisasi yang belum pernah dikonfirmasi, tetapi diterima secara luas oleh para penggemarnya. • OC - Original Character: Istilah untuk karakter orisinil yang dibuat dengan imajinasi author FF. • OOC - Out Of Character: Istilah untuk karakter yang dibangun di luar karakter aslinya. • OTP - One True Pairing: Bisa disebut tokoh pasangan kesukaan penulis setiap menulis FF.

• POV - Point of View: Sudut pandang yang digunakan penulis dalam menjabarkan ceritanya. • Reader insert: memasukkan pembaca sebagai salah satu tokoh. Berbeda dengan OC yang sudah mempunyai nama dan penampilan fisik tersendiri, reader insert biasanya mengosongkan beberapa deskripsi agar pembaca dengan leluasa menambahkan sesuatu sesuai yang pembaca inginkan.

Referensi [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Kategori tersembunyi: • Artikel yang perlu diwikifisasi April 2022 • Semua artikel yang perlu diwikifisasi • Semua artikel rintisan • Rintisan bertopik fantasi • Semua artikel rintisan April 2022 • Artikel Wikipedia dengan penanda BNF • Artikel Wikipedia dengan penanda LCCN • Artikel Wikipedia dengan penanda MA • Artikel Wikipedia dengan penanda SUDOC • Halaman ini terakhir diubah pada 24 April 2022, pukul 15.48.

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