Esoterisme adalah

esoterisme adalah

• Afrikaans • Alemannisch • العربية • Azərbaycanca • Boarisch • Български • Català • Čeština • Cymraeg • Dansk • Deutsch • English • Esoterisme adalah • Español • Eesti • Euskara • فارسی • Suomi • Võro • Français • Furlan • Gàidhlig • Galego • ગુજરાતી • Hawaiʻi • Hrvatski • Magyar • Հայերեն • Interlingua • Italiano • 日本語 • ქართული • 한국어 • Lietuvių • Македонски • Bahasa Melayu • Nederlands • Norsk bokmål • Occitan • Polski • Português • Română • Русский • Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски • Simple English • Slovenčina • Shqip • Српски / srpski • Svenska • ไทย • Українська • Vèneto • 中文 Gambar peta Yunani kuno, bangsa Yunani kuno adalah bangsa pertama yang menggunakan kata Esoteris Esoteris Esoterik berasal dari kata Yunani kuno ἐσωτερικός esoterisme adalah yang berarti suatu hal yang diajarkan atau dapat dimengerti oleh sekelompok orang tertentu dan khusus, dapat juga berarti suatu hal yang susah untuk dipahami.

[1] Esoterik berasal dari kata esotericism (esoterikisme) yakni pemikiran filsafat mengenai proses evolusi dari manusia dan makhluk hidup lainnya. [2] Ilmu tentang akumulasi dari kebijaksanaan dari zaman ke zaman. [2] Menampilkan sebuah sekumpulan pemikiran yang sistematis dan komprehensif tentang struktur semesta dan letak manusia dalam semesta tersebut. [2] Mendiskripsikan kekuatan dan pengaruh yang terdapat di dalam dunia yang fenomenal dan sebuah proses untuk mewaspadai dan mengerti kekuatan tersebut.

[2] Esoteris juga disebut sebgai ilmu mengenai roh yang terdapat di setiap benda dan mempunyai terminologi, percobaan-percobaan, deduksi-deduksi dan hukum-hukum. [2] Hal ini secara mudah diartikan sebagai suatu hal yang terdapat di luar daya tangkap dan daya pikir manusia biasa dan mewakilkan sebuah proses evolusi makhluk hidup dari suatu titik dasar: Bagaimana semesta dapat tercipta, bagaimana kinerjanya dan peran manusia di dalamnya.

[2] Esoteris juga kadang disebut sebagai seni untuk bekerja bersama energi-energi dengan kedekatan bersama sumber spiritual tertinggi. [2] Ajaran-ajaran ini telah membantu untuk membimbing dan membentuk peradaban demi peradaban yang berdampak terhadap kemajaun yang dialami oleh umat manusia baik dalam hal ilmu pengetahuan, politik, seni atau agama. [2] Rujukan [ sunting - sunting sumber ] • Halaman ini terakhir diubah pada 4 Juli 2021, pukul 12.42. • Teks tersedia di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa; ketentuan tambahan mungkin berlaku.

Lihat Esoterisme adalah Penggunaan untuk lebih jelasnya. • Kebijakan privasi • Tentang Wikipedia • Penyangkalan • Tampilan seluler • Pengembang • Statistik • Pernyataan kuki • • This article scrutinizes the relationship of Islamic knowledge focusing on esoteric realm and exoteric area or what so-called duality of life. Within intellectual treasures of Islam this dualism have subsequ-ently beat each other. It is sometimes in the form of friction between the scientific and non-scientific, rational and spiritual, the sacred and the profane, theocentric and esoterisme adalah.

However, when carefully understood, the dualism shares the same nature, namely outer and inner aspects. The outer is represented by naming, while the inner can only be understood through the process of interpretation. In other words, these two aspects are represented by two words are name (outer aspect) and esoterisme adalah (inner aspect). Therefore, Islam is present and it attempts to draw both together. As can be observed in this century, the mentality of modern humans seem to be eroded far from religious norms as people have developed science which leads to religious emptying from its noble values.

Therefore, it is important to bring the esoteric realm into modern thought which tends only to put emphasis on exoteric aspect. The exoteric dimension is a systematic basis in looking for surface meaning of hadith.

Whereas the esoteric dimension used to look for the unspeakable, the essential and the signal meaning. Understanding hadith meaning with both dimensions will explain the surface and deep meaning of hadith. By using qualitative approach, literary research and content analysis, this paper will discuss how the development of exoteric and esoteric dimensions in understanding hadith and both relationship.

Each Esoterisme adalah scholars has his own method when looking for the esoteric dimension in understanding hadith. Al-Ḥakīm al-Tirmiżī used proverbs (amṡāl), al-Ghazālī used esoterisme adalah (i'tibār), and Ibn al-'Arab Ibn al-'Arabī used trainings (riyāḍāt) and struggles (mujāhadāt).

Although using different terms, they agreed that the esoteric dimension must be based esoterisme adalah the exoteric dimension. The detachment of the esoteric dimension from the exoteric dimension will cause the loss of the meaning foundation and will fall into bāṭiniyyah method. This collection of essays by one of the best known contemporary Muslim scholars writing in English covers many facets of Islamic life and thought.

Esoterisme adalah author has brought together studies dealing with the practical as well as intellectual aspects of Islam in both their historical and esoterisme adalah reality. The contemporary significance of themes such as religion and secularism, the meaning of freedom, and the tradition of Islamic science and philosophy is given particular attention.

Modern science arrived from the West in tandem with colonialism. The article examines the complex ways in which the challenge it posed to the traditional modes of thought was met. It provoked both revivalist claims of achievements of the past and efforts to synthesise science with religion. Read more This paper deals with a controversy concerning a popular religious practice that some ‘ulama have been involved in.

On this issue, the ‘ulama are divided into those who reject it and those who accept it. Those who esoterisme adalah it are associated with the puritan Muslims who generally argue that the popular religious practices are form of bid‘ah.

Among the puritans are Ibn Taymîyah (d. 1328) and Muhammad . [Show full abstract] ‘Abd al-Wahhab (d. 1791) the founding-father of Wahhabîyah school of thought in Najd, Saudi Arabia. Although the two have continuously waged an intellectual war on popular religious practices, these practices have nonetheless survived to this day.

This paper proposes an approach that might be useful to the study of popular religious practices. It contends that the controversy on this issue may in fact be used as a framework in which the validity of certain religious tradition may be evaluated. A rejection toward certain religious practices is in fact deemed necessary as long as this is not destructive to the very structure of religion.

On further note, the differences in opinion between those who reject and those who accept can actually be reconciled simply because the two have a lot in common in terms of their aims and final goals. They are not contradictive so far as the two are deemed as subjective efforts to understand the real meaning of Islam.

On the ground that the two are a form of understanding, the one cannot be said as truer than the other just as the two cannot be said as representing the true teaching of the Qur’ân and the Sunnah.

Nonetheless, put together the two have indeed gave a more comprehensive picture of what Islam is all about. View full-text This article is an attempt to study the development of epistemology that combines religion and science reasoning in the form of “theosophical sense”. The goal esoterisme adalah to provide the opportunity for religious reason and philosophy of reason to move, to walk, to work according to their capacities and freely without having to specify the amount of the portion in between.

But at some point, they interact . [Show full abstract] and complement each other. This study is expected to resolve the problem of the conflict between religion—which is based on religious arguments—and knowledge—which is based on human reason—, because each can meet in a single point of wisdom (meeting between aspects of divinity and humanity).

Therefore, it has a humanitarian dimension of religion, as well as the knowledge which has dimensions of divinity. View full-text
Esoterisme Paham tentang adanya sistematisasi antara struktur energi di alam semesta dan peranan manusia di dalamnya. Kesimpulan Menurut Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (KBBI), arti kata esoterisme adalah paham tentang adanya sistematisasi antara struktur energi di esoterisme adalah semesta dan peranan manusia di dalamnya.

Pohon kehidupan seperti yang diwakili dalam Kabbalah, mencantumkan Sefirot. Esoterisme Barat atau tradisi misteri Barat, [1] adalah sebuah istilah yang dikategorisasikan oleh para cendekiawan terhahadap sejumlah besar gagasan dan gerakan terkait yang berkembang dalam masyarakat Barat.

Gagasan dan gelombang tersebut disatukan oleh fakta bahwa mereka banyak berbeda dari agama Yudeo-Kristen ortodoks dan dari rasionalisme Abad Pencerahan. Referensi [ sunting - sunting sumber ] • ^ Brian Morris, Religion and Anthropology: A Critical Introduction, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 298. Pranala luar [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Wikimedia Commons memiliki media mengenai Esoterisme Barat.

Wikiquote memiliki koleksi kutipan yang berkaitan dengan: Esoterisme Barat. Lihat informasi mengenai esoterisme barat di Wiktionary. • An Esoteric Archive • Center for History of Hermetic Philosophy and Related Currents, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands • The Western Esoteric Tradition Research Site • Association for the Study of Esotericism (ASE) • European Society for the Study of Western Esotericism (ESSWE) • Center for History of Hermetic Philosophy and Related Currents, University of Amsterdam • University of Exeter Centre for the Study of Esotericism (EXESESO) • Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism • Esoterica.

A peer-reviewed academic journal devoted to the transdisciplinary study of Western esotericism • University esoterisme adalah Amsterdam Center for Study of Western Esotericism Research & BA/MA programs in Western esotericism. • University of Exeter Centre for the Study of Esotericism (EXESESO) • ESSWE European Society for the Study of Western Esotericism, esoterisme adalah many links to associated organizations, libraries, scholars etc.

• Association for the Study of Esotericism • What Is Esotericism? esoterisme adalah Halaman ini terakhir diubah pada 24 Oktober 2021, pukul 08.52. • Teks tersedia di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa; ketentuan tambahan mungkin berlaku. Lihat Ketentuan Penggunaan untuk lebih jelasnya. • Kebijakan privasi • Tentang Wikipedia • Penyangkalan • Tampilan seluler • Pengembang • Statistik • Pernyataan kuki • •
Esoterisme ialah istilah yang ada dua makna.

Mengikut kamus, esoterisme bermaksud pegangan pendapat esoterik, [1] dan berasal dari perkataan Yunani ἐσωτερικός ( esôterikos), iaitu kata majmuk ἔσω ( esô, "dalam"), iaitu "kebatinan", atau mistik, berlawanan dengan eksoterik.

Menurut bahan ilmiah pula, istilah ini memaksudkan aliran keagamaan bersejarah seperti Gnostisisme, Hermetisme, sihir, astrologi, alkimia, Rosicrucianism, Teosofi Kristian Jacob Böhme dan para pengikutnya, Iluminisme, Mesmerisme, Swedenborgianisme, Spiritualisme, dan aliran-aliran teosofi yang berkaitan dengan Helena Blavatsky para pengikutnya.

Bermacam-macam pandangan berbeza yang dikemukakan mengenai sifat-sifat bersama yang menyatukan aliran-aliran tersebut, tetapi tiada satu pun yang menjadikan "kebatinan", misteri esoterisme adalah rahsia sebagai sifat penting. Pengetahuan esoterik, dalam erti kata kamus, adalah yang hanya dapat dicapai oleh segolongan kecil orang yang "makrifat" atau menerima pendidikan khusus [2], berbeza dengan pengetahuan eksoterik yang diketahui dan difahami esoterisme adalah.

Esoterisme juga membawa erti ilmu atau persepsi yang sukar difahami apatah lagi diingati, seperti fizik teori, atau berkenaan perincian bidang tertentu, seperti statistik bola sepak "esoterik".

Rujukan [ sunting - sunting sumber ] • Afrikaans • Alemannisch • العربية • Azərbaycanca • Bahasa Indonesia • Boarisch • Български • Català • Čeština • Cymraeg • Dansk • Deutsch • Eesti • English • Español • Esperanto • Euskara • فارسی • Français • Furlan • Gàidhlig • Galego • ગુજરાતી • 한국어 • Hawaiʻi • Հայերեն • Hrvatski • Interlingua • Italiano • ქართული • Lietuvių • Magyar • Македонски • Nederlands • 日本語 esoterisme adalah Norsk bokmål • Occitan • Polski • Português • Română • Русский • Shqip • Simple English • Slovenčina • Српски / srpski • Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски • Suomi • Svenska • ไทย • Українська • Vèneto • Võro • 中文 Sunting pautan • Laman ini kali terakhir disunting pada 11:57, 19 Ogos 2021.

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Tulisan singkat saya pada umumnya bersemangat ‘berbagi’ (sharing) mengenai suatu gagasan yang barangkali dapat bermanfaat bagi beberapa Kompasioner lainnya.

Kali ini, komentar yang memberi ilham itu terlontar di artikel seorang Kompasioner di kolom SosBud ( http://sosbud.kompasiana.com/2013/03/10/sufis-movements-adalah-solusi-satu-satunya-540851.html). Komentar saya terbaca sebagai berikut: (“ Aku esoterisme adalah sufi,” kata seseorang. Ia sesungguhnya esoterisme adalah sufi karena yang membuat klaim tadi adalah keakuannya alias egonya. Sufi tidak tahu bahwa ia adalah sufi karena ia telah melebur diri dalam kasih semesta yang tidak mengenal identifikasi keakuan.”) Bagi teman-teman yang tidak menyalakan moda esoterik dalam benaknya mungkin mesti membaca komentar ini beberapa kali secara mendalam sebelum dapat menangkap maksudnya yang sebenarnya.

Dalam artikel saya sebelumnya ( http://filsafat.kompasiana.com/2013/03/09/kepercayaan-dan-rasa-takut-dapatkah-dibuktikan-kebenarannya-535490.html) telah esoterisme adalah bahwa KBBI membatasi kata “kepercayaan” sebagai berikut: “ [n] (1) anggapan atau keyakinan bahwa sesuatu yg dipercayai itu benar atau nyata…” Sayangnya tim pakar bahasa Indonesia penyusun KBBI tampaknya belum sempat memasukkan lema ‘eksoteris’ dalam KBBI (padahal ia telah mendefinisikan lema ‘esoteris’).

Jadi, marilah kita meminta bantuan saudara jauhnya, mbak Merriem-Webster, yang membatasi kata exoteric (=eksoteris) sbb: 1 a : sesuai untuk disampaikan kepada publik — bandingkan dengan esoteric b : milik kalangan luar atau kalangan yang belum diinisiasi; 2 : berhubungan dengan yang luar : external.

Dan dalam kamus yang sama (silakan klik link/tautan ‘esoteric’ di atas) ‘esoterik’ 1 a : dirancang bagi atau dimengerti khususnya oleh kalangan yang telah menerima inisiasi saja ( initiated) b : memerlukan atau menunjukkan pengetahuan yang terbatas untuk kelompok kecil saja esoteris>; secara luas : sulit untuk dimengerti esoteris> 2 a : terbatas pada kalangan kecil b : pribadi dan rahasia ( private, confidential ) (Keterangan: esoterisme adalah tidak relevan terhadap artikel ini sengaja dihapus).

Dalam artikel ini, ‘Sistem Kepercayaan’ disinonimkan dengan Agama Terlembaga (organized religion). Ruang lingkup artikel singkat ini, selain menjelaskan apa yang dimaksud dengan istilah eksoteris dan esoteris, juga dalam satu segi merupakan ‘sequel’ (kayak film Die Hard aja ya) dari artikel saya sebelumnya yang tautannya dapat Anda klik di atas.

Dalam Agama Terlembaga di seluruh dunia (dan juga dalam berbagai aliran kepercayaan), baik secara resmi maupun tidak resmi, terdapat para penganut yang termasuk golongan eksoteris dan para penganut yang termasuk golongan esoteris.

Ibaratnya seperti film layar-lebar, orang-orang eksoterisnya adalah para pemain figuran (jumlahnya sampai ribuan dalam film kolosal) dan sedikit orang esoterisnya merupakan beberapa pemain inti (termasuk di dalamnya bintang utama protagois dan antagonisnya) yang jumlahnya relatif sangat sedikit jika dibandingkan dengan para ‘bolo dupakan’ (‘figuran’ dalam dialek Jawa) yang disebut terdahulu.

Persis sama dalam hal jumlah, kaum eksoteris dalam agama dan aliran kepercayaan apapun biasanya merupakan mayoritas, sedangkan kaum esoterisnya adalah minoritas. Jelas sekali bedanya kaum eksoteris dan esoteric ini dalam hal: tingkat pengetahuan dan pemahaman agamanya.

Ibaratnya lautan, pengetahuan dan pemahaman kaum eksoteris agama adalah ibarat gelombang yang tinggal di permukaan belaka, yang bergerak ke sana dan ke sini sesuai dengan tiupan angin; ada beberapa jenis gelombang yang sangat mengasyikkan bagi peselancar spiritual dan ada pula yang setinggi gunung menggulung esoterisme adalah yang lewat di dalamnya, apa saja.

Ada pula yang memorakrandakan keseluruhan yang dilewatinya tanpa ampun layaknya gelombang Tsunami. Sebaliknya, pemahaman kaum esoteris ibaratnya adalah kedalaman lautan yang tenang-tenang menghanyutkan dan mengandung kekuatan yang tidak terperikan.

Para penghuni kedalaman lautan juga sangat khusus. Esoterisme adalah ikan spiritual yang tidak memiliki kemampuan khas ikan khusus laut dalam jangan mencoba-coba menyelam sampai kedalaman lautan karena selain mereka tidak akan bertahan hidup, kedalaman lautan itu sama sekali bukanlah habitatnya yang memberinya kenyamanan dan kebahagiaan.

Sebagai contoh saja, marilah kita memakai permisalan dalam agama Islam, meskipun seperti yang saya nyatakan di atas, kedua golongan ini terdapat dan berlaku bagi para penganut agama dan esoterisme adalah anggota organisasi spiritual apa saja di dunia ini. Di khazanah Islam, pada umumnya para muslim berpengetahuan seperti para anggota Kompasiener di sini tentu mengenal betul istilah dan makna ‘maqom’ (syariat, tarikat, hakikat, makrifat).

Nah, kaum eksoteris yang boleh dikatakan merupakan ‘bolo dupakan’ spiritual sebagian besar menjejali ‘maqom syariat’ ini. Entah mereka itu secara fisik berjulukan kyai, ustads, atau para ikhwan awam biasa, jika mereka masih tergolong eksoteris, ya mereka mau tidak mau mesti puas jika disebut masih berada pada maqom syariat. Maqom tarikat, menurut saya pribadi, adalah maqom yang paling berbahaya bagi para pengikutnya karena ibaratnya mereka naik perahu, mereka menaruh satu kaki di satu perahu syariat (eksoteris) dan satu kakinya lagi terpancang di perahu tarikat (semi esoteris).

Jadi, sebelum orang syariat berlaku ‘nekad’ memasuki dunia tarikat, iamesti memersiapkan diri dulu dengan sebaik-baiknya untuk memelajari segala persyaratan dengan tekun dan seksama dan berusaha semampu-mampunya memenuhi persyaratan, dan jika diperlukan berguru dengan Master Esoterisme adalah Wong Fei Hung atau magang di kuil Shaolin di Tiongkok sana, dalam hal keseimbangan tubuh dan kekuatan kuda-kuda kaki, tentunya jika ia tidak ingin kecemplung laut digerogoti hiu atau kecempung sungai menjadi santapan empuk buaya.

Saya pernah mengenal beberapa ikhwan tarikat tertentu yang bukannya meningkat maqom atau kadar spiritualitasnya malah boleh dikatakan agak terganggu jiwa-raganya karena belum memenuhi prasyarat keseimbangan dan kekuatan kuda-kuda kaki, sudah berani-beraninya menaruh masing-masing kakinya di dua perahu. J Khusus untuk maqom hakikat dan makrifat, jelas sekali saya tidak perlu bersusahpayah menerangkannya dalam tulisan ini karena akan sama sekali tidak berguna.

Mengapa? Para pembaca yang masih berada dalam maqom syariat alias kaum eksoteris, maaf, pasti tidak akan memahaminya atau paling-paling akan menyalahtafsirkannya dan mengubah tulisan ini menjadi fitnah (inilah yang tidak saya inginkan) dan menimbulkan badai polemik berkepanjangan dan para pembaca yang Alhamdulillah telah menapaki jalan esoteris jelas sekali tidak memerlukan penjelasan apapun dari saya karena tentu mereka sudah tahu sendiri. Kaum eksoteris agama dan organisasi spiritual apapun di dunia ini biasanya memiliki kadar rasa takut sangat tinggi (baca artikel sebelumnya) yang terjelma atau tercermin dalam perkataan (atau tulisan), perilaku, sikap, tingkah laku, perbuatan, atau tindakan dalam kehidupan sehari-harinya.

Ingatlah bahwa ketika kita membicarakan penyakit atau racun rasa takut ini, jangan lupakan penyakit/racun turunannya seperti rasa tidak percaya diri, gemar melarikan diri dari esoterisme adalah, suka berbohong, suka munafik, penuh dengan kebencian, kebodohan, berprasangka buruk, mudah menghakimi orang yang berpaham lain, gampang curiga, menghalalkan segala cara dengan memberi pembenaran atas perilakunya tersebut, dsb., dst. Orang yang menapaki jalan esoteris jelas telah menipis kadar rasa takutnya, dan bahkan pada suatu titik tertentu rasa takut itu benar-benar lenyap dari dalam dirinya.

Ia telah mengalami transformasi total, so-to-speak. Nah, rasa takut ini tidak akan mampu dihilangkan atau dikurangi oleh si aku/ego yang merupakan biang rasa takut itu sendiri. Yang mampu dilakukan oleh si ego dalam hal ini hanyalah menekan rasa takut esoterisme adalah malah semakin berbahaya bagi kesehatan jiwa-raga orang yang bersangkutan. Si aku, karena pengaruh keterkondisian syariat agamanya, biasanya berkeinginan kuat untuk melenyapkan penyakit rasa takut ini, namun ibarat kepala ular yang berusaha mengejar dan ingin memakan ekornya sendiri, ia hanya perputar-putar dalam kebingungan.

Sesuai dengan isi tulisan ini, resep yang sangat manjur telah tersedia, yakni menapakkan diri ke dalam jalan esoteris. Sekalipun demikian, banyak persiapan yang perlu dilakukan, antara lain masalah keseimbangan dan kekuatan seperti yang saya umpamakan di tas. Jalan lurus telah tersedia di mana pun Anda kini berada, pilihan berada di tangan Anda. Jnone
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Esotericism karena itu tubuh pengetahuan atau kebijaksanaan tentang semua aspek kehidupan yang dalam, belakang, atau di luar bentuk, penampilan luar, atau ekspresi dari banyak aspek kehidupan. Pengetahuan sejati atau kebijaksanaan adalah bukan sesuatu yang kita dapat memperoleh hanya dengan menggunakan pikiran dan otak, belajar dengan cara yang akademik.

Ini hanya dapat diperoleh dengan pengalaman. Pengalaman tidak berarti melakukan sesuatu secara fisik, tetapi lebih memerlukan kontak langsung antara kesadaran seseorang dan keadaan energi. Misalnya, jika Anda bertemu seseorang yang baru saja mengalami kerugian parah dan Anda membiasakan kepada orang itu, merasa apa yang mereka rasakan, Anda memiliki pengalaman yang dapat membuat Anda menjadi esoterisme adalah yang lebih bijaksana, mengetahui lebih banyak tentang sifat kehilangan dan rasa sakit akibat nya.

Namun, jika Anda dapat esoterisme adalah orang bahwa pada tingkat yang lebih dalam ini, Anda akan mendapatkan kebijaksanaan mengetahui tujuan sebenarnya dari kerugian dan maknanya dalam kehidupan orang itu.

Untuk memiliki pengalaman lebih dalam membutuhkan kemampuan untuk memiliki kesadaran Jiwa, atau Diri Tinggi. Esoterisme adalah mengambil contoh ini lebih jauh, jika Anda memiliki kesadaran Jiwa Planetary Anda esoterisme adalah dapat mengalami kerugian seseorang dalam terang semua kerugian yang dialami setiap orang dan melihat apa yang kehilangan tempat telah di kehidupan cerdas dan penuh kasih terungkapnya planet ini.

Kebijaksanaan berasal dari pengalaman seperti itu akan sangat mendalam. Apa esoteris tidak bisa, seperti yang Anda esoterisme adalah, menjadi rapi dan hanya ditentukan atau terbatas pada parameter sempit. Ada banyak tingkat dari apa yang batin, dan banyak dimensi dari keadaan energi yang bisa dialami. Di balik setiap fenomena ada sebuah 'dunia' energi.

Ini adalah energi yang menghasilkan fenomena atau bentuk ketika turun atau memanifestasikan dalam tiga dunia lebih rendah pemikiran, perasaan, dan materi fisik. Di luar dunia dunia-dunia esoterisme adalah berbentuk tapi nyata lain atau dimensi energi kehidupan. Semua itu yang ada adalah beberapa jenis energi yang bersumber dalam kesederhanaan atau kemurnian energi tak berbentuk. Untuk alasan di luar pemahaman kita, kita melihat ini sederhana energi mewujudkan diri dengan derajat kompleksitas yang lebih besar.

Seperti tidak demikian, itu turun melalui banyak tingkat ekspresi, pertama berbentuk dan kemudian terbentuk. Ketika itu terbentuk, kita mengalaminya dengan alam bentuk kita - tubuh kita, emosi, dan otak-pikiran. Bila masih tak berbentuk yang kita bisa, bagaimanapun, juga mengalaminya dengan aspek tanpa bentuk kesadaran pribadi kita - yaitu pikiran kita lebih tinggi, intuisi, Jiwa dan Roh. Setiap mundur energi dari keadaan yang lebih tinggi (lebih sederhana dan lebih inklusif) ke keadaan (lebih kompleks dan khusus / eksklusif) yang lebih rendah adalah penyebab yang menghasilkan efek.

Ini adalah keadaan energi yang lebih tinggi, menjadi penyebab, yaitu tujuan dan makna dari setiap negara bagian yang lebih rendah atau efek. Jika kita tidak berhubungan atau mencari penyebabnya, jika kita tidak mencoba untuk mengalami fenomena di luar, kita tidak bisa tahu tujuan yang lebih tinggi atau arti apa-apa, apalagi diri kita sendiri.

Hal ini juga tingkat penyebab yang merupakan kualitas dari hal atau orang. Kuantitas adalah ukuran karakteristik luar, seperti ukuran, ciri fisik, berat, dll Kualitas adalah indikasi dari energi yang menghasilkan formulir. Ini adalah melalui pengalaman kualitas yang kita dapat mengarahkan energi, termasuk kita sendiri, dan benar-benar menjadi ke titik di mana kita mampu berfungsi sebagai penyebab sadar daripada efek bawah esoterisme adalah kehidupan.

Kemampuan ini meningkatkan kekuatan kita, memungkinkan kita untuk mengasihi tanpa syarat, dan membuka pintu untuk pemahaman yang benar. Apa yang membuat kita siapa kita adalah individualitas kita. Kami biasanya menyamakan individualitas kita dengan kepribadian kita (tubuh fisik, emosi, otak-pikiran). Kepribadian hanyalah ekspresi luar atau eksoteris individualitas.

esoterisme adalah

Jiwa adalah ekspresi batin atau esoteris individualitas. Menjadi esoteris, adalah sebuah negara energi yang lebih tinggi lebih inklusif, lebih kreatif dan penyebab, dan karena itu lebih nyata dan penting esoterisme adalah keberadaan kita. Dapatkan Terbaru Dengan Email Majalah Mingguan Inspirasi Harian Sebagai makhluk Jiwa menyadarinya, kita bisa dan jangan melayani dalam kapasitas kami sebagai penebus, juruselamat, dan Interpreter.

Kami berfungsi sebagai prinsip mediasi antara tinggi dan lebih rendah, sehingga energi dari sumber yang lebih tinggi turun ke bumi, anchoring dan landasan mereka. Kami berhubungan penyebab tak berbentuk terhadap efek terbentuk, kami merangkul dunia bentuk sebagai kreasi bermakna cinta tanpa syarat kami, dan kami membawa kejelasan dan tujuan untuk semua itu terjadi.

Kepala sekolah berarti dimana energi yang lebih tinggi didasarkan adalah dengan memasukkan mereka secara sadar dalam diri kita sendiri dan mengekspresikan mereka melalui pikiran, perasaan, dan tindakan sebagai kebajikan dan kualitas menjadi, seperti kebaikan, disiplin pengorbanan berbagi, cinta tanpa syarat, pengampunan, penerimaankesabaran, dll - singkatnya, semua kualitas mencerminkan kebenaran, kebaikan, dan keindahan, menghasilkan kesatuan yang semakin meningkat atau persatuan.

Esoterisme sebagai Esoterisme adalah Hidup Esoterisme sebagai cara hidup adalah suatu seni. Ini adalah seni hidup dari jangkauan batin seseorang. Sebagai seni itu didasarkan pada sensitif, persepsi intuitif, terbuka untuk inspirasi. Dan sebagai seni sejati itu adalah cara kreatif menjadi, ekspresif universalitas benar. Tetapi juga ilmu - ilmu jiwa hal. Ia memiliki terminologi sendiri, metode prosedur, dan hukum. Esoterik ilmu pengetahuan, misalnya, alasan dari yang universal ke khusus, sebagai lawan materialistis, ilmu pengetahuan eksoteris yang alasan dari yang khusus ke yang umum - jarang bahkan mencapai universal.

Esotericism melibatkan upaya untuk hidup selaras dengan realitas batin kehidupan. Kita perlu melihat di luar kuantitatif dan menemukan laten kualitas dalam segala bentuk. Kita perlu melihat kesia tampak dari begitu banyak peristiwa dan menemukan arti di belakang mereka. Kita perlu menyadari bahwa di balik setiap ekspresi manusia atau kejadian alam terletak kehadiran cinta tanpa syarat.

Jika kita melakukan ini, kehidupan kita akan sangat diperkaya, yang dipimpin oleh kekuatan menarik dari tujuan yang menjiwai setiap sebab dan akibat setiap. Praktek Esoterik Untuk membantu kita hidup esoterically ada beberapa saran yang dapat membuktikan bermanfaat: a. Membuat keputusan untuk mengenal diri sendiri lebih dalam hal kualitas Anda - yaitu, menemukan keunikan Anda. b. Mulailah dialog dengan Roh Anda, Jiwa bahwa Anda, untuk mengembangkan diskriminasi antara 'suara' kepribadian yang membatasi dan ilusi, dan itu masih suara kecil 'yang adalah kebijaksanaan sendiri melekat Anda.

c. Melakukan review harian motif sebelum pensiun untuk malam. Secara mental kembali selama hari (dalam esoterisme adalah terbalik, jika mungkin) dan mengakui motivasi Anda dalam berbagai hal yang Anda katakan atau lakukan. Beberapa akan telah termotivasi oleh keegoisan dan separatisme. Jangan memberi label atau menilai setiap pikiran atau tindakan sebagai baik atau buruk. Inti dari latihan ini adalah untuk menjadi sadar akan motif-motif tak sadar.

Dengan menjadi sadar, Anda meningkatkan kebebasan dan kekuatan untuk memilih di masa depan. d. Membuat jurnal di mana Anda membuat notasi harian tentang wawasan yang mungkin Anda alami di siang hari. Praktek ini membuka pintu untuk wawasan lebih lanjut diperoleh dengan intuisi dan memungkinkan akses Soul lebih untuk kepribadian. e. Praktek konsentrasi atau memusatkan pikiran. Sama seperti Soul adalah link antara hidup dan bentuk, sehingga pikiran adalah hubungan antara Jiwa dan kepribadian.

Sebagian besar manusia tidak dapat mengontrol pikiran dan mengarahkan sorot untuk memahami mana yang diinginkan. Hidup lebih dalam esoterisme adalah dan masa lalu, individu biasanya menemukan pikiran untuk dikendalikan atau dikondisikan oleh. Jika pikiran adalah menjadi kendaraan untuk eksplorasi lebih tinggi dan penetrasi lebih dalam, kita harus belajar untuk mengendalikannya.

Kita bisa belajar untuk melakukannya dengan sukarela mengarahkan perhatian kita pada apa yang kita pilih dan menahan perhatian kita pada hal itu selama kita memutuskan, selalu kembali ke objek fokus saat pikiran mengembara.

Sebuah cara sederhana untuk berlatih ini adalah untuk menjaga pikiran Anda pada apa yang Anda lakukan. f.

Mulai rutin meditasi setiap hari. g. Carilah hubungan bermakna antara: - Ternyata tidak berhubungan peristiwa - Bagian dan seluruh h. Bila Anda mengalami sesuatu, tanyakan diri Anda mengapa Anda mengalami itu - yaitu, apa penyebabnya?

Apa artinya? Apa tujuannya? Ada banyak tingkat respon terhadap semua pertanyaan ini. Teruslah bertanya 'mengapa?' untuk membawa Anda ke batas kesadaran Anda. Jangan menjadi terlalu sibuk dengan latihan ini sebagai pertanyaan terlalu banyak akan merampok Anda dari kemungkinan memperkaya mengalami murni dan sederhana.

Artikel ini dikutip dari: Misteri Terungkap: Buku Pegangan Esoterik Psikologi, Filsafat, dan Spiritualitas oleh Andrew Schneider. Dicetak ulang dengan izin dari penerbit, New Falcon Publikasi, http://www.newfalcon.com Info / order buku ini.

Tentang Penulis ANDREW SCHNEIDER telah bekerja full time esoterisme adalah bidang metafisik sejak 1974. Dia telah mendirikan dua sekolah untuk studi esoterik di Kanada dan Eropa, dan saat ini sedang menciptakan sekolah lain untuk pengembangan kesadaran dan pelatihan server dunia.

Dia telah mengajar hampir empat ribu kelas, seminar dan lokakarya. Dia telah digambarkan sebagai "guru guru dan penyembuh penyembuh." Kunjungi website di www.thesouljourney.com.
The tree of life as represented in the Kabbalah, containing the Sephiroth.

Western esotericism, also known as esotericism, esoterism, and sometimes the Western mystery tradition, [1] is a term scholars use to categorise a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements that developed within Western society. These ideas and currents are united since they are largely distinct both from orthodox Judeo-Christian religion and Enlightenment rationalism.

esoterisme adalah

Esotericism has pervaded various forms of Western philosophy, religion, pseudoscience, art, literature, and music—and continues to influence intellectual ideas and popular culture. The idea of grouping a wide range of Western traditions and philosophies together under the term esoterisme adalah developed in Europe during the late seventeenth century.

Various academics have debated various definitions of Western esotericism. One view adopts a definition from certain esotericist schools of thought themselves, treating "esotericism" as a perennial hidden inner tradition.

A second perspective sees esotericism as a category of movements that embrace an "enchanted" worldview in the face of increasing disenchantment. A third views Western esotericism as encompassing all of Western culture's "rejected knowledge" that is accepted neither by the scientific establishment nor orthodox religious authorities.

The earliest traditions that later analysis labelled as forms of Western esotericism emerged in the Eastern Mediterranean during Late Antiquity, where Hermetism, Gnosticism, and Neoplatonism developed as schools of thought distinct from what became mainstream Christianity.

[2] Renaissance Europe saw increasing interest in many of these older ideas, with various intellectuals combining " pagan" philosophies with the Kabbalah and Christian philosophy, resulting in the emergence of esoteric movements like Christian theosophy. The seventeenth century saw the development of initiatory societies professing esoteric knowledge such as Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry, while the Age of Enlightenment of the eighteenth century led to the development of new forms of esoteric thought.

The nineteenth-century saw the emergence of new trends of esoteric thought now known as occultism. Prominent groups in this century included the Theosophical Esoterisme adalah and the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.

Also important in this connexion is Martinus Thomsen's " spiritual science". Modern Paganism developed within occultism and includes religious movements such as Wicca. Esoteric ideas permeated the counterculture esoterisme adalah the 1960s and later cultural tendencies, which led to the New Age phenomenon in the 1970s. The idea that these varying movements could be categorised together under the rubric of "Western esotericism" developed in the late eighteenth century, but these esoteric currents were largely ignored as a subject of academic enquiry.

The academic study of Western esotericism only emerged in the late twentieth century, pioneered by scholars esoterisme adalah Frances Yates and Antoine Faivre.

Esoteric ideas have meanwhile also exerted an esoterisme adalah on popular culture, appearing in esoterisme adalah, literature, film, and music. Contents • 1 Etymology • 2 Conceptual development • 3 Definition • 3.1 Esotericism as a universal, secret, inner tradition • 3.2 Esotericism as an enchanted world view • 3.3 Esotericism as claims to higher knowledge • 3.4 Western esotericism as "rejected knowledge" • 4 History • 4.1 Late Antiquity • 4.2 Middle Ages • 4.3 Renaissance and Early Modern period • 4.4 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries • 4.5 Later 20th century • 5 Academic study • 5.1 Emic and etic divisions • 6 Popular culture esoterisme adalah 7 See also • 8 References • 8.1 Footnotes • 8.2 Sources • 9 Further reading • 10 External links Etymology [ edit ] The concept of the "esoteric" originated in the 2nd century [3] with the coining of the Ancient Greek adjective esôterikós ("belonging to an inner circle"); the earliest known example of the word appeared in a satire authored by Lucian of Samosata [4] ( c.

125 – after 180). The noun "esotericism", in its French form "ésotérisme", first appeared in 1828 [5] in the work by protestant historian of gnosticism [6] Jacques Matter [ fr] (1791–1864), Histoire critique du gnosticisme (3 vols.). [7] [8] The term "esotericism" thus came into use in the wake of the Age of Enlightenment and of its critique of institutionalised religion, during which alternative religious groups [ example needed] began to disassociate themselves from the dominant Christianity in Western Europe.

[9] During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, scholars increasingly saw the term "esotericism" as meaning something distinct from Christianity—as a subculture at odds with the Christian mainstream from at least the time of the Renaissance.

[9] The French occultist and esoterisme adalah magician Eliphas Lévi (1810–1875) popularized the term in the 1850s, and Theosophist Alfred Percy Sinnett (1840–1921) introduced it into the English language in his book Esoteric Buddhism (1883). [7] Lévi also introduced the term l'occultisme, a notion that he developed against the background of contemporary socialist and Catholic discourses. [10] "Esotericism" and "occultism" were often employed as synonyms until later scholars distinguished the concepts.

[11] Conceptual development [ edit ] 'Western esotericism' esoterisme adalah not a natural term but an artificial category, applied retrospectively to a range of currents and ideas that were known by other names esoterisme adalah least prior to the end of the eighteenth century. [This] means that, originally, not all those currents and ideas were necessarily seen as belonging together:.

it is only as recently as the later seventeenth century that we find the first attempts at presenting them as one single, coherent field or domain, and at explaining what they have in common.

In short, 'Western esotericism' is a modern scholarly construct, not an autonomous tradition that already existed out there and merely needed to be discovered by historians. — The scholar of esotericism Wouter Hanegraaff, 2013. [12] The concept of "Western esotericism" represents a modern scholarly construct rather than a pre-existing, self-defined tradition of thought. [13] In the late seventeenth century, several European Christian thinkers presented the argument that one could categorise certain traditions of Western philosophy and thought together, thus establishing the category now labelled "Western esotericism".

[14] The first to do so, Ehregott Daniel Colberg [ de] (1659–1698), a German Lutheran theologian, wrote Platonisch-Hermetisches Christianity (1690–91). A hostile critic of various currents of Western thought that had emerged since the Renaissance—among them Paracelsianism, Weigelianism, and Christian theosophy—in his book he labelled all of these traditions under the category of "Platonic–Hermetic Christianity", esoterisme adalah them as heretical to what he saw as "true" Christianity.

[15] Despite his hostile attitude toward these traditions of thought, Colberg became the first to connect these disparate philosophies and to study them under one rubric, also recognising that these ideas linked back to earlier philosophies from late antiquity. [16] In Europe during the eighteenth century, amid the Age of Enlightenment, these esoteric traditions came to be regularly categorised under the labels of " superstition", "magic", esoterisme adalah "the occult" - terms often used interchangeably.

[17] The modern academy, then in the process of developing, consistently rejected and ignored topics coming under "the occult", thus leaving research into them largely to enthusiasts outside of academia. [18] Indeed, according to historian of esotericism Wouter J. Hanegraaff (born 1961), rejection of "occult" topics was seen as a "crucial identity marker" for any intellectuals seeking to affiliate themselves with the academy.

[18] Scholars established this category in the late 18th century after identifying "structural similarities" between "the ideas and world views of a wide variety of thinkers and movements" that, previously, had not been in the same analytical grouping. [12] According to the scholar of esotericism Wouter J. Hanegraaff, the term provided a "useful generic label" for "a large and complicated group of historical phenomena that had long been perceived as sharing an air de famille." [19] Various academics have emphasised that esotericism is a phenomenon unique to the Western world.

As Faivre stated, an "empirical perspective" would hold that "esotericism is a Western notion." [20] As scholars such as Faivre and Hanegraaff have pointed out, there is no comparable category of "Eastern" or "Oriental" esotericism. [21] The emphasis on Western esotericism was nevertheless primarily devised to distinguish the field from a universal esotericism.

esoterisme adalah

{INSERTKEYS} [22] Hanegraaff has characterised these as "recognisable world views and approaches to knowledge that have played an important though always controversial role in the history of Western culture". [23] Historian of religion Henrik Bogdan asserted that Western esotericism constituted "a third pillar of Western culture" alongside "doctrinal faith and rationality", being deemed heretical by the former and irrational by the latter. [24] Scholars nevertheless recognise that various non-Western traditions have exerted "a profound influence" over Western esotericism, citing the prominent example of the Theosophical Society's incorporation of Hindu and Buddhist concepts like reincarnation into its doctrines.

[25] Given these influences and the imprecise nature of the term "Western", the scholar of esotericism Kennet Granholm has argued that academics should cease referring to " Western esotericism" altogether, instead simply favouring "esotericism" as a descriptor of this phenomenon. [26] Egil Asprem has endorsed this approach. [27] Definition [ edit ] The historian of esotericism Antoine Faivre noted that "never a precise term, [esotericism] has begun to overflow its boundaries on all sides", [28] with both Faivre and Karen-Claire Voss stating that Western esotericism consists of "a vast spectrum of authors, trends, works of philosophy, religion, art, literature, and music".

[29] Scholars broadly agree on which currents of thought fall within a category of esotericism—ranging from ancient Gnosticism and Hermetism through to Rosicrucianism and the Kabbalah and on to more recent phenomenon such as the New Age movement.

[30] Nevertheless, esotericism itself remains a controversial term, with scholars specialising in the subject disagreeing as to best define it. [30] Esotericism as a universal, secret, inner tradition [ edit ] A colored version of the 1888 Flammarion engraving Some scholars have used Western esotericism to refer to "inner traditions" concerned with a "universal spiritual dimension of reality, as opposed to the merely external ('exoteric') religious institutions and dogmatic systems of established religions." [31] This approach views Western esotericism as just one variant of a worldwide esotericism at the heart of all world religions and cultures, reflecting a hidden esoteric reality.

[32] This use is closest to the original meaning of the word in late antiquity, where it applied to secret spiritual teachings that were reserved for a specific elite and hidden from the masses.

[33] This definition was popularised in the published work of nineteenth-century esotericists like A.E. Waite, who sought to combine their own mystical beliefs with a historical interpretation of esotericism. [34] It subsequently became a popular approach within several esoteric movements, most notably Martinism and Traditionalism. [35] This definition, originally developed by esotericists themselves, became popular among French academics during the 1980s, exerting a strong influence over the scholars Mircea Eliade, Henry Corbin, and the early work of Faivre.

[35] Within the academic field of religious studies, those who study different religions in search of an inner universal dimension to them all are termed "religionists". [32] Such religionist ideas also exerted an influence on more recent scholars like Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke and Arthur Versluis. [32] Versluis for instance defined "Western esotericism" as "inner or hidden spiritual knowledge transmitted through Western European historical currents that in turn feed into North American and other non-European settings".

[36] He added that these Western esoteric currents all shared a core characteristic, "a claim to gnosis, or direct spiritual insight into cosmology or spiritual insight", [36] and accordingly he suggested that these currents could be referred to as "Western gnostic" just as much as "Western esoteric".

[37] There are various problems with this model for understanding Western esotericism. [32] The most significant is that it rests upon the conviction that there really is a "universal, hidden, esoteric dimension of reality" that objectively exists. [32] The existence of this universal inner tradition has not been discovered through scientific or scholarly enquiry; this had led some [ who?] to claim that it does not exist, though Hanegraaff thought it better to adopt a view based in methodological agnosticism by stating that "we simply do not know - and cannot know" if it exists or not.

He noted that, even if such a true and absolute nature of reality really existed, it would only be accessible through "esoteric" spiritual practices, and could not be discovered or measured by the "exoteric" tools of scientific and scholarly enquiry.

[38] Hanegraaff pointed out that an approach that seeks a common inner hidden core of all esoteric currents masks that such groups often differ greatly, being rooted in their own historical and social contexts and expressing mutually exclusive ideas and agendas.

[39] A third issue was that many of those currents widely recognised as esoteric never concealed their teachings, and in the twentieth century came to permeate popular culture, thus problematizing the claim that esotericism could be defined by its hidden and secretive nature. [40] Moreover, Hanegraaff noted that when scholars adopt this definition, it shows that they subscribe to the religious doctrines espoused by the very groups they are studying.

[11] Esotericism as an enchanted world view [ edit ] The Magician, a tarot card displaying the Hermetic concept of "as above, so below." Faivre connected this concept to 'correspondences', his first defining characteristic of esotericism Another approach to Western esotericism treats it as a world view that embraces "enchantment" in contrast to world views influenced by post- Cartesian, post- Newtonian, and positivist science that sought to " dis-enchant" the world.

[41] That approach understands esotericism as comprising those world views that eschew a belief in instrumental causality and instead adopt a belief that all parts of the universe are interrelated without a need for causal chains.

[41] It stands as a radical alternative to the disenchanted world views that have dominated Western culture since the scientific revolution, [41] and must therefore always be at odds with secular culture. [42] An early exponent of this definition was the historian of Renaissance thought Frances Yates in her discussions of a Hermetic Tradition, which she saw as an "enchanted" alternative to established religion and rationalistic science. [43] However, the primary exponent of this view was Faivre, who published a series of criteria for how to define "Western esotericism" in 1992.

[44] Faivre claimed that esotericism was "identifiable by the presence of six fundamental characteristics or components", four of which were "intrinsic" and thus vital to defining something as being esoteric, while the other two were "secondary" and thus not necessarily present in every form of esotericism. [45] He listed these characteristics as follows: • "Correspondences": This is the idea that there are both real and symbolic correspondences existing between all things within the universe.

[46] As examples for this, Faivre pointed to the esoteric concept of the macrocosm and microcosm, often presented as the dictum of "as above, so below", as well as the astrological idea that the actions of the planets have a direct corresponding influence on the behaviour of human beings. [47] • "Living Nature": Faivre argued that all esotericists envision the natural universe as being imbued with its own life force, and that as such they understand it as being "complex, plural, hierarchical".

[48] • "Imagination and Mediations": Faivre believed that all esotericists place great emphasis on both the human imagination, and mediations—"such as rituals, symbolic images, mandalas, intermediary spirits"—and mantras as tools that provide access to worlds and levels of reality existing between the material world and the divine. [49] • "Experience of Transmutation": Faivre's fourth intrinsic characteristic of esotericism was the emphasis that esotericists place on fundamentally transforming themselves through their practice, for instance through the spiritual transformation that is alleged to accompany the attainment of gnosis.

[50] • "Practice of Concordance": The first of Faivre's secondary characteristics of esotericism was the belief—held by many esotericists, such as those in the Traditionalist School—that there is a fundamental unifying principle or root from which all world religions and spiritual practices emerge. The common esoteric principle is that attaining this unifying principle can bring the world's different belief systems together in unity.

[51] • "Transmission": Faivre's second secondary characteristic was the emphasis on the transmission of esoteric teachings and secrets from a master to their disciple, through a process of initiation. [52] Faivre's form of categorisation has been endorsed by scholars like Goodrick-Clarke, [53] and by 2007 Bogdan could note that Faivre's had become "the standard definition" of Western esotericism in use among scholars.

[54] However, in 2013 the scholar Kennet Granholm stated only that Faivre's definition had been "the dominating paradigm for a long while" and that it "still exerts influence among scholars outside the study of Western esotericism". [55] The advantage of Faivre's system is that it facilitates comparing varying esoteric traditions "with one another in a systematic fashion." [56] However, many scholars have criticised Faivre's theory, pointing out various weaknesses.

[57] Hanegraaff claimed that Faivre's approach entailed "reasoning by prototype" in that it relied upon already having a "best example" of what Western esotericism should look like, against which other phenomena then had to be compared. [58] The scholar of esotericism Kocku von Stuckrad (born 1966) noted that Faivre's taxonomy was based on his own areas of specialism—Renaissance Hermeticism, Christian Kabbalah, and Protestant Theosophy—and that it was thus not based on a wider understanding of esotericism as it has existed throughout history, from the ancient world to the contemporary period.

[59] Accordingly, Von Stuckrad suggested that it was a good typology for understanding "Christian esotericism in the early modern period" but lacked utility beyond that. [60] Esotericism as claims to higher knowledge [ edit ] Somewhat crudely, esotericism can be described as a Western form of spirituality that stresses the importance of the individual effort to gain spiritual knowledge, or gnosis, whereby man is confronted with the divine aspect of existence.

— Historian of religion Henrik Bogdan, 2007. [61] As an alternative to Faivre's framework, Kocku von Stuckrad developed his own variant, though he argued that this did not represent a "definition" but rather "a framework of analysis" for scholarly usage. [62] He stated that "on the most general level of analysis", esotericism represented "the claim of higher knowledge", a claim to possessing "wisdom that is superior to other interpretations of cosmos and history" that serves as a "master key for answering all questions of humankind." [63] Accordingly, he believed that esoteric groups placed a great emphasis on secrecy, not because they were inherently rooted in elite groups but because the idea of concealed secrets that can be revealed was central to their discourse.

[64] Examining the means of accessing higher knowledge, he highlighted two themes that he believed could be found within esotericism, that of mediation through contact with non-human entities, and individual experience.

[65] Accordingly, for Von Stuckrad, esotericism could be best understood as "a structural element of Western culture" rather than as a selection of different schools of thought.

[9] Western esotericism as "rejected knowledge" [ edit ] Hanegraaff proposed an additional definition that "Western esotericism" is a category that represents "the academy's dustbin of rejected knowledge." [23] In this respect, it contains all of the theories and world views rejected by the mainstream intellectual community because they do not accord with "normative conceptions of religion, rationality and science." [23] His approach is rooted within the field of the history of ideas, and stresses the role of change and transformation over time.

[66] Goodrick-Clarke was critical of this approach, believing that it relegated Western esotericism to the position of "a casualty of positivist and materialist perspectives in the nineteenth-century" and thus reinforces the idea that Western esoteric traditions were of little historical importance. [67] Bogdan similarly expressed concern regarding Hanegraaff's definition, believing that it made the category of Western esotericism "all inclusive" and thus analytically useless.

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{INSERTKEYS} [68] History [ edit ] Late Antiquity [ edit ] A later illustration of Hermes Trismegistus The origins of Western esotericism are in the Hellenistic Eastern Mediterranean, then part of the Roman Empire, during Late Antiquity. [69] This was a milieu that mixed religious and intellectual traditions from Greece, Egypt, the Levant, Babylon, and Persia—in which globalisation, urbanisation, and multiculturalism were bringing about socio-cultural change.

[70] One component of this was Hermetism, an Egyptian Hellenistic school of thought that takes its name from the legendary Egyptian wise man, Hermes Trismegistus. [71] In the 2nd and 3rd centuries, a number of texts attributed to Hermes Trismegistus appeared, including the Corpus Hermeticum, Asclepius, and The Discourse on the Eighth and Ninth. [72] Some still debate whether Hermetism was a purely literary phenomenon or had communities of practitioners who acted on these ideas, but it has been established that these texts discuss the true nature of God, emphasising that humans must transcend rational thought and worldly desires to find salvation and be reborn into a spiritual body of immaterial light, thereby achieving spiritual unity with divinity.

[72] Another tradition of esoteric thought in Late Antiquity was Gnosticism. Various Gnostic sects existed, and they broadly believed that the divine light had been imprisoned within the material world by a malevolent entity known as the Demiurge, who was served by demonic helpers, the Archons. It was the Gnostic belief that people, who were imbued with the divine light, should seek to attain gnosis and thus escape from the world of matter and rejoin the divine source.

[73] A third form of esotericism in Late Antiquity was Neoplatonism, a school of thought influenced by the ideas of the philosopher Plato. Advocated by such figures as Plotinus, Porphyry, Iamblichus, and Proclus, Neoplatonism held that the human soul had fallen from its divine origins into the material world, but that it could progress, through a number of hierarchical spheres of being, to return to its divine origins once more.

[74] The later Neoplatonists performed theurgy, a ritual practice attested in such sources as the Chaldean Oracles. Scholars are still unsure of precisely what theurgy involved, but know it involved a practice designed to make gods appear, who could then raise the theurgist's mind to the reality of the divine.

[75] Middle Ages [ edit ] After the fall of Rome, alchemy [76] and philosophy and other aspects of the tradition were largely preserved in the Arab and Near Eastern world and reintroduced into Western Europe by Jews [77] and by the cultural contact between Christians and Muslims in Sicily and southern Italy.

The 12th century saw the development of the Kabbalah in southern Italy and medieval Spain. [78] The medieval period also saw the publication of grimoires, which offered often elaborate formulas for theurgy and thaumaturgy.

Many of the grimoires seem to have kabbalistic influence. {/INSERTKEYS}

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Figures in alchemy from this period seem to also have authored or used grimoires. Renaissance and Early Modern period [ edit ] Esoterisme adalah the Renaissance, a number of European thinkers began to synthesize " pagan" (that is, not Christian) philosophies, which were then being made available through Arabic translations, with Esoterisme adalah thought and the Jewish kabbalah. [79] The earliest of these individuals was the Byzantine philosopher Plethon (1355/60–1452?), who argued that the Chaldean Oracles represented an example of a esoterisme adalah religion of ancient humanity that had been passed down by the Platonists.

[80] Plethon's ideas interested the ruler of Florence, Cosimo de Medici, who employed Florentine thinker Marsilio Ficino (1433–1499) to translate Plato's works into Latin. Ficino went on to translate esoterisme adalah publish the works of various Platonic figures, arguing that their philosophies were compatible with Christianity, and allowing for the emergence of a wider movement in Renaissance Platonism, or Platonic Orientalism.

[81] Ficino also translated part of the Corpus Hermeticum, though the rest was translated by his contemporary, Lodovico Lazzarelli (1447–1500). [82] Another core figure in this intellectual milieu was Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463–1494), who achieved notability in 1486 by inviting scholars from across Europe to come and debate with him 900 theses that he had written.

Pico della Mirandola argued that all of these philosophies reflected a grand universal wisdom. However, Pope Innocent VIII condemned these ideas, criticising him for attempting to mix pagan and Jewish ideas with Christianity.

[83] Pico della Mirandola's increased interest in Jewish kabbalah led to his development of a distinct form of Christian Kabbalah. His work was built on by the German Johannes Reuchlin (1455–1522) who authored an influential text on the subject, De Arte Cabbalistica. [84] Christian Kabbalah was expanded in the work of the German Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486–1535/36), who used it as a framework to explore the philosophical and scientific traditions of Antiquity in his work De occulta philosophia libri tres.

[85] The work of Agrippa and esoterisme adalah esoteric philosophers had been based in a pre-Copernican worldview, but following the arguments of Copernicus, a more accurate esoterisme adalah of the cosmos was established. Copernicus' theories were adopted into esoteric strains of thought by Giordano Bruno (1548–1600), whose ideas were deemed heresy by the Roman Catholic Church, which eventually publicly executed him.

[86] The Masonic Square and Compasses. A distinct strain of esoteric thought developed in Germany, where it became known as Naturphilosophie. Though influenced by traditions from Late Antiquity and Medieval Kabbalah, it only acknowledged two main sources of authority: Biblical scripture and the natural world. [87] The primary exponent of this approach was Paracelsus (1493/94–1541), who took inspiration from alchemy and folk magic to argue against the mainstream medical establishment of his time—which, as in Antiquity, still based its approach on the ideas of the second-century physician and philosopher, Galen, a Greek in the Roman Empire.

Instead, Paracelsus urged doctors to learn medicine through an observation of the natural world, though in later work he also began to focus on overtly religious questions. His work gained significant support in both areas over the following centuries. [88] One of those influenced by Paracelsus was the German cobbler Jacob Böhme (1575–1624), who sparked the Christian theosophy movement through his attempts to solve the problem of evil. Böhme argued that God had been created out of an unfathomable mystery, the Ungrund, and that God himself was composed of a wrathful core, surrounded by the forces of light and love.

[89] Though condemned by Germany's Lutheran authorities, Böhme's ideas spread and formed the basis for a number of small religious communities, such as Johann Georg Gichtel's Angelic Brethren in Amsterdam, and Esoterisme adalah Pordage and Jane Leade's Philadelphian Society in England.

[90] From 1614 to 1616, the three Rosicrucian Manifestos were published in Germany. These texts purported esoterisme adalah represent a secret, initiatory brotherhood founded centuries before by a German adept named Christian Esoterisme adalah. There is no evidence that Rosenkreutz was a genuine historical figure, nor that a Rosicrucian Order had ever existed before then.

Instead, the manifestos are likely literary creations of Lutheran theologian Johann Valentin Andreae (1586–1654). However, they inspired much public interest, with various individuals coming to describe themselves as "Rosicrucian" and claiming that they had access to secret, esoteric knowledge as a result. [91] A real initiatory brotherhood was established in late 16th-century Scotland through the transformation of Medieval stonemason guilds to include non-craftsman: Freemasonry. Soon spreading into other parts of Europe, in England it largely rejected its esoteric character and embraced humanism and rationalism, while in France it embraced new esoteric concepts, particularly those from Christian theosophy.

[92] 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries [ edit ] Hypnotic séance. Painting by Swedish artist Richard Bergh, 1887 The Age of Enlightenment witnessed a process of increasing secularisation of European governments and an embrace of modern science and rationality within intellectual circles. In turn, a "modernist occult" emerged that reflected varied ways esoteric thinkers came to terms with these developments. [93] One of the most prominent esotericists of this period was the Swedish naturalist Esoterisme adalah Swedenborg (1688–1772), who attempted to reconcile science and religion after experiencing a vision of Jesus Christ.

His writings focused on his visionary travels to heaven and esoterisme adalah and his communications with angels, claiming that the visible, materialist world parallels an invisible spiritual world, with correspondences between the two that do not reflect causal relations. Following his death, followers founded the Swedenborgian New Church—though his writings influenced a wider array of esoteric philosophies.

[94] Another major figure within the esoteric movement of this period was the German physician Franz Anton Mesmer (1734–1814), who developed the theory of Animal Magnetism, which later became known more commonly as Mesmerism.

Mesmer claimed that a universal life force permeated everything, including the human body, and that illnesses were caused by a disturbance or block in this force's flow; he developed techniques he claimed cleansed such blockages and restored the patient to full health. [95] One of Mesmer's followers, the Marquis de Puységur, discovered that mesmeric treatment could induce a state of somnumbulic trance in which they claimed to enter visionary states and communicate with spirit beings.

[96] These somnambulic trance-states heavily influenced the esoteric religion of Spiritualism, which emerged in the United States in the 1840s and spread throughout North America and Europe. Spiritualism was based on the concept that individuals could communicate with spirits of the deceased during séances.

[97] Most forms of Spiritualism had little theoretical depth, being largely practical affairs—but full theological worldviews based on the movement were articulated by Andrew Jackson Davis (1826–1910) and Allan Kardec (1804–1869). [96] Scientific interest in the claims of Spiritualism resulted in the development of the field of psychical research.

[96] Somnambulism also exerted a strong influence on the early disciplines of psychology and psychiatry; esoteric ideas pervade the work of many early figures in this field, most notably Carl Gustav Jung—though with the rise of psychoanalysis and behaviourism in the 20th century, these disciplines distanced themselves from esotericism.

[98] Also influenced by artificial somnambulism was the religion of New Thought, founded by the American mesmerist Phineas P. Quimby (1802–1866). It revolved around the concept of " mind over matter"—believing that illness and other negative conditions could be cured through the power of belief.

[99] Pentagram of Eliphas Levi In Europe, a movement usually termed occultism emerged as various figures attempted to find a "third way" between Christianity and positivist science while building on the ancient, medieval, and Renaissance traditions of esoteric thought.

[99] In France, following the social upheaval of the 1789 Revolution, various figures emerged in this occultist milieu who were heavily influenced by traditional Catholicism, the most notable of whom esoterisme adalah Eliphas Lévi (1810–1875) and Papus (1865–1916). [100] Also significant was René Guénon (1886–1951), whose concern with tradition led him to develop an occult viewpoint termed Traditionalism; it espoused the idea of an original, universal tradition, and thus a rejection of modernity.

[101] His Traditionalist ideas strongly influenced later esotericists like Julius Evola (1898–1974) and Frithjof Schuon (1907–1998). [101] In the Anglophone world, the burgeoning occult movement owed more to Enlightenment libertines, and thus was more often of an anti-Christian bent that saw wisdom as emanating from the pre-Christian pagan religions of Europe. [101] Various Spiritualist mediums came to be disillusioned with the esoteric thought available, and sought inspiration in pre-Swedenborgian currents; the most prominent of these were Emma Hardinge Britten (1823–1899) and Helena Blavatsky (1831–1891), the latter of whom called for the revival of the "occult science" of the ancients, which could be found in both the East and West.

Authoring the influential Isis Esoterisme adalah (1877) and The Secret Doctrine (1888), she co-founded the Theosophical Society in 1875. [102] Subsequent leaders of the Society, namely Annie Besant (1847–1933) and Charles Webster Leadbeater (1854–1934) interpreted modern theosophy as a form of ecumenical esoteric Christianity, resulting in their proclamation of Indian Jiddu Krishnamurti (1895–1986) as world messiah.

[103] In rejection of this was the breakaway Anthroposophical Esoterisme adalah founded by Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925). [103] Another form of esoteric Christianity is the spiritual science of the Danish mystic Martinus who is popular in Scandinavia.

[104] New esoterisme adalah understandings of magic also developed in the latter part of the 19th century. One of the pioneers esoterisme adalah this was American Paschal Beverly Randolph (1825–1875), who argued that sexual energy and psychoactive drugs could be used for magical purposes. [103] In England, [105] the Hermetic Order of the Esoterisme adalah Dawn—an initiatory order devoted to magic based on kabbalah—was founded in the latter years of the century.

[106] One of the most prominent members of that order was Aleister Crowley (1875–1947), who went on to proclaim the religion of Thelema and become a prominent member of the Ordo Templi Orientis.

[107] Some of their contemporaries developed esoteric schools of thought that did not entail magic, namely the Greco-Armenian teacher George Gurdjieff (1866–1949) and his Russian pupil P.D. Ouspensky (1878–1947). [108] Emergent occult and esoteric systems found increasing popularity in the early 20th century, especially in Western Europe. Occult lodges and secret societies flowered among European intellectuals of this era who had largely abandoned esoterisme adalah forms of Christianity.

The spreading of secret teachings and magic practices found enthusiastic adherents in the chaos of Germany during the interwar years.

Notable writers such as Guido von List spread neo-pagan, nationalist ideas, based on Wotanism and the Kabbalah. Many influential and wealthy Germans were drawn to secret societies such as the Thule Society. Thule Society activist Karl Harrer was one of the founders of the German Workers' Party, [109] which later became the Nazi Party; some Nazi Party members like Alfred Rosenberg and Rudolf Hess were listed as "guests" of the Thule Society, as was Adolf Hitler's mentor Dietrich Eckart.

[110] After their rise to power, the Nazis persecuted occultists. [111] While many Nazi Party leaders like Hitler and Joseph Goebbels were hostile to occultism, Heinrich Himmler used Karl Maria Wiligut as a clairvoyant "and was regularly consulting for help in setting up the symbolic and ceremonial aspects of the SS" but not for important political decisions.

By 1939, Wiligut was "forcibly retired from the SS" due to being institutionalised for insanity. [112] On the other hand, the German hermetic magic order Fraternitas Saturni was founded on Easter 1928 and it is one of the oldest continuously running magical groups in Germany.

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{INSERTKEYS} [113] In 1936, the Fraternitas Saturni was prohibited by the Nazi regime. The leaders of the lodge emigrated to avoid imprisonment, but in the course of the war Eugen Grosche, one of their main leaders, was arrested for a year by the Nazi government.

After World War II they reformed the Fraternitas Saturni. [114] Several religious scholars such as Hugh Urban and Donald Westbrook have classified Scientology as being a modern form of Western Esotericism. [115] [116] [117] [118] Later 20th century [ edit ] Sculpture of the Horned God of Wicca found in the Museum of Witchcraft in Boscastle, Cornwall In the 1960s and 1970s, esotericism came to be increasingly associated with the growing counter-culture in the West, whose adherents understood themselves in participating in a spiritual revolution that marked the Age of Aquarius.

[119] By the 1980s, these currents of millenarian currents had come to be widely known as the New Age movement, and it became increasingly commercialised as business entrepreneurs exploited a growth in the spiritual market. [119] Conversely, other forms of esoteric thought retained the anti-commercial and counter-cultural sentiment of the 1960s and 1970s, namely the techno-shamanic movement promoted by figures such as Terence McKenna and Daniel Pinchbeck, which built on the work of anthropologist Carlos Castaneda.

[119] This trend was accompanied by the increased growth of modern Paganism, a movement initially dominated by Wicca, the religion propagated by Gerald Gardner.

[120] Wicca was adopted by members of the second-wave feminist movement, most notably Starhawk, and developing into the Goddess movement. [120] Wicca also greatly influenced the development of Pagan neo-druidry and other forms of Celtic revivalism.

[120] In response to Wicca there has also appeared literature and groups who label themselves followers of traditional witchcraft in opposition to the growing visibility of Wicca and these claim older roots than the system proposed by Gerald Gardner. [121] Other trends that emerged in western occultism in the later 20th century included satanism, as exposed by groups such as the Church of Satan and Temple of Set, [122] as well as chaos magick through the Illuminates of Thanateros group.

[123] [124] Additionally, since the start of the 1990s, countries inside of the former Iron Curtain have undergone a radiative and varied religious revival, with a large number of occult and new religious movements gaining popularity. [125] Gnostic revivalists, New Age organizations, and Scientology splinter groups [126] have found their way into much of the former Soviet bloc since the cultural and political shift resulting from the dissolution of the USSR.

[127] In Hungary, a significant number of citizens (relative to the size of the country’s population and compared to its neighbors) practice and/or adhere to new currents of Western Esotericism. [128] In April 1997, the Fifth Esoteric Spiritual Forum was held for two days in the country and was attended at-capacity; In August of the same year, the International Shaman Expo began, being broadcast on live TV and ultimately taking place for 2 months wherein various neo-Shamanist, Millenarian, mystic, neo-Pagan, and even UFO religionist congregations and figures were among the attendees.

[129] Academic study [ edit ] London's Warburg Institute was one of the first centres to encourage the academic study of Western esotericism The academic study of Western esotericism was pioneered in the early 20th century by historians of the ancient world and the European Renaissance, who came to recognise that—even though previous scholarship had ignored it—the effect pre-Christian and non-rational schools of thought on European society and culture was worthy of academic attention.

[67] One of the key centres for this was the Warburg Institute in London, where scholars like Frances Yates, Edgar Wind, Ernst Cassirer, and D. P. Walker began arguing that esoteric thought had had a greater effect on Renaissance culture than had been previously accepted. [130] The work of Yates in particular, most notably her 1964 book Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition, has been cited as "an important starting-point for modern scholarship on esotericism", succeeding "at one fell swoop in bringing scholarship onto a new track" by bringing wider awareness of the effect that esoteric ideas had on modern science.

[131] In 1965, at the instigation of the scholar Henry Corbin, École pratique des hautes études in the Sorbonne established the world's first academic post in the study of esotericism, with a chair in the History of Christian Esotericism. Its first holder was François Secret, a specialist in the Christian Kabbalah, though he had little interest in developing the wider study of esotericism as a field of research. {/INSERTKEYS}

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{INSERTKEYS} [132] In 1979 Faivre assumed Secret's chair at the Sorbonne, which was renamed the "History of Esoteric and Mystical Currents in Modern and Contemporary Europe". [133] Faivre has since been cited as being responsible for developing the study of Western esotericism into a formalised field, [134] with his 1992 work L'ésotérisme having been cited as marking "the beginning of the study of Western esotericism as an academic field of research".

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{INSERTKEYS} [135] He remained in the chair until 2002, when he was succeeded by Jean-Pierre Brach. [131] Prominent scholar of esotericism Wouter Hanegraaff Faivre noted that there were two significant obstacles to establishing the field. One was that there was an engrained prejudice towards esotericism within academia, resulting in the widespread perception that the history of esotericism was not worthy of academic research. [136] The second was that esotericism is a trans-disciplinary field, the study of which did not fit clearly within any particular discipline.

[137] As Hanegraaff noted, Western esotericism had to be studied as a separate field to religion, philosophy, science, and the arts, because while it "participates in all these fields" it does not squarely fit into any of them. [138] Elsewhere, he noted that there was "probably no other domain in the humanities that has been so seriously neglected" as Western esotericism.

[139] In 1980, the U.S.-based Hermetic Academy was founded by Robert A. McDermott as an outlet for American scholars interested in Western esotericism.

[140] From 1986 to 1990 members of the Hermetic Academy participated in panels at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Religion under the rubric of the "Esotericism and Perennialism Group".

[140] By 1994, Faivre could comment that the academic study of Western esotericism had taken off in France, Italy, England, and the United States, but he lamented that it had not done so in Germany. [136] In 1999, the University of Amsterdam established a chair in the History of Hermetic Philosophy and Related Currents, which was occupied by Hanegraaff, [141] while in 2005 the University of Exeter created a chair in Western Esotericism, which was taken by Goodrick-Clarke, who headed the Exeter Center for the Study of Esotericism.

[142] Thus, by 2008 there were three dedicated university chairs in the subject, with Amsterdam and Exeter also offering master's degree programs in it. [143] Several conferences on the subject were held at the quintennial meetings of the International Association for the History of Religions, [144] while a peer-reviewed journal, Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism began publication in 2001.

[144] 2001 also saw the foundation of the North American Association for the Study of Esotericism (ASE), with the European Society for the Study of Western Esotericism (ESSWE) being established shortly after. [145] Within a few years, Michael Bergunder expressed the view that it had become an established field within religious studies, [146] with Asprem and Granholm observing that scholars within other sub-disciplines of religious studies had begun to take an interest in the work of scholars of esotericism.

[147] Asprem and Granholm noted that the study of esotericism had been dominated by historians and thus lacked the perspective of social scientists examining contemporary forms of esotericism, a situation that they were attempting to correct through building links with scholars operating in Pagan studies and the study of new religious movements.

[148] On the basis that "English culture and literature have been traditional strongholds of Western esotericism", in 2011 Pia Brînzeu and György Szönyi urged that English studies also have a role in this interdisciplinary field.

[149] Emic and etic divisions [ edit ] Emic and etic refer to two kinds of field research done and viewpoints obtained, emic, from within the social group (from the perspective of the subject) and etic, from outside (from the perspective of the observer).

Wouter Hanegraaff follows a distinction between an emic and an etic approach to religious studies. The emic approach is that of the alchemist or theosopher. The etic approach is that of the scholar as an historian, a researcher, with a critical view. An empirical study of esotericism needs "emic material and etic interpretation": Emic denotes the believer’s point of view. On the part of the researcher, the reconstruction of this emic perspective requires an attitude of empathy which excludes personal biases as far as possible.

Scholarly discourse about religion, on the other hand, is not emic but etic. Scholars may introduce their own terminology and make theoretical distinctions which are different from those of the believers themselves. [150] Arthur Versluis proposes approaching esotericism through an "imaginative participation": Esotericism, given all its varied forms and its inherently multidimensional nature, cannot be conveyed without going beyond purely historical information: at minimum, the study of esotericism, and in particular mysticism, requires some degree of imaginative participation in what one is studying.

[151] Many scholars of esotericism have come to be regarded as respected intellectual authorities by practitioners of various esoteric traditions. [152] Many esotericism scholars have sought to emphasise that esotericism is not a single object, but practitioners who read this scholarship have begun to regard it and think of it as a singular object, with which they affiliate themselves.

[153] Thus, Asprem and Granholm noted that the use of the term "esotericism" among scholars "significantly contributes to the reification of the category for the general audience— despite the explicated contrary intentions of most scholars in the field." [154] Popular culture [ edit ] In 2013, Asprem and Granholm highlighted that "contemporary esotericism is intimately, and increasingly, connected with popular culture and new media." [155] Granholm noted that esoteric ideas and images appear in many aspects of Western popular media, citing such examples as Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Avatar, Hellblazer, and His Dark Materials.

[156] Granholm has argued that there are problems with the field in that it draws a distinction between esotericism and non-esoteric elements of culture that draw upon esotericism. He cites extreme metal as an example, noting that it is extremely difficult to differentiate between artists who were "properly occult" and those who superficially referenced occult themes and aesthetics.

[157] Writers interested in occult themes have adopted three different strategies for dealing with the subject: those who are knowledgeable on the subject including attractive images of the occult and occultists in their work, those who disguise occultism within "a web of intertextuality", and those who oppose it and seek to deconstruct it.

[158] See also [ edit ] • Age of Enlightenment • Alchemy • Black magic • Ceremonial magic • Chaldean Oracles • Counterculture of the 1960s • English Qaballa • Gnosis • Involution (esoterism) • Magic (supernatural) • Medieval European magic • Medieval Inquisition • Metaphysics of presence • Occult • Renaissance magic • White magic • Witch trials in the early modern period References [ edit ] Footnotes [ edit ] • ^ Brian Morris, Religion and Anthropology: A Critical Introduction, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p.

298. • ^ Eddy, Glenys (19 September 2008). "The Ritual Dimension of Western Esotericism: The Rebirth Motif and the Transformation of Human Consciousness". Sydney Studies in Religion . Retrieved 21 July 2020. • ^ Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 3, "What is Western esotericism?". "The adjective 'esoteric' first appeared in the second century CE [...]." • ^ Von Stuckrad 2005b, p.

80; Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 3. • ^ Von Stuckrad 2005a, p. 2. • ^ Laurant 1998, p. 194. • ^ a b Hanegraaff 1996, p. 384. • ^ Hanegraaff 2013a, p.

3, "What is Western esotericism?". "The adjective 'esoteric' first appeared in the second century CE, but the substantive is of relatively recent date: it seems to have been coined in German ( Esoterik) in 1792, migrated to French scholarship ( l'estoterisme) by 1828 and appeared in English in 1883. [...] In short, 'Western esotericism' is a modern scholarly construct, not an autonomous tradition that already existed out there and merely needed to be discovered by historians." • ^ a b c Von Stuckrad 2005b, p.

80. • ^ Strube 2016a; Strube 2016b. • ^ a b Hanegraaff 1996, p. 385. • ^ a b Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 3. • ^ Von Stuckrad 2005b, p. 88; Bogdan 2007, p. 6; Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 3. • ^ Hanegraaff 2012, p. 78. • ^ Hanegraaff 2012, p. 107. • ^ Hanegraaff 2012, pp. 107–108. • ^ Hanegraaff 2012, p. 230. • ^ a b Hanegraaff 2012, p. 221. • ^ Hanegraaff 1996, p. 385, "14.1.A - 'Esotericism' as Technical Terminology". "[...] in [the] usage [of Lévi (1810-1875)], the two terms ['esotericism' ( French: l'esotérisme) and 'occultism' ( French: l'occultisme)] roughly covered the traditional 'occult sciences' and a wide range of religious phenomena connected or loosely associated with it [sic].

Thus, he provided useful generic labels for a large and complicated group of historical phenomena that had long been perceived as sharing an air de famille [...]." • ^ Faivre 1994, p. 17. • ^ Faivre 1994, p. 6; Hanegraaff 2013a, pp. 14–15. • ^ Asprem 2014, p. 8. • ^ a b c Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 13. • ^ Bogdan 2007, p. 7. • ^ Bogdan 2013, p. 177. • ^ Granholm 2013a, pp. 31–32. • ^ Asprem 2014, p.

5. "Why can we not have a comparative study of esotericism on a truly global rather than a narrowly conceived 'Western' scale?" • ^ Faivre 1994, p. 3. • ^ Faivre & Voss 1995, pp. 48–49. • ^ a b Von Stuckrad 2005b, p. 79. • ^ Hanegraaff 2013a, pp. 10–12. • ^ a b c d e Hanegraaff 2013a, p.

11. • ^ Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 10. • ^ Hanegraaff 2012, p. 251. • ^ a b Hanegraaff 2013b, p. 178. • ^ a b Versluis 2007, p. 1. • ^ Versluis 2007, p. 2. • ^ Hanegraaff 2013a, pp. 11–12. • ^ Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 12. • ^ Hanegraaff 1996, p. 385; Von Stuckrad 2005b, p. 81. • ^ a b c Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 5. • ^ Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 7. • ^ Hanegraaff 2013a, pp.

6–7. • ^ Von Stuckrad 2005a, p. 3; Bogdan 2007, p. 10; Hanegraaff 2013a, pp. 3–4. • ^ Faivre 1994, p. 10; Von Stuckrad 2005a, p. 4; Bergunder 2010, p. 14; Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 3. • ^ Faivre 1994, p.

10; Hanegraaff 1996, p. 398; Von Stuckrad 2005a, p. 4; Versluis 2007, p. 7. • ^ Faivre 1994, pp. 10–11. • ^ Faivre 1994, p. 11; Hanegraaff 1996, p. 398; Von Stuckrad 2005a, p. 4; Versluis 2007, p. 7. • ^ Faivre 1994, p. 12; Hanegraaff 1996, pp. 398–399; Von Stuckrad 2005a, p. 4; Versluis 2007, p. 7. • ^ Faivre 1994, p. 13; Hanegraaff 1996, pp.

399–340; Von Stuckrad 2005a, p. 4; Versluis 2007, p. 7. • ^ Faivre 1994, p. 14; Hanegraaff 1996, p. 400; Von Stuckrad 2005a, p. 4; Versluis 2007, p. 8. • ^ Faivre 1994, pp. 14–15; Hanegraaff 1996, p. 400; Von Stuckrad 2005a, p. 4; Versluis 2007, p. 8. • ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2008, pp. 7–10. • ^ Bogdan 2007, p. 10. • ^ Granholm 2013b, p. 8. • ^ Von Stuckrad 2005a, p. 4. • ^ Von Stuckrad 2005a, p. 5; Hanegraaff 2013a, p.

3. • ^ Hanegraaff 2013a, pp. 4–5. • ^ Von Stuckrad 2005a, p. 5. • ^ Von Stuckrad 2005b, p. 83. • ^ Bogdan 2007, p. 5. • ^ Von Stuckrad 2005b, p. 93. • ^ Von Stuckrad 2005b, p. 88. • ^ Von Stuckrad 2005b, p. 89. • ^ Von Stuckrad 2005b, pp. 91–92. • ^ Bergunder 2010, p. 18. • ^ a b Goodrick-Clarke 2008, p. 4. • ^ Bogdan 2007, p. 15. • ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2008, pp. 3, 15; Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 18. • ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2008, p. 13; Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 18.

• ^ Versluis 2007, p. 24; Goodrick-Clarke 2008, p. 16–20; Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 19. • ^ a b Goodrick-Clarke 2008, p. 16–20; Hanegraaff 2013a, p.

19. • ^ Faivre 1994, p. 53; Goodrick-Clarke 2008, pp. 27–29; Hanegraaff 2013a, pp. 19–20. • ^ Faivre 1994, p. 52; Goodrick-Clarke 2008, pp. 20–27. • ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2008, p. 25; Hanegraaff 2013a, pp.

20–21. • ^ Calian, Florin George (2010). "Alkimia Operativa and Alkimia Speculativa. Some Modern Controversies on the Historiography of Alchemy". Annual of Medieval Studies at CEU. 16: 166–190. • ^ Langermann, Tzvi Y. (2013). "An Alchemical Treatise Attributed to Joseph Solomon Delmedigo". Aleph. 13 (1): 77–94. doi: 10.2979/aleph.13.1.77.

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33–34. • ^ Hanegraaff 2013a, pp. 35–36. • ^ Hanegraaff 2013a, p. esoterisme adalah. • ^ Faivre 1994, p. 72; Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 37. • ^ Faivre esoterisme adalah, pp. 76–77; Hanegraaff 2013a, pp. 37–38. • ^ esoterisme adalah b c Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 38. • ^ Faivre 1994, p. 87; Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 38.

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41. • ^ Therkelsen 2016, p. 7. • ^ Hroncek, Susan (2017). "From Egyptian Science to Victorian Magic: On the Origins of Chemistry in Victorian Histories of Science". Victorian Review. 43 (2): 213–228. doi: 10.1353/vcr.2017.0032. ISSN 1923-3280. S2CID 166044943. • ^ Faivre 1994, p. 91; Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 41. • ^ Hanegraaff 2013a, pp. 41–42. • ^ Hanegraaff 2013a, p. 42. • ^ Hermann Gilbhard: Thule-Gesellschaft. • ^ Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke: The Occult Roots of Nazism.

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31. • ^ Granholm 2013b, pp. 8–9. • ^ Brînzeu & Szönyi 2011, p. 185. Sources [ edit ] • Asprem, Egil (2014). "Beyond the West: Towards a New Comparativism in the Study of Esotericism". Correspondences: An Online Journal for the Academic Study of Western Esotericism.

2 (1): 3–33. ISSN 2053-7158. Retrieved 27 June 2020. • Asprem, Egil; Granholm, Kennet (2013). "Introduction". Contemporary Esotericism. Egil Asprem and Esoterisme adalah Granholm (editors).

Durham: Acumen. pp. 1–24. ISBN 978-1-317-54357-2. • Asprem, Egil; Granholm, Kennet (2013b). "Constructing Esotericisms: Sociological, Historical and Critical Approaches to the Invention of Tradition". Contemporary Esoterisme adalah. Egil Asprem and Kennet Granholm (editors). Durham: Acumen. pp. 25–48.

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In Bodgan, Henrik; Snoek, Jan A. M. (eds.). Handbook of Freemasonry. Brill Handbooks on Contemporary Religion. Vol. 8. Leiden: Brill Publishers. pp. 277–305. doi: 10.1163/9789004273122_016. ISBN 978-90-04-21833-8. ISSN 1874-6691. • Bogdan, Henrik (2013). "Reception of Occultism in India: The Case of the Holy Order of Krishna". Occultism in a Global Perspective. Henrik Bogdan and Gordan Djurdjevic (editors).

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New York: SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7070-1. • Brînzeu, Pia; Szönyi, György (2011). "The Esoteric in Postmodernism". European Journal of English Studies. 15 (3): 183–188. doi: 10.1080/13825577.2011.626934. S2CID 143913846. • Faivre, Antoine (1994). Access to Western Esotericism. New York: SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-2178-9. • Faivre, Antoine; Voss, Karen-Claire (1995). "Western Esotericism and the Science of Religions". Numen. 42 (1): 48–77. doi: 10.1163/1568527952598756. JSTOR 3270279.

• Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (2008). The Western Esoteric Traditions: A Historical Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-532099-2. • Granholm, Kennet (2013a).

"Locating the West: Problematizing the Western in Western Esotericism and Occultism". Occultism in a Global Perspective. Henrik Bogdan and Gordan Djurdjevic (editors). Durham: Acumen. pp. 17–36. ISBN 978-1-84465-716-2. • Granholm, Kennet (2013b). "Ritual Black Metal: Popular Music as Occult Mediation and Practice" esoterisme adalah.

Correspondences: An Online Journal for the Academic Study of Western Esotericism. 1 (1): 5–33. Archived from the original (PDF) on esoterisme adalah. • Hanegraaff, Wouter J. (1996). New Age Religion and Western Culture: Esotericism in the Mirror of Secular Thought. Numen Book Series.

Vol. 72. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-10695-6. Retrieved 27 June 2020. • Hanegraaff, Wouter (2012). Esotericism and the Academy: Rejected Knowledge in Western Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-19621-5. • Hanegraaff, Wouter (2013a). Western Esotericism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Guides for the Perplexed. London: Bloomsbury Press. ISBN 978-1-4411-3646-6. Retrieved 2018-11-11. • Hanegraaff, Wouter J.

(2013b). "Textbooks and Introductions to Western Esotericism". Religion. 43 (2): 178–200. doi: 10.1080/0048721x.2012.733245. S2CID 142996894. • Laurant, Jean-Pierre (1998). "Esotericism in Freemasonry". In Faivre, Antoine (ed.). Western Esotericism and the Science of Religion: Selected Papers Presented at the 17th Congress of the International Association for the History of Religions, Mexico City 1995.

Belgium: Isd. ISBN 978-9042906303. • Redwood, William (2013). "F(r)iends in Low Places: Monstrous Identities in Contemporary Esotericism". In Stasiewicz-Bienkowska, Agnieszka; Graham, Karen (eds.). Monstrous Manifestations: Realities and the Imaginings of the Monster. Leiden: Brill Publishers. pp. 77–83. doi: 10.1163/9781848882027_009. ISBN 978-1-84888-202-7. • Strube, Julian (2016a).

Sozialismus, Katholizismus und Okkultismus im Frankreich des 19. Jahrhunderts: Die Genealogie der Schriften von Eliphas Lévi. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-047810-5. • Strube, Julian (2016b). "Socialist Religion and the Emergence of Occultism: A Genealogical Approach to Socialism and Secularization in 19th-Century France".

Religion. 46 (3): 359–388. doi: 10.1080/0048721X.2016.1146926. S2CID 147626697. • Therkelsen, Ole (2016). Martinus, Darwin and intelligent design. Scientia Intuitiva. p. 7. ISBN 9788793235014. • Versluis, Arthur (2007). Magic and Mysticism: An Introduction to Western Esotericism. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-5836-6. • Von Stuckrad, Kocku (2005a). Western Esotericism: A Brief History of Secret Knowledge.

Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke (translator). Durham: Acumen. ISBN 978-1-84553-033-4. • Von Stuckrad, Kocku (2005b). "Western Esotericism: Towards an Integrative Model of Interpretation". Religion. 35 (2): 78–97. doi: 10.1016/j.religion.2005.07.002. Further reading [ edit ] • Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism, Leiden: Brill, since 2001. • Aries Book Series: Texts and Studies in Western Esotericism, Leiden: Brill, since 2006. • Esoterica, East Lansing, Michigan State University (MSU).

An online resource since 1999. I (1999); VIII (2006); IX (2007) • Faivre, Antoine (2010). Western Esotericism: A Concise History. Christine Rhone (translator). New York: SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-3377-6. • Giegerich, Eric (2001). "Antoine Faivre: Studies in Esotericism". The San Francisco Jung Institute Library Journal.

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20 (2): 7–25. doi: 10.1525/jung.1.2001.20.2.7. • Granholm, Kennet (2013). esoterisme adalah Currents as Discursive Complexes". Religion. 43 (1): 46–69. doi: 10.1080/0048721x.2013.742741. S2CID 143944044. • Hanegraaff, Wouter J., “ The Study of Western Esotericism: New Approaches to Christian and Secular Culture”, in Peter Antes, Armin W.

Geertz and Randi R. Warne, New Approaches to the Study of Religion, vol. I: Regional, Critical, and Historical Approaches, Berlin / New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2004.

• Hanegraaff, Wouter J., ed. (2005). Dictionary of Gnosis and Western Esotericism I. Leiden / Boston: Brill. ISBN 90-04-14187-1, 2 vols. {{ cite book}}: CS1 maint: postscript ( link) • Hanegraaff, Wouter J. (2015). "The Globalization of Esotericism" (PDF).

Correspondences: An Online Journal for the Academic Study of Western Esotericism. Vol. 3. pp. 55–91. • Kelley, James L., Anatomyzing Divinity: Studies in Science, Esotericism and Esoterisme adalah Theology, Trine Day, 2011, ISBN 978-1936296279. • Martin, Pierre, Esoterische Symbolik heute - in Alltag. Sprache und Einweihung.

Basel: Edition Oriflamme, 2010, illustrated ISBN 978-3-9523616-1-0. • Martin, Pierre, Le Symbolisme Esotérique Actuel - au Quotidien, dans le Langage et pour l'Auto-initiation. Basel: Edition Oriflamme, 2011, illustrated ISBN 978-3-9523616-3-4 • Tweed, Thomas A. (2005), "American Occultism and Japanese Buddhism. Albert J. Edmunds, D. T. Suzuki, and Translocative History" (PDF), Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 32 (2): 249–281 • Versluis, Arthur (1993), American Transcendentalism and Asian Religions, Oxford University Press External links [ edit ] Wikiquote has quotations related to: Western esotericism Look up western esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media esoterisme adalah to Western esotericism. • An Esoteric Archive • Center for History of Hermetic Philosophy and Related Currents, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands • The Western Esoteric Tradition Research Site • Association for the Study of Esotericism (ASE) • European Society for the Study of Western Esotericism (ESSWE) • University of Exeter Centre for the Study of Esotericism (EXESESO) • Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism • Esoterica academic journal • What Is Esotericism?

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