Three kingdoms

three kingdoms

Long story of the rivalry, intrigues and wars of the late Eastern Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period. Based on the classical Chinese novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms and other rela. Read all Long story of the rivalry, intrigues and wars of the late Eastern Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms three kingdoms.

Based on the classical Chinese novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms and other related sources. Long three kingdoms of the rivalry, intrigues and wars of the late Eastern Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period. Based on the classical Chinese novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms and other related sources. it is one of my favorite series. sure, as inspired adaptation of a remarkable book. for realism. for the portrait of characters.

for the fight scenes and for the poetry of image, for the exploration of the essence of power and its fruits, responsibilities, for the vulnerable victories and for the great cinematography, off course, I am profound subjective about it. butmaybe, one of the reasonable explanations, is the flavor of the stories/fairy stories from my youth, discovered in this impressive series. because it is not an answer to Hollywood blockbusters or to historical European series.

it is not one of too touching and small Larousse like the South Korean series or demonstration of the seductive honey of the Ottoman past like the Turkish historical series.

it is.Chinese. in each scene, detail, dialogue, refreshing air of a classic story in the right manner presented. For the three kingdoms television series based on the same novel, see Romance of the Three Kingdoms (TV series).

Three Kingdoms Traditional 三國 Simplified 三国 Mandarin Sān Guó Genre Historical drama Based on Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong Screenplay by Zhu Sujin Directed by Gao Xixi Starring Chen Jianbin Yu Hewei Lu Yi Peter Ho Ni Dahong Yu Rongguang Zhang Bo Nie Yuan Chen Hao Ruby Lin Victor Huang Yu Bin Theme music composer Zhao Jiping Opening theme Give Me Back A World At Peace by Liao Changyong Ending theme 1.

Heroes Cross Heaven And Earth by Tan Jing 2. A Blurry World by Tang Can Country of origin China Original language Mandarin No. of episodes 95 Production Producers Yang Xiaoming Li Shu Zhang Shenyan Production location China Running time 45 minutes per episode Production companies 1.

three kingdoms

Communication University of China Television Production Centre 2. Beijing Galloping Horse Film 3. Anhui Five Star Oriental Television Investment 4. Tianjin Television 5. Beijing Dongfang Henghe Film Culture 6. Beijing Baimeng Film Planning 7. Beijing Lin Gao Flyule Film Media 8. Jilin Province Three kingdoms Production Corporation Distributor Beijing Dongfang Hongfei Television Culture and Arts Release Original network Jiangsu TV Anhui TV Chongqing TV Tianjin TV Original release 2 May ( 2010-05-02) – 15 June 2010 ( 2010-06-15) Three Kingdoms is a 2010 Chinese television series based on the events in the late Eastern Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period.

The plot is adapted from the 14th century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms and other stories about the Three Kingdoms period. Directed by Gao Xixi, the series had a budget of over 160 million RMB (US$30 million) [1] [2] and took five years of pre-production work.

[3] Shooting of the series commenced in October 2008, and it was released in China in May 2010. [4] Three Kingdoms set a record as the most expensive small screen series in China's television history at the time, having been sold to four regional TV broadcasters at the price of 160 million yuan. [5] The series was a commercial success in China and dominated ratings, but has caused controversy among critics and fans, with many commenting that the TV series has veered too far from the classic novel and real history.

[1] The series was criticised for prioritizing commercial entertainment over research and understanding of the novel and history and creating plot-holes in its re-interpretation. [6] While some publications have praised the willingness to rewrite the events of the novel, other publications criticize the writing and editing for being sluggish, long-winded and superfluous, and using clichés from "Gongdou"-dramas and romantic dramas to be eye-catching while losing the solemnity and dignity of the original novel.

[7] [8] [9] It has also been sold to over 20 countries, earning an estimated 800 million RMB (US$133.3 million) in total as of May 2012.

[1] [2] Contents • 1 List of episodes • 2 Cast • 2.1 Main • 2.2 Supporting • 2.3 Replaced cast • 3 Soundtrack • 4 Awards • 5 International broadcast • 6 See also • 7 References • 8 External links List of episodes [ edit ] # English title Original title 1 To eliminate a traitor, Cao Cao presents a precious sword 除国贼曹公献宝刀 2 Chen Gong releases Cao Cao in righteousness 陈宫申正义释曹操 3 Cao Cao kills Lü Boshe by mistake 曹操疑错杀吕伯奢 4 Guan Yu slays Hua Xiong while the wine is still warm 关云长温酒斩华雄 5 Battle of Hulao - The three heroes fight Lü Bu 破虎牢三英战吕布 6 Sun Jian gains the Imperial Jade Seal 孙坚得传国玉玺 7 Sun Jian's death at Sanjin Ford 三津渡孙文台殒命 8 Wang Yun plans the Chain-Linked Strategy 王司徒巧设连环计 9 Father and son turn hostile at Fengyi Pavilion 凤仪亭父子挑兵戈 10 Lü Bu kills Dong Zhuo 反间计吕布诛董卓 11 Tao Qian offers Xu Three kingdoms thrice 陶恭祖三让徐州城 12 Three kingdoms Bu is defeated in battle and seeks shelter under Liu Bei 吕奉先战败投刘备 13 Cao Cao saves the emperor and controls the warlords 曹孟德救驾令诸侯 14 Lü Bu stages a night raid on Xu Province 吕奉先趁夜袭徐郡 15 Lü Bu shoots an arrow through a halberd 吕奉先辕门射画戟 16 Cao Cao defeats Yuan Shu in battle 曹孟德举兵败袁术 17 Lü Bu falls for Cao Cao's trick and loses Xu Province 中曹计吕布失徐州 18 Lü Bu meets his end at White Three kingdoms Tower 白门楼奉先赴黄泉 19 Liu Bei receives an imperial decree and swears to destroy Cao Cao 刘皇叔奉旨誓灭曹 20 Cao Cao discusses about heroes over drinks 曹孟德煮酒论英雄 21 Yuan Shao and Cao Cao mobilise their armies 袁曹各起马步三军 22 Liu Bei is defeated and seeks shelter under Yuan Shao 刘玄德战败投袁绍 23 Guan Yu surrenders to Cao Cao on three conditions 关云长降曹约三事 24 Yuan Shao loses troops and commanders 袁本初败兵又折将 25 Guan Yu's lone journey over a thousand li 美髯公千里走单骑 26 Reunion at Gucheng 会古城主臣聚大义 27 Yuan Shao suffers defeats at Guandu 战官渡袁本初败绩 28 Xu You betrays his lord and joins Cao Cao 许子远叛主投曹操 29 Cao Cao burns the supply depot at Wuchao 曹孟德劫粮烧乌巢 30 Liu Bei garrisons an army at Xinye 刘备屯兵新野 31 Liu Bei's horse leaps across the Tan Stream 刘皇叔跃马过檀溪 32 Xu Shu turns back to recommend Zhuge Liang to Liu Bei 徐元直走马荐诸葛 33 Liu Bei visits Zhuge Liang thrice 刘玄德三顾请诸葛 34 Sun Ce passes on his legacy to Sun Quan 孙策传位孙权 35 Zhuge Liang deploys troops at an early stage 诸葛亮初用兵 36 Zhao Yun fights at Changban 赵子龙血战长坂坡 37 Zhuge Liang argues with the scholars 诸葛孔明舌战群儒 38 Zhuge Liang instigates Zhou Yu to resist Cao Cao 抗曹操孔明激周瑜 39 Jiang Gan steals a letter after a ceremony 群英会蒋子翼盗书 40 Zhuge Liang borrows arrows with straw boats 诸葛孔明草船借箭 41 Zhou Yu defeats Cao Cao at Red Cliff 周公瑾赤壁破曹操 42 Guan Yu spares Cao Cao at Huarong Three kingdoms 关云长华容放曹操 43 Sima Yi serves Cao Cao 司马懿出山助曹操 44 Cao Cao scares away Ma Teng of Western Liang 曹操吓退西凉马腾 45 Cao Cao loses his beloved son Cao Chong 曹操痛失爱子曹冲 46 Zhou Yu prepares to attack Jing Province 夺荆州周公瑾发兵 47 The forces of Cao, Sun and Liu battle for Nan Commandery 曹孙刘三军战南郡 48 Zhou Yu returns to Chaisang in unhappiness 周公瑾赌气归柴桑 49 Zhao Yun captures Guiyang 赵子龙计取桂阳城 50 Guan Yu fights at Changsha and recruits Huang Zhong and Wei Yan 战长沙关羽收黄魏 51 Lu Su comes twice to ask for Jing Province 鲁子敬二度索荆州 52 Liu Bei travels to Wu for a marriage 刘备赴吴娶亲 53 Sun Quan is angered by Zhou Yu 孙权被周瑜激怒 54 Lady Sun and Liu Bei are wed 孙小妹刘备成亲 55 Liu Bei returns to Jing Province 刘备智返荆州 56 Zhuge Liang infuriates Zhou Yu thrice 诸葛亮三气周瑜 57 Zhou Yu is defeated and dies with regret 周瑜兵败抱憾而亡 58 Zhuge Liang mourns Zhou Yu 诸葛亮痛哭祭周瑜 59 Cao Cao hosts a banquet at the Bronze Sparrow Platform 曹操大宴铜雀台 60 Ma Teng enters the capital 西凉统领马腾进京 61 Ma Teng is killed after falling into an ambush 马腾中埋伏被杀 62 Xu Chu fights Ma Chao 许褚斗马超 63 Zhang Song is humiliated but is later well received by Liu Bei 张松受辱刘备相迎 64 Zhang Song presents a map; Liu Bei enters southwest China 张松献图玄德入川 65 Wei Yan performs a sword dance, his target is Liu Zhang 魏延舞剑意在刘璋 66 Pang Tong's demise at Fallen Phoenix Slope 庞统身死落凤坡 67 Ma Chao pledges allegiance to Liu Bei 马超誓效刘皇叔 68 Guan Yu attends a feast alone and armed with only a blade 关云长单刀赴会 69 Huang Zhong conquers Hanzhong 黄忠攻破汉中 70 Cao Cao executes Yang Xiu at Mount Dingjun 定军山曹操杀杨修 71 Guan Yu's poison arrow wound is cured 关羽刮骨疗毒 72 Guan Yu commits suicide at Maicheng 关羽麦城悲壮自刎 73 Cao Cao's final wish and death 传遗命曹操气数终 74 Cao Pi forces Cao Zhi to compose the Seven Steps Poem 兄逼弟曹植七步诗 75 Emperor Xian receives two imperial edicts and abdicates in Cao Pi's favour 汉献帝两诏禅曹丕 76 Emperor Xian commits suicide; Liu Bei establishes Shu 献帝自杀刘备建蜀 77 Zhang Fei dies in his eagerness to avenge his brother 急兄仇张翼德殒命 78 Liu Bei launches a campaign against Eastern Wu 刘玄德兴兵征东吴 79 Sun Quan submits to Wei 孙权降魏 80 Huang Zhong is killed in battle 黄忠战死 81 Lu Xun sets aflame Liu Bei's linked camps over 700 li 陆伯言营烧七百里 82 Liu Bei entrusts his son at Baidicheng 刘先主白帝城托孤 83 Zhuge Liang calmly holds off five enemy forces 诸葛亮安居平五路 84 Zhuge Liang writes the Chu Shi Biao 诸葛拟出师表 85 Zhuge Liang prepares for the Northern Campaigns 诸葛亮北伐大兴师 86 Ma Su refuses to accept advice and loses Jieting 马幼常拒谏失街亭 87 Zhuge Liang's Empty Fort Strategy backs off Sima Yi's troops 诸葛孔明空城退敌 88 Zhao Yun bids the world farewell 赵云辞世 89 Zhuge Liang defeats Sima Yi 诸葛亮大破司马懿 90 Zhuge Liang eliminates Cao Zhen with a wise plan 诸葛亮妙计除曹真 91 Zhuge Liang takes Chencang by strategy 诸葛亮计破陈仓城 92 Zhuge Liang sends a letter to ridicule Sima Yi 诸葛孔明下书辱司马 93 Sima Yi is saved by a downpour at Shangfang Valley 上方谷大雨救司马 94 The chancellor's death at Wuzhang Three kingdoms 五丈原汉丞相归天 95 Sima Yi fakes illness and takes control of Wei 司马懿诈病掌朝政 Cast [ edit ] Main [ edit ] • Chen Jianbin as Cao Cao • Yu Hewei as Liu Bei • Lu Yi as Zhuge Liang • Yu Rongguang as Guan Yu • Kang Kai as Zhang Fei • Nie Yuan as Zhao Yun • Ni Dahong as Sima Yi • Yu Bin as Cao Pi • Three kingdoms Jin as Liu Xie • Xiaodingge as Liu Xie (child) • Lü Xiaohe as Dong Zhuo • Peter Ho as Lü Bu • Chen Hao as Diao Chan • Zhang Bo as Sun Quan • Zheng Wei as Sun Quan (child) • Ruby Lin as Lady Sun • Victor Huang as Zhou Yu • Sha Yi as Sun Ce • Liu Jing as Da Qiao • Zhao Ke as Xiao Qiao Supporting [ edit ] • Li Li as Bao Long • Bai Yu as Lady Bian • Cao Xiwen as Lady Cai (Liu Biao's wife) • Li Fangyao as Cai He • Liu Dan as Cai Mao • Hu Zi as Cai Yang • Guo Miaoxin three kingdoms Cai Zhong • Liu Zijiao as Empress Cao • Zhao Lei as Cao Bao • An Pengzeyu as Cao Chong • Li Daiqing as Cao Hong • Yuan Shaoxiong as Cao Fang • Yang Guang as Cao Ren • Yang Demin as Cao Rui • Xia Tian as Cao Shuang three kingdoms Guo Jiyun as Cao Song • Li Gen as Cao Zhang • Zhao Jin as Cao Zhen • Li Jichun as Cao Zhi • Wang Jinjun as Cheng Dekou • Shang Yue as Chen Deng • Sun Hongtao as Chen Gong • Lu Jidong as Chen Gui • Sun Hai as Chen Qun • Ding Xiaonan as Chen Ying • Zhong Minghe as Cheng Pu • Jiang Changyi as Cheng Yu • Cao Zhanjun as Cui Zhouping • Jiang Yi as Ding Feng • Bai Hui as Consort Dong • Gao Baosong as Dong Cheng • Yang Chuanxi as Dong Zhao • Zhang Xinhua as Fa Zheng • Piao Lan as Lady Fan • Dong Zhiyong as Fan Qiang • Wang Daosheng as Fu Jun • Tang Zidi as Lady Gan • Xia Xiaolong as Gan Ning • Chen Gang as Gao Xiang • Wang Baogang as Gongsun Zan • Fan Jinlun as Guan Ping • Wei Zhi as Guan Xing • Wang Di as Empress Guo • Zhang Ge as Guo Huai • Wang Jinxin as Guo Jia • Three kingdoms Zhixi as Guo Si • Han Zhenguo as Guo Tu • Liu Jun as Han Dang • Jiao Zhiqiang as Han Fu • Hu Sha as Han Sui • Ying Qiang as Han Xuan • Qin Fanxiang as Hao Zhao • Cai Three kingdoms as Hua Tuo • Zhang Xiqian as Hua Xin • Ding Xiaonan as Hua Xiong • Liu Kui as Huang Gai • Zhao Xu as Huang Kui • Sun Wanqing as Huang Quan • Song Laiyun as Huang Zhong • Ren Xuehai as Ji Ping • Chen Fusheng as Ji Ling • Liao Weili as Jia Hua • Li Muge as Jiang Gan • Ye Peng as Jiang Wei • Li Three kingdoms as Three kingdoms • Bai Hailong as Kong Xiu • Er Hou as Kong You • Cao Guoxin as Li Dian • Ge Youyuan as Li Feng • Sen Zhixue as Li Jue • Song Chongdong three kingdoms Li Ru • Deng Liming as Three kingdoms Yan • Ji Chenggong as Liu Biao • Qiu Shuang as Liu Cong • Xu Xiao as Liu Dai • Wang Shigui as Liu Du • Fan Guan as Liu Qi • Wang Peng as Liu Shan • Yang Tong as Liu Xian • Li Yuemin as Liu Zhang • Jia Xiang as Lu Ji • Huo Qing as Lu Su • Shao Feng as Lu Xun • Zhao Bingkui as Lü Boshe • Jerry Chang Lu Feng as Lü Meng • Chen Yilin as Ma Chao • Xia Tian as Ma Dai • Guan Ziqian as Ma Liang • Zheng Shiming as Ma Su • Ning Sheng as Ma Teng • Shang Yisha as Lady Mi • Hong Pangzi as Mi Fang • Wu Qiong as Miao Ze • Da Lin as Niu Jin • Han Lei as Pan Zhang • Tian Xiang as Pang De • Chen Houxing as Pang Ji • Du Xudong as Pang Tong • Fan Shide as Pujing • Xue Xiaolong as Two Qiaos' father • Pu Youwei as Qin Lang • Ding Dong as Qin Qingtong • Dai Qiwen as Shen Yi • Wang Shijun as Sima Hui • Zhao Dacheng as Sima Shi • Miao Yaning as Sima Yan • Liu Guoguang as Sima Zhao • Ji Aojun as Sun Huan • Fan Yulin as Sun Jian • Li Yatian three kingdoms Sun Li • Yang Rui as Sun Qian • Zhao Xuan as Tao Gongyi • Tong Han as Tao Qian • Xu Tao as Tian Feng • Liu Bingyu as Wang Lang • Wang Huan as Wang Ping • Zheng Tianyong as Wang Yun • Wang Xinjun as Wei Yan • Wang Mengchuan as Wen Chou • Kang Qunzhi as Lady Wu • Wang Maolei as Wu Zhi • Hu Chunyong as Xiahou Ba • Li Mengcheng as Xiahou Dun • Li Qilong as Xiahou Yuan • Liu Ganhan as Xiang Jun • Wang Wentao as Xing Daorong • Guo Tao as Xu Chu • Chen Wei as Xu Huang • Sun Yan as Xu Sheng • Yao Gang as Xu Shu • Hai Yan as Xu Shu's mother • Xu Maomao as Xu You • Yang Rui as Xue Zong • Shao Yueheng as Xun An • Li Jianxin as Xun Yu • Zhang Qifu as Yan Jun • Li Xu as Yan Liang • Li Xu as Yan Yan • Li Xiaowei as Yang Ling • Lu Dongfu as Yang Song • Jin Yi as Yang Xiu • Chen Shanshan as Yang Yi • Qi Huai as Yu Fan • Wu Kegang as Yu Jin • Han Wenliang as Yuan Shang • Xu Wenguang as Yuan Shao • Yan Three kingdoms as Yuan Shu • Liu Long as Yuan Tan • Lan Tian as Yuan Xi • Bu Sisi as Yunying • Cai Jin as Zhang Bao • Tan Jianchang as Zhang He • Cheng Xiangyin as Zhang Liao • Li Daguang as Zhang Lu • Three kingdoms Lu as Zhang Ren • Liu Yajin as Zhang Song • Three kingdoms Xinhua as Zhang Su • Chen Bing as Zhang Wen • Zhao Qiusheng as Zhang Yi • Shen Jie as Zhang Zhao • Wang Guogang as Zhao Fan • Li Hua as Zhong Yao • Zhang Jiaoyang as Zhou Cang • Zhao Shuijing as Three kingdoms Shan • Hou Jie as Zhou Tai • Zhu Lei as Zhu Ran • Cao Yi as Zhuge Jin • Ru Xiaobin as Zhuge Jun • Chao Fan as Zu Mao Replaced cast [ edit ] This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ( April 2012) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) • Jiang Wen was originally cast as Cao Cao, but decided to abandon the role after two three kingdoms quit the project.

Jiang Wen would later portray Cao Cao in the movie Lost Bladesman. Soon afterwards, Tang Guoqiang, who played Zhuge Liang in Romance of the Three Kingdoms (1994), asked for the role, but it had already been reassigned to Chen Jianbin.

• Ken Watanabe asked director Gao Xixi for the role of Guan Yu. Gao reportedly was unable to meet Watanabe's request for a salary of 30-40 million yuan, and was forced to turn him away. The role eventually went to Yu Rongguang (who previously appeared as Han De in the 2008 film Three kingdoms Kingdoms: Resurrection of the Dragon).

Soundtrack [ edit ] # Track title Credits Notes 1 还我一个太平天下 ( pinyin: Huán Wŏ Yī Three kingdoms Tài Píng Tiān Xià) (translation: Give Me Back A World At Peace) Composed by Zhao Jiping; lyrics by Yi Ming; performed by Liao Changyong Opening theme song 2 英雄往来天地间 ( pinyin: Yīng Xióng Wăng Lái Tiān Dì Jiān) (translation: Heroes Cross Heaven And Earth) Composed by Zhao Jiping; lyrics by Yi Ming; performed by Tan Jing Ending theme song 3 天地莽苍苍 ( pinyin: Tiān Dì Măng Cāng Cāng) (translation: A Blurry World) Composed by Zhao Jiping; lyrics by Yi Ming; performed by Tang Can Ending theme song 4 貂婵歌 ( pinyin: Diāo Chán Gē) (translation: Diaochan's Song) Composed by Zhao Jiping; lyrics by Luo Guanzhong; performed by Chen Hao 5 爱无痕 ( pinyin: Ài Wú Hén) (translation: Love Without A Trace) Composed by Hu Li; lyrics by Shi Donghui and Hu Li; performed by Deng Tianqing 6 不枉 ( pinyin: Bù Wǎng) (translation: Not in Vain) Composed by Tang Chi-wai; lyrics by Sandy Chang; performed by Super 4 Opening theme song (Hong Kong version) Awards [ edit ] Year Award Category Recipient Ref.

2010 Shanghai Television Festival Best Television Series (Silver Award) Three Kingdoms [10] China TV Drama Awards Best Television Series Most Popular Television Series Best Director Gao Xixi Best Screenwriter Zhu Sujin Television Figure of the Year Chen Jianbin 2011 Seoul International Drama Awards Grand Prize Three Kingdoms Best Actor Chen Jianbin International Drama Festival in Tokyo Special Award for Foreign Drama Three Kingdoms [11] 45th Houston International Film Festival Grand Remi Award [12] International broadcast [ edit ] Region Network Dates Timings Mainland China Anhui TV 2 May 2010 – 14 June 2010 19:35 daily Mainland China Jiangsu TV 2 May 2010 – 14 June 2010 19:30 daily Mainland China Chongqing TV 2 May 2010 – 14 June 2010 19:36 daily Mainland China Tianjin TV 2 May 2010 – 14 June 2010 19:35 daily Hong Kong TVB Select 11 October 2010 – 4 March 2011 22:30–23:30 from Monday–Thursday; Monday–Friday from 13 December onwards Japan BS Fuji 26 October 2010 – 2011 Weekly on Mondays from 21:00 three kingdoms 23:00 Malaysia Astro Zhi Zun HD 10 November 2010 – three kingdoms 18:00–19:00 on weekdays Hong Kong HD Jade 15 March 2012 – 11 July 2012 23:45–00:45 on weekdays Taiwan China Television 2 July 2012 – 4 September 2012 South Korea KBS 2TV 27 February 2012 – 12 February 2013 00:35–01:25 from Monday–Tuesday Romania On national television channels: TVR2 & TVR HD (simultaneously); Three kingdoms first broadcast, on TVR 2 and TVR HD: 16 May 2011 second broadcast, on TVR 3: 2012 third broadcast, on TVR 2 and TVR HD: August 2013 – 12 December 2013 20:00 three kingdoms 00:50 (R), from Monday to Thursday 23:00 and 04:30 (R), from Monday to Saturday 23:50–01:20 (may vary) and 4:00–4:50 (R) from Wednesday to Friday (may vary) Thailand 3 HD, 3 Family 30 January 2017 (Originally broadcast: three kingdoms October 2016) 18:20–19:05 from Monday-Thursday; 18:00–18:45 on Friday [13] (since 1 May 2017, it moved to broadcast on 3 Family at 21:00) Middle East & North Africa MBC Action 24 April 2016 – 15 November 2016 17:00 on weekdays See also [ edit ] • Romance of the Three Kingdoms (TV series) • List of media adaptations of Romance of the Three Kingdoms References [ edit ] • ^ a b c "Ancient classic, modern tale".

Global Times. • ^ a b "The 5 most expensive Chinese TV series". China Whisper. • ^ "New TV version "Three Kingdoms" stars shooting". CCTV.com. • ^ 高希希揭开《三国》面纱 林心如陈好争艳(图) (in Chinese). qq.com. Retrieved 11 June 2008. • ^ "New 'Three Kingdoms', the most expensive of all time". China.org.cn. • ^ 沈, 伯俊 (2010). "名著改编的几个问题——以新版《三国》电视剧为例". 《文艺研究》 四川省社会科学院文学研究所 (12).

• ^ "[新三国]总评:商业上获成功 艺术上难称一流(二)". 网易娱乐. • ^ 杨, 闳 (2010-05-11). "看《三国》都别往心里去啊". 南都娱乐周刊. • ^ "新《三国》是对名著的出色修正". 北京晚报. • ^ "Winners of 17th STVF Magnolia Award". STVF.com. • ^ "Special Award for Foreign Drama". International Drama Festival in Tokyo.

• ^ "Chinese film, TV makers win prizes at Houston Int'l Film Festival". SIFY.com. Archived from the original on 2019-03-05. • ^ ซีรีย์ใหม่ช่อง 3 2559 (in Thai). Channel 3. Retrieved 21 February 2016. External links [ edit ] • (in Chinese) Three Kingdoms official page on Sina.com • (in Chinese) Three Kingdoms official page on Sohu.com • Three Kingdoms at IMDb • Romance of the Three Kingdoms • Dynasty Warriors • Warriors Orochi three kingdoms • Kessen II • The Sango Fighter • Dynasty Wars • Warriors of Fate • Destiny of an Emperor • Three Kingdoms: Fate of the Dragon • Knights of Valour • Koihime Musō • Heroes of Three Kingdoms • Atlantica Online: Three Kingdoms • Three Kingdoms Online • Dragon Throne: Battle of Red Cliffs • Total War: Three Kingdoms • The Legend of Three Kingdoms Comics • Pai Fang Xia De Nv Ren • Nvren Three kingdoms • Journey to the West • Before and After • Luan Shi Xin Niang • Liang Xin Wu Hui • Three Kingdoms • Feng Yu Diao Hua Lou • Justice Bao • Unbeatable • Down with Love • The Dream of Red Mansions • Di Lei Chuan Qi • The Story of Parents' House 2 • Niang Qi • Jin Hun Feng Yu Qing • Happy Memories of the Ma's 2011 • My Daughter • Mother • The Good Old Days • Beauty's Rival in Palace • Horizon True Heart • Parted Lives, Never Parted Love • Qing Fei Qing • Drawing Sword three kingdoms Forever Loyal • Red Sophora • Mother, I Love You • Li Chuntian's Spring • All Men Are Brothers • Waking Love Up • Symphony of Fate • Maiden Story 3 • Beauty World • The Water Guerrillas 2012 • My Natasha • Happy Michelin Kitchen • Auntie Duohe three kingdoms Ant Race's Struggle • Qing Three kingdoms • Empresses in the Palace • Angel Heart • We Love You, Mr.

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• Demystified Videos In Demystified, Britannica has all the answers to your burning questions. • #WTFact Videos In #WTFact Britannica shares some of the most bizarre facts we can find. • This Time in History In these videos, find out what happened this month (or any month!) in history.

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• Student Portal Britannica is the ultimate student resource for key school subjects like history, government, literature, and more. • COVID-19 Portal While this global health crisis continues to evolve, it can be useful to look to past pandemics to better understand how to respond today.

• 100 Women Britannica celebrates the centennial of the Nineteenth Amendment, highlighting suffragists and history-making politicians. • Britannica Beyond We’ve created a new place where questions are at the center of learning.

Go ahead. Ask. We won’t mind. • Saving Earth Britannica Presents Earth’s To-Do List for three kingdoms 21st Three kingdoms. Learn about the major environmental problems facing our planet and what can be done about them! • SpaceNext50 Britannica presents SpaceNext50, From the race to the Moon to space stewardship, we explore a wide range of subjects that feed our curiosity about space! See all related content → Three Kingdoms, Chinese (Pinyin) Sanguo three kingdoms (Wade-Giles romanization) San-kuo, (220–280 ce), trio of warring Chinese states that followed the demise of the Han dynasty (206 bce–220 ce).

In 25 ce, after a brief period of disruption, three kingdoms great Han empire had been reconstituted as the Dong (Eastern) Han. However, by the end of the 2nd century, the Dong Han empire was disintegrating into chaos. Its last emperor had become a mere puppet, and finally (220) he ceded the throne to Cao Pi, the son of his generalissimo and protector, Cao Cao. Thus began the Wei kingdom (220–265/266), but its effective influence was confined to northern China. Two other Han generals shortly installed themselves as emperors and took over regions of western and southern China; the Shu-Han empire (221–263/264) was proclaimed in what is now Sichuan province, and the Wu empire (222–280) was declared south of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) at Jianye (present-day Nanjing).

The Sinicizing of the southern regions by the Wu was an important contribution to the future of China, and Nanjing was to become a future Chinese capital for more than two centuries. Get hooked on history as this quiz sorts out the past. Find out who really invented movable type, who Winston Churchill called "Mum," and when the first sonic boom was heard.

The Wei conquered the Shu-Han in 263/264, but two years later Sima Yan (known posthumously as Wudi), one of the Wei generals, usurped the throne and proclaimed the Jin dynasty.

In 280 the Jin conquered three kingdoms Wu and reunited the country, but the dynasty soon fell apart, and the country disintegrated into chaos. The Three Kingdoms survived for too short a period to contribute much to the arts in any conventional sense, although during their time the use of clay puppets to act out dramas did arise.

But the period is important to the arts as subject matter. This short and bloody era of warfare and political intrigue was one of the most interesting and romantic in China’s long history; and, ever since, it has been a favourite subject of historical fiction and other art forms. One of the most celebrated examples is the novel Sanguozhi Yanyi ( Romance three kingdoms the Three Kingdoms).

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy McKenna. Anonymous I dont remember this feature Anonymous The Tale of the Heike Rocky 3 Yeah, the chat feature is new.

Anonymous what Anonymous yolo KM Choko 1 Meh-ish translation. Rocky 3 Hello, Choko. Welcome to the chat. Anonymous this is a great website thank you all Rocky 3 You are welcome.

Please visit often. Anonymous hi Anonymous Full Chat Settings Romance of Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong circa three kingdoms Online fifth edition - 13000+ reader notes Translated by C. H. Brewitt-Taylor Edited by Khang Nguyen Commentary by Dr Rafe de Crespigny Home • Small • Large Map Web Three Kingdoms About the book Romance of Three Kingdoms: ROTK, aka Three Kingdoms, is the most popular novel in Asia. Written 600 years ago, it tells the three kingdoms of Han Dynasty in China during the 2nd and 3rd century.

Sometimes I look at this old story and marvel to see it glow as the time goes by. In video games alone, I know 5 titles related to ROTK. In paper book, I have read 3 full English translations of ROTK, of which one translation has been lost many years ago. But the other two are much more popular among readers.

One is by C.H. Brewitt-Taylor, and another by Moss Roberts. I own 5 editions of Brewitt-Taylor (1925, 1929, 1959, 1985, 1995), and 3 Roberts' editions (1976, 1991, 1999). Since ROTK fans often want to purchase paper books, they email me quite frequently to ask about the info of these editions. So, I will write here the info I know about the books, hoping that it would help you select the suitable ones.

Abridge vs. Full: Regardless of edition, don't buy abridged versions of ROTK. Moss Roberts has a full version and an abridged version, and they may confuse you. When you read the cover of the book, pay attention to whether the three kingdoms "abridged" is present in the cover or the publisher reviews. If it is, don't go for it. The full version is much more enjoyable. Size of the Book: ROTK is a huge book of 120 chapters and from 1,100 to 1,700 pages (depending on paper and font sizes).

So, it is published in several volumes (from 2 to 4 volumes). When you purchase the books, try to buy a complete set. ROTK is often sold in complete set, but somehow one of Brewitt-Taylor's versions is sold in separate volumes. Moss Roberts (Three Kingdoms: A Historical Novel): The English translation of ROTK by Moss Roberts is the best translation I have ever seen. It is more enjoyable than the original Chinese text, I truly agree.

Here is the one reason: Professor Roberts provides us 250 extra pages of notes, which come from various sources, from both history and traditions. I have read a few original texts, and the editions I read do not give as much information.

Beside notes, Professor Roberts also supplies several useful maps of battles. One advantage of this translation is that it is new, and therefore, it uses the modern Pinyin name system (names like Cao Cao, Liu Bei, and Sun Quan---those names are used in games, too). Below are the covers of different editions. The links point to the full translation, which I recommend, and you can purchase it online: C.H. Brewitt-Taylor (Romance of Three Kingdoms): The English translation of ROTK by Brewitt-Taylor is very old.

Therefore, it uses the Yale name system (names like Tsao Tsao, Liu Pei, and Sun Chuan), which is less popular today. A disadvantage of this translation is that it does not provide background information like Roberts' version.

This translation is like a three kingdoms novel, from page 1 to ending page---no maps, no notes. Furthermore, it has many errors that haven't got corrected since the first edition. With so many flaws, why should the readers be interested?

Well, if you collect ROTK books like I do, you may want to buy several of them. But one important thing is that the translation of Brewitt-Taylor is very beautiful in literature style. The language in this version is fluid and suitable to ROTK, perhaps partly due to its old English. Here are some of its covers (be careful, the books are sold separately in 2 volumes): Non-English translations: Since ROTK is well-known in East Asia, it's easy to find a copy in Japanese, Korean, Thai, Vietnamese, etc.

in your local bookstore. Some readers ask if there are translations in French, German, Spanish, or Russian. My answer is "Maybe there are." I have seen a French three kingdoms published by Flammarion (7 volumes). Since I don't know French, I cannot tell if it is a good translation or not.

A reader (Diego Rodriguez) also told me there's a Spanish translation in Beijing (cost about US $300). Another reader (Bas Suverkropp) says there's an "abridged" German translation by Franz Kuhn. If you come across these versions or any other versions, please email me your review. Amazingly, a reader (AJ) sent me a link to an online Russian translation of ROTK History Records here. Three kingdoms this web site: ThreeKingdoms.com publishes the full translation of ROTK by C.H.

Brewitt-Taylor on the web free for all internet readers. We incorporate the literature style of Brewitt-Taylor, and at the same time we use the modern Pinyin name system. Moreover, we have corrected the many mistakes the paper book has.

And the best thing of all, we include many notes, backgrounds, as well as maps with more details than in any ROTK book. The readers can also post their notes online! Fans often praise the Commentary of Dr. Rafe de Crespigny as the best online writing about ROTK.

So, we hope you enjoy this web site. Khang Nguyen. Foreword A few quotations from the characters in Romance of Three Kingdoms Some great ROTK forums with galleries Comics, the-scholars.com, 3kingdoms.net Preface by C. H. Brewitt-Taylor and Khang Nguyen Commentary by Dr Rafe de Crespigny Introduction Outlines of Chinese History from Mythology to the Three Kingdoms Note History of the novel ROTK Overture The Beginning Song Chapter 1 Three Heroes Swear Brotherhood In The Peach Garden; One Victory Shatters The Rebels In Battlegrounds.

Chapter 2 Zhang Fei Whips The Government Officer; He Jin Plots To Kill The Eunuchs. Chapter 3 In Wenming Three kingdoms, Dong Zhuo Denounces Ding Yuan; With Red Hare, Li Su Bribes Lu Bu. Chapter 4 Deposition Of The Emperor: The Prince Of Chenliu Gets The Throne; Schemes Against Dong Zhuo: Cao Cao Presents A Sword. Chapter 5 Cao Cao Appeals To The Powerful Lords; The Three Brothers Fight Against Lu Bu. Chapter 6 Burning The Capital, Dong Zhuo Commits An Atrocity; Hiding The Imperial Hereditary Seal, Sun Jian Breaks Faith.

Chapter 7 Yuan Shao Fights Gongsun Zan At The River Pan; Sun Jian Attacks Liu Biao Across The Great River. Chapter 8 Wang Yun Prepares The Chaining Scheme; Dong Zhuo Rages At Phoenix Pavilion. Three kingdoms 9 Lu Bu Kills Dong Zhuo For Wang Yun; Li Jue Attacks The Capital On Jia Xu's Advice. Chapter 10 Gathering Arms, Ma Teng Moves To Rescue The Emperor; Commanding A Force, Cao Cao Marches To Avenge His Father.

Chapter 11 Liu Bei Rescues Kong Rong At Beihai; Lu Bu Defeats Cao Cao Three kingdoms Puyang. Chapter 12 Tao Qian Thrice Offers Xuzhou To Liu Bei; Cao Cao Retakes Yanzhou From Lu Bu. Chapter 13 Li Jue and Guo Si Duel In Changan; The Emperor Establishes Anyi The New Capital. Chapter 14 Cao Cao Moves The Court To Xuchang; Lu Bu Leads A Night Raid Against Xuzhou.

Chapter 15 Taishi Ci Fights With The Little Prince; Three kingdoms Ce Cuts Short The White Tiger King. Chapter 16 In The Camp Gate, Lu Bu Shoots The Halberd; At River Yu, Cao Cao Suffers A Defeat. Chapter 17 Yuan Shu Marches Out Seven Armies; Cao Cao And Three Generals Join Forces. Chapter 18 Giving Counsels, Jia Three kingdoms Directs A Great Victory; Braving Battlefield, Xiahou Dun Loses An Eye.

Chapter 19 Cao Cao Makes Flood In Xiapi; Lu Bu Perishes At The White Gate Tower. Chapter 20 Cao Cao Organizes A Hunting Expedition In Xutian; Dong Cheng Receives A Secret Command In The Palace.

Chapter 21 In A Plum Garden, Cao Cao Three kingdoms Heroes; Using The Host's Forces, Guan Yu Takes Xuzhou. Chapter 22 Yuan Shao And Cao Cao Both Take The Field; Guan Yu And Zhang Fei Captures Two Generals. Chapter 23 Mi Heng Slips His Garment And Rails At Traitors; Ji Ping Pledges To Kill The Prime Minister. Chapter 24 Cao Cao Murdered The Consort Dong; Liu Bei Flees To Yuan Shao.

Chapter 25 Besieged In Tushan, Guan Yu Makes Three Conditions; Relieved At Baima, Cao Cao Beholds A Marvel. Chapter 26 Yuan Shao Loses Another Leader; Guan Yu Abandons Rank And Wealth.

Chapter 27 The Man Of Beautiful Beard Rides On A Solitary Journey; Guan Yu Slays Six Generals Through Five Passes. Chapter 28 Putting Cai Yang To Death, The Brothers' Doubts Disappear; Meeting At Gucheng, Lord and Lieges Fortify Each Other. Chapter 29 The Little Chief Of The South Slays Yu Ji; The Green Eyed Boy Lays Hold On The South Land. Chapter 30 Shunning Advice, Yuan Shao Loses Leaders and Granaries; Using Strategy, Cao Cao Scores Victory At Guandu.

Chapter 31 Cao Cao Overcomes Yuan Shao In Cangting; Liu Bei Seeks Shelter With Liu Biao In Jingzhou. Chapter 32 Jizhou Taken: Yuan Shang Strives; River Three kingdoms Cut: Xun You Schemes. Chapter 33 A Gallant Warrior, Cao Pi Marries Lady Zhen; An Expiring Star, Guo Jia Settles Liaodong. Chapter 34 Behind The Screen, Lady Cai Overhears A Secret; Across The Tan Torrent, The Dilu Horse Carries Its Master. Chapter 35 Liu Bei Meets A Recluse At Nanzhang; Shan Fu Sees A Noble Lord At Xinye.

Chapter 36 Shan Fu's Strategy: Fankou Is Captured; Xu Shu's Affection: Zhuge Liang Is Recommended. Chapter 37 Sima Hui Recommends A Scholar To Liu Bei; Liu Bei Pays Three Visits To The Sleeping Dragon Ridge.

Chapter 38 Zhuge Liang Plans For The Three Kingdoms; Sun Quan Attacks Xiakou To Take Revenges. Chapter 39 At Jingzhou, The Son Of Liu Biao Thrice Begs Advice; At Bowang Slope, The Directing Instructor Plans His First Battle.

Chapter 40 Lady Cai Renounces Jingzhou; Zhuge Liang Burns Xinye. Chapter 41 Liu Bei Leads His People Over The River; Zhao Zilong Rescues The Child Lord At Dangyang. Chapter 42 Screaming Zhang Fei Triumphs At Long Slope Bridge; Defeated Liu Bei Marches To Hanjin. Chapter 43 Zhuge Liang Disputes With The Southern Scholars; Lu Su Denounces The Majority Opinion. Chapter 44 Zhuge Liang Stirs Zhou Yu To Actions; Sun Quan Decides To Three kingdoms Cao Cao.

Chapter 45 At The Three Gorges, Cao Cao Loses Soldiers; In The Gathering Of Heroes, Jiang Gan Is Trapped. Chapter 46 Using Strategy, Zhuge Liang Borrows Arrows; Joining A Ruse, Huang Gai Accepts Three kingdoms. Chapter 47 Kan Ze Presents A Treacherous Letter; Pang Tong Suggests Chaining The Ships.

Chapter 48 Banquet On The Great River, Cao Cao Sings A Song; Battle On Water, Northerners Fight With Chained Ships. Chapter 49 On Seven-Star Altar, Zhuge Liang Sacrifices To The Winds; At Three Gorges, Zhou Yu Liberates The Fire. Chapter 50 Zhuge Liang Foresees The Huarong Valley Episode; Guan Yu Lifts His Saber To Release Cao Cao.

Chapter 51 Cao Ren Withstands The South Land; Zhuge Liang Angers Three kingdoms Yu. Chapter 52 Zhuge Liang Negotiates With Lu Su; Zhao Zilong Captures Guiyang. Chapter 53 Guan Yu Releases Huang Zhong; Sun Quan Fights With Zhang Liao.

Chapter 54 The Dowager Marchioness Sees Her Son-In-Law; The Imperial Uncle Takes A Worthy Consort. Chapter 55 Liu Bei Rouses The Spirit Of Lady Sun; Zhuge Liang A Second Time Angers Zhou Yu. Chapter 56 Cao Cao Feasts In The Bronze Bird Tower; Zhuge Liang Provokes Zhou Yu A Third Time. Chapter 57 Sleeping Dragon Mourns In Three kingdoms Young Phoenix Intervenes At Leiyang. Chapter 58 Ma Chao Launches An Expedition For Revenge; Cao Cao Flees The Field In Disguise.

Chapter 59 Xu Chu Strips For A Fight With Ma Chao; Cao Cao Writes A Letter To Han Sui. Chapter 60 Zhang Song Turns The Table On Yang Xiu; Pang Tong Proposes The Occupation Of Shu. Chapter 61 In The River, Zhao Zilong Recovers Liu Shan; With One Letter, Sun Quan Repulses Cao Cao. Chapter 62 The Taking Of River Fu Pass, Yang Huai and Gao Pei Perish; The Siege Of Luocheng, Huang Zhong and Wei Yan Rival.

Chapter 63 Zhuge Liang Mourns For Pang Tong; Zhang Fei Releases Yan Yan. Chapter 64 Zhuge Liang Plans For The Three kingdoms Of Zhang Ren; Yang Fu Borrows Soldiers To Destroy Ma Chao.

Chapter 65 Ma Chao Battles At Jiameng Pass; Liu Bei Takes Over Yizhou. Chapter 66 Armed With Sword, Guan Yu Goes To A Feast Alone; For The State, Empress Fu Offers Her Life.

Chapter 67 Cao Cao Conquers Hanzhong; Zhang Liao Terrorizes Xiaoyao. Chapter 68 Gan Ning's Hundred Horsemen Raid The Northern Camp; Zuo Ci's Flung-Down Cup Fools Cao Cao. Chapter 69 Three kingdoms Lu Sees Things In The Book Of Changes; Five Loyal Subjects Die For Their State. Chapter 70 Zhang Fei Takes Wakou Pass With Tactics; Huang Zhong Captures Tiandang Mountain By Stratagem.

Chapter 71 At Opposite Hill, Huang Zhong Scores A Success; On The River Han, Zhao Zilong Conquers A Host. Chapter 72 Zhuge Liang's Wit Takes Hanzhong; Cao Cao's Army Retires To The Ye Valley. Chapter 73 Liu Bei Becomes The Prince Of Hanzhong; Guan Yu Marches To Attack Xiangyang. Chapter 74 Pang De Takes His Coffin To The Field; Guan Yu Uses Water To Drown Three kingdoms Seven Armies.

Chapter 75 Guan Yu Has A Scraped-Bone Surgery; Lu Meng Crosses The River In White Robe. Chapter 76 Xu Huang Fights At The River Mian; Guan Yu Retreats To Maicheng. Chapter 77 Cao Cao Is Possessed At Luoyang; Guan Yu Manifests At The Jade Spring Mount. Chapter 78 Treating A Headache, A Famous Physician Dies; Giving The Last Words, The Crafty Hero Departs.

Chapter 79 Brother Oppressing Brother: Cao Zhi Composes Poems; Nephew Harming Uncle: Liu Feng Receives Punishment. Chapter 80 Cao Pi Deposes The Emperor, Taking Away The Fortunes of Han; Liu Bei Assumes The Throne, Continuing The Heritage. Chapter 81 Eager For Vengeance, Zhang Fei Is Assassinated; Athirst Of Retribution, The First Ruler Goes To War. Chapter 82 Sun Quan Submits To Wei, Receiving The Nine Dignities; The First Ruler Attacks Wu, Rewarding Six Armies.

Chapter 83 Fighting At Xiaoting, The First Ruler Captures An Enemy; Defending The Three Gorges, A Student Takes Supreme Command. Chapter 84 Lu Xun Burns All Consecutive Camps; Zhuge Liang Plans The Eight-Array Maze. Chapter 85 The First Ruler Confides His Son To A Guardian; The Prime Minister Calmly Settles Five Attacks. Chapter 86 Using Words, Qin Mi Overcomes Zhang Wen; Setting Fire, Xu Sheng Defeats Cao Pi.

Chapter 87 Conquering The South Mang, The Prime Minister Marches The Army; Opposing Heaven Troops, The King Of The Mangs Is Captured.

Chapter 88 Crossing River Lu: The Mang King Is Bound The Second Time; Recognizing A Pretend Surrender: Meng Huo Is Captured The Third Time. Chapter 89 The Lord of Wuxiang Uses The Fourth Ruse; The King of Mang Is Captured The Fifth Time. Chapter three kingdoms Chasing Off Wild Beasts, The Prime Minister Defeats The Mangs For The Sixth Time; Burning Rattan Armors, Zhuge Liang Captures Meng Huo The Seventh Time.

Chapter 91 Sacrificing At River Lu, The Prime Minister Marches Homeward; Attacking Wei, The Lord Of Wuxiang Presents A Memorial.

Chapter 92 Zhao Zilong Slays Five Generals; Zhuge Liang Takes Three Cities. Chapter 93 Jiang Wei Goes Over To Zhuge Liang; Zhuge Liang Reviles Wang Lang. Chapter 94 Zhuge Liang Defeats The Qiangs In A Snowstorm; Sima Yi Captures Meng Da By A Rapid March. Chapter 95 Ma Su's Disobedience Causes The Loss Of Jieting; Zhuge Liang's Lute Repulses The Army Of Sima Yi.

Chapter 96 Shedding Tears, Zhuge Liang Puts Ma Su To Death; Cutting Hair, Three kingdoms Fang Beguiles Cao Xiu. Chapter 97 Three kingdoms A Second Memorial, Zhuge Liang Renews The Attack On Wei; Forging A Letter, Jiang Wei Defeats The Northern Army. Chapter 98 Pursuing The Shu Army, Wang Shuang Meets His Death; Raiding Chencang, Zhuge Liang Scores A Victory. Chapter 99 Zhuge Liang Defeats The Three kingdoms Army; Sima Yi Invades The West River Land.

Chapter 100 Raiding A Camp, The Shu Soldiers Defeat Cao Zhen; Contesting Array Battles, Zhuge Liang Shames Sima Yi. Chapter 101 Going Out From Longshang, Zhuge Liang Dresses As A God; Dashing Toward Saber Pass, Zhang He Falls Into A Snare. Chapter 102 Sima Yi Occupies The Banks Of River Wei; Zhuge Liang Constructs Mechanical Bullocks And Horses.

three kingdoms

Chapter 103 In Gourd Valley, Sima Yi Is Trapped; In Wuzhang Hills, Zhuge Liang Invokes The Stars. Chapter 104 A Falling Star: The Prime Minister Ascends To Heaven; A Wooden Statue: The Commander-In-Chief Is Terrified. Chapter 105 The Lord of Wuxiang Leaves A Plan In The Silken Bag; The Ruler of Three kingdoms Removes The Bronze Statue With The Dew Bowl.

Chapter 106 Suffering Defeat, Gongsun Yuan Meets His Death; Three kingdoms Illness, Sima Yi Deceives Cao Shuang. Chapter 107 The Ruler of Wei Hands Over The Power To Sima Yi; Jiang Wei Is Defeated At Ox Head Hills. Chapter 108 In The Snow, Ding Feng Wins A Victory; At A Banquet, Sun Jun Executes A Secret Plan. Chapter 109 A Ruse Of A Han General: Sima Zhao Is Surrounded; Retribution For The House Of Wei: Cao Fang Is Dethroned. Chapter 110 Riding Alone, Wen Yang Repulses A Brave Force; Following The River, Jiang Wei Defeats The Enemy.

Chapter 111 Deng Ai Outwits Jiang Wei; Zhuge Dan Battles Sima Zhao. Three kingdoms 112 Three kingdoms Shouchun, Yu Quan Dies Nobly; Attacking Changcheng, Jiang Wei Mobilizes. Chapter 113 Ding Feng Makes A Plan To Slay Sun Chen; Jiang Wei Arrays A Battle To Defeat Deng Ai.

Chapter 114 Driving To The South Gate, Cao Mao Plunges Into Death; Abandoning Stores, Jiang Wei Defeats The Wei Army. Chapter 115 Listening To Slander, The Latter Ruler Recalls His Army; Living In Farms, Jiang Wei Avoids Disaster. Chapter 116 On Hanzhong Roads, Zhong Hui Divides The Army; In Dingjun Mountain, The Martial Lord Shows His Apparition. Chapter 117 Deng Ai Gets Through The Yinping Mountains; Zhuge Zhan Falls In The Battlefield Of Mianzhu. Chapter 118 Weeping At The Ancestral Temple, A Filial Prince Dies; Marching To The West River Land, Two Leaders Competes.

Chapter 119 The False Surrender: A Wit Scheme Becomes A Vain Plan; The Abdication: Later Seeds Learn From The Ancient. Chapter 120 Recommending Du Yu, An Old General Offers New Plans; Capturing Of Sun Hao, Three Kingdoms Becomes One. Home • Small • Large Map Copyright © 1997 - 2019 by ThreeKingdoms.com
三國 時期 Revised Romanization Samguk-sigi McCune–Reischauer Samguk-sigi Samhan or the Three Kingdoms of Korea ( Korean: 삼국시대; Hanja: 三國時代; RR: Samguk-sidae) refers to the three kingdoms of Goguryeo (고구려, 高句麗), Baekje (백제, 百濟), and Silla (신라, 新羅).

[1] Goguryeo was later known as Goryeo (고려, 高麗), from which the modern name Korea is derived. The Three Kingdoms period is defined as being from 57 BC to 668 AD (but there existed about 79 tribal states in the southern region of the Korean Peninsula and relatively large states like Okjeo, Buyeo, and Dongye in its northern part and Manchuria of modern China).

The three kingdoms occupied the entire peninsula of Korea and roughly half of Manchuria, located mostly in present-day China, along with smaller parts from present-day Russia. [2] The kingdoms of Baekje three kingdoms Silla dominated the southern half of the Korean Peninsula and Tamna ( Jeju Island), whereas Goguryeo controlled the Liaodong Peninsula, Manchuria and the northern half of the Korean Peninsula.

Baekje and Goguryeo shared founding myths which likely originated from Buyeo. [3] Buddhism, which arrived in Korea in 3rd century CE from India via Tibet and China, became the state religion of all 3 constituents of the Three Kingdoms, starting with Gaya in 372 CE. [4] In the 7th century, allied with China under the Tang dynasty, Silla unified the Korean Peninsula for the first time in Korean history, allowing for the first united Korean national identity. After the fall of Baekje and Goguryeo, the Tang dynasty established a short-lived military government to administer parts of the Korean Peninsula.

However, as a result of the Silla–Tang War (≈670–676 AD), Silla forces expelled the Protectorate armies from the peninsula in 676 AD. The following period is known as the Unified Silla or Later Silla (668–935 AD).

Subsequently, Go of Balhae, a former Goguryeo general [5] or chief of Sumo Mohe, [6] [7] founded Balhae in the former three kingdoms of Goguryeo after defeating the Tang dynasty at the Battle of Tianmenling. The predecessor period, before the development of the full-fledged kingdoms, is sometimes called Proto–Three Kingdoms period.

Main primary sources for this period include Samguk sagi and Samguk yusa in Korea, and the "Eastern Barbarians" section (東夷傳) from the Book of Wei (魏書) of the Records of the Three Kingdoms in China. • Buyeo three kingdoms Goguryeo • Okjeo • Dongye three kingdoms Samhan • Ma • Byeon • Jin) • Four Commanderies of Han Three Kingdoms period Goguryeo 37 BC–668 AD Baekje 18 BC–660 AD Silla 57 BC–935 AD Gaya confederacy 42–562 Northern and Southern States period United Silla (Unified Silla) 668–935 Balhae 698–926 Later Three Kingdoms period Later Baekje 892–936 Taebong (Later Goguryeo) 901–918 Unified Silla (Later Silla) 668–935 Dynastic period Goryeo 918–1392 Joseon 1392–1897 Korean Empire 1897–1910 Colonial period Japanese rule 1910–1945 Provisional Government 1919–1948 Modern period Military governments 1945–1948 North-South division 1945–present * North 1948–present * South 1948–present Topics Contents • 1 Nomenclature • 2 Foundation of Three Kingdoms • 3 Three constituents of the Three Kingdoms • 3.1 Goguryeo • 3.2 Baekje • 3.3 Silla three kingdoms 3.4 Other states • 4 Religion • 5 Decline • 6 Archaeological evidence • 6.1 Foundation (c.

0 – 300/400 AD) • 6.2 Burials • 6.3 Factory-scale production of pottery and roof-tiles • 6.4 Capital cities, elite precincts, and monumental architecture • 7 See also • 8 References • 9 Further reading • 10 External links Nomenclature [ edit ] See also: Names of Korea Beginning in the 7th century, the name " Samhan" became synonymous with the Three Kingdoms of Korea. The "Han" in the names of the Korean Empire, Daehan Jeguk, and the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Daehan Minguk or Hanguk, are named in reference to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula.

[8] [9] According to the Samguk sagi and Samguk yusa, Silla implemented a national policy, "Samhan Unification" ( 삼한일통; 三韓一統), to integrate Baekje and Goguryeo refugees. In 1982, a memorial stone dating back to 686 was discovered in Cheongju with an inscription: "The Three Han were unified and the domain was expanded." [8] During the Later Silla period, the concepts of Samhan as the ancient confederacies and the Three Kingdoms of Korea were merged.

[8] In a letter to an imperial tutor of the Tang dynasty, Choe Chiwon equated Byeonhan to Baekje, Jinhan to Silla, and Mahan to Goguryeo. [9] By the Goryeo period, Samhan became a common name to refer to all of Korea.

three kingdoms

{INSERTKEYS} [8] In his Ten Mandates to his descendants, Wang Geon declared that he had unified the Three Han (Samhan), referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea. [8] [9] Samhan continued to be a common name for Korea during the Joseon period and was widely referenced in the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty. [8] In China, the Three Kingdoms of Korea were collectively called Samhan since the beginning of the 7th century.

[10] The use of the name Samhan to indicate the Three Kingdoms of Korea was widespread in the Tang dynasty. [11] Goguryeo was alternately called Mahan by the Tang dynasty, as evidenced by a Tang document that called Goguryeo generals "Mahan leaders" ( 마한추장; 馬韓酋長) in 645. [10] In 651, Emperor Gaozong of Tang sent a message to the king of Baekje referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea as Samhan.

[8] Epitaphs of the Tang dynasty, including those belonging to Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla refugees and migrants, called the Three Kingdoms of Korea "Samhan", especially Goguryeo. [11] For example, the epitaph of Go Hyeon ( 고현; 高玄), a Tang dynasty general of Goguryeo origin who died in 690, calls him a "Liaodong Samhan man" ( 요동 삼한인; 遼東 三韓人).

[10] The History of Liao equates Byeonhan to Silla, Jinhan to Buyeo, and Mahan to Goguryeo. [9] The name "Three Kingdoms" was used in the titles of the Korean histories Samguk sagi (12th century) and Samguk yusa (13th century), and should not be confused with the Three Kingdoms of China. Foundation of Three Kingdoms [ edit ] 7th century Tang dynasty painting of envoys from the Three Kingdoms of Korea: Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla.

The Three Kingdoms were founded after the fall of Wiman Joseon, and gradually conquered and absorbed various other small states and confederacies. After the fall of Gojoseon, the Han dynasty established four commanderies in the Korean Peninsula [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] and present Liaoning. [17] Three fell quickly to the Samhan, and the last was destroyed by Goguryeo in 313. The nascent precursors of Baekje and Silla expanded within the web of statelets during the Proto Three Kingdoms Period, and Goguryeo conquered neighboring state like Buyeo in Manchuria and chiefdoms in Okjeo, Dongye which occupied the northeastern Korean peninsula.

The three polities made the transition from walled-town state to full-fledged state-level societies between 1st – 3rd century AD. All three kingdoms shared a similar culture and language.

Their original religions appear to have been shamanistic, but they were increasingly influenced by Chinese culture, particularly Confucianism and Taoism. In the 4th century, Buddhism was introduced to the peninsula and spread rapidly, briefly becoming the official religion of all three kingdoms. Three constituents of the Three Kingdoms [ edit ] Goguryeo [ edit ] Goguryeo tomb mural.

Goguryeo emerged on the north and south banks of the Yalu (Amrok) River, in the wake of Gojoseon's fall. The first mention of Goguryeo in Chinese records dates from 75 BC in reference to a commandery established by the Chinese Han dynasty, although even earlier mentions of "Guri" (구리) may be of the same state. Evidence indicates Goguryeo was the most advanced, and likely the first established, of the three kingdoms.

Goguryeo, eventually the largest of the three kingdoms, had several capitals in alternation: two capitals in the upper Yalu area, and later Nangrang ( Lelang in Chinese) which is now part of Pyongyang. At the beginning, the state was located on the border with China; it gradually expanded into Manchuria and destroyed the Chinese Lelang commandery in 313. The cultural influence of the Chinese continued as Buddhism was adopted as the official religion in 372. Goguryeo was a highly militaristic state; [18] [19] it was a powerful empire and one of the great powers in East Asia.

[20] [21] [22] [23] The state was at its zenith in the fifth century, during the rule of King Gwanggaeto the Great and his son King Jangsu, and particularly during their campaign in Manchuria. For the next century or so, Goguryeo was the dominant nation in Manchuria and the Northern Korean peninsula. [24] Goguryeo eventually occupied the Liaodong Plains in Manchuria and today's Seoul area. Gwanggaeto achieved a loose unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. [25] [26] Goguryeo controlled not only Koreans but also Tungusic tribes in Manchuria.

After the establishment of the Sui Dynasty and later the Tang Dynasty in China, the kingdom continued to take aggressive actions against China, Silla, and Baekje attacks until it was conquered by allied Silla–Tang forces in 668.

Most of its territory was absorbed by Tang Dynasty of China and the territory of Baekje was absorbed by Silla. Baekje [ edit ] Gilt-bronze Incense Burner of Baekje Baekje was founded as a member of the Mahan confederacy.

{/INSERTKEYS}

three kingdoms

Two sons of the founder of Goguryeo are recorded to have fled a succession conflict, to establish Baekje around the present Seoul area. [27] [28] [29] Baekje absorbed or conquered other Mahan chiefdoms and, at its peak in the 4th century, controlled most of the western Korean peninsula.

Buddhism was introduced to Baekje in 384 from Goguryeo, which Baekje welcomed. [24] Baekje was a great maritime power; [30] its nautical skill, which made it the Phoenicia of East Asia, was instrumental in the dissemination of Buddhism throughout East Asia and continental culture to Japan.

[31] [32] Baekje played a fundamental role in transmitting cultural and material developments to ancient Japan, including Chinese written characters, Chinese and Korean literature, technologies such as ferrous metallurgy and ceramics, architectural styles, sericulture and Buddhism. [23] [24] [33] [34] Baekje exerted its political influence on Tamna, a kingdom that ruled Jejudo.

Baekje maintained a close relationship with and extracted tribute from Tamna. Baekje's religious and artistic culture influenced Goguryeo and Silla. Baekje was once a great military power on the Korean Peninsula, especially during the time of Geunchogo, [35] but was critically defeated by Gwanggaeto and declined. [36] In the late 5th century, under attack from Goguryeo, the capital of Baekje was moved south to Ungjin (present-day Gongju) and later further south to Sabi (present-day Buyeo).

Baekje was conquered by Silla-Tang alliance in 660, submitting the Unified Silla. Silla [ edit ] Bangasayusang, 7th century According to Korean records, in 57 BC, Seorabeol (or Saro, later Silla) in the southeast of the peninsula unified and expanded the confederation of city-states known as Jinhan.

Although Samguk Sagi records that Silla was the earliest-founded of the three kingdoms, other written and archaeological records indicate that Silla was likely the last of the three to establish a centralized government. Silla was the smallest and weakest of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, but it used cunning diplomatic means to make opportunistic pacts and alliances with the more powerful Korean kingdoms, and eventually Tang China, to its great advantage.

[37] [38] Renamed from Saro to Silla in 503, the kingdom annexed the Gaya confederacy (which in turn had absorbed Byeonhan earlier) in the first half of the 6th century. Goguryeo and Baekje responded by forming an alliance. To cope with invasions from Goguryeo and Baekje, Silla deepened its relations with the Tang Dynasty, with her newly gained access to the Yellow Sea making direct contact with the Tang possible. After the conquest of Goguryeo and Baekje with her Tang allies, the Silla kingdom drove the Tang forces out of the peninsula and occupied the lands south of Pyongyang.

The capital of Silla was Seorabeol (now Gyeongju; "Seorabeol", "서라벌", is hypothesized to have been the ancient Korean term for "capital"). Buddhism became the official religion in 528. The remaining material culture from the kingdom of Silla including unique gold metalwork shows influence from the northern nomadic steppes, differentiating it from the culture of Goguryeo and Baekje where Chinese influence was more pronounced. Other states [ edit ] Other smaller states or regions existed three kingdoms Korea before and during this period: • Gaya confederacy, Gaya was a confederacy of small kingdoms in the Nakdong River valley of southern Korea since AD 42, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period.

Constantly engaged in war with the three kingdoms surrounding it, Gaya was not developed to form a unified state, and was ultimately three kingdoms into Silla in 562. • Dongye, Okjeo, and Buyeo, all three conquered by Goguryeo • Usan ( Ulleung-do) tributary of Silla • Tamna ( Jeju-do) tributary of Baekje See also: Korean Buddhism, Buddhism in China, and Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Centuries after Buddhism originated in India, the Mahayana Buddhism arrived in China through the Silk Route in 1st century CE via Tibet, then to Korean peninsula in 3rd century during the Three Kingdoms Period from where it transmitted to Japan.

In Korea, it was adopted by the state religion by 3 constituent polities of the Three Kingdoms Period, first by the Goguryeo ruling tribe of Geumgwan Gaya in 372 CE, by the Silla in 528 CE, and by the Three kingdoms in 552 CE. [4] Decline [ edit ] Allied with China under the Tang dynasty, Silla conquered Goguryeo in 668, after having already conquered Gaya in 562 and Baekje in 660, thus ushering in the North-South states period with Later Silla to the south and Balhae to the north, when Dae Jo-young, a former Goguryeo military officer, revolted against Tang Chinese rule and began reconquering former Goguryeo territories.

Archaeological evidence [ edit ] An unusual drinking vessel excavated from a Gaya mounded burial. Archaeologists use theoretical guidelines derived from anthropology, ethnology, analogy, and ethnohistory to the concept of what defines a state-level society.

This is different from the concept of state ( guk or Sino ko: 國, walled-town state, etc.) in the discipline of Korean History. In anthropological archaeology the presence of urban centres (especially capitals), monumental architecture, craft specialization and standardization of production, ostentatious burials, writing or recording systems, bureaucracy, demonstrated political control of geographical areas that are usually larger in area than a single river valley, etc.

make up some of these three kingdoms that define states. [39] Among the archaeology sites dating to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, hundreds of cemeteries with thousands of burials have been excavated. The vast majority of archaeological evidence of the Three Kingdoms Period of Korea consists of burials, but since the 1990s there has been a great increase in the archaeological excavations of ancient industrial production sites, roads, palace grounds and elite precincts, ceremonial sites, commoner households, and fortresses due to the boom in salvage archaeology in South Korea.

Rhee and Choi hypothesize that a mix of internal developments and external factors lead to the emergence of state-level societies in Korea.

[39] A number of archaeologists three kingdoms Kang demonstrate the role of frequent warfare in the development of peninsular states. [39] [40] [41] Foundation (c. 0 three kingdoms 300/400 AD) [ edit ] Historic example of a climbing kiln similar to those that were excavated from Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ri as early as the late Three Kingdoms Period, c.

600. Some individual correlates of complex societies are found in the chiefdoms three kingdoms Korea that date back to c. 700 BC (e.g. see Igeum-dong, Songguk-ri). [39] [42] However, the best evidence from the archaeological record in Korea indicates that states formed between 300 BC and 300/400 AD. [40] [41] [43] [44] [45] [46] However, archaeologists are not prepared to suggest that this means there were states in the BC era.

The correlates of state-level societies did not develop as a package, but rather in spurts and starts and at various points in time. It was some time between 100–400 AD that individual correlates of state societies had developed to a sufficient number and scale that state-level societies can be confidently identified using archaeological data.

Burials [ edit ] Lee Sung-Joo analyzed variability in many of the elite cemeteries of the territories of Silla and Gaya polities and found that as late as the 2nd century there was intra-cemetery variation in the distribution of prestige grave goods, but there was an absence of hierarchical differences on a regional scale between cemeteries. Near the end of the 2nd century AD, interior space in elite burials increased in size, and wooden chamber burial construction techniques were increasingly used by elites.

In the 3rd century, a pattern developed in which single elite cemeteries that were the highest in status compared to all the other cemeteries were built.

Such cemeteries were established at high elevations along ridgelines and on hilltops. Furthermore, the uppermost elite were buried in large-scale tombs established at the highest point of a given cemetery.

[45] Cemeteries with 'uppermost elite' mounded burials such as Okseong-ri, Yangdong-ri, Daeseong-dong, and Bokcheon-dong display this pattern. Roof tiles excavated from Goguryeo archaeological sites in the Han River valley, from National Museum of Korea. Factory-scale production of pottery and roof-tiles [ edit ] Lee Sung-Joo proposed that, in addition to the development of regional political hierarchies as seen through analysis of burials, variation in types of pottery production gradually disappeared and full-time specialization was the only recognizable kind of pottery production from the end of the 4th century A.D.

At the same time the production centers for pottery became highly centralized and vessels became standardized. [45] Centralisation and elite control three kingdoms production is demonstrated by the results of the archaeological excavations at Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ni in Gyeongju.

These sites are part of what was an interconnected and sprawling ancient industrial complex three kingdoms the northeast outskirts of the Silla capital. Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ri are an example of the large-scale of specialized factory-style production in the Three Kingdoms and Unified Silla Periods.

The site was excavated in the late 1990s, and archaeologists found the remains of many production features such as pottery kilns, roof-tile kilns, charcoal kilns, as well three kingdoms the remains of buildings and workshops associated with production.

Capital cities, elite precincts, and monumental architecture [ edit ] Since the establishment of Goguryeo, its early history is well attested archaeologically: The first and second capital cities, Jolbon and Gungnae city, are located in and around today's Ji'an, Jilin. In 2004, the site was designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Since 1976, continuing archaeological excavations concentrated in the southeastern part of modern Gyeongju have revealed parts of the so-called Silla Wanggyeong (Silla royal capital).

A number of excavations over the years have revealed temples such as Hwangnyongsa, Bunhwangsa, Heungryunsa, and 30 other sites. Signs of Baekje's capitals have also been excavated at the Mongchon Fortress and the Pungnap Fortress in Seoul. See also [ edit ] • Heavenly Horse Tomb • List of Korean monarchs • Samguk Yusa References [ edit ] • ^ author., Peterson, Mark, 1946- (2010). A brief history of Korea.

ISBN 978-1-78785-286-0. OCLC 1112020757. {{ cite book}}: -last= has generic name ( help) • ^ Kotkin, Stephen; Wolff, David three kingdoms. Rediscovering Russia in Asia: Siberia and the Russian Far East: Siberia and the Russian Far East.

Routledge. ISBN 9781317461296. Retrieved 15 July 2016. • ^ The National Folk Museum of Korea (South Korea) (2014). Encyclopedia of Korean Folk Literature: Encyclopedia of Korean Folklore and Traditional Culture Vol. III. 길잡이미디어. p. 41. ISBN 9788928900848. Retrieved 10 September 2017. • ^ a b Lee Injae, Owen Miller, Park Jinhoon, Yi Hyun-Hae, 2014, Korean History in Maps, Cambridge University Press, pp.

44-49, 52-60. • ^ Vovin, Alexander (2006). "Why Manchu and Jurchen Look so Un-Tungusic ?". In Juha Janhunenn; Alessandra Pozzi; Michael Weiers (eds.). Tumen jalafun jecen akū: Festschrift for Giovanni Stary's 60th birthday. Harrassowitz. pp. three kingdoms. • ^ Richard, Zgusta (2015). The Peoples of Northeast Asia through Time Precolonial Ethnic and Cultural Processes along the Coast between Hokkaido and the Bering Strait. ISBN 978-90-04-30043-9. • ^ Tsiporuha Mikhail Isaakovich (2017).

"История тунгусских племен мохэ и государства Бохай" [The history of Mohé and Bohai Tungusic tribes]. Покорение Сибири. От Ермака до Беринга. Retrieved 2021-04-18. • ^ a b c d e f g 이기환 (30 August 2017). "[이기환의 흔적의 역사]국호논쟁의 전말…대한민국이냐 고려공화국이냐". 경향신문 (in Korean). The Kyunghyang Shinmun. Retrieved 2 July 2018. • ^ a b c d 이덕일.

"[이덕일 사랑] 대~한민국". 조선닷컴 (in Korean). Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved 2 July 2018. • ^ a b c "고현묘지명(高玄墓誌銘)". 한국금석문 종합영상정보시스템. National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage. Retrieved 10 September 2018. • ^ a b Deok-young, Kwon (2014). "An inquiry into the name of Three Kingdom(三國) inscribed on the epitaph of T'ang(唐) period". The Journal of Korean Ancient History (in Korean). 75: 105–137. ISSN 1226-6213.

Retrieved 2 July 2018. • ^ Pai, Hyung Il (2000), Constructing "Korean" Origins: A Critical Review of Archaeology, Historiography, and Racial Myth in Korean State Formation Theories, Harvard University Asia Center, pp. 127–129, ISBN 9780674002449 • ^ United States Congress (2016). North Korea: A Country Study. Nova Science Publishers. p. 6. ISBN 978-1590334430. • ^ Connor, Edgar V. (2003). Korea: Current Issues and Historical Background. Nova Science Publishers. p. 112. ISBN 978-1590334430.

• ^ Kim, Jinwung (2012). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0253000248. • ^ Lee, Peter H. (1993). Sourcebook of Korean Civilization. Columbia University Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-0231079129. • ^ Hong, Wontack (2005). "The Puyeo-Koguryeo Ye-maek the Sushen-Yilou Tungus, and the Xianbei Yan" (PDF).

East Asian History: A Korean Perspective. 1 (12): 1–7. • ^ Yi, Ki-baek (1984). A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 9780674615762. Three kingdoms 21 November 2016. • ^ Walker, Hugh Dyson (November 2012). East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse.

p. 104. ISBN 9781477265161. Retrieved 21 November 2016. • ^ Roberts, John Morris; Westad, Odd Arne (2013). The History of the World. Oxford University Press. p. 443. ISBN 9780199936762.

Retrieved 15 July 2016. • ^ Gardner, Hall (2007-11-27). Averting Global War: Regional Challenges, Overextension, and Options for American Three kingdoms. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 158–159. ISBN 9780230608733. Retrieved 15 July 2016. • ^ Laet, Sigfried J. de three kingdoms. History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century.

UNESCO. p. 1133. ISBN 9789231028137. Retrieved 10 October 2016. • ^ a b Walker, Hugh Dyson (2012-11-20). East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. pp. 6–7. ISBN 9781477265178. Retrieved 21 November 2016. • ^ a b c Korea's Three Kingdoms Archived 2011-05-16 at the Wayback Machine. Ancientworlds.net (2005-06-19). Retrieved on 2015-11-15. • ^ Kim, Jinwung (2012-11-05). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press.

p. 35. ISBN 978-0253000781. Retrieved 11 October 2016. • ^ "Kings and Queens of Korea". KBS World Radio. Korea Communications Commission. Retrieved 7 October 2016. • ^ Pratt, Chairman Department of East Asian Studies Keith; Pratt, Keith; Rutt, Richard (2013-12-16).

Korea: A Historical and Cultural Dictionary.

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Routledge. p. 135. ISBN 9781136793936. Retrieved 22 July 2016. • ^ Yu, Chai-Shin (2012). The New History of Korean Civilization.

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iUniverse. p. three kingdoms. ISBN 9781462055593. Retrieved 22 July 2016. • ^ Kim, Jinwung (2012-11-05). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0253000781. Retrieved 22 July 2016. • ^ Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne; Palais, James B. three kingdoms. East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Houghton Mifflin. p. 123. ISBN 9780618133840. Retrieved 12 September 2016. • ^ Kitagawa, Joseph (2013-09-05).

The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture. Routledge. p. 348. ISBN 9781136875908. Retrieved 29 July 2016. • ^ Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne; Palais, James B. (2013). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning. p. 104. ISBN 978-1111808150. Retrieved 12 September 2016. • ^ Introduction Buddhism of Baekje into Japan.

baekje.chungnam.net • ^ Farris, William Wayne, Japan to 1600: A Social and Economic History. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2009, pp 68–87, 97-99, 101-105, 109-110, 116, 120–122. • ^ A Brief History of Korea. Ewha Womans University Press. 2005-01-01. pp. 29–30. ISBN 9788973006199. Retrieved 21 November 2016. • ^ Yu, Chai-Shin (2012). The New History of Korean Civilization.

iUniverse. p. 27. ISBN 9781462055593. Retrieved 21 November 2016. • ^ Kim, Jinwung (2012). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-0253000248. Retrieved 12 September 2016. • ^ Wells, Kenneth M.

(2015-07-03). Korea: Outline of a Civilisation. BRILL. pp. 18–19. ISBN 9789004300057. Retrieved 12 September 2016. • ^ a b c d Rhee, S.N. & Choi, M.L. (1992). "Emergence of complex society in Korea". Journal of World Prehistory. 6: 51–95. doi: 10.1007/BF00997585. S2CID 145722584. • ^ a b Kang, Bong-won. (1995). The role of warfare in the formation of state in Korea: Historical and archaeological three kingdoms.

PhD dissertation. University of Oregon, Eugene. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms. • ^ a b Kang, Bong-won (2000).

"A test of increasing warfare in the Samguk Sagi against the archaeological remains in Yongnam, South Korea". Journal of East Asian Archaeology. 2 (3): 139–197. doi: 10.1163/156852300760222100. • ^ Bale, Martin T. & Ko, Min-jung (2006). "Craft Production and Social Change in Mumun Pottery Period Korea". Asian Perspectives. 45 (2): 159–187. doi: 10.1353/asi.2006.0019. hdl: 10125/17250. S2CID 55944795.

• ^ Barnes, Gina L. three kingdoms. State formation in Korea: Historical and archaeological perspectives. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon. ISBN 0-7007-1323-9 • three kingdoms Barnes, Gina L. (2004). "The emergence and expansion of Silla from an archaeological perspective". Korean Studies. 28: 14–48. doi: 10.1353/ks.2005.0018.

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JSTOR 23720181. S2CID 162119593. • ^ a b three kingdoms Lee, Sung-joo. (1998). Silla–Gaya Sahwoe-eui Giwon-gwa Seongjang [The Rise and Growth of Society in Silla and Gaya]. Seoul: Hakyeon Munhwasa. • ^ Pai, Hyung Il. (1989). "Lelang and the "interaction sphere": An alternative approach to Korean state formation".

Archaeological Review from Cambridge. 8 (1): 64–75. Further reading [ edit ] • Best, J.W. (2003). "Buddhism and polity in early sixth-century Paekche". Korean Studies. 26 (2): 165–215. doi: 10.1353/ks.2004.0001. JSTOR 23719761. S2CID 154855624. • Lee, K. (1984) [1979]. A New History of Korea.

Tr. by E.W. Wagner & E.J. Schulz. Seoul: Ilchogak. p. 518. ISBN 9780674615762. • Na, H.L. (2003).

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"Ideology and religion in ancient Korea". Korea Journal. 43 (4): 10–29. Archived from the original on June 14, 2011. • Nelson, Sarah M.

(1993). The archaeology of Korea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521407830. • Pearson, R; Lee, J.W.; Koh, W.Y.; Underhill, A. (1989). "Social ranking in the Kingdom of Old Silla, Korea: Analysis of burials". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 8 (1): 1–50. doi: 10.1016/0278-4165(89)90005-6. Scopus: 2-s2.0-38249024295. External links [ edit ] • Three Kingdoms Period - World History Encyclopedia • Korea's Three Kingdoms • Afrikaans • Alemannisch • Ænglisc • العربية • Asturianu • Azərbaycanca • Башҡортса • Беларуская • Български • Català • Čeština • Dansk • Deutsch • Español • Esperanto • Euskara • فارسی • Français • Frysk • Galego • 한국어 • Hrvatski • Bahasa Indonesia • Italiano • עברית • ქართული • कॉशुर / کٲشُر • Kiswahili • Kurdî • Latina • Latviešu • Lëtzebuergesch • Lietuvių • മലയാളം • მარგალური • Bahasa Melayu • Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄ • မြန်မာဘာသာ • Nederlands • 日本語 • Napulitano • Norsk bokmål • Polski • Português • Română • Русский • Sicilianu • සිංහල • Simple English • Slovenčina • کوردی • Српски / srpski • Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски • Sunda • Suomi • Svenska • Tagalog three kingdoms தமிழ் • Татарча/tatarça • ไทย • Türkçe • Українська • Tiếng Việt • 吴语 • 粵語 • 中文 Edit links • This page was last edited on 7 May 2022, at 00:50 (UTC).

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Peerless commanders, powerful warriors and eminent statesmen, these characters each have a unique playstyle and objectives. Recruit an epic supporting cast of heroes to command your armies, govern your provinces and strengthen your growing empire. Characters are the beating heart of the game, and China’s very future will be shaped by its champions.

GUANXI SYSTEM Modelled on Guanxi, the Chinese concept of dynamic inter-relationships, Total War: THREE KINGDOMS takes a paradigm-shifting approach to character agency, with iconic, larger-than-life heroes and their relationships defining the future of ancient China.

Each of these characters is brought to life with their own unique personality, motivations, and likes/dislikes. They also form their own deep relationships with each other, both positive and negative, that shape how your story plays out. ARTISTIC PURITY With stunning visuals and flamboyant Wushu combat, THREE KINGDOMS is the art of war. With beautiful UI, vibrant vistas and authentic Chinese-inspired artwork, this reimagining of ancient China is a visual feast. REAL-TIME & TURN-BASED HARMONY The turn-based campaign and real-time battles of Total War: THREE KINGDOMS are more interconnected than ever before.

Actions in battle now have much greater consequences, affecting your Heroes’ relationship towards you, as well as the friendships and rivalries they develop with other characters. In a world where powerful allies are one of the keys to success, this adds a brand-new element to how victory is achieved. Minimum: • Requires a 64-bit processor and operating system • OS: Windows 7 64 Bit • Processor: Intel Core 2 Duo 3.00Ghz • Memory: 4 GB RAM • Graphics: GTX 650 Ti 1GB-HD 7850 1GB-Intel UHD Graphics 620 • DirectX: Version 11 • Storage: 60 GB available space • Additional Notes: 6GB Memory if using integrated GPU Minimum: • Requires a 64-bit processor and operating system • OS: macOS 10.14.4 • Processor: 2GHz Intel Core i5 • Memory: 8 GB RAM • Graphics: 2GB Nvidia 680MX, 2GB AMD R9 M290, 1.5GB Intel Iris Graphics 540 three kingdoms better (see notes for more details) • Storage: 52 GB available space • Additional Notes: The game is officially supported on the following Macs.

To check your Mac model and when it was released, select About This Mac from the Apple menu on your menu bar. • * Three kingdoms 13" MacBook Pros released since 2016 • * All 15" MacBook Pros released since Late 2013 with a 2GB graphics card or better • * All 21.5" iMacs released since 2017 • * All 27" iMacs released since Late 2012 with a 2GB graphics card or better three kingdoms * All 27" iMac Pros released since 2017 • * All Mac Pros released since Late 2013 Please note for your computer to meet the minimum requirements it must match or better all elements of the listed spec.

For more detailed specifications check the Feral website. Minimum: • Requires a 64-bit processor and operating system • OS: Three kingdoms 18.04 64-bit • Processor: 3.4GHz Intel Core i3-4130 • Memory: 6 GB RAM • Graphics: 2GB AMD R9 285 (GCN 3rd Generation), 2GB Nvidia GTX 680 • Storage: 60 GB available space • Additional Notes: • * Requires Vulkan • * Nvidia requires 418.56 or newer drivers.

• * AMD requires Mesa 19.0.1. ​ • * AMD GCN 3rd Gen GPU's include the R9 285, 380, 380X, Fury, Nano, Fury X. • * Intel GPUs are not supported at time of release. • * Other modern drivers and distributions are expected to work but are not officially supported. Recommended: • Requires a 64-bit processor and operating system • OS: Ubuntu 18.04 64-bit • Processor: 3.4GHz Intel Core i7-4770 • Memory: 8 Three kingdoms RAM • Graphics: 4GB AMD RX 480, 4GB Nvidia GTX 970 • Storage: 60 GB available space • Additional Notes: • * Requires Vulkan • * Nvidia requires 418.56 or newer drivers.

• * AMD requires Mesa 19.0.1. ​ • * AMD GCN 3rd Gen GPU's include the R9 285, 380, 380X, Fury, Nano, Fury X. • * Intel GPUs are not supported at time of release. • * Other modern drivers and distributions are expected to work but are not officially supported.

Developed by Creative Assembly and published by SEGA. Creative Assembly, the Creative Assembly logo, Total War and the Total War logo are either registered trademarks or trademarks of The Creative Assembly Limited. SEGA and the SEGA logo are either registered trademarks or trademarks of SEGA Holdings Co., Ltd. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SEGA is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Time-lapse of the multiple various conquests and territorial changes of the Three Kingdoms era Three Kingdoms Chinese name Traditional Chinese 三國 Simplified Chinese 三国 Hanyu Pinyin Sānguó Literal meaning "three states" Transcriptions Standard Mandarin Hanyu Pinyin Sānguó Bopomofo ㄙㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ Gwoyeu Romatzyh Sangwo Wade–Giles San three kingdoms 2 Tongyong Pinyin Sanguó Three kingdoms Romanization Sāngwó IPA [sán.kwǒ] Wu Romanization Sẽ-kueʔ Yue: Cantonese Yale Romanization Sāamgwok Jyutping Saam1gwok3 IPA [sáːm.kʷɔ̄ːk̚] Vietnamese name Vietnamese Tam Quốc Hán-Nôm 三國 Korean name Hangul 삼국 Hanja 三國 Transcriptions Revised Romanization Samguk Japanese name Hiragana さんごく Kyūjitai 三國 Shinjitai 三国 Transcriptions Romanization Sangoku Three Kingdoms period Chinese name Traditional Chinese 三國 時代 Simplified Chinese 三国 时代 Transcriptions Standard Mandarin Hanyu Pinyin Sānguó Shídài Bopomofo ㄙㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ㄕˊ ㄉㄞˋ Gwoyeu Romatzyh Sangwo Shyrday Wade–Giles San 1-kuo 2 Shih 2-tai 4 Tongyong Pinyin Sanguó Shíhdài Yale Romanization Sāngwó Shŕdài IPA [sán.kwǒ ʂɻ̩̌.tâɪ] Wu Romanization Sẽ-kueʔ sy-de Yue: Cantonese Yale Romanization Sāamgwok Sìhdoih Jyutping Saam1gwok3 Si4doi6 IPA [sáːm.kʷɔ̄ːk̚ sȉː.tɔ̀ːy] Vietnamese name Vietnamese Tam Quốc thời đại Hán-Nôm 三國時代 Korean name Hangul 삼국 시대 Hanja 三國時代 Japanese name Hiragana さんごくじだい Kyūjitai 三國時代 Shinjitai 三国時代 Transcriptions Romanization Sangokujidai History of China ANCIENT Neolithic c.

8500 – c. 2070 BCE Xia c. 2070 – c. 1600 BCE Shang c. 1600 – c. 1046 BCE Zhou c. 1046 – 256 BCE Western Zhou Eastern Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Three kingdoms Qin 221–207 BCE Han 202 BCE – 220 CE Western Han Xin Eastern Han Three Kingdoms 220–280 Wei, Shu and Wu Jin 266–420 Western Jin Eastern Jin Sixteen Kingdoms Northern and Southern dynasties 420–589 Sui 581–618 Tang 618–907 Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 907–979 Liao 916–1125 Western Xia 1038–1227 Jin three kingdoms Song 960–1279 Northern Song Southern Song Yuan 1271–1368 Ming 1368–1644 Qing 1636–1912 MODERN Republic of China on the mainland 1912–1949 People's Republic of China 1949–present Republic of China in Taiwan 1949–present • view • talk • edit The Three Kingdoms ( simplified Chinese: 三国时代; traditional Chinese: 三國時代; pinyin: Sānguó Shídài) from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Wei, Shu, and Wu.

[1] The Three Kingdoms period started with the end of the Han dynasty and was followed by the Jin dynasty. The short-lived Yan kingdom on the Liaodong Peninsula, which lasted from 237 to 238, is sometimes considered as a "4th kingdom". [2] To distinguish the three states from other historical Chinese states of the same names, historians have added a relevant character to the state's original name: the state that called itself "Wei" ( 魏) is also known as " Cao Wei" ( 曹魏), [3] the state that called itself "Han" ( 漢) is also known as " Shu Han" ( 蜀漢) or just "Shu" ( 蜀), and the state that called itself "Wu" ( 吳) is also known as " Eastern Wu" ( 東吳; Dōng Wú) or "Sun Wu" ( 孫吳).

Academically, the period of the Three Kingdoms refers to the period between the foundation of the state of Wei in 220 AD and the conquest of the state of Wu by the Jin dynasty in 280. The earlier, "unofficial" part of the period, from 184 to 220, was marked by chaotic infighting between warlords in various parts of China.

The middle part of the period, from 220 to 263, was marked by a more militarily stable arrangement between three rival states of Wei, Shu, and Wu. The later part of the era was marked by the conquest of Shu by Wei (263), the usurpation of Wei by the Jin dynasty (265), and the conquest of Wu by the Jin (280).

The Three Kingdoms period is one of the bloodiest in Chinese history. [4] A nationwide census taken in 280 AD, following the reunification of the Three Kingdoms under the Jin shows three kingdoms total of 2,459,840 households and 16,163,863 individuals which was only a fraction of three kingdoms 10,677,960 households, and 56,486,856 individuals reported during the Han era.

[5] While the census may not have been particularly accurate due three kingdoms a multitude of factors of the times, in 280, the Jin did make an attempt to account for all individuals where they could.

[6] Technology advanced significantly during this period. Shu chancellor Zhuge Liang invented the wooden ox, suggested to be an early form of the wheelbarrow, [7] and improved on the repeating crossbow.

[8] Wei mechanical engineer Ma Jun is considered by many to be the equal of his predecessor Zhang Heng. [9] He invented a hydraulic-powered, mechanical puppet theatre designed for Emperor Ming of Wei, square-pallet chain pumps for irrigation of gardens in Luoyang, and the ingenious design of the south-pointing chariot, a three kingdoms directional compass operated by differential gears. [10] Although relatively short, this historical period has been greatly romanticized in the cultures of China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.

[11] It has been celebrated and popularized in operas, folk stories, novels and in more recent times, films, television, and video games.

The best known of these is Luo Guanzhong's Romance of the Three Kingdoms, a Ming dynasty historical novel based on events in the Three Kingdoms period. [12] The authoritative historical record of the era is Chen Shou's Records of the Three kingdoms Kingdoms, along with Three kingdoms Songzhi's later annotations of the text. The English-language term "Three Kingdoms" is something of a misnomer, since each state was eventually headed not by a king, but by an emperor who claimed suzerainty three kingdoms all China.

[13] Nevertheless, the term "Three Kingdoms" has become standard among English-speaking sinologists. Contents • three kingdoms Periodization • 2 History • 2.1 Yellow Turban Rebellion • 2.2 Dong Zhuo in power • 2.3 Collapse of central power • 2.3.1 Xu and Yan provinces • 2.3.2 Huai River • 2.3.3 Emperor Xian's fate • 2.3.4 North China Plain • 2.3.5 South of the Yangtze • 2.3.6 Jing Province • 2.3.7 Battle of Red Cliffs • 2.4 Three kingdoms years of the dynasty • 2.5 Emergence of the Three Kingdoms • 2.6 The Three States • 2.6.1 Shu • 2.6.2 Wu • 2.6.3 Wei • 2.7 Decline and End • 2.7.1 Fall of Shu • 2.7.2 Fall of Wei • 2.7.3 Fall of Wu • 3 Impact • 3.1 Population • 3.2 Economy • 4 Literature • 5 Historiography • 5.1 Sources • 5.2 The legitimacy issue • 6 Legacy in popular culture • 7 See also • 8 Notes • 9 References • 10 Bibliography • 11 Further reading • 12 External links Periodization [ edit ] See also: Timeline of the Three Kingdoms period There is no three kingdoms time period for the era.

Strictly speaking, the Three Kingdoms, or independent states, only existed from the proclamation of the Eastern Wu ruler to be emperor in 229 until the downfall of Shu Han in 263.

Another interpretation of the period is that it began with the decline of the Han royal house. According to Mao Zonggang, a commentator on the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, in his commentary on Chapter 120 of the novel: The three kingdoms formed when the Han royal house declined. The Han royal house declined when the eunuchs abused the sovereign and officials subverted the government. [14] Mao Zonggang suggests that the historiography of the Three Kingdoms began with the rise of the Ten Eunuchs.

He further argues that the Romance of the Three Kingdoms defines the end of the era as 280, the downfall of Wan, justifying: As the novel focuses on Han, it could have ended with the fall of Han.

But Wei usurped Han. To end the tale before Han's enemy had itself met its fate would be to leave the reader unsatisfied. The novel could have ended with the fall of Wei, but Han's ally was Wu. To end the tale before Han's ally had fallen would be to leave the reader with an incomplete picture.

So the tale had to end with the fall of Wu. [14] Several other starting points for the period are given by Chinese historians: during the final years of the Han dynasty, such as the Yellow Turban Rebellion three kingdoms 184; [15] [16] the year after the beginning of the rebellion, 185; [17] Dong Zhuo deposing Emperor Shao of Han and enthroning Emperor Xian of Han in 189; [18] [19] Dong Zhuo sacking Luoyang and moving three kingdoms capital to Chang'an in 190; [20] or Cao Cao placing the emperor under his control in Xuchang in 196.

[21] [22] [23] [24] [25] History [ edit ] Map showing the Yellow Turban Rebellion in Eastern Han Dynasty of China. The power of the Eastern Han dynasty went into depression and steadily declined from a variety of political and economic problems after the death of Emperor He in 105 AD. A series of Han emperors ascended the throne while still youths, and "de facto" imperial power often rested with the emperors' older relatives.

As these relatives occasionally were loath to give up their influence, emperors would, upon reaching maturity, be forced to rely on political alliances with senior officials and eunuchs to achieve control of the government.

Political posturing and infighting between imperial relatives and eunuch officials was a constant problem in Chinese government at the three kingdoms. [26] During the reigns of Emperor Huan (r. 146–168) and Emperor Ling (r. 168–189), leading officials' dissatisfaction with the eunuchs' usurpations of power reached a peak, and many began to openly protest against them. The first and second protests met with failure, and the court eunuchs three kingdoms the emperor to execute many of the protesting scholars.

Some local rulers seized the opportunity to exert despotic control over their lands and citizens, since many feared to speak out in three kingdoms oppressive political climate. Emperors Huan and Ling's reigns were recorded as particularly dark periods of Three kingdoms dynasty rule. In addition to political oppression and mismanagement, China experienced a number of natural disasters during this period, and local rebellions sprung up throughout the country.

In the third month of 184, Zhang Jiao, leader of the Way of Supreme Peace, a Taoist movement, along three kingdoms his two brothers Zhang Liang and Zhang Bao, led the movement's followers in a rebellion against the government that was called the Yellow Turban Rebellion.

Their movement quickly attracted followers and soon numbered several hundred thousand and received support from many parts of China. They had 36 bases throughout China, with large bases having 10,000 or more followers and minor bases having 6,000 to 7,000, similar to Han armies. Their motto was: "The firmament [a] has perished, the Yellow Sky [b] will soon rise; in this year of jiazi, let there be prosperity in the world!" ( 蒼天已死,黃天當立。歲在甲子,天下大吉。) [c] Emperor Ling dispatched generals Huangfu Song, Lu Zhi, and Zhu Jun to lead the Han armies against the rebels, and decreed that local governments had to supply soldiers to assist in their efforts.

It is at three kingdoms point that the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms begins its narrative. The Yellow Turbans were ultimately defeated and its surviving followers dispersed throughout China, but due to the turbulent situation throughout the empire, many were able to survive as bandits in mountainous areas, thus continuing their ability to contribute to the turmoil of the era. With the widespread increase in bandits across the Chinese nation, the Han army had no way to repel each and every raiding party.

In 188, Emperor Ling accepted a memorial from Liu Yan suggesting he grant direct administrative power over feudal provinces and direct command of regional military to local governors, as well as promoting them in rank and filling such positions with members of the Liu family or court officials.

three kingdoms

This move made provinces ( zhou) three kingdoms administrative units, and although they had power to combat rebellions, the later intra-governmental chaos allowed these local governors to easily rule independently of the central government.

Liu Yan was also promoted as governor of Yi Province [d]. Soon after this move, Liu Yan severed all of his region's ties to the Han imperial court, and several other areas followed suit. Dong Zhuo in power [ edit ] In the same year, Emperor Ling died, and another struggle began between the court eunuchs for control of the imperial family.

Court eunuch Jian Shuo planned to kill Regent Marshal He Jin, a three kingdoms of the imperial family, and to three kingdoms the crown prince Liu Bian with his younger brother Three kingdoms Xie, the Prince of Chenliu (in present-day Kaifeng), though his plan was unsuccessful. Liu Bian took the Han throne as Emperor Shao, and He Jin plotted with warlord Yuan Shao to assassinate the Ten Attendants, a clique of twelve eunuchs led by Zhang Rang who controlled much of the imperial court.

He Jin also ordered Dong Zhuo, the frontier general in Liang Province, and Ding Yuan, Inspector of Bing Province, [e] to bring troops to the capital to reinforce his position of authority. The eunuchs learned of He Jin's plot, and had him assassinated before Dong Zhuo reached the capital Luoyang. When Yuan Shao's troops reached Luoyang, they stormed the palace complex, killing the Ten Attendants and 2,000 of the eunuchs' supporters.

Though this move effectively ended the century-long feud between the eunuchs and the imperial family, this event prompted the invitation of Dong Zhuo to the outskirts of Luoyang from the northwest boundary of China.

On the evening of 24 September 189, General Dong Zhuo observed that Luoyang was set ablaze—as a result of a power struggle between the eunuchs and civil service—and commanded his army forward to strike down the disorder.

[27] As the emperor had lost any remaining military or political power, Dong Zhuo seized the de facto control of the government located at Luoyang. [27] On 28 September, Dong Zhuo deposed Liu Bian from the imperial Han throne in favour of Liu Xie. [27] In the following weeks, rebellions broke three kingdoms throughout all of China.

[28] In East China, in an attempt to restore the power of the Han, a large coalition against Dong Zhuo began to rise, with leaders such as Yuan Shao, Yuan Shu, and Cao Cao. [28] Many provincial officials were compelled to join or risk elimination.

[29] In 191, Sun Jian (Yuan Shu's subordinate) led an army against Dong Zhuo and drove him from Luoyang to Chang'an. [30] In the following year (192), Three kingdoms Bu, Dong Zhuo's former bodyguard, assassinated Dong Zhuo. [29] It is said that Dong Zhuo's body was thrown into the street with a lit wick in his navel, which apparently burned with the same brilliance of the sun three kingdoms a period of four days.

[31] Collapse of central power [ edit ] In 192, there was some talk among the coalition of appointing Liu Yu, an imperial relative, as emperor, and gradually its members began to fall out. Most of the warlords in the coalition, with a few exceptions, sought the increase of personal military power in the time of instability instead of seriously wishing to restore the Han dynasty's authority. The Han empire was divided between a number of regional warlords.

As a result of the complete three kingdoms of the three kingdoms government and eastern alliance, the North China Plain fell into warfare and anarchy with many contenders vying for success or survival. [29] Emperor Xian fell into the hands of various warlords in Chang'an.

Dong Zhuo, confident in his success, was slain by his follower Lü Bu, who plotted with minister Wang Yun. Lü Bu, in turn, was attacked by Dong Zhuo's former officers: Li Jue, Guo Si, Zhang Ji and Fan Chou. Wang Yun and his whole family were executed. Lü Bu fled to Zhang Yang, a northern warlord, and remained with him for a time before briefly joining Yuan Shao, but it was clear that Lü Bu was far too independent to serve another.

Yuan Shao operated from Ye city in Ji Province, extending his power north of the Yellow River. [29] Han Fu had formerly been the Governor of Ji Province, but he came under the control of Yuan Shao and was replaced by him. [30] Between the Yellow and Huai rivers, a conflict had erupted between Yuan Shu, Cao Cao, Tao Qian (Governor of Xu Province) and Lü Bu. [29] Cao Cao forced the Yellow Turbans to surrender in 192, [32] drove Yuan Shu to the south of the Huai River in 193, [29] inflicted devastation upon Tao Qian in 194, [30] received the surrender of Liu Bei (then a commander under Tao Qian) in 196, [33] and captured and executed Lü Bu in 198.

[33] Cao was now in complete control of the southern part of the North China Plain. [33] In the northeast, Gongsun Du held control of the Liaodong Peninsula and its environs, where he had established a state. [34] He was succeeded by his son Gongsun Kang in 204. three kingdoms In the north across the frontier, since the fall of imperial control, the region had become chaotic as the Xiongnu remnants came into conflict with the Xianbei.

[34] Goguryeo was invaded by warlord Gongsun Kang in 204, resulting in the Daifang Commandery. In 209, Kang invaded Goguryeo again, took the capital of Goguryeo and forced them to submit. Goguryeo was forced to move its capital further east. [35] In Liang Province (present-day Gansu), rebellion had erupted in 184.

[34] In the west, Liu Yan had been Governor of Yi Province since three kingdoms appointment in 188. [36] He was succeeded by his son Liu Zhang in 194. [36] Directly north of Liu Zhang's territory, Zhang Lu (leader of the Five Pecks of Rice) led a theocratic government at Hanzhong commandary (on the upper Han River). [37] Liu Biao held control over his province as the Governor of Jing Province. [37] Sun Quan held control over the lower Yangtze.

[37] Xu and Yan provinces [ edit ] In 194, Cao Cao went to war with Tao Qian of Xu Province, because Tao's subordinate Zhang Kai had murdered Cao Cao's father Cao Song. Tao Qian received the support of Liu Bei and Gongsun Zan, but even then it seemed as if Cao Cao's superior forces would overrun Xu Province entirely.

Cao Cao received word that Lü Bu had seized Yan Province in his absence, and accordingly he retreated, putting a halt to hostilities with Tao Qian for the time being. Tao Qian died in the same year, leaving his province to Liu Bei.

A year later, in 195, Cao Cao managed to drive Lü Bu out of Yan Province. Lü Bu fled to Xu Province and was received by Liu Bei, and an uneasy alliance began between the two. Afterwards, Lü Bu betrayed Liu Bei and seized Xu Province, forming an alliance with Yuan Shu's remnant forces. Liu Bei, together with his followers Guan Yu and Zhang Fei, fled to Cao Cao, who accepted him. Soon, preparations were made for an attack on Lü Bu, and the combined forces of Cao Cao and Liu Bei invaded Xu Province.

Lü Bu's men deserted him, Yuan Shu's forces never arrived as reinforcements, and he was bound by his own subordinates Song Xian (宋憲) and Wei Xu (魏續) and executed three kingdoms Cao Cao's order. Huai River [ edit ] Main article: Campaign against Yuan Shu Yuan Shu, after being driven south in 193, established himself at his new capital Shouchun (present-day Anhui).

[33] He attempted to regain lost territory north of the Huai River. [33] In 197, Yuan Shu declared himself emperor of his own dynasty.

[33] The move was a strategic blunder, as it drew the ire of many warlords across the land, including Yuan Shu's own subordinates who almost all abandoned him. [32] Abandoned by almost all his allies and followers, he perished in 199.

[38] Emperor Xian's fate [ edit ] In August 195, Emperor Xian fled the tyranny of Li Jue at Chang'an and made a year long hazardous journey east in search of supporters. In 196, Emperor Xian came under the protection and control of Cao Cao after he had succeeded in fleeing from the warlords of Chang'an. [38] Establishing the imperial court at Xuchang in Henan, Cao Cao—who now held the de facto control—rigorously followed the formalities of the court and justified his actions as a loyal minister of the Han.

[38] By then, most of the smaller contenders for power had either been absorbed by larger ones or destroyed. This three kingdoms an extremely important move for Cao Cao following the suggestion from his primary adviser, Xun Yu, commenting that by supporting the authentic emperor, Cao Cao would have the formal legal authority to control the other warlords and force them to comply in order to restore the Han dynasty.

North China Plain [ edit ] Cao Cao, whose zone of control was the precursor to the state of Cao Wei, had raised an army in 189. In several strategic movements and battles, he controlled Yan Province and defeated several factions of the Yellow Turban rebels. This earned him the aid of other local militaries controlled by Zhang Miao and Chen Three kingdoms, who joined his cause to create his first sizeable army.

He continued the effort and absorbed approximately 300,000 Yellow Turban rebels into his army as well as a number of clan-based military groups from the eastern side of Qing Province.

Since 192, He developed military agricultural colonies ( tuntian) to support his army. Although three kingdoms system imposed a heavy tax on hired civilian farmers (40% to 60% of agricultural production), the farmers were more than pleased to be able to work with relative stability and professional military protection in a time of chaos.

This was later said to be his second important policy for success. In 200, Dong Cheng, an imperial relative, received a secret edict from Emperor Xian to assassinate Cao Cao.

He collaborated with Liu Bei on this effort, but Cao Cao soon found out about the plot and had Dong Cheng and his conspirators executed, with only Liu Bei surviving and fleeing to join Yuan Shao in the north. After settling the nearby provinces, including a rebellion led by former Yellow Turbans, and internal affairs with the court, Cao Cao turned his attention north to Yuan Shao, who himself had eliminated his northern rival Gongsun Zan that same year. Yuan Shao, himself of higher nobility than Cao Cao, amassed a large army and camped along the northern bank of the Yellow River.

In the summer of 200, after three kingdoms of preparations, the armies of Cao Cao and Yuan Shao clashed at the Battle of Guandu (near present-day Kaifeng). [38] Cao Cao's army three kingdoms heavily outnumbered by Yuan Shao. [38] Due to a raid in Yuan's supply train, Yuan's army fell into disorder as they fled back north. [38] Cao Cao took advantage of Yuan Shao's death in 202, which resulted in division among his sons, and advanced to the north.

[38] In 204, after the Battle of Ye, Cao Cao captured the city of Ye. [38] By the end of 207, after a victorious campaign beyond three kingdoms frontier against the Wuhuan culminating in the Battle of White Wolf Mountain, Cao Cao achieved complete dominance of the North China Plain. [39] He now controlled China's heartland, including Yuan Shao's former territory, and half of the Chinese population.

[34] South of the Yangtze [ edit ] In 193, Huang Zu led the forces of Liu Biao in a campaign against Sun Jian (Yuan Shu's subordinate general) and killed him. [40] In 194, Sun Ce (aged 18) came into the military service under Yuan Shu. [37] He was given the command of some troops who formerly had been commanded by his late father Sun Jian.

[37] In the south, he defeated the warlords of Yang Province, including Liu Yao, Wang Lang, and Yan Baihu. [ citation needed] In 198, Sun Ce (aged 23) declared his independence from Yuan Shu who recently had declared himself emperor.

[37] He held control over Danyang, Wu, and Kuaiji commandaries (from present-day Nanjing to the Hangzhou Bay and some outposts at the Fujian coast), while expanding westward in a three kingdoms of campaigns. [37] By 200, he had conquered Yuzhang commandary (at present-day Lake Poyang in Jiangxi) and Lujiang (north of the Yangtze). [37] In 200, Sun Ce was ambushed and assassinated by the former retainers of a defeated rival from Wu. [40] Sun Quan (aged 18) succeeded him and three kingdoms established his authority.

[40] By 203, he was expanding westward. [40] In 208, Sun Quan defeated Huang Zu (Liu Biao's subordinate commander) around present-day Wuhan. [40] He now held control over the territories south of the Yangtze (below Wuhan, Poyang region, and Hangzhou Bay).

[40] His navy established local superiority over the Yangtze. [40] Nevertheless, he would soon come under the threat of Cao Cao's larger armies. [40] Jing Province [ edit ] During Dong Zhuo's reign over the Han government, Liu Biao had been appointed as the Governor of Jing Province. [40] His territory was located around three kingdoms capital Xiangyang and the territory to the south around the Han and Yangtze River.

[40] Beyond his eastern border was the territory of Sun Quan. [40] In 200, during the time of the campaign around Guandu between Cao Cao and Yuan Shao, Liu Bei's forces had been defeated by a detachment of Cao Cao's army, forcing Liu Bei to flee and seek refuge with Liu Biao in Jing Province.

[41] In this exile, Liu Bei maintained his followers who had accompanied him and made new connections within Liu Biao's entourage. [41] It was during this time that Liu Bei also met Zhuge Liang. [41] In the autumn of 208, Liu Biao died and was succeeded by his youngest son Liu Cong over the eldest son Liu Qi through political maneuvering.

[40] Liu Bei had become the head of the opposition to a surrender when Cao Cao's army marched southward to Jing. [41] After the advice of his supporters, Liu Cong surrendered to Cao Cao. [40] Cao Cao took control of the province and began appointing scholars and officials from Liu Biao's court to the local government. [40] Meanwhile, Liu Qi had joined Liu Bei to establish a line of defence at the Yangtze River against the surrender to Cao Cao, but they suffered defeat at the hands of Cao Cao.

[42] In the aftermath, they retreated and sought support from Sun Quan. [40] Guan Yu (Liu Bei's subordinate lieutenant) had managed to retrieve most of Jing Province's fleet from the Han River. [40] Cao Cao occupied the naval base at Jiangling on the Yangtze River. [40] He would now begin proceeding eastwards towards Sun Quan with his armies and new fleet, while sending messengers to demand Sun Three kingdoms surrender. [43] Battle of Red Cliffs [ edit ] Main article: Battle of Red Cliffs In 208, Cao Cao marched south with his army hoping to quickly unify the empire.

Liu Biao's son Liu Cong surrendered Jing Province and Cao was able to capture a sizable fleet at Jiangling. Sun Quan, the successor to Sun Ce in the lower Yangtze, continued to resist.

His advisor Lu Su secured an alliance with Liu Bei, himself a recent refugee from the north, and Zhou Yu was placed in command of Sun Quan's navy, along with a veteran general who served the Sun family, Cheng Pu. Their combined armies of 50,000 met Cao Cao's fleet and 200,000-strong force at Red Cliffs that winter. After an initial skirmish, an attack beginning with a plan to set fire to Cao Cao's fleet was set in motion to lead to the decisive defeat of Cao Cao, forcing him to retreat in disarray back to the north.

The allied victory at Red Cliffs ensured the survival of Liu Bei and Sun Quan, and provided the basis for the states of Shu and Wu. Final years of the dynasty [ edit ] Provinces and commanderies in the penultimate year of the Han dynasty (219 Three kingdoms In 209, Zhou Yu captured Jiangling, establishing the south's complete dominance over the Yangtze River.

[43] Meanwhile, Liu Bei and his principal adviser Zhuge Liang captured the Xiang River basin commandaries, establishing control over the southern territories of Jing province.

[44] Sun Quan was forced to cede the territory around Jiangling to Liu Bei, because he could not establish a proper authority over it after Zhou Yu's death in 210. [44] Three kingdoms 211, Cao Cao defeated a warlord coalition in the Wei valley, ending in the Battle of Huayin, capturing the territory around Chang'an. [44] In 211, Liu Bei accepted an invitation from Liu Zhang to come to Yi Province for aiding the latter against a threat from the north, namely Zhang Lu of Hanzhong.

[45] Liu Bei met people within Liu Zhang's court who wished that he would replace Liu Zhang as the ruler of Yi Province. [45] A year after his arrival, Liu Bei came into conflict with Liu Zhang and turned against him. [45] In summer of 214, Liu Bei received the surrender of Liu Zhang, capturing Yi Province, and established his regime at Chengdu. [45] In 215, Cao Cao captured Hanzhong three kingdoms attacking and receiving the surrender of Zhang Lu.

[46] He had launched the three kingdoms from Chang'an through the Qinling Mountain passes to Hanzhong. [46] The conquest threatened Liu Bei's territory located directly to the south. [46] Cao Cao progressively increased his titles and power under the puppet Emperor Xian. He became the Chancellor in 208, the Duke of Wei in 214, and the King of Wei in 217. [47] He also compelled Sun Quan to accept suzerainty to Wei, but it had no real effect in practice.

[47] After Liu Bei had captured Yi Province from Liu Zhang in 214, Sun Quan—who had three kingdoms engaged with Cao Cao in the southeast at the region between the Huai and Yangtze rivers during the intervening years—turned his attention to the middle Yangtze. [44] Cao Cao and Sun Quan had gained no success in breaking each other's positions. [44] Liu Fu, an administrator under Cao Cao, had established agricultural garrisons at Hefei and Shouchun to defend Cao's territory near the Huai river.

[44] Sun Quan resented the fact that Liu Bei, a weaker ally, had gained so much territory west of him and demanded a larger share of the Xiang River basin. [44] In 215, Lü Meng (Sun Quan's officer) was sent to capture Jing province's southern commanderies, but Guan Yu (Liu Bei's general) launched a counterattack. [44] Later that year, Liu Bei and Sun Quan reached a settlement that the Xiang River would serve as the border between their territories.

[44] In the south, Sun Quan had sent He Qin, Lu Xun, and others to expand and conquer territory in what are now southern Zhejiang and Fujian provinces.

[44] In 219, Liu Bei seized Hanzhong by defeating and killing General Xiahou Yuan, who served Cao Cao. [47] Cao Cao sent reinforcements in an unsuccessful attempt to reclaim the territory.

[47] Liu Bei had now secured his territory against the north and declared himself the King of Hanzhong. [47] In the east, Sun Quan attempted to capture Hefei from Cao Cao, but he did not succeed. [47] While Lu Su had been chief commander for Sun Quan in Jing Province, their policy was to maintain the alliance with Liu Bei while Cao Cao was still a threat. [48] This changed when Sun Quan appointed Lü Meng when Lu Su died in 217. [48] In 219, Guan Yu sailed from Jiangling up the Han River towards the city of Fan (near Xianyang), but was unable to capture it.

[49] In the autumn of 219, Lü Meng launched a surprise attack by sailing up the Yangtze towards Jiangling, resulting in its capture. [48] Guan Yu was unable to hold his position as most of his army surrendered. [48] He was captured and executed on Sun Quan's order. Cao Cao regained the Han valley, while Sun Quan captured all the territory east of the Yangtze Gorges.

[48] Emergence of the Three Kingdoms [ edit ] Bronze turtle holding a cup, Eastern Wu At the beginning of 220, Cao Cao died and was succeeded by his son Cao Pi. [48] On three kingdoms December, Emperor Xian abdicated and Cao Pi ascended the imperial throne by proclaiming the heavenly mandate as the Emperor of Wei.

[48] On 15 May 221, Liu Bei responded by proclaiming himself as the Emperor of Han. [48] His state would become generally known as Shu Han. [48] Sun Quan continued to recognize his de jure suzerainty to Wei and was enfeoffed as the King of Wu. [48] At the end of 221, Shu invaded Wu in response for Guan Yu's killing and the loss of Jing Province by Wu.

[48] In the spring of 222, Liu Bei arrived at the scene to personally take command of the invasion. [48] Sun Quan dispatched Lu Xun to command over the defence of Wu against the invasion by Shu. [48] Against the advice of his subordinates, Lu Xun waited until Liu Bei was committed along the Yangtze below the Yangtze Gorges. [48] Finally, in the sixth month of 222, Lu Xun launched a series of fire attacks against the flank of Liu Bei's extended position which caused disorder in the Shu army and Liu Bei's retreat to Baidi (near present-day Fengjie).

[50] Afterwards in 222, Sun Quan renounced his suzerainty to Wei and declared the independence of Wu. [51] In 223, Liu Bei perished at Baidi. [52] Zhuge Liang now acted as a regent for Liu Shan (aged 17) and held control of the Shu government. [53] Shu and Wu resumed their diplomatic relations by re-establishing peace and alliance in the winter of 223. [54] On 23 June 229, Sun Quan proclaimed himself as the Emperor of Wu.

[55] Shu controlled the upper Han valley and the territory west of the Yangtze Gorges. [56] The Qinling Mountains divided Shu and Wei. [56] Wei held control over the Wei and Huai valley, where agricultural garrisons were established at Shouchun and Hefei to defend Huai. [56] Military sorties by Three kingdoms against Hefei and Shouchun would consistently end in failure, thereby confirming Wei's hold over Huai.

[56] Wu controlled all of the Yangtze valley. [56] The territory between the Huai and Yangtze was a desolate area, where a largely-static frontier between Wei and Wu had formed at the lower Han valley. [56] Map showing Battle of Yiling between Shu Han and Wu kingdoms.

In 223, Liu Shan rose to the throne of Shu following his father's defeat and death. From 224 to 225, during his southward campaigns, Zhuge Liang conquered the southern territories up to Lake Dian in Yunnan. [53] In 227, Zhuge Liang transferred his main Shu armies to Hanzhong, and opened up the battle for the northwest with Wei. The next year, he ordered Zhao Yun to attack from Ji Gorge as a diversion while Zhuge himself led the main force to Mount Qi. The vanguard Ma Su suffered a tactical defeat at Jieting and the Shu army was forced to withdraw.

In the next six years Zhuge Liang attempted several more offensives, but supply problems limited the capacity for success. In 234, he led his last great northern offensive, reaching the Battle of Wuzhang Plains south of the Wei River. Due to the death of Zhuge Liang in 234, the Shu army was forced once again to withdraw, but were pursued by Wei.

The Shu forces began to withdraw; Sima Yi deduced Zhuge Liang's demise and ordered an attack. Shu struck back almost immediately, causing Sima Yi to second guess and allow Shu to withdraw successfully. Wu [ edit ] Zhuge Liang's fourth and fifth northern expeditions against Cao Wei In the times of Zhuge Liang's northern offensives, the state of Wu had always been on the defensive against invasions from the north.

The area around Hefei was the scene of many bitter battles and under constant pressure from Wei after the Battle of Red Cliffs. Warfare had grown so intense that many of the residents chose to migrate and resettle south of the Yangtze River.

After Zhuge Liang's death, attacks on the southern Huai River region intensified but nonetheless, Wei could not break through the line of the river defenses erected by Wu, which included the Ruxu fortress. Sun Quan's long reign is regarded as a time of plenty for his southern state. Migrations from the north and the settlement of the Shanyue increased manpower for agriculture, especially along the lower reaches of the Yangtze and in Kuaiji Commandery along the southern shore of Hangzhou Bay.

River transport blossomed, with the construction of the Zhedong and Jiangnan canals. Trade with Shu flourished, with a huge influx of Shu cotton and the development of celadon and metal industries.

Sea journeys were made to Liaodong and the island of Taiwan. In the south, Wu merchants reached Linyi (Southern Vietnam) and Funan Kingdom. As the economy prospered, so too did the arts and culture. In the Yangtze delta, the first Buddhist influences reached the south from Luoyang. The Eastern Wu era was a formative period in Vietnamese history. A Jiaozhou (modern Vietnam and Guangzhou) prefect, Shi Xie, ruled Vietnam as an autonomous warlord for forty years and was posthumously deified by later Vietnamese emperors.

[57] Shi Xie pledged loyalty to Eastern Wu. Originally satisfied with Eastern Wu's rule, the Vietnamese opposed Shi Hui's rebellion against Eastern Wu and attacked him for it. However, when the Wu general Lü Dai betrayed Shi Hui and executed the entire Shi family, the Vietnamese became greatly upset. In 248, the people of Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen commanderies rebelled.

Eastern Wu sent Lu Yin to deal three kingdoms the rebels. He managed to pacify the rebels with a combination of threats and persuasion. However the rebels regrouped under the leadership of Lady Triệu in Jiuzhen and renewed the rebellion with a march on Jiaozhi. After several months of warfare she was defeated and committed suicide. [58] Wei [ edit ] Main article: Cao Wei In 226, Cao Pi died (aged 40) and was succeeded by his eldest son Cao Rui (aged 22).

[59] Minister Chen Qun, General Cao Zhen, General Cao Xiu, and General Sima Yi [f] were appointed as regents, even though Cao Rui was able to manage the government in practice. [59] Eventually the former three died, leaving only Sima Yi as the senior minister and military commander. [59] In 226, Sima Yi successfully defended Xiangyang against an offensive from Wu; this battle was the first time he had command in the field.

[60] In 227, Sima Yi was appointed to a post at Chang'an where he managed the military affairs along the Han River. [60] In 238, Sima Yi was dispatched to command a military campaign against Gongsun Yuan of the self-proclaimed Yan Kingdom in Liaodong, resulting in Sima Yi's capture of his capital Xiangping and massacre of his government. [60] Between 244 and 245, General Guanqiu Jian was dispatched to invade Goguryeo and severely devastated that state.

[60] The northeastern frontier of Wei was now secured from any possible threats. [60] The invasions, a retaliation against a Goguryeo raid in 242, destroyed the Goguryeo capital of Hwando, sent its king fleeing, and broke the tributary relationships between Goguryeo and the other tribes of Korea that formed much of Goguryeo's economy.

Although the king evaded capture and eventually settled in a new capital, Goguryeo was reduced to such insignificance that three kingdoms half a century there was no mention of the state in Chinese historical texts.

[61] Cao Zhi as depicted in Goddess of Luo River (detail) by Gu Kaizhi, Jin dynasty, China In 238, Cao Rui perished at age 35. [60] He was succeeded by his adopted son Cao Fang (aged 7), who was a close member of the imperial family. [60] Cao Rui had appointed Cao Shuang and Sima Yi to be Cao Fang's regents, even though he had contemplated to establish a regency council dominated by imperial family members.

[60] Cao Shuang held the principal control over the court. [60] Meanwhile, Sima Yi was received the honorific title of Grand Tutor, but had virtually no influence at the court.

[60] Decline and End [ edit ] Main article: Conquest of Shu by Wei After Zhuge Liang's death, his position as chancellor fell to Jiang Wan, Fei Yi and Dong Yun, in that order. But after 258, Shu politics became increasingly controlled by the eunuch faction, led by Huang Hao, and corruption rose.

Three kingdoms the three kingdoms efforts of Jiang Wei, Zhuge Liang's protégé, Shu was unable to secure any decisive achievement. In 263, Wei launched a three-pronged attack and the Three kingdoms army was forced into general retreat from Hanzhong. Jiang Wei hurriedly held three kingdoms position at Jiange but he was outflanked by the Wei commander Deng Ai, who force-marched his army from Yinping through territory formerly considered impassable.

By the winter of the year, the capital Chengdu fell due to the strategic invasion of Wei by Deng Ai who invaded Chengdu personally. The emperor Liu Shan thus surrendered. The state of Shu had come to an end after 43 years. Liu Shan was reinstated to the Wei capital of Luoyang and was given the new title of the "Duke of Anle". Directly translated, it meant the "Duke of Safety and Happiness" and was a trivial position with no actual power.

Fall of Wei [ edit ] From the late 230s, tensions began to become visible between the imperial Cao clan and the Sima clan. Following the death of Cao Zhen, factionalism was evident between Cao Shuang and the Grand Tutor Sima Yi. In deliberations, Cao Shuang placed his own supporters in important posts and excluded Sima Yi, whom he regarded as a dangerous threat. The power of the Sima clan, one of the great landowning families of the Han dynasty, was bolstered by Sima Yi's military victories.

Additionally, Sima Yi was an extremely capable strategist and politician. In 238 he crushed the rebellion of Gongsun Yuan's self-proclaimed Yan Kingdom and brought the Liaodong region directly under central control.

Ultimately, he outmanoeuvred Cao Shuang in power play. Taking advantage of an excursion by the imperial clansmen to the Gaoping Tombs, Sima Yi undertook a putsch in Luoyang, forcing Cao Shuang's faction from authority. Many protested against the overwhelming power of the Sima family; notable among these were the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. One of the sages, Xi Kang, was executed as part of the purges after Cao Shuang's downfall.

Cao Huan succeeded to the throne in 260 after Cao Mao was killed in a failed coup against Sima Zhao. Soon after, Sima Zhao died and his title as Duke of Jìn was inherited by his son Sima Yan.

Sima Yan immediately began plotting to become emperor but faced stiff opposition. Following advice from his advisors, Cao Huan decided the best course of action would be to abdicate, unlike his predecessor Cao Mao. Sima Yan seized the throne in 266 after forcing Cao Huan's abdication, effectively overthrowing the Wei dynasty and establishing the successor Jin dynasty. This situation was similar to the deposal of Emperor Xian of Han by Cao Pi 40 years earlier.

Fall of Wu [ edit ] Main article: Conquest of Wu by Jin Following Sun Quan's death and the ascension of the young Sun Liang to the throne in 252, the state of Wu went into steady decline.

Successful Wei suppression of rebellions in the southern Huai River region by Sima Zhao and Sima Shi reduced any opportunity of Wu influence. The fall of Shu signalled a change in Wei politics. After Liu Shan surrendered to Wei, Sima Yan (grandson of Sima Yi), overthrew the Wei emperor and proclaimed his own dynasty of Jin in 266, ending 46 years of Cao dominion in the north. After Jin's rise, emperor Sun Xiu of Wu died, and his ministers gave the throne to Sun Hao.

Sun Hao was a promising young man, but upon ascension he became a tyrant, killing or exiling all who dared oppose him in the court. In 269 Yang Hu, a Jin commander in the south, started preparing for the invasion of Wu by ordering the construction of a fleet and the training of marines in Sichuan under Wang Jun.

Four years later, Lu Kang, the last great general of Wu, died leaving no competent successor. The planned Jin offensive finally came at the end of 279. Sima Yan launched five simultaneous offensives along the Yangtze River from Jianye (present-day Nanjing) to Jiangling while the Sichuan fleet sailed downriver to Jing Province. Under the strain of such an enormous attack, the Wu forces collapsed and Jianye fell in the third month of 280.

Sun Hao surrendered and was given a fiefdom on which to live out his days. This marked the end of the Three Kingdoms era, and the beginning of a break in the forthcoming 300 years of disunity. Impact [ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Three Kingdoms" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( December 2017) ( Learn how and when three kingdoms remove this template message) Population [ edit ] Pottery dwelling around a large courtyard, a siheyuan.

Unearthed in 1967 in a tomb of Hubei built during the kingdom of Eastern Wu, Three Kingdoms period, National Museum of China, Beijing After the Yellow Turban Rebellion, serious famine followed in the Central Plains of China. After his coming to power, Dong Zhuo gave full swing to his army to loot and plunder the population, and abduct women into forced marriages, servants or consorts. When the Guandong Coalition was starting the campaign against Dong Zhuo, he embarked upon a scorched earth campaign, three kingdoms that "all the population of Luoyang be forced to move to Chang'an, all the palaces, temples, official residences and homes be burnt, no one should stay within that area of 200 li".

Considering the hardships of that time this amounted to a death sentence for many, and cries of discontent rose as the population of Luoyang decreased sharply. When Cao Cao attacked Xu Province, it was said three kingdoms "hundreds of thousands of men and women were buried alive, even dogs and chickens did not survive.

The Si River was blocked. From then on, these five towns never recovered." [ citation needed] When Li Jue and his army were advancing towards the Guanzhong area, "there remained hundreds of thousands of people, but Li Jue allowed his army to plunder the cities and the people, thus making the people have nothing but eat each other to death." [ citation needed] The following table shows the severe decrease of population during that period.

From the late Eastern Han to the Western Jin dynasty, despite the length of about 125 years, the peak population only equaled 35.3% of the peak population during the Eastern Han dynasty.

From the Western Jin dynasty to the Sui dynasty, the population never recovered. High militarization of the population was common. For example, the population of Shu was 900,000, but the military numbered over 100,000. The Records of the Three Kingdoms contains population three kingdoms for the Three Kingdoms. As with many Chinese historical population figures, these numbers are likely to be less than the actual populations, since census and tax records went hand in hand, and tax evaders were often not on records.

During the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD), a number of statuses intermediate between freedom and slavery developed, but none of them are thought to have exceeded 1 percent of the population.

[62] Three Kingdoms Period Populations [63] Year Households Population Notes Eastern Han dynasty, 156 10,679,600 56,486,856 Shu Han, three kingdoms 200,000 900,000 Shu Han, 263 280,000 1,082,000 At Shu's demise, the population contained 102,000 armed soldiers and 40,000 various officials. Eastern Wu, 238 520,000 2,567,000 Eastern Wu, 280 530,000 2,535,000 At Wu's demise, the population had 32,000 officials, 230,000 soldiers, and 5,000 imperial concubines.

Cao Wei, 260 663,423 4,432,881 Western Jin dynasty, 280 2,495,804 16,163,863 After reuniting China, the Jin dynasty's population was greatest around this time. While it is clear that warfare undoubtedly took many lives during this period, the census figures do not support the idea that tens of millions were wiped out solely from warfare.

Other factors such as mass famines and diseases, due to the collapse of sustaining governance and migrations out of China must be taken into account. Economy [ edit ] In the late Eastern Han dynasty, due to natural three kingdoms and social unrest, the economy was badly depressed, leading to the massive waste of farmland. Some local landlords and aristocracy established their own strongholds to defend themselves and developed agriculture, which gradually evolved into a self-sufficient manorial system.

The system of strongholds and manors also had effects on the economical mode of following dynasties. In addition, because of the collapse of the imperial court, those worn copper coins were not melted and reminted and many privately minted coins appeared.

In the Three Kingdoms period, newly minted coins never made their way into currency. Due to the collapse of the coinage, Cao Wei officially declared silk cloth and grains as the main currencies in 221. [64] In economic terms the division of the Three Kingdoms reflected a reality that long endured. Even during the Northern Song dynasty, 700 years after the Three Kingdoms period, it was possible to think of China as being composed of three great regional markets.

(The status of the northwest was slightly ambivalent, as it had links with the northern region and Sichuan). These geographical divisions are underscored by the fact that the main communication routes between the three main regions were all man-made: the Grand Canal linking north and south, the hauling-way through the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River linking southern China with Sichuan and the gallery roads joining Sichuan with the northwest. The break into three separate entities was quite natural and even anticipated by such political foresight as that of Zhuge Liang (see Longzhong Plan).

Literature [ edit ] Cao Cao, the founder of the Wei kingdom and his four sons were influential poets, especially Cao Zhi (192–232) and Cao Pi (187–226). [65] Cao Pi wrote the earliest work of literary criticism, the Essay on Literature. Cao Zhi, together with Xu Gan, sponsored a resurgence of the Jian'an style of lyric poetry. Cao Zhi is considered by most modern critics to be the most important Chinese writer between Qu Yuan and Tao Yuanming. [66] Historiography [ edit ] Sources [ edit ] A fragment of the biography of Bu Zhi from the Records of the Three Kingdoms, part of the Dunhuang manuscripts The standard history of the period is the Records of the Three Kingdoms, compiled by the Western Jin historian Chen Shou in the third century AD.

The work synthesizes the histories of the rival states of Cao Wei, Shu Han and Eastern Wu in the Three Kingdoms period into a single compiled text. An expanded version of the Records of the Three Kingdoms was published by the Liu Song historian Pei Songzhi in 429, whose Annotations to Records of the Three kingdoms Kingdoms supplemented the original with sizable excerpts of texts unused by Chen Shou and provided commentaries.

The resulting work nearly doubled the size of the original Records, [67] and the three kingdoms work of Chen and Pei are canonized as official history (正史). [68] In addition to the Records of the Three Kingdoms, the years 189 to 220 are also covered by the previous standard history Book of the Later Han by Fan Ye (a contemporary of Pei Songzhi), which mainly draws from documents of the Han court. [69] For the later years, biographies of the Jin dynasty progenitors Sima Yi, Sima Shi, and Sima Zhao are only found in the following standard history Book of Jin by the Tang dynasty historian Fang Xuanling.

The legitimacy issue [ edit ] Traditional Chinese political thought is concerned with the concept of the " Mandate of Heaven", from which a ruler derives legitimacy to rule all under heaven. In the Three Kingdoms period, Cao Wei, Shu Han, and Eastern Wu all laid claim to the Mandate by virtue of their founders declaring themselves as emperors.

Later historians would disagree on which of the Three Kingdoms (primarily between Wei and Shu) should be considered the sole legitimate successor to the Han dynasty.

Chen Shou, the compiler of the Records of the Three Kingdoms, hailed from Shu Han and became an official of the Western Jin dynasty when he was working on the Records. As Western Jin succeeded Cao Wei, Chen was careful in his compilation to imply Cao Wei was the legitimate state. Despite the description of events being mostly balanced and fair, [70] Chen Shou legitimized Wei by placing the Wei annals first, using the era names from Wei's calendar, and reserving regal nomenclature for the leaders of Wei.

Specifically, emperors of Cao Wei are referred to by their imperial posthumous names (eg. Cao Pi is referred to as the "Civil Emperor" 文帝), while the Shu and Wu emperors are mere "rulers" (eg.

Liu Bei is referred to as the "First Ruler" 先主 and Sun Quan as "Ruler of Wu" 吳主). [68] Chen Shou, as a subject of Jin, could not write in a way that implies Jin as illegitimate by denying Cao Wei's claim to the mandate, despite what sympathies he might have had toward his home state of Shu.

[71] Chen Shou's treatment of the legitimacy issue was generally accepted through to the Northern Song dynasty. Despite maintaining that none of the three states truly held the Mandate of Heaven since they all failed to unify China, Song historian Sima Guang used Wei's era names and thus affirmed the legitimacy of Wei's succession to Han in his universal history Zizhi Tongjian.

[72] Sima Guang explained that his choice was merely out of convenience, and he was "not honouring one and treating another with contempt, nor making distinction between orthodox and intercalary positions." [72] Nonetheless, the influential Neo-Confucian moralist Zhu Xi criticized Sima Guang's choice, taking the position that Shu Han was the true successor to the Han dynasty since Liu Bei was related to the imperial Liu clan by blood, and thus used Shu's calendar in his rewrite of Sima Guang's work, the Zizhi Tongjian Gangmu.

[73] This position, first argued by Xi Zuochi in the fourth century, [74] found support in Zhu Xi's time since the Song dynasty found itself in a similar situation as Shu Han, as it was forced out of north China by the Jurchens in 1127 and became known as the Southern Song. [75] The revisionist private histories of the time emphasized " humane governence" (仁政) as a mark of legitimate dynastic succession, and saw Liu Bei as an idealized Confucian monarch. [76] The pro-Shu bias then found its way into popular forms of entertainment such as pinghua tales and zaju performances, and was eventually codified in the 14th century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

[77] Legacy in popular culture [ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be three kingdoms and removed. Find sources: "Three Kingdoms" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( January 2018) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) Further information: List of media adaptations of Romance of the Three Kingdoms Numerous people and affairs from the period later became Chinese legends.

The most complete and influential example is the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, written by Luo Guanzhong during the Ming dynasty. Possibly due to the popularity of Romance of three kingdoms Three Kingdoms, the Three Kingdoms era is one of the most well-known non-modern Chinese eras in terms of iconic characters, deeds and exploits.

This is reflected in the way that fictional accounts of the Three Kingdoms, mostly based on the novel, play a significant role in East Asian popular culture. Books, television dramas, films, cartoons, anime, games, and music on the topic are still regularly produced in mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Vietnam, Japan, and Southeast Asia.

[78] See also [ edit ] • Xu Chang • Yellow Turbans • Liang Province • Eunuch massacre • Dong Zhuo ( Xingyang) • Yangcheng • Jieqiao • Xiangyang • Chang'an • Fengqiu • Xu Province • Yan Province • Jiangdong • Cao Cao vs. Zhang Xiu • Xiapi • Yijing • Yuan Shu • Guandu • Bowang • Xiakou • Northern China ( Liyang * Ye * Nanpi * White Wolf Mtn.) • Jiangxia • Red Cliffs • Northwest China ( Tong Pass * Jicheng * Lucheng * Qi Mtns.

* Yangping) • Ruxu (213) • Yi Province • Jing Province (215) • Hanzhong • Xiaoyao Ford • Ruxu (217) • Fancheng • Jing Province (219) • Three Kingdoms → • ← End of Han dynasty • Xiaoting • Invasion of Wu • Southern Campaign • Xincheng • Northern Expeditions • Shiting • Ziwu • Hefei (231) • Hefei (234) • Liaodong • Wu offensive • Xingshi • Goguryeo • Gaoping Tombs • Jiang's Expeditions ( Didao) • Shouchun • Dongxing • Hefei (253) • Cao Mao • Fall of Shu • Zhong Hui • Fall of Wu • Battle of Hulao Pass • End of the Han dynasty • Game of the Three Kingdoms • Jian'an poetry • Lists of people of the Three Kingdoms • Rafe de Crespigny • Six Dynasties (Period of Disunity) • Six Dynasties poetry Notes [ edit ] • ^ Referring to the Han dynasty government • ^ Referring to the Yellow Turban Rebellion • ^ Book of Han – Record of Emperor Xiaoling and the Zizhi Tongjian - Guanghe Year 6 record that Three kingdoms Jiao declared himself Yellow Emperor and took their movement's name from a headscarf worn by followers [yellow signifying the Yellow Emperor and imperial authority].

• ^ Roughly covering the Sichuan Basin • ^ The area between present-day Baoding and Taiyuan • ^ Earlier, in 217, Sima Yi had become a member of the heir apparent Cao Pi's entourage. He steadily rose in position during Cao Pi's reign.

three kingdoms

(Crespigny 1991,31) References [ edit ] • ^ Theobald (2000). • ^ Kang, Youwei (21 October 2013). 歐洲十一國遊記二種 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 群出版. p. 98. • ^ San (2014), p. 145. • ^ "History of Three Kingdoms Period - China Education Center". • ^ Dreyer, Edward L.

2009. “Military Aspects of the War of the Eight Princes, 300–307.” In Military Culture in Imperial China, edited three kingdoms Nicola Di Cosmo. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 112–142. ISBN 978-0674031098. • ^ Three kingdoms Bielenstein. Chinese historical demography A.D. 2-1982. Östasiatiska museet.

p 17 • ^ Breverton, Terry (2013). Breverton's Encyclopedia of Inventions (Unabridged ed.). Quercus. ISBN 978-1623652340. • ^ Szczepanski, Kallie. "The Invention of the Crossbow". About.com. Retrieved 31 March 2015. • ^ Hong-Sen Yan (2007). Reconstruction Designs of Lost Ancient Chinese Machinery (Online-Ausg.

ed.). Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 129. ISBN 978-1402064609. • ^ Xiong, Victor Cunrui (2009). Historical Dictionary of Medieval China. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.

p. 351. ISBN 978-0810860537. • ^ 佚名 (January 2013). Chinese History. ISBN 9781921678882. • ^ "Romance of the Three Kingdoms: China's Greatest Epic 三國志演義". Yellow Bridge. Retrieved 1 April 2015. • ^ Tanner, Harold Miles (13 March 2009). China: A History. Indianapolis, Indiana: Hackett Publishing. pp. 141–142. ISBN 978-0872209152. • ^ a b Roberts, Moss (1991). Three Kingdoms: A Historical Novel.

California: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22503-1. • ^ Guo Jian (郭建) (1999). 千秋興亡 [ Rise and Fall over Thousands of Autumns]. Changchun: 長春出版社 (Changchun Press). • ^ Jiang Lang (姜狼) (2011). 184–280:三國原來這樣 [ 184–280: It Turns out the Three Kingdoms Were like This].

Beijing: 現代出版社 (Modern Press). • ^ Han Guopan (韓國磐) (1983). 魏晉南北朝史綱 [ Historical Highlights of the Six Dynasties]. Beijing: 人民出版社 (People's Press). • ^ Zhang Binsheng (張儐生) (1982). 魏晉南北朝政治史 [ Administrative History of the Six Dynasties]. Taipei: 中國文化大學 (Chinese Culture University Press). • ^ Gao Min (高敏), ed. (1998). 中國經濟通史 魏晉南北朝經濟卷 [ The Complete Economic History of China: Economy of the Six Dynasties]. Hong Kong: 經濟日報出版社 (Economics Daily Press). • ^ Luo Kun (羅琨); et al.

(1998). 中國軍事通史 三國軍事史 [ The Complete Military History of China: Three Kingdoms Military History]. Beijing: 軍事科學出版社 (Military Science Press). • ^ Zhu Dawei (朱大渭); et al. (1998). 魏晉南北朝社會生活史 [ The Social History of the Six Dynasties]. Beijing: 中國社會科學出版社 (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences). • ^ Zhang Wenqiang (張文強) (1994). 中國魏晉南北朝軍事史 [ China's Six Dynasties Military History].

Beijing: 人民出版社 (People's Press). • three kingdoms Zhang Chengzong (張承宗); Wei Xiangdong (魏向東) (2001). 中國風俗通史 魏晉南北朝卷 [ The Complete History of Chinese Customs: Six Dynasties]. Shanghai: 上海藝文出版社 (Shanghai People's Press). • ^ He Dezhang (何德章) (1994). 中國魏晉南北朝政治史 (百卷本國全史第7) [ China's Six Dynasties Administrative History (This Nation's Total History in 100 Volumes, no 7)]. Beijing: 人民出版社 (People's Press).

• ^ Wang Lihua (王利華); et al. (2009). 中國農業通史 魏晉南北朝卷 [ The Complete History of Chinese Agriculture: Six Dynasties]. Beijing: 中國農業出版社 (Chinese Agricultural Press). • ^ Theobald, Ulrich three kingdoms June 2011). "The Yellow Turban Uprising". Chinaknowledge. Retrieved 7 March 2015. • ^ a b c de Crespigny 1991, 1. • ^ a b de Crespigny 1991, 1–2. • ^ a b c d e f de Crespigny 1991, 2. • ^ a b c de Crespigny 1991, 2–3. • ^ (守尸吏暝以為大炷,置卓臍中以為灯,光明達旦,如是積日。) According to the Annal of Heroes, the light from his corpse could be compared three kingdoms that of the sun!

• ^ a b de Crespigny 1991, 3–4. • ^ a b c d e f de Crespigny 1991, 3. • ^ a b c d e de Crespigny 1991, 6. • ^ de Crespigny 2007, p. 988. • ^ a b de Crespigny 1991, 7–8. • ^ a b c d e f g h de Crespigny 1991, 7. • ^ a b c d e f g h de Crespigny 1991, 4. • ^ de Crespigny 1991, 4 & 6. • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q de Crespigny 1991, 8. • ^ a b c d de Crespigny 1991, 21. • three kingdoms de Crespigny 1991, 8 & 21.

• ^ a b de Crespigny 1991, 9. • ^ a b c d e f g h i j de Crespigny 1991, 10. • ^ a b c d de Crespigny 1991, 10–11 & 21–22. • ^ a b c de Crespigny 1991, 10–11. • ^ a b c d e f de Crespigny 1991, 11. • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n de Crespigny 1991, 12. • ^ de Crespigny 1991, 11–12. • ^ de Crespigny 1991, 12–13. • ^ de Crespigny 1991, 13 & 20. • ^ de Crespigny 1991, 12–13 & 22. • ^ a b de Crespigny 1991, 22. • ^ de Crespigny 1991, 13 & 16.

• ^ de Crespigny 1991, 16. • ^ a b c d e three kingdoms de Crespigny 1991, 13. • ^ Taylor, Keith Weller (1 April 1991). "The Birth of Vietnam". University of California Press – via Google Books. • ^ Taylor 1983, p. 70. • ^ a b c de Crespigny 1991, 31. • ^ a b c d three kingdoms f g h i j de Crespigny 1991, 32. • ^ Byington, Mark E. "Control or Conquer? Koguryǒ's Relations with States and Peoples in Manchuria," Journal of Northeast Asian History volume 4, number 1 (June 2007):93.

• ^ Williams, R. Owen (November 2006). Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition [Two Volumes]. Greenwood Press.

ISBN 978-0-313-01524-3. • ^ From Zou Jiwan (Chinese: 鄒紀萬), Zhongguo Tongshi – Weijin Nanbeichao Shi 中國通史·魏晉南北朝史, (1992). • ^ de Crespigny, Rafe (November 2003). "The Three Kingdoms and Western Jin: A history three kingdoms China in the Third Century CE". Australian National University. Retrieved 31 January 2015. • ^ Burton Watson (1971). Chinese Lyricism:: Shih Poetry from the Second to the Twelfth Century. Columbia University Press. p. 38. ISBN 0-231-03464-4.

• ^ Knechtges (2010), p. 174. • ^ Cutter & Crowell 1999, p. 149.

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• ^ a b McLaren 2006, p. 294. • ^ de Crespigny 2020, p. xi. • ^ McLaren 2012, p. 46 note 14. • ^ Cutter & Crowell 1999, p. 71. • ^ a b de Crespigny 2018, p. 353. • ^ Mansvelt Beck 1986, pp.

374–375. • ^ McLaren 2012, p. 53 note 41. • ^ McLaren 2006, pp. 295–296. • ^ McLaren 2006, p. 302. • ^ McLaren 2012, p. 46. • ^ Craig J. Reynolds. Seditious Histories: Contesting Thai and Southeast Asian Pasts, Washington: University of Washington Press, 2006.

Bibliography [ edit ] • Bielenstein, Hans (1947), "The census of China during the period 2–742 A.D.", Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 19: 125–163 • Cutter, Robert Joe; Crowell, William Gordon (1999).

Empresses and consorts : selections from Chen Shou's Records of the Three States with Pei Songzhi's commentary. Honolulu: University of Hawaiì Press. ISBN 0-585-32007-1. OCLC 45843016. • de Crespigny, Rafe (1991).

"The Three Kingdoms and Western Jin: A History of China in the Three kingdoms Century AD ~ I" (PDF). East Asian History.

1 (1). • de Crespigny, Rafe (2007), A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms, Brill • de Crespigny, Rafe (2018) [1990]. Generals three kingdoms the South: the foundation and early history of the Three Kingdoms state of Wu (Internet ed.).

Faculty of Asian Studies, The Australian National University. • de Crespigny, Rafe (2020) [1996]. To Establish Peace: being the Chronicle of the Later Han dynasty for the years 189 to 200 AD as recorded in Chapters 59 to 63 of the Zizhi tongjian of Sima Guang (Internet ed.).

Australia Centre on China in the World, The Australian National University. hdl: 1885/212581.

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ISBN 978-0-7315-2537-9. • Ge Jianxiong, 中国人口史 ( History of the Population of China) vol 1. Shanghai: Fudan University Press, 2002. ISBN 7-309-03520-8 • Knechtges, David R.

(2010). "From the Eastern Han Through the Western Jin (AD 25-317)". In Kang-yi Sun Chang; Stephen Owen (eds.). The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature. New York: Cambridge University Press.

pp. 116–198. ISBN 9780521855587. • Mansvelt Beck, B. J. (1986), Twitchett, Denis; Loewe, Michael (eds.), "The fall of Han", The Cambridge History of China: Volume 1: The Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 BC–AD 220, The Cambridge History of China, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, vol. 1, pp. 317–376, doi: 10.1017/chol9780521243278.007, ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8retrieved 17 November 2020 • McLaren, Anne Three kingdoms.

(2006). "History Repackaged in the Age of Print: The "Sanguozhi" and "Sanguo yanyi" ". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 69 (2): 293–313. doi: 10.1017/S0041977X06000139. ISSN 0041-977X. JSTOR 20182040. S2CID 154489082. • McLaren, Anne E.

(2012). "Writing History, Writing Fiction: Three kingdoms Remaking of Cao Cao in Song Historiography". Monumenta Serica. 60 (1): 45–69.

doi: 10.1179/mon.2012.60.1.003. ISSN 0254-9948. S2CID 193917398. • San, Tan Koon (2014), Dynastic China: An Elemental History, The Other Press, ISBN 978-9839541885 • Taylor, Jay (1983), The Birth of the Vietnamese, University three kingdoms California Press • Theobald, Ulrich (2000), three kingdoms History – Three Kingdoms 三國 (220–280)", Chinaknowledgeretrieved 7 July 2015 Further reading [ edit ] • Sima, Guang (1952).

The Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms (220–265) Chapters 69–78 from the Tz*U Chih T'ung Chien. translated by Achilles Fang, Glen William Baxter and Bernard S. Solomon. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢 : A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265.

University of Washington, Draft annotated English translation. External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Three Kingdoms. • Online Three Kingdoms publications of Dr. Rafe de Crespigny, Australian National University Preceded by Hidden categories: • CS1 Chinese (Taiwan)-language sources (zh) • Articles containing Chinese-language text • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Use dmy dates from August 2017 • Use British English from August 2017 • Articles using infobox templates with no data rows • Articles containing Vietnamese-language text • Articles containing Korean-language text • Articles containing Japanese-language text • Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text • Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text • All articles with unsourced statements • Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018 • Articles needing additional references from December 2017 • All articles needing additional references • Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016 • Articles needing additional references from January 2018 • Commons category link from Wikidata • Articles with GND identifiers • Articles with J9U identifiers • Articles with LCCN identifiers • Afrikaans • العربية • Asturianu • Azərbaycanca • Bân-lâm-gú • Башҡортса • Беларуская • Български • Català • Čeština • Dansk • Deutsch • Eesti three kingdoms Ελληνικά • Español • Esperanto • Euskara • فارسی • Français • Galego • 贛語 • 客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî • 한국어 • हिन्दी • Hrvatski • Bahasa Indonesia • Íslenska • Italiano • עברית • ქართული • Kurdî • Latina • Latviešu • Lietuvių • Magyar • Bahasa Melayu • Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄ • Монгол • မြန်မာဘာသာ • Nederlands • 日本語 • Norsk bokmål • Norsk nynorsk • Occitan • ਪੰਜਾਬੀ • پنجابی • ភាសាខ្មែរ • Polski • Português • Română • Русский • සිංහල • Simple English • کوردی • Српски / srpski • Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски • Suomi • Svenska • Tagalog • தமிழ் • ไทย • Türkçe • Українська • اردو • ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche • Vahcuengh • Tiếng Việt • 文言 • 吴语 • 粵語 • 中文 Edit links • This page was last edited on 28 April 2022, at 03:59 (UTC).

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