Pp wa orang lidi

pp wa orang lidi

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[4] Jepang (日本国, Nipponkoku) adalah sebuah negara kepulauan di Asia Timur. Letaknya di ujung barat Samudra Pasifik, di sebelah timur Laut Jepang, dan bertetangga dengan Tiongkok, Korea Selatan, dan Rusia. Pulau-pulau paling utara berada di Laut Okhotsk, dan wilayah paling selatan berupa kelompok pulau-pulau kecil di Laut Tiongkok Timur, tepatnya di sebelah selatan Okinawa yang bertetangga dengan Taiwan.

Jepang terdiri dari 6.852 pulau [13] dan menjadikannya sebagai negara kepulauan. Pulau-pulau utama dari utara ke selatan adalah Hokkaido, Honshu (pulau terbesar), Shikoku, dan Kyushu. Sekitar 97% wilayah daratan Jepang berada di keempat pulau terbesarnya. Sebagian besar pulau di Jepang bergunung-gunung, dan sebagian di antaranya merupakan gunung berapi.

Gunung tertinggi di Jepang adalah Gunung Fuji yang merupakan sebuah gunung berapi. Penduduk Jepang berjumlah 128 juta orang, dan berada di peringkat ke-10 negara berpenduduk terbanyak di dunia. Tokyo secara de facto adalah ibu kota Jepang, dan berkedudukan sebagai sebuah prefektur. Tokyo Raya adalah sebutan untuk Tokyo dan beberapa kota yang berada di prefektur sekelilingnya. Sebagai daerah metropolitan terluas di dunia, Tokyo Raya berpenduduk lebih dari 30 juta orang. Menurut mitologi tradisional, Kerajaan Jepang didirikan oleh Kaisar Jimmu pada abad ke-7 SM.

Kaisar Jimmu memulai mata rantai monarki Jepang yang tidak terputus hingga kini. Meskipun begitu, sepanjang sejarahnya, kebanyakan masa kekuatan sebenarnya berada di tangan Shogun, Samurai, Daimyo dan memasuki zaman modern, di tangan perdana menteri. Menurut Konstitusi Jepang tahun 1947, Jepang adalah negara kesatuan monarki konstitusional pp wa orang lidi bawah pimpinan Kaisar Jepang dan Parlemen Jepang. Sebagai negara maju di bidang ekonomi, [14] Jepang memiliki produk domestik bruto terbesar nomor dua setelah Amerika Serikat, dan masuk dalam urutan tiga besar keseimbangan kemampuan berbelanja.

Jepang merupakan anggota Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa, G8, Organisasi untuk Kerjasama dan Pengembangan Ekonomi, dan Kerja Sama Ekonomi Asia Pasifik. Jepang memiliki kekuatan militer yang memadai lengkap dengan sistem pertahanan modern seperti AEGIS serta skuat armada besar kapal perusak. Dalam perdagangan luar negeri, Jepang berada di peringkat ke-4 negara pengekspor terbesar dan peringkat ke-6 negara pengimpor terbesar di dunia.

Sebagai negara pp wa orang lidi, penduduk Jepang memiliki standar hidup yang tinggi (peringkat ke-8 dalam daftar negara menurut indeks pembangunan manusia) dan angka harapan hidup tertinggi di dunia menurut perkiraan PBB. [15] Dalam bidang teknologi, Jepang maju di bidang telekomunikasi, permesinan, dan robotika.

Daftar pp wa orang lidi • 1 Etimologi • 2 Sejarah • 2.1 Prasejarah • 2.2 Zaman Klasik • 2.3 Zaman Pertengahan • 2.4 Zaman Modern • 3 Geografi • 4 Politik • 4.1 Parlemen • 4.2 Keluarga kekaisaran • 4.3 Hubungan luar negeri dan militer • 4.4 Pembagian administratif • 5 Ekonomi • 6 Demografi • 6.1 Pendidikan • 6.2 Peringkat internasional • 7 Budaya • 8 Referensi • 9 Bacaan selanjutnya • 10 Lihat pula • 11 Pranala luar Etimologi [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Artikel utama: Nama-nama Jepang (negara) Pp wa orang lidi disebut Nippon atau Nihon dalam bahasa Jepang.

Kedua kata ini ditulis dengan huruf kanji yang sama, yaitu 日本 (secara harfiah: asal-muasal matahari). [16] Sebutan Nippon sering digunakan dalam urusan resmi, termasuk nama negara dalam uang Jepang, prangko, dan pertandingan olahraga internasional. Sementara itu, sebutan Nihon digunakan dalam urusan tidak resmi seperti pembicaraan sehari-hari. Kata Nippon dan Nihon berarti "negara/negeri matahari terbit". Nama ini disebut dalam korespondensi Kekaisaran Jepang dengan Dinasti Sui di Tiongkok, dan merujuk kepada letak Jepang yang berada di sebelah timur daratan Tiongkok.

Sebelum Jepang memiliki hubungan dengan Tiongkok, negara ini dikenal sebagai Yamato ( 大和). [17] Di Tiongkok pada zaman Tiga Negara, sebutan untuk Jepang adalah negara Wa ( 倭). Dalam Bahasa Tionghoa dialek Shanghai yang termasuk salah satu dialek Wu, aksara Tionghoa 日本 dibaca sebagai Zeppen ([ zəʔpən]). Dalam dialek Wu, aksara 日 secara tidak resmi dibaca sebagai [ niʔ] sementara secara resmi dibaca sebagai [ zəʔ]. Dalam beberapa dialek Wu Selatan, 日本 dibaca sebagai [ niʔpən] yang mirip dengan nama dalam bahasa Jepang.

Kata Jepang dalam bahasa Indonesia kemungkinan berasal dari bahasa Tionghoa, tepatnya bahasa Wu. Bahasa Melayu Klasik juga menyebut negara ini sebagai Jepang (namun ejaan bahasa Malaysia memakai ejaan Jepun).

Kata Jepang dalam bahasa Melayu ini kemudian dibawa ke Dunia Barat oleh pedagang dari Kerajaan Portugis, [18] yang mengenal sebutan ini ketika berada di Malaka pada abad ke-16. Mereka lah yang pertama kali memperkenalkan nama bahasa Melayu tersebut ke Eropa. Dokumen tertua dalam bahasa Inggris yang menyebut tentang Jepang adalah sepucuk surat dari tahun 1565, yang di dalamnya bertuliskan kata Giapan. [19] [20] Sejarah [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Sebuah bejana dari periode Jomon Pertengahan ( 3000- 2000 SM).

Penelitian arkeologi menunjukkan bahwa Jepang telah dihuni manusia purba setidaknya 600.000 tahun yang lalu, pada masa Paleolitik Bawah.

Setelah beberapa zaman es yang terjadi pada masa jutaan tahun yang lalu, Jepang beberapa kali terhubung dengan daratan Asia melalui jembatan darat (dengan Sakhalin di utara, dan kemungkinan Kyushu di selatan), sehingga memungkinkan perpindahan manusia, hewan, dan tanaman ke Kepulauan Jepang dari wilayah yang kini merupakan Republik Rakyat Tiongkok dan Semenanjung Korea.

Zaman Paleolitik Jepang menghasilkan peralatan bebatuan yang telah dipoles yang pertama di dunia, sekitar tahun 30.000 SM. Dengan berakhirnya zaman es terakhir dan datangnya periode yang lebih hangat, kebudayaan Jomon muncul pada sekitar 11.000 SM, yang bercirikan gaya hidup pemburu-pengumpul semi-sedenter Mesolitik hingga Neolitik dan pembuatan kerajinan tembikar terawal di dunia. Diperkirakan bahwa penduduk Jomon merupakan nenek moyang suku Proto-Jepang dan suku Ainu masa kini. Dimulainya periode Yayoi pada sekitar 300 SM menandai kehadiran teknologi-teknologi baru seperti bercocok tanam padi di sawah yang berpengairan dan teknik pembuatan perkakas dari besi dan perunggu yang dibawa serta migran-migran dari Tiongkok atau Korea.

Dalam sejarah Tiongkok, orang Jepang pertama kali disebut dalam naskah sejarah klasik, Buku Han yang ditulis Pada tahun 111 Masehi. [21] Setelah periode Yayoi disebut periode Kofun pada sekitar tahun 250 Masehi, yang bercirikan didirikannya negeri-negeri militer yang kuat. Menurut Catatan Sejarah Tiga Negara, negara paling berjaya di kepulauan Jepang waktu itu adalah Yamataikoku.

Zaman Klasik [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Bagian sejarah Jepang meninggalkan dokumen tertulis dimulai pada abad ke-5 dan abad ke-6 Masehi, saat pp wa orang lidi Tulisan Tionghoa, Agama Buddha, dan kebudayaan Tionghoa lainnya dibawa masuk ke Jepang dari Kerajaan Baekje di Semenanjung Korea.

Jepang dapat mengusir dua kali invasi Mongol ke Jepang (1274 dan 1281) Perkembangan selanjutnya, yaitu Agama Buddha di Jepang dan seni rupa yang sebagian besar dipengaruhi oleh Budaya Tiongkok. [22] Walaupun awalnya kedatangan Agama Buddha ditentang penguasa yang menganut Agama Shinto, kalangan yang berkuasa akhirnya ikut memajukan agama Buddha di Jepang, dan menjadi agama yang populer di Jepang sejak Periode Asuka.

[23] Melalui perintah Reformasi Taika pada tahun 645, Jepang menyusun ulang sistem pemerintahannya dengan mencontoh dari Tiongkok.

Hal ini membuka jalan bagi filsafat Konfusianisme Tiongkok untuk pp wa orang lidi dominan di Jepang hingga abad ke-19. Periode Nara yang berlangsung pada abad ke-8 Masehi menandai sebuah negeri Jepang dengan kekuasaan yang tersentralisasi. Ibu kota dan istana Kerajaan berada di Heijo-kyo (kini Nara). Pada Periode ini, Jepang secara terus menerus mengadopsi praktik administrasi pemerintahan dari Tiongkok. Salah satu pencapaian terbesar sastra Jepang pada Periode Nara adalah selesainya buku sejarah Jepang yang disebut Kojiki (古事記) dan Nihon Shoki (日本書紀).

[24] Patung Buddha di Todaiji, Nara, yang dibuat pada tahun 752. Pada tahun 784 Masehi, Kaisar Kammu memindahkan ibu kota ke Nagaoka-kyō, dan berada di sana hanya selama 10 tahun.

Setelah itu, ibu kota dipindahkan kembali ke Heian-kyō (kini Kyoto). Kepindahan ibu kota ke Heian-kyō mengawali Periode Heian yang merupakan masa keemasan kebudayaan klasik asli Jepang, terutama di bidang seni, puisi dan Sastra Jepang.

Hikayat Genji karya Murasaki Shikibu dan lirik lagu kebangsaan Jepang Kimi ga Yo berasal dari periode Heian. [25] Zaman Pertengahan [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Sekelompok orang-orang Portugis dari periode Nanban, abad ke-17. Abad pertengahan di Jepang merupakan zaman feodalisme yang ditandai oleh perebutan kekuasaan antarkelompok penguasa yang terdiri dari ksatria yang disebut samurai.

Pada tahun 1185, setelah menghancurkan Klan Taira yang merupakan klan saingan Klan Minamoto, Minamoto no Yoritomo diangkat sebagai Shogun, dan menjadikannya pemimpin militer yang berbagi kekuasaan dengan Kaisar. Pemerintahan militer yang didirikan Minamoto no Yoritomo disebut Keshogunan Kamakura karena pusat pemerintahan berada di Kamakura (di sebelah selatan Yokohama masa kini). Setelah wafatnya Minamoto no Yoritomo, klan Hōjō membantu keshogunan sebagai shikken, yakni semacam adipati bagi para shogun.

Keshogunan Kamakura berhasil menahan serangan Kerajaan Mongol dari wilayah Tiongkok. Meskipun secara politik terbilang stabil, Keshogunan Kamakura akhirnya digulingkan oleh Kaisar Go-Daigo yang memulihkan kekuasaan di tangan kaisar. Kaisar Go-Daigo akhirnya digulingkan Ashikaga Takauji pada 1336. [26] Keshogunan Ashikaga gagal membendung kekuatan penguasa militer dan tuan tanah feodal ( daimyo) dan pecah perang saudara pada tahun 1467 ( Perang Ōnin) yang mengawali masa satu abad yang diwarnai peperangan antarfaksi yang disebut masa negeri-negeri saling berperang atau periode Sengoku.

[27] Pada abad ke-16, para pedagang dan misionaris Serikat Yesuit dari Portugal tiba untuk pertama kalinya di Jepang, dan mengawali pertukaran perniagaan dan kebudayaan yang aktif antara Jepang dan Dunia Barat ( Perdagangan dengan Nanban).

Orang Jepang menyebut orang asing dari Dunia Barat sebagai namban yang berarti orang barbar dari selatan. Salah satu kapal segel merah Jepang (1634) yang dipakai berdagang di Asia. Oda Nobunaga menaklukkan daimyo-daimyo pesaingnya dengan memakai teknologi Eropa dan senjata api.

Nobunaga hampir berhasil menyatukan Jepang sebelum tewas terbunuh dalam Peristiwa Honnōji 1582. Toyotomi Hideyoshi menggantikan Oda Nobunaga, dan mencatatkan dirinya sebagai pemersatu Bangsa Jepang pada tahun 1590. Toyotomi Hideyoshi berusaha menguasai Semenanjung Korea, dan dua kali melakukan invasi ke Korea, namun gagal setelah kalah dalam pertempuran melawan pasukan Dinasti Joseon yang dibantu kekuatan Dinasti Ming. Setelah Hideyoshi wafat, pasukan Hideyoshi ditarik dari Semenanjung Korea pada tahun 1598.

[28] Sepeninggal Hideyoshi, putra Hideyoshi yang bernama Toyotomi Hideyori mewarisi kekuasaan sang ayah. Tokugawa Ieyasu memanfaatkan posisinya sebagai adipati bagi Hideyori untuk mengumpulkan dukungan politik dan militer dari daimyo-daimyo lain. Setelah mengalahkan klan-klan pendukung Hideyori dalam Pertempuran Sekigahara tahun 1600, Ieyasu diangkat sebagai shogun pada tahun 1603. Pemerintahan militer yang didirikan Ieyasu di Edo (kini Tokyo) disebut Keshogunan Tokugawa.

Keshogunan Tokugawa curiga terhadap kegiatan misionaris Gereja Katolik, dan melarang segala hubungan dengan orang-orang Eropa.

Hubungan perdagangan dibatasi hanya dengan pedagang Belanda di Pulau Dejima, Nagasaki. Pemerintah Tokugawa juga menjalankan berbagai kebijakan seperti undang-undang buke shohatto untuk mengendalikan daimyo di daerah. Pada tahun 1639, Keshogunan Tokugawa mulai menjalankan kebijakan sakoku ("negara tertutup") yang berlangsung selama dua setengah abad yang disebut periode Edo.

Walaupun menjalani periode isolasi, orang Jepang terus mempelajari ilmu-ilmu dari Dunia Barat. Di Jepang, ilmu dari buku-buku Barat disebut rangaku (ilmu belanda) karena berasal dari kontak orang Jepang dengan enklave orang Belanda di Dejima, Nagasaki. Pada periode Edo, orang Jepang juga memulai studi tentang Jepang, dan menamakan "studi nasional" tentang Jepang sebagai kokugaku. [29] Zaman Modern [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Kekaisaran Jepang terdiri dari sebagian besar Asia Timur dan Asia Timur Raya pada tahun 1942.

Pada 31 Maret 1854, kedatangan Komodor Matthew Perry dan " Kapal Hitam" Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat memaksa Jepang untuk membuka diri terhadap Dunia Barat melalui Persetujuan Kanagawa. Persetujuan-persetujuan selanjutnya dengan negara-negara Barat pada masa Bakumatsu membawa Jepang ke dalam krisis ekonomi dan politik. Kalangan samurai menganggap Keshogunan Tokugawa sudah melemah, dan mengadakan pemberontakan hingga pecah Perang Boshin tahun 1867- 1868.

Setelah Keshogunan Tokugawa ditumbangkan, kekuasaan dikembalikan ke tangan kaisar ( Restorasi Meiji) dan sistem domain dihapus. Semasa Restorasi Meiji, Jepang mengadopsi sistem politik, hukum, dan militer dari Dunia Barat. Kabinet Jepang mengatur Dewan Penasihat Kaisar, menyusun Konstitusi Meiji, dan membentuk Parlemen Kekaisaran. Restorasi Meiji mengubah Kekaisaran Jepang menjadi negara industri modern dan sekaligus kekuatan militer dunia yang menimbulkan konflik militer ketika berusaha memperluas pengaruh teritorial di Asia.

Setelah mengalahkan Tiongkok dalam Perang Tiongkok-Jepang dan Rusia dalam Perang Rusia-Jepang, Jepang menguasai Taiwan, separuh dari Sakhalin, dan Korea. [30] Pada awal abad ke-20, Jepang mengalami " demokrasi Taisho" yang dibayang-bayangi bangkitnya ekspansionisme dan militerisme Jepang.

Semasa Perang Dunia I, Jepang berada di pihak Sekutu yang menang, sehingga Jepang dapat memperluas pengaruh dan wilayah kekuasaan. Jepang terus menjalankan politik ekspansionis dengan menduduki Manchuria pada tahun 1931. Dua tahun kemudian, Jepang keluar dari Liga Bangsa-Bangsa setelah mendapat kecaman internasional atas pendudukan Manchuria.

Pada tahun 1936, Jepang pp wa orang lidi Pakta Anti-Komintern dengan Jerman Nazi, dan bergabung bergabung bersama Jerman dan Italia membentuk Blok Poros pada tahun 1941 [31] Pada tahun 1937, invasi Jepang ke Manchuria memicu terjadinya Perang Tiongkok-Jepang Kedua (1937-1945) yang membuat Jepang dikenakan embargo minyak oleh Amerika Serikat [32] Pada 7 Desember 1941, Jepang menyerang pangkalan Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat di Pearl Harbor, dan menyatakan perang terhadap Pp wa orang lidi Serikat, Inggris, dan Belanda.

Serangan Pearl Harbor menyeret AS ke dalam Perang Dunia II. Setelah kampanye militer yang panjang di Samudra Pasifik, Jepang kehilangan wilayah-wilayah yang dimilikinya pada awal perang. Amerika Serikat melakukan pengeboman strategis terhadap Tokyo, Osaka dan kota-kota besar lainnya. Setelah AS menjatuhkan bom atom di Hiroshima dan Nagasaki, Jepang akhirnya menyerah tanpa syarat kepada Sekutu pada 15 Agustus 1945 ( Hari Kemenangan atas Jepang).

[33] Tōkaidō Shinkansen dan Seri 0, jalur dan kereta kecepatan tinggi pertama di dunia (foto tahun 1967). Perang membawa penderitaan bagi rakyat Jepang dan rakyat di wilayah jajahan Jepang. Berjuta-juta orang tewas di negara-negara Asia yang diduduki Jepang di bawah slogan Kemakmuran Bersama Asia. Hampir semua industri dan infrastruktur di Jepang hancur akibat perang.

Pihak Sekutu melakukan repatriasi besar-besaran etnik Jepang dari negara-negara Asia yang pernah diduduki Jepang. [34] Pengadilan Militer Internasional untuk Timur Jauh yang diselenggarakan pihak Sekutu mulai 3 Mei 1946 berakhir dengan dijatuhkannya hukuman bagi sejumlah pemimpin Jepang yang terbukti bersalah melakukan kejahatan perang. Pada tahun 1947, Jepang memberlakukan Konstitusi Jepang yang baru.

Berdasarkan konstitusi baru, Jepang ditetapkan sebagai negara yang menganut paham pasifisme dan mengutamakan praktik Demokrasi liberal. Pendudukan Amerika Serikat terhadap Jepang secara resmi berakhir pada tahun 1952 dengan ditandatanganinya Perjanjian San Francisco. [35] Walaupun demikian, pasukan Amerika Serikat tetap mempertahankan pangkalan-pangkalan penting di Jepang, khususnya di Okinawa.

Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa secara secara resmi menerima Jepang sebagai anggota pada tahun 1956. Seusai Perang Dunia II, Jepang mengalami pertumbuhan ekonomi yang pesat, dan menempatkan Jepang sebagai kekuatan ekonomi terbesar nomor dua di dunia, dengan rata-rata pertumbuhan produk domestik bruto sebesar 10% per tahun selama empat dekade.

Pesatnya pertumbuhan ekonomi Jepang berakhir pada awal tahun 1990-an setelah jatuhnya ekonomi gelembung. [36] Geografi [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Kepulauan Jepang seperti yang dilihat dari satelit Jepang memiliki lebih dari 3.000 pulau yang terletak di pesisir Lautan Pasifik di timur benua Asia. Istilah Kepulauan Jepang merujuk kepada empat pulau besar, dari utara ke selatan, Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, dan Kyushu, serta Kepulauan Ryukyu yang berada di selatan Kyushu.

Sekitar 70% hingga 80% dari wilayah Jepang terdiri dari pegunungan yang berhutan-hutan, [37] [38] dan cocok untuk pertanian, industri, serta permukiman.

Daerah yang curam berbahaya untuk dihuni karena risiko tanah longsor akibat gempa bumi, kondisi tanah yang lunak, dan hujan lebat. Oleh karena itu, permukiman penduduk terpusat di kawasan pesisir. Jepang pp wa orang lidi salah satu negara berpenduduk terpadat di dunia. [39] Sakurajima adalah gunung berapi teraktif di Jepang Gempa bumi berkekuatan rendah dan sesekali letusan gunung berapi sering dialami Jepang karena letaknya di atas Lingkaran Api Pasifik di pertemuan tiga lempeng tektonik.

Gempa bumi yang merusak sering menyebabkan tsunami. Setiap abadnya, di Jepang terjadi beberapa kali tsunami. [40] Gempa bumi besar yang terjadi akhir-akhir ini di Jepang adalah Gempa bumi Chūetsu 2004 dan Gempa bumi besar Hanshin tahun 1995. Keadaan geografi menyebabkan Jepang memiliki banyak sumber mata air panas, dan sebagian besar di antaranya telah dibangun sebagai daerah tujuan wisata. [41] Jepang berada di kawasan beriklim sedang dengan pembagian empat musim yang jelas.

Walaupun demikian, terdapat perbedaan iklim yang mencolok antara wilayah bagian utara dan wilayah bagian selatan. [42] Pada musim dingin, Jepang bagian utara seperti Hokkaido mengalami musim salju, namun sebaliknya wilayah Jepang bagian selatan beriklim subtropis. Iklim juga dipengaruhi tiupan angin musim yang bertiup dari benua Asia ke Lautan Pasifik pada musim dingin, dan sebaliknya pada musim panas.

Iklim Jepang terbagi atas enam zona iklim: • Hokkaido: Kawasan paling utara beriklim sedang dengan musim dingin yang panjang dan membekukan, serta musim panas yang sejuk. Presipitasi tidak besar, namun salju banyak turun ketika musim dingin.

• Laut Jepang: Di pantai barat Pulau Honshu, tiupan angin dari barat laut membawa salju yang sangat lebat. Pada musim panas, kawasan ini lebih sejuk dibandingkan kawasan Pasifik. Walaupun demikian, suhu di kawasan ini kadang kala dapat menjadi sangat tinggi akibat fenomena angin fohn. • Dataran Tinggi Tengah: Wilayah ini beriklim pedalaman dengan perbedaan suhu rata-rata musim panas- musim dingin yang sangat mencolok.

Perbedaan suhu antara malam hari dan siang hari juga sangat mencolok. • Laut Pedalaman Seto: Barisan pegunungan di wilayah Chugoku dan Shikoku menghalangi jalur tiupan angin musim, sehingga kawasan ini sepanjang tahun beriklim sedang.

• Samudra Pasifik: Kawasan pesisir bagian timur Jepang mengalami musim dingin yang sangat dingin, namun tidak banyak turun salju. Sebaliknya, musim panas menjadi begitu lembap akibat tiupan angin musim dari tenggara. • Kepulauan Ryukyu: Kepulauan di barat daya Jepang termasuk Kepulauan Ryukyu beriklim subtropis, hangat sewaktu musim dingin dan suhu yang tinggi sepanjang musim panas.

Presipitasi sangat tinggi, terutama selama musim hujan. Taifun sangat sering terjadi. Suhu tertinggi yang pernah tercatat di Jepang adalah 40,9 °C (105,6 °F) pada 16 Agustus 2007. [43] Musim hujan dimulai lebih awal di Okinawa, yakni sejak awal Mei. Garis depan musim hujan bergerak ke utara, namun berakhir di Jepang utara sebelum mencapai Hokkaido.

Di sebagian besar wilayah Honshu, awal musim hujan dimulai pertengahan Juni dan berlangsung selama enam minggu. Taifun sering terjadi sepanjang September dan Oktober. Penyebabnya adalah tekanan tropis pp wa orang lidi garis khatulistiwa yang bergerak dari barat daya ke timur laut, dan sering membawa hujan yang sangat lebat.

[42] Politik [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Artikel utama: Pemerintah Jepang Parlemen [ sunting - pp wa orang lidi sumber ] Jepang menganut sistem negara monarki konstitusional yang sangat membatasi kekuasaan Kaisar Jepang. Sebagai kepala negara seremonial, kedudukan Kaisar Jepang diatur dalam konstitusi sebagai "simbol negara dan pemersatu rakyat". Kekuasaan pemerintah berada di tangan Perdana Menteri Jepang dan anggota terpilih Parlemen Jepang, sementara kedaulatan sepenuhnya berada di tangan rakyat Jepang.

[44] Kaisar Jepang bertindak sebagai kepala negara dalam urusan diplomatik. Parlemen Jepang adalah parlemen dua kamar yang dibentuk mengikuti sistem Inggris.

Parlemen Jepang terdiri dari Majelis Rendah dan Majelis Tinggi. Majelis Rendah Jepang terdiri dari 480 anggota dewan. Anggota majelis rendah dipilih secara langsung oleh rakyat setiap 4 tahun sekali atau setelah majelis rendah dibubarkan. Majelis Tinggi Jepang terdiri dari 242 anggota dewan yang memiliki masa jabatan 6 tahun, dan dipilih langsung oleh rakyat. Warganegara Jepang berusia 20 tahun ke atas memiliki hak untuk memilih. [14] Kabinet Jepang beranggotakan Perdana Menteri dan para menteri.

Perdana Menteri adalah salah seorang anggota parlemen dari partai mayoritas di Majelis Rendah. Partai Demokrat Liberal (LDP) berkuasa di Jepang sejak 1955, pp wa orang lidi pada tahun 1993. Pada tahun itu terbentuk pemerintahan koalisi yang hanya berumur singkat dengan partai oposisi. Partai oposisi terbesar di Jepang adalah Partai Demokratis Jepang. [45] Perdana Menteri Jepang adalah kepala pemerintahan. Perdana Menteri diangkat melalui pemilihan di antara anggota Parlemen.

[46] Bila Majelis Rendah dan Majelis Tinggi masing-masing memiliki calon perdana menteri, maka calon dari Majelis Rendah yang diutamakan. Pada praktiknya, perdana menteri berasal dari partai mayoritas di parlemen. Menteri-menteri kabinet diangkat oleh Perdana Menteri. Kaisar Jepang mengangkat Perdana Menteri berdasarkan keputusan Parlemen Jepang, [47] dan memberi persetujuan atas pengangkatan menteri-menteri kabinet.

[48] Perdana Menteri memerlukan dukungan dan kepercayaan dari anggota Majelis Rendah untuk bertahan sebagai Perdana Menteri. Keluarga kekaisaran [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Artikel utama: Keluarga kekaisaran Jepang Kaisar Naruhito adalah Kaisar Jepang yang sekarang. Kaisar Naruhito naik takhta sebagai kaisar ke-126 setelah ayahandanya, Kaisar Akihito turun takhta pada 1 Mei 2019. Kaisar Naruhito menikah dengan Putri Mahkota Masako yang berasal dari kalangan rakyat biasa, dan dikaruniai anak perempuan bernama Aiko ( Putri Toshi).

Adik Kaisar Naruhito bernama Pangeran Akishino yang menikah dengan Kiko Kawashima yang juga berasal dari rakyat biasa. Pangeran Akishino memiliki dua anak perempuan, yaitu ( Putri Mako dan Putri Kako), serta anak laki-laki bernama Pangeran Hisahito. Hubungan luar negeri dan militer [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Kapal pengangkut helikopter kelas Hyuga milik Angkatan Laut Bela Diri Jepang Jepang memiliki hubungan ekonomi dan militer yang erat dengan Amerika Serikat, dan menjalankan kebijakan luar negeri berdasarkan pakta keamanan Jepang-AS.

[49] Sejak diterima menjadi anggota Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa pada tahun 1956, Jepang telah sepuluh kali menjadi anggota tidak tetap Dewan Keamanan PBB, termasuk tahun 2009-2010. [50] Jepang adalah salah satu negara G4 yang sedang mengusulkan perluasan anggota tetap Dewan Keamanan PBB.

[51] Sebagai negara anggota G8, APEC, ASEAN Plus 3, dan peserta Konferensi Tingkat Tinggi Asia Timur, Jepang aktif dalam hubungan internasional dan mempererat persahabatan Jepang dengan negara-negara lain di seluruh dunia. Pakta pertahanan dengan Australia ditandatangani pada Maret 2007, [52] dan dengan India pada Oktober 2008.

[53] Pada tahun 2007, Jepang adalah negara donor Bantuan Pembangunan Resmi (ODA) terbesar kelima di dunia. [54] Negara penerima bantuan ODA terbesar dari Jepang adalah Indonesia, dengan total bantuan lebih dari AS$29,5 miliar dari tahun 1960 hingga 2006. [55] Jepang bersengketa dengan Rusia mengenai Kepulauan Kuril [56] dan dengan Korea Selatan mengenai Batu Liancourt.

[57] Kepulauan Senkaku yang di bawah pemerintahan Jepang dipermasalahkan oleh Republik Rakyat Tiongkok dan Taiwan. [58] Pasal 9 Konstitusi Jepang berisi penolakan terhadap perang dan penggunaan kekuatan bersenjata untuk menyelesaikan persengketaan internasional. Pasal 9 Ayat 2 berisi pelarangan kepemilikan angkatan bersenjata dan penolakan atas hak keterlibatan dalam perang. [59] [60] Jepang memiliki Pasukan Bela Diri yang berada di bawah Kementerian Pertahanan, dan terdiri dari Angkatan Darat Bela Diri Jepang (JGSDF), Angkatan Laut Bela Diri Jepang (JMSDF), dan Angkatan Udara Bela Diri Jepang (JASDF).

Pada tahun 1991, kapal penyapu ranjau Angkatan Laut Bela Diri Jepang ikut membersihkan ranjau laut di Teluk Persia (lepas pantai Kuwait) bersama kapal penyapu ranjau dari delapan negara. [61] [62] Atas permintaan Pemerintahan Transisi PBB di Kamboja (1992-1993), Jepang mengirimkan pengamat gencatan senjata, pemantau pemilihan umum, polisi sipil, dan dukungan logistik seperti perbaikan jalan dan jembatan.

[63] Di Irak, pasukan nontempur Jepang membantu misi kemanusiaan dan kegiatan rekonstruksi infrastruktur mulai Desember 2003 hingga Februari 2009. [62] [64] [65] Pembagian administratif [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Informasi lebih lanjut: Daftar prefektur di Jepang, Daftar wilayah di Jepang, Kota (Jepang), Daftar kota di Jepang dan Daftar desa di Jepang Jepang terdiri dari 47 prefektur, masing-masing diawasi oleh gubernur, birokrasi legislatif dan administratif.

Setiap prefektur dibagi lagi menjadi kota, kota dan desa. [66] Negara ini sedang mengalami reorganisasi administrasi dengan menggabungkan banyak kota besar, kota kecil dan desa dengan satu sama lain.

Proses ini akan mengurangi jumlah wilayah administratif sub-prefektur dan diharapkan dapat memotong biaya administrasi.

[67] Bursa Efek Tokyo, bursa saham terbesar ketiga di dunia. Sejak periode Meiji (1868-1912), Jepang mulai menganut ekonomi pasar bebas dan mengadopsi kapitalisme model Inggris dan Amerika Serikat.

Sistem pendidikan Barat diterapkan pp wa orang lidi Jepang, dan ribuan orang Jepang dikirim ke Amerika Serikat dan Eropa untuk belajar. Lebih dari 3.000 orang Eropa dan Amerika didatangkan sebagai tenaga pengajar di Jepang. [68] Pada awal periode Meiji, pemerintah membangun jalan kereta api, jalan raya, dan memulai reformasi kepemilikan tanah. Pemerintah membangun pabrik dan galangan kapal untuk dijual kepada swasta dengan harga murah.

Sebagian dari perusahaan yang didirikan pada periode Meiji berkembang menjadi zaibatsu, dan beberapa di antaranya masih beroperasi hingga kini. [68] Pertumbuhan ekonomi riil dari tahun 1960-an hingga 1980-an sering disebut "keajaiban ekonomi Jepang", yakni rata-rata 10% pada tahun 1960-an, 5% pada tahun 1970-an, dan 4% pp wa orang lidi tahun 1980-an. [68] Dekade 1980-an merupakan pp wa orang lidi keemasan ekspor otomotif dan barang elektronik ke Eropa dan Amerika Serikat sehingga terjadi surplus neraca perdagangan yang mengakibatkan konflik perdagangan.

Setelah ditandatanganinya Perjanjian Plaza 1985, dolar AS mengalami depresiasi terhadap yen. Pada Februari 1987, tingkat diskonto resmi diturunkan hingga 2,5% agar produk manufaktur Jepang bisa kembali kompetitif setelah terjadi kemerosotan volume ekspor akibat menguatnya yen. Akibatnya, terjadi surplus likuiditas dan penciptaan uang dalam jumlah besar.

Spekulasi menyebabkan harga saham dan realestat terus meningkat, dan berakibat pada pp wa orang lidi harga aset.

pp wa orang lidi

Harga tanah terutama menjadi sangat tinggi akibat adanya "mitos tanah" bahwa harga tanah tidak akan jatuh. [36] Ekonomi gelembung Jepang jatuh pada awal tahun 1990-an akibat kebijakan uang ketat yang dikeluarkan Bank of Japan pada 1989, dan kenaikan tingkat diskonto resmi menjadi 6%.

[36] Pada 1990, pemerintah mengeluarkan sistem baru pajak penguasaan tanah dan bank diminta untuk membatasi pendanaan aset properti. Indeks rata-rata Nikkei dan harga tanah jatuh pada Desember 1989 dan musim gugur 1990.

[36] Pertumbuhan ekonomi mengalami stagnasi pada 1990-an, dengan angka rata-rata pertumbuhan ekonomi riil hanya 1,7% pp wa orang lidi akibat penanaman modal yang tidak efisien dan penggelembungan harga aset pada 1980-an.

Institusi keuangan menanggung kredit bermasalah karena telah mengeluarkan pinjaman uang dengan jaminan tanah atau saham. Usaha pemerintah mengembalikan pertumbuhan ekonomi hanya sedikit yang berhasil dan selanjutnya terhambat oleh kelesuan ekonomi global pada tahun 2000. [69] Jepang adalah perekonomian terbesar nomor dua di dunia setelah Amerika Serikat, Jepang bersama Jerman dan Korea Selatan adalah 3 negara yang pernah mencatatkan diri sebagai negara-negara dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi tercepat sepanjang sejarah dunia, [70] dengan PDB nominal sekitar AS$4,5 triliun.

[70], dan perekonomian terbesar ke-3 di dunia setelah AS dan Republik Rakyat Tiongkok dalam keseimbangan kemampuan berbelanja. [71] Industri utama Jepang adalah sektor perbankan, asuransi, realestat, bisnis eceran, transportasi, telekomunikasi, dan konstruksi.

[72] Jepang memiliki industri berteknologi tinggi di bidang otomotif, elektronik, mesin perkakas, baja dan logam non-besi, perkapalan, industri kimia, tekstil, dan pengolahan makanan. [69] Sebesar tiga perempat dari produk domestik bruto Jepang berasal dari sektor jasa.

Abeno Harukas Osaka (kiri), gedung tertinggi di Jepang, dan Tokyo Skytree (kanan), struktur tertinggi di Jepang. Hingga tahun 2001, jumlah angkatan kerja Jepang mencapai 67 juta orang.

[73] Tingkat pengangguran di Jepang sekitar 4%. Pada tahun 2007, Jepang menempati urutan ke-19 dalam produktivitas tenaga kerja. [74] Menurut indeks Big Mac, tenaga kerja di Jepang mendapat upah per jam terbesar di dunia. Toyota Motor, Mitsubishi UFJ Financial, Nintendo, NTT DoCoMo, Nippon Telegraph & Telephone, Canon, Matsushita Electric Industrial, Honda, Mitsubishi Corporation, dan Sumitomo Mitsui Financial adalah 10 besar perusahaan Jepang pada tahun 2008.

[75] Sejumlah 326 perusahaan Jepang masuk ke dalam daftar Forbes Global 2000 atau 16,3% dari 2000 perusahaan publik terbesar di dunia (data tahun 2006).

[76] Bursa Saham Tokyo memiliki total kapitalisasi pasar terbesar nomor dua di dunia. Indeks dari 225 saham perusahaan besar yang diperdagangkan di Bursa Saham Tokyo disebut Nikkei 225. [77] Dalam Indeks Kemudahan Berbisnis, Jepang menempati peringkat ke-12, dan termasuk salah satu negara maju dengan birokrasi paling sederhana.

Kapitalisme model Jepang memiliki sejumlah ciri khas. Keiretsu adalah grup usaha yang beranggotakan perusahaan yang saling memiliki kerja sama bisnis dan kepemilikan saham. Negosiasi upah ( shuntō) berikut perbaikan kondisi kerja antara manajemen dan serikat buruh dilakukan setiap awal musim semi. Budaya bisnis Jepang mengenal konsep-konsep lokal, seperti Sistem Nenkō, nemawashi, salaryman, dan office lady.

Perusahaan di Jepang mengenal kenaikan pangkat berdasarkan senioritas dan jaminan pekerjaan seumur hidup. [78] [79] Kejatuhan ekonomi gelembung yang diikuti kebangkrutan besar-besaran dan pemutusan hubungan kerja menyebabkan jaminan pekerjaan seumur hidup mulai ditinggalkan. [80] [81] Perusahaan Jepang dikenal dengan metode manajemen seperti The Toyota Way.

Aktivisme pemegang saham sangat jarang. [82] Dalam Indeks Kebebasan Ekonomi, Jepang menempati urutan ke-5 negara paling laissez-faire di antara 41 negara Asia Pasifik.

[83] Mobil hibrida Toyota Prius. Produk otomotif dan elektronik adalah komoditas ekspor unggulan Jepang. Total ekspor Jepang pada tahun 2005 adalah 4.210 dolar AS per kapita. Pasar ekspor terbesar Jepang tahun 2006 adalah Amerika Serikat 22,8%, Uni Eropa 14,5%, Tiongkok 14,3%, Korea Selatan 7,8%, Taiwan 6,8%, dan Hong Kong 5,6%.

Produk ekspor unggulan Jepang adalah alat transportasi, kendaraan bermotor, elektronik, mesin-mesin listrik, dan bahan kimia. [69] Negara sumber impor terbesar bagi Jepang pada tahun 2006 adalah Tiongkok 20,5%, AS 12,0%, Uni Eropa 10,3%, Arab Saudi 6,4%, Uni Emirat Arab 5,5%, Australia 4,8%, Korea Selatan 4,7%, dan Indonesia 4,2%. Impor utama Jepang adalah mesin-mesin dan perkakas, minyak bumi, bahan makanan, tekstil, dan bahan mentah untuk industri. [69] Jepang adalah negara pengimpor hasil laut terbesar di dunia (senilai AS$ 14 miliar).

[84] Jepang berada di peringkat ke-6 setelah RRT, Peru, Amerika Serikat, Indonesia, dan Chili, dengan total tangkapan ikan yang terus menurun sejak 1996. [85] [86] Pertanian adalah sektor industri andalan hingga beberapa tahun seusai Perang Dunia II. Menurut sensus tahun 1950, sekitar 50% angkatan kerja berada di bidang pertanian. Sepanjang "masa keajaiban ekonomi Jepang", angkatan kerja di bidang pertanian terus menyusut hingga sekitar 4,1% pada tahun 2008. [87] Pada Februari 2007 terdapat 1.813.000 keluarga petani komersial, namun di antaranya hanya kurang dari 21,2% atau 387.000 keluarga petani pengusaha.

[88] Sebagian besar angkatan kerja pertanian sudah berusia lanjut, sementara angkatan kerja usia muda hanya sedikit yang bekerja di bidang pertanian. [89] [90] Diperkirakan oleh pengamat ekonomi bahwa, Jepang bersama Korea Selatan, India dan RRT akan benar-benar mendominasi dunia pada tahun 2030 dan mematahkan dominasi barat atas perekonomian dunia.

Demografi [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Kuil Shinto Itsukushima Situs Warisan Dunia UNESCO. Populasi Jepang diperkirakan sekitar 127,614 juta orang (perkiraan 1 Februari 2009). [91] Masyarakat Jepang homogen dalam etnis, budaya dan bahasa, dengan sedikit populasi pekerja asing. Di antara sedikit penduduk minoritas di Jepang terdapat orang Korea Zainichi, [92] Tionghoa Zainichi, orang Filipina, orang Brazil-Jepang, [93] dan orang Peru-Jepang.

[94] Pada 2003, ada sekitar 136.000 orang Barat yang menjadi pp wa orang lidi di Jepang. [95] Kewarganegaraan Jepang diberikan kepada bayi yang dilahirkan dari ayah atau ibu berkewarganegaraan Jepang, ayah berkewarganegaraan Jepang yang wafat sebelum bayi lahir, atau bayi yang lahir di Jepang dengan ayah/ibu tidak diketahui/tidak memiliki kewarganegaraan.

[96] Suku bangsa yang paling dominan adalah penduduk asli yang disebut suku Yamato dan kelompok minoritas utama yang terdiri dari penduduk asli suku Ainu [97] dan Ryukyu, ditambah kelompok minoritas secara sosial yang disebut burakumin. [98] Pada tahun 2006, tingkat harapan hidup di Jepang adalah 81,25 tahun, dan merupakan salah satu tingkat harapan hidup tertinggi di dunia. [99] Namun populasi Jepang dengan cepat menua sebagai dampak dari ledakan kelahiran pascaperang diikuti dengan penurunan tingkat kelahiran.

Pada tahun 2004, sekitar 19,5% dari populasi Jepang sudah berusia di atas 65 tahun. [100] Perubahan dalam struktur demografi menyebabkan sejumlah masalah sosial, terutama kecenderungan menurunnya populasi angkatan kerja dan meningkatnya biaya jaminan sosial seperti uang pensiun. Masalah lain termasuk meningkatkan generasi muda yang memilih untuk tidak menikah atau memiliki keluarga ketika dewasa. [101] Populasi Jepang dikhawatirkan akan merosot menjadi 100 juta pada tahun 2050 dan makin menurun hingga 64 juta pada tahun 2100.

[100] Pakar demografi dan pejabat pemerintah kini dalam perdebatan hangat mengenai cara menangani masalah penurunan jumlah penduduk. [101] Imigrasi dan insentif uang untuk kelahiran bayi sering disarankan sebagai pemecahan masalah penduduk Jepang yang semakin menua. [102] [103] Perkiraan tertinggi jumlah penganut agama Buddha sekaligus Shinto adalah 84-96% yang menunjukkan besarnya jumlah penganut sinkretisme dari kedua agama tersebut.

[14] [104] Walaupun demikian, perkiraan tersebut hanya didasarkan pada jumlah orang yang diperkirakan ada hubungan dengan kuil, dan bukan jumlah penduduk yang sungguh-sungguh menganut kedua agama tersebut.

[105] Professor Robert Kisala (dari Universitas Nanzan) memperkirakan hanya 30% dari penduduk Jepang yang mengaku menganut suatu agama. [105] Taoisme dan Konfusianisme dari Tiongkok juga memengaruhi kepercayaan dan tradisi Jepang. Agama di Jepang cenderung bersifat sinkretisme dengan hasil berupa berbagai macam tradisi, seperti orang tua membawa anak-anak ke upacara Shinto, pelajar berdoa di kuil Shinto meminta lulus ujian, pernikahan ala Barat di kapel atau gereja Kristen, sementara pemakaman pp wa orang lidi oleh kuil Buddha.

Penduduk beragama Kristen hanya minoritas sejumlah (2.595.397 juta atau 2,04%). [106] Kebanyakan orang Jepang mengambil sikap tidak peduli terhadap agama dan melihat agama sebagai budaya dan tradisi. Bila ditanya mengenai agama, mereka akan mengatakan bahwa mereka beragama Buddha hanya karena nenek moyang mereka menganut salah satu sekte agama Buddha.

Selain itu, di Jepang sejak pertengahan abad ke-19 bermunculan berbagai sekte agama baru ( Pp wa orang lidi seperti Tenrikyo dan Aum Shinrikyo (atau Aleph). Lebih dari 99% penduduk Jepang berbicara bahasa Jepang sebagai bahasa ibu. [91] Bahasa Jepang adalah bahasa aglutinatif dengan tuturan hormat (kata honorifik) yang mencerminkan hierarki dalam masyarakat Jepang. Pemilihan kata kerja dan kosakata menunjukkan status pembicara dan pendengar.

Menurut kamus bahasa Jepang Shinsen-kokugojiten, kosakata dari Tiongkok berjumlah sekitar 49,1% dari kosakata keseluruhan, kata-kata asli Jepang hanya 33,8% dan kata serapan sekitar 8,8%. [107] Bahasa Jepang ditulis memakai aksara kanji, hiragana, dan katakana, ditambah huruf Latin dan penulisan angka Arab.

Bahasa Ryukyu yang juga termasuk salah satu keluarga bahasa Japonik dipakai orang Okinawa, tetapi hanya sedikit dipelajari anak-anak. [108] Bahasa Ainu adalah bahasa mati dengan hanya sedikit penutur asli yang sudah berusia lanjut di Hokkaido. [109] Murid sekolah negeri dan swasta di Jepang hanya diharuskan belajar bahasa Jepang dan bahasa Inggris. [110] 2010 Census Peringkat Prefektur Pop.

Peringkat Prefektur Pop. Tokyo Yokohama 1 Tokyo Tokyo 13.839.910 11 Hiroshima Hiroshima 1.174.209 Osaka Nagoya 2 Yokohama Kanagawa 3.689.603 12 Sendai Miyagi 1.045.903 3 Osaka Osaka 2.666.371 13 Kitakyushu Fukuoka 977.288 4 Nagoya Aichi 2.263.907 14 Chiba Chiba 962.130 5 Sapporo Hokkaido 1.914.434 15 Sakai Osaka 842.134 6 Kobe Hyōgo 1.544.873 16 Niigata Niigata 812.192 7 Kyoto Kyoto 1.474.473 17 Hamamatsu Shizuoka 800.912 8 Fukuoka Fukuoka 1.463.826 18 Kumamoto Kumamoto 734.294 9 Kawasaki Kanagawa 1.425.678 19 Sagamihara Kanagawa 717.561 10 Saitama Saitama 1.222.910 20 Shizuoka Shizuoka 716.328 Pendidikan [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Auditorium Yasuda di Universitas Tokyo Pendidikan dasar dan menengah, serta pendidikan tinggi diperkenalkan di Jepang pada 1872 sebagai hasil Restorasi Meiji.

[111] Sejak 1947, program wajib belajar di Jepang mewajibkan setiap warga negara untuk untuk bersekolah selama 9 tahun di Sekolah Dasar dan Sekolah Menengah Pertama (dari usia 6 hingga 15 tahun).

Di kalangan penduduk berusia 15 pp wa orang lidi ke atas, tingkat melek huruf sebesar 99%, laki-laki: 99%; perempuan: 99% (2002). [112] Hampir semua murid meneruskan ke Sekolah Menengah Atas, dan menurut MEXT sekitar 75,9% lulusan sekolah menengah atas pada tahun 2005 melanjutkan ke universitas, akademi, sekolah keterampilan, atau lembaga pendidikan tinggi lainnya. [113] Pendidikan di Jepang sangat kompetitif, [114] khususnya dalam ujian masuk perguruan tinggi.

Dua peringkat teratas universitas di Jepang ditempati oleh Universitas Tokyo dan Universitas Keio. [115] Dalam peringkat yang disusun Program Penilaian Pelajar Internasional dari OECD, pengetahuan dan keterampilan anak Jepang berusia 15 tahun berada di peringkat nomor enam terbaik di dunia.

[116] Peringkat internasional [ sunting - sunting sumber ] • Indeks Pembangunan Manusia - peringkat ke-19 dan 4 besar di Asia • Indeks Kebebasan Pers - peringkat ke-11 • PDB - peringkat ke-3 • Indeks Kualitas Hidup - peringkat ke-17 • Indeks Persepsi Korupsi - peringkat ke-17 • Indeks Kebebasan Ekonomi - peringkat ke-17 • Laporan Daya Saing Global - peringkat ke-7 • Peringkat dunia FIFA - peringkat 28 • Total Perdagangan Internasional - peringkat 2 Budaya [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Kinkaku-ji atau 'Kuil Emas Pavilion' di Kyoto dan Situs Warisan Dunia UNESCO.

Budaya Jepang mencakup interaksi antara budaya asli Jomon yang kukuh dengan pengaruh dari luar negeri yang menyusul. Mula-mula Tiongkok dan Korea banyak membawa pengaruh, bermula dengan perkembangan budaya Yayoi sekitar 300 SM. Gabungan tradisi budaya Yunani dan India, memengaruhi seni dan keagamaan Jepang sejak abad ke-6 Masehi, dilengkapi dengan pengenalan agama Buddha sekte Mahayana. Sejak abad ke-16, pengaruh Eropa menonjol, disusul dengan pengaruh Amerika Serikat yang mendominasi Jepang setelah berakhirnya Perang Dunia II.

Jepang turut mengembangkan budaya yang original dan unik, dalam seni ( ikebana, origami, ukiyo-e), kerajinan tangan ( pahatan, tembikar, persembahan (boneka bunraku, tarian tradisional, kabuki, noh, rakugo), dan tradisi ( permainan Jepang, onsen, sento, upacara minum teh, taman Jepang), serta makanan Jepang.

Kini, Jepang merupakan salah sebuah pengekspor budaya pop yang terbesar. Anime, manga, mode, film, kesusastraan, permainan video, dan musik Jepang menerima sambutan hangat di seluruh dunia, terutama di negara-negara Asia yang lain. Pemuda Jepang gemar menciptakan trend baru dan kegemaran mengikut gaya mereka memengaruhi mode dan trend seluruh dunia.

Pasar muda-mudi yang amat baik merupakan ujian untuk produk-produk elektronik konsumen yang baru, di mana gaya dan fungsinya ditentukan oleh pengguna Jepang, sebelum dipertimbangkan untuk diedarkan ke seluruh dunia. Chakinzushi, sushi yang dibungkus telur dadar tipis. Baru-baru ini Jepang mula mengekspor satu lagi komoditas budaya yang bernilai: olahragawan. Popularitas pemain bisbol Jepang di Amerika Serikat meningkatkan kesadaran warga negara Barat tersebut terhadap segalanya mengenai Jepang.

Orang Jepang biasanya gemar memakan makanan tradisi mereka. Sebagian besar acara TV pada waktu petang dikhususkan pada penemuan dan penghasilan makanan tradisional yang bermutu.

Makanan Jepang mencetak nama di seluruh dunia dengan sushi, yang biasanya dibuat dari berbagai jenis ikan mentah yang digabungkan dengan nasi dan wasabi. Sushi memiliki banyak penggemar di seluruh dunia. Makanan Jepang bertumpu pada peralihan musim, dengan menghidangkan mi dingin dan sashimi pada musim panas, sedangkan ramen panas dan shabu-shabu pada musim dingin.

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Diakses tanggal 2006-12-28. • ^ Jesse Arnold. "Japan: The Making of a World Superpower (Imperial Pp wa orang lidi. vt.edu/users/jearnol2. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2007-04-09. Diakses tanggal 2007-03-27. • ^ Kelley L. Ross. "The Pearl Harbor Strike Force". friesian.com. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2017-02-24. Diakses tanggal 2007-03-27. • ^ Roland H. Worth, Jr. (1995). No Choice But War: the United States Embargo Against Japan and the Eruption of War in the Pacific.

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p.134 Tabel 13-6 dan catatan kaki. "Definisi keluarga petani komersial ( hambai nōka) adalah keluarga dengan luas tanah lebih dari 3.000 m² atau pendapatan kotor lebih dari \500.000 per tahun; definisi keluarga petani pengusaha ( shugyō nōka) adalah keluarga yang berpenghasilan utama dari pertanian, dan memiliki kepala keluarga berumur di bawah 65 tahun yang bekerja di lahan pertanian lebih dari 60 hari per tahun." • ^ Zaidan Hōjin Yano Tsuneta Kinenkai 財団法人矢野恒太記念会 (2008) p.136 Tabel 13-8.

Report of Survey on Movement of Agriculture Structure. • ^ Pada tahun 1990, keluarga petani komersial yang memiliki kepala keluarga berusia di atas 65 tahun mencapai 19,5%. Angka ini bertambah menjadi 32,4% pada tahun 2007.

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Robert Wargo, ed. The Logic Of Nothingness: A Study of Nishida Kitarō. University of Hawaii Press. hlm. 3–4. ISBN 0824822846. • ^ "Religious Juridical Persons and Administration of Religious Affairs, [[Agency for Cultural Affairs]" (PDF). Diarsipkan (PDF) dari versi asli tanggal 2008-09-09. Diakses tanggal 2009-08-08. • ^ Shinsen-kokugojiten (新選国語辞典), Kyōsuke Kindaichi, Shogakukan, 2001, ISBN 4-09-501407-5 • ^ 言語学大辞典セレクション:日本列島の言語 ( Selection from the Encyclopædia of Linguistics: The Languages of the Japanese Archipelago).

"琉球列島の言語" ( The Languages of the Ryukyu Islands). 三省堂 1997 • pp wa orang lidi "15 families pp wa orang lidi ancient language alive in Japan".

UN. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2008-01-06. Diakses tanggal 2007-03-27. • ^ Lucien Ellington (2005-09-01). "Japan Digest: Japanese Education". Indiana University. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2006-04-27. Diakses tanggal 2006-04-27. • ^ Lucien Ellington (2003-12-01).

"Beyond the Rhetoric: Essential Questions About Japanese Education". Foreign Policy Research Institute. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2007-04-05. Diakses tanggal 2007-04-01. • ^ "East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Japan — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2018-12-25.

Diakses tanggal 2009-03-07. • ^ "School Education" (PDF). MEXT. Diarsipkan dari versi asli ( PDF) tanggal 2008-01-02. Diakses tanggal 2007-03-10. • ^ Kate Rossmanith (2007-02-05).

"Rethinking Japanese education". The University of Sydney. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2009-01-13. Diakses tanggal 2007-04-01. • ^ "The World University Rankings". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2010-06-04. Diakses tanggal 2009-08-29.

• ^ OECD’s PISA survey shows some countries making significant gains in learning outcomes Diarsipkan 2009-12-15 di Wayback Machine., OECD, 04/12/2007. Range of rank on the PISA 2006 science scale Diarsipkan 2009-12-29 di Wayback Machine. Bacaan selanjutnya [ sunting - sunting sumber ] • Conrad Totman, 2000. 'A History of Modern Japan. Blackwell Publishers.' • C.H.

Kwan. 2001. 'Yen Bloc: Toward Economic Integration in Asia.' Brookings Institution Press. • Bernson, Mary Hammond and Elaine Magnusson, eds. Modern Japan: An Idea Book for K-12 Teachers. Multicultural Education Resource Serial. Olympia, WA: Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1984. ED 252 486.

• Cogan, John J. and Donald O. Schneider, eds. Perspectives on Japan: A Guide for Teachers. Washington, DC: National Council for the Social Studies, 1983. ED 236 090. • East Meets West: Mutual Images. Stanford, CA: California Center for Research in International Studies, l980. ED 196 765. • Kaderabeck, Leslie. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success. 1985. ED 263 041.

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• Murphy, Carole. A Step by Pp wa orang lidi Guide for Planning a Japanese Cultural Festival. 1983. ED 238 748. • Wojtan, Linda S. Free Resources for Teaching about Japan.

Bloomington, IN: Midwest Program for Teaching about Japan, Indiana University, 1986. ED 270 3891. Lihat pula [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Portal Jepang • Hubungan luar negeri Jepang • Kalender Jepang • Militer Jepang • Transportasi di Jepang • Daftar masakan Jepang • Daftar kata serapan dari bahasa Jepang dalam bahasa Indonesia • Daftar wilayah metropolitan di Jepang menurut populasi Pranala luar [ sunting - sunting sumber ] Cari tahu mengenai Japan pada proyek-proyek Wikimedia lainnya: Definisi dan terjemahan dari Wiktionary Gambar dan media dari Commons Berita dari Wikinews Buku dari Wikibuku Pemerintah • Kantei.go.jp, situs resmi Perdana Menteri Jepang dan Kabinetnya • Kunaicho.go.jp, • National Diet Library • Public Relations Office Wisata • Japan National Tourist Organization • Panduan perjalanan Jepang dari Wikivoyage Informasi Umum • Jepang di CIA World Factbook.

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Regions with significant populations Japan 25,000–200,000 [1] Russia 109 [2] [3]–1,000 ∟ Kamchatka Krai 94–900 [2] Languages Ainu language family ( Hokkaido in Japan; historically prominent, now critically endangered); Japanese ( Hokkaido dialects) or Russian (modern-day) [4] Religion • Ryukyuan people [5] • Okhotsk people • Jōmon people • Nivkh people [6] • Kamchadal people The Ainu are the indigenous people of the lands surrounding the Sea of Okhotsk, including Hokkaido Island, Northeast Honshu Island, Sakhalin Island, the Kuril Islands, the Kamchatka Peninsula and Khabarovsk Krai, before the arrival of the Yamato Japanese and Russians.

[7] [8] [9] [10] These regions are referred to as Ezo ( 蝦夷) in historical Japanese texts. Official estimates place the total Ainu population of Japan at 25,000. Unofficial estimates place the total population at 200,000 or higher, as the near-total assimilation of the Ainu into Japanese society has resulted in many individuals of Ainu descent having no knowledge of their ancestry. [1] As of 2000, the number of "pure" Ainu was estimated at about 300 people.

[11] In 1966, there were about 300 native Ainu speakers; in 2008, however, there were about 100 native Ainu speakers. [12] [13] Contents • 1 Names • 2 History • 2.1 Pp wa orang lidi • 2.2 Japanese annexation of Hokkaido • 2.3 Assimilation after annexation • 2.4 Standard of living • 2.5 Challenging the notion of ethnic homogeneity in Japan • 3 Origins • 3.1 Genetics • 3.1.1 Paternal lineages • 3.1.2 Maternal lineages • 3.1.3 Autosomal DNA • 3.2 Physical description • 4 Military service • 4.1 Russo-Japanese War • 4.2 Second World War • 5 Language • 6 Culture • 6.1 Hunting • 6.1.1 Fishing • 6.2 Ornaments • 6.3 Housing • 6.4 Traditions • 7 Religion • 8 Institutions • 9 Ethnic rights • 9.1 Legal action • 9.2 Governmental bodies on Ainu affairs • 9.3 Formation of Ainu political party • 10 Official promotion • 10.1 Japan • 10.2 Russia • 11 Geography • 12 Population • 12.1 Subgroups • 13 In popular culture • 14 See also • 14.1 Ainu culture • 14.2 Ethnic groups in Japan • 15 References • 15.1 Citations • 15.2 Sources • 16 Further reading • pp wa orang lidi External links Names [ edit ] This people's most widely known ethnonym, "Ainu" ( Ainu: アィヌ; Japanese: アイヌ; Russian: Айны) means "human" in the Ainu language, particularly as opposed to kamui, divine beings.

Ainu also identify themselves as "Utari" ("comrade" or "people"). Official documents use both names. History [ edit ] Ainu leader Pre-modern [ edit ] The Ainu are the native people of Hokkaido, Sakhalin and the Kurils. Early Ainu-speaking groups (mostly hunters and fishermen) migrated also into the Kamchatka Peninsula and into Honshu, where their descendants are today known as the Matagi hunters, who still use a large amount of Ainu vocabulary in their dialect.

Other evidence for Ainu-speaking hunters and fishermen migrating down from Northern Hokkaido into Honshu is through the Ainu toponyms which are found in several places of northern Honshu, mostly among the western coast pp wa orang lidi the Tōhoku region. Evidence for Ainu speakers in the Amur region is found through Ainu loanwords in the Uilta and Ulch people.

[14] Historical homeland and distribution of the Ainu people. Research suggests that Ainu culture originated from a merger of the Okhotsk and Satsumon cultures.

[15] [16] According to Lee and Hasegawa, the Ainu-speakers descend from the Okhotsk people who rapidly expanded from northern Hokkaido into the Kurils and Honshu.

pp wa orang lidi

These early inhabitants did not speak the Japanese language; some were conquered by the Japanese early in the 9th century. [17] In 1264, the Ainu invaded the land of the Nivkh people. The Ainu also started an expedition into the Amur region, which was then controlled by the Yuan Dynasty, resulting in reprisals by the Mongols who invaded Sakhalin. [18] [19] Active contact between the Wa-jin (the ethnically Japanese, also known as Yamato-jin) and the Ainu of Ezogashima (now known as Hokkaidō) began in the 13th century.

[20] The Ainu formed a society of hunter-gatherers, surviving mainly by hunting and fishing. They followed a religion which was based on natural phenomena.

[21] During the Muromachi period (1336–1573), many Ainu were subject to Japanese rule. Disputes between the Japanese and Ainu developed into large-scale violence, Koshamain's Revolt, in 1456. Takeda Nobuhiro killed the Ainu leader, Koshamain.

After Manchuria under Yuan rule, Ainu and Nivkh of Sakhalin were subjugated and became tributaries to the Ming dynasty of China after Manchuria came under Ming rule as part of the Nurgan Regional Military Commission. [22] Women in Sakhalin married Han Chinese Ming officials when the Ming took tribute from Sakhalin and the Amur river region. [23] [24] Due to Ming rule in Manchuria, Chinese cultural and religious influence such as Chinese New Year, the "Chinese god", Chinese motifs such as the dragon, spirals, scrolls, and material goods such as agriculture, husbandry, heating, iron cooking pots, silk and cotton spread among the Amur natives such as the Udeghes, Ulchis, and Nanais.

[25] During the Edo period (1601–1868) the Ainu, who controlled the northern island which is now named Hokkaidō, became increasingly involved in trade with the Japanese who controlled the southern portion of the island. The Tokugawa bakufu (feudal government) granted the Matsumae clan exclusive rights to trade with the Ainu in the northern part of the island. Later, the Matsumae began to lease out trading rights to Japanese merchants, and contact between Japanese and Ainu became more extensive.

Throughout this period Ainu groups competed with each other to import goods from the Japanese, and epidemic diseases such as smallpox reduced the population. [26] Although the increased contact created by the trade between the Japanese and the Ainu contributed to increased mutual understanding, it also sometimes led to conflict which occasionally intensified into violent Ainu revolts.

The most important was Shakushain's Revolt (1669–1672), an Ainu rebellion against Japanese authority. Another large-scale revolt by Ainu against Japanese rule was the Menashi-Kunashir Battle in 1789. However, throughout this period and thereafter the Ainu-Japanese relationship continued to be marked by trade and commercial relationships, not conflicts. From 1799 to 1806, the shogunate took direct control of southern Hokkaidō. During this period, Ainu women were separated from their husbands and either subjected to rape or forcibly married to Japanese men, while Ainu men were deported to merchant subcontractors for five and ten-year terms of service.

Policies of family separation and assimilation, combined with the impact of smallpox, caused the Ainu population to drop significantly in the early 19th century. [27] In the 18th century, there were 80,000 Ainu. [28] In 1868, there were about 15,000 Ainu in Hokkaidō, 2000 in Sakhalin and around 100 in the Kuril islands. [29] The Santan Japanese traders seized Rishiri Ainu women when they were trading in Sakhalin to become their wives.

[30] [31] Japanese annexation of Hokkaido [ edit ] In 1869, the imperial government established the Hokkaidō Development Commission as part of the pp wa orang lidi of the Meiji Restoration.

Sjöberg quotes Baba's (1890) account of the Japanese government's reasoning: [26] . The development of Japan's large northern island had several objectives: First, it was seen as a means to defend Japan from a rapidly developing and expansionist Russia.

Second . it offered a solution to the unemployment for the former samurai class . Finally, development promised to yield the needed natural resources for a growing capitalist economy.

[32] 1843 illustration of Ainu As a result of the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1875), the Kuril Islands – along with their Ainu inhabitants – pp wa orang lidi under Japanese administration. In 1899, the Japanese government passed an act labelling the Ainu as "former aborigines", with the idea they would assimilate—this resulted in the Japanese government taking the land where the Ainu people lived and placing it from then on under Japanese control.

[33] Also at this time, the Ainu were granted automatic Japanese citizenship, effectively denying them the status of an indigenous group. Photograph of Tatsujiro Kuzuno, a famous Ainu individual. The Ainu went from being a relatively isolated group of people to having their land, language, religion and customs assimilated into those of the Japanese. [34] Their land was distributed to the Yamato Japanese settlers and to create and maintain farms in the model of Western industrial agriculture.

It was known as "colonization" (拓殖) at the time, but later by the euphemism "opening up undeveloped land" ( 開拓). [35] As well as this, factories such as flour mills, beer breweries pp wa orang lidi mining practices resulted in the creation of infrastructure such as roads and railway lines, during a development period that lasted until 1904.

[36] During this time, the Ainu were ordered to cease religious pp wa orang lidi such as animal sacrifice and the custom of tattooing. [37] The same act applied to the native Ainu on Sakhalin after the Japanese annexation of it as the Karafuto Prefecture. [38] Sakhalin Ainu in 1904 Assimilation after annexation [ edit ] The Ainu have historically suffered from economic and social discrimination as the government as well as people in contact with the Ainu regarded them as a dirty and primitive barbarians.

[39] The majority of Ainu were forced to be petty laborers during the Meiji Restoration, which saw the introduction of Hokkaidō into the Japanese Empire and the privatization of traditional Ainu lands. [40] The Japanese government during the 19th and 20th centuries denied the rights of the Ainu to their traditional cultural practices, most notably the right to speak their language, as well as their right to hunt and gather.

[41] These policies were designed to fully integrate the Ainu into Japanese society with the cost of erasing Ainu culture and identity. The Ainu's position as manual laborers and their forced integration into larger Japanese society have led to discriminatory practices by the Japanese government that can still be felt today.

[42] Intermarriage between Japanese and Ainu was actively promoted by the Ainu to lessen the chances of discrimination against their offspring. As a result, many Ainu are indistinguishable from their Japanese neighbors, but some Ainu-Japanese are interested in traditional Ainu culture.

For example, Oki, born as a child of an Ainu father and a Japanese mother, became a musician who plays the traditional Ainu instrument tonkori. [43] There are pp wa orang lidi many small towns in the southeastern or Hidaka region where ethnic Ainu live such as in Nibutani ( Niputay). Many live in Sambutsu especially, on the eastern coast. Standard of living [ edit ] This discrimination and negative stereotypes assigned to the Ainu have manifested in the Ainu's lower pp wa orang lidi of education, income levels and participation in the economy as pp wa orang lidi to their ethnically Japanese counterparts.

The Ainu community in Hokkaidō in 1993 received welfare payments at a 2.3 times higher rate, had an 8.9% lower enrollment rate from junior high school to high school and a 15.7% lower enrollment into college from high school than pp wa orang lidi of Hokkaidō as a whole.

[40] The Japanese government has been lobbied by activists to research the Ainu's standard of living nationwide due to this noticeable and growing gap.

The Japanese government will provide ¥7 million (US$63,000) beginning in 2015, to conduct surveys nationwide on this matter. [44] Challenging the notion of ethnic homogeneity in Japan [ edit ] The existence of the Ainu challenges the notion of ethnic homogeneity in post-WWII Japan.

After the demise of the multi-ethnic Empire of Japan in 1945, successive governments had forged a pp wa orang lidi Japanese identity by advocating monoculturalism and denying the existence of more than one ethnic group in Japan.

[45] It was not until 2019 when the Japanese parliament passed an act to recognize the Ainu to be the indigenous people. [46] [47] However, the notion of ethnic homogeneity pp wa orang lidi so ingrained in Japan, which the former Prime Minister Taro Aso, in 2020, notably claimed “No other country but this one has lasted for as long as 2,000 years with one language, one ethnic group and one dynasty”.

[45] Before the 2019 law, an earlier development on Ainu rights happened in 2008. After the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2007, Hokkaido politicians pressured the government to act. A much-quoted remarks on the Ainu came from Prime Minister Fukuda Yasuo, who answered a parliamentary question on 20 May 2008 by stating "[I]t is a historical fact that the Ainu are the precursors in the northern Japanese archipelago, in particular Hokkaido.

The government acknowledges the Ainu to be an ethnic minority as it has maintained a unique cultural identity and having a unique language and religion." [48] On 6 June 2008, the Japanese parliament passed a non-binding, bipartisan resolution calling upon the government to take actions on recognizing the Pp wa orang lidi as indigenous people.

[49] [50] Origins [ edit ] A picture of Imekanu, right, with her niece Yukie Chiri, famous Ainu Japanese transcriber and translator of Ainu epic tales. (1922) The Ainu have often been considered to descend from the diverse Jōmon people, who lived in northern Japan from the Jōmon period [51] ( c. 14,000 to 300 BCE). One of their Yukar Upopo, or legends, tells that "[t]he Ainu lived in this place a hundred thousand years before the Children of the Sun came".

[32] Recent research suggests that the historical Ainu culture originated from a merger of the Okhotsk culture with the Satsumon culture, cultures thought to have derived from the diverse Jōmon-period cultures of the Japanese archipelago.

[52] [53] The Ainu economy was based on farming, as well as on hunting, fishing and gathering. [54] According to Lee and Hasegawa of the Waseda University, the direct ancestors of the later Ainu people formed during the late Jōmon period from the combination of the local but diverse population of Hokkaido, long before the arrival of contemporary Japanese people. Lee and Hasegawa suggest that the Ainu language expanded from northern Hokkaido and may have originated from a relative more recent Northeast Asian/Okhotsk population, who established themselves in northern Hokkaido and had significant impact on the formation of Hokkaido's Jōmon culture.

[55] [56] The linguist and historian Joran Smale similarly found that the Ainu language likely originated from the ancient Okhotsk people, which had strong cultural influence on the "Epi-Jōmon" of southern Hokkaido and northern Honshu, but that the Ainu people themselves formed from the combination of both ancient groups.

Pp wa orang lidi he notes that the historical distribution of Ainu dialects and its specific vocabulary correspond to the distribution of the maritime Okhotsk culture. [57] Recently in 2021, it was confirmed that the Hokkaido Jōmon people formed from "Jōmon tribes of Honshu" and from "Terminal Upper-Paleolithic people" (TUP people) indigenous to Pp wa orang lidi and Paleolithic Pp wa orang lidi Eurasia.

The Honshu Jōmon groups arrived about 15,000 BC and merged with the indigenous "TUP people" to form the Hokkaido Jōmon. The Ainu in turn formed from the Hokkaido Jōmon and from the Okhotsk people. [58] Another study in 2021 (Sato et al.) analyzed the indigenous populations of northern Japan and the Russian Far East. They concluded pp wa orang lidi Siberia and northern Japan was populated by two distinct waves: The southern migration wave seems to have diversified into the local populations in East Asia (defined in this paper pp wa orang lidi a region including China, Pp wa orang lidi, Korea, Mongol, and Taiwan) and Southeast Asia, and the northern wave, which probably runs through the Siberian and Eurasian steppe regions and mixed with the southern wave, probably in Siberia.

Archaeologists have considered that bear worship, which is a religious practice widely observed among the northern Eurasian ethnic groups, including the Ainu, Finns, Nivkh, and Sami, was also shared by the Okhotsk people.

On the other hand, no traces of such a religious practice have ever been discovered from archaeological sites of the Jomon and Epi-Jomon periods, which were anterior to the Ainu cultural period. This implies that the Okhotsk culture contributed to the forming of the Ainu culture.

[59] Genetics [ edit ] Ainu man of Hokkaidō in traditional dress Genetic testing has shown that the Ainu belong mainly to Y-DNA haplogroup D-M55 (D1a2) and C-M217. [60] Y DNA haplogroup D M55 is found throughout the Japanese Archipelago, but with very high frequencies among the Ainu of Hokkaidō in the far north, and to a lesser extent among the Ryukyuans in the Ryukyu Islands of the far south. [61] Recently it was confirmed that the Japanese branch of haplogroup D M55 is distinct and isolated from other D branches for more than 53,000 years.

[62] Several studies (Hammer et al. 2006, Shinoda 2008, Matsumoto 2009, Cabrera et al. 2018) suggest that haplogroup D originated somewhere in Central Asia. According to Hammer et al., the ancestral haplogroup D originated between Tibet and the Altai mountains. He suggests that there were multiple waves into Eastern Eurasia. [63] A study by Tajima et al. (2004) found two out of a sample of sixteen Ainu men (or 12.5%) belong to Haplogroup C M217, which is the most common Y chromosome haplogroup among the indigenous populations of Siberia and Mongolia.

[60] Hammer et pp wa orang lidi. (2006) found that one in a sample of four Ainu men belonged to haplogroup C M217. [64] Maternal lineages [ edit ] Based on analysis of one sample of 51 modern Ainu, their mtDNA lineages consist mainly of haplogroup Y [ 11⁄ 51 = 21.6% according to Tanaka et al.

2004, or 10⁄ 51 = 19.6% according to Adachi et al. 2009, who have cited Tajima et al. 2004], haplogroup D [ 9⁄ 51 = 17.6%, particularly D4 (xD1)], haplogroup M7a ( 8⁄ 51 = 15.7%), and haplogroup G1 ( 8⁄ 51 = 15.7%). [60] Other mtDNA haplogroups detected in this sample include A ( 2⁄ 51), M7b2 ( 2⁄ 51), N9b ( 1⁄ 51), B4f ( 1⁄ 51), F1b ( 1⁄ 51), and M9a ( 1⁄ 51).

Most of the remaining individuals in this sample have been classified definitively only as belonging to macro- haplogroup M. [65] According to Sato et al. (2009), who have studied the mtDNA of the same sample of modern Ainus ( N=51), the major haplogroups of the Ainu are N9 [ 14⁄ 51 = 27.5%, including 10⁄ 51 Y and 4⁄ 51 N9 (xY)], D [ 12⁄ 51 = 23.5%, including 8⁄ 51 D (xD5) and 4⁄ 51 D5], M7 ( 10⁄ 51 = 19.6%), and G ( 10⁄ 51 = 19.6%, including 8⁄ 51 G1 and 2⁄ 51 G2); the minor haplogroups are A ( 2⁄ 51), B ( 1⁄ 51), F ( 1⁄ 51), and M (xM7, M8, CZ, D, G) ( 1⁄ 51).

[66] Studies published in 2004 and 2007 show the combined frequency of M7a and N9b were observed in Jōmons and which are believed by some to be Jōmon maternal contribution at 28% in Okinawans [ 7⁄ 50 M7a1, 6⁄ 50 M7a (xM7a1), 1⁄ 50 N9b], 17.6% in Ainus [ 8⁄ 51 M7a (xM7a1), 1⁄ 51 N9b], and from 10% [ 97⁄ 1312 M7a (xM7a1), 1⁄ 1312 M7a1, 28⁄ 1312 N9b] to 17% [ 15⁄ 100 M7a1, 2⁄ 100 M7a (xM7a1)] in mainstream Japanese.

[65] [67] In addition, haplogroups D4, D5, M7b, M9a, M10, G, A, B, and F have been found in Jōmon people as well. [68] [69] These mtDNA haplogroups pp wa orang lidi found in various Jōmon samples and in some modern Japanese people. [70] Ainu man performing a traditional dance A study by Kanazawa-Kiriyama in 2013 about mitochondrial haplogroups, found that the Ainu people (including samples from Hokkaido and Tōhoku) have a high frequency of N9b, which is also found among Udege people of eastern Siberia, and more common among Europeans than Eastern Asians, but absent from the geographically close Kantō Jōmon period samples, which have a higher frequency of M7a7, which is commonly found among East and Southeast Asians.

According to the authors, these results add to the internal-diversity observed among the Jōmon period population and that a significant percentage of the Jōmon period people had ancestry from a Northeast Asian source population, suggested to be the source of the proto-Ainu language and culture, which is not detected in samples from Kantō. [71] Autosomal DNA [ edit ] A 2004 reevaluation of cranial traits suggests that the Ainu resemble the Okhotsk more than they do the Jōmon but there are large variations.

[72] This agrees with the references to the Ainu as a merger of Okhotsk and Satsumon referenced above. Similarly more recent studies link the Ainu to the local Hokkaido Jōmon period samples, such as the 3,800 pp wa orang lidi old Rebun sample. [73] [74] Genetic analyses of HLA I and HLA II genes as well as HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 gene frequencies links the Ainu to Indigenous peoples of the Americas. Genetic of variety Asian groups shows Ainu and of Native Americans are place relatively close can be traced back to Paleolithic groups in Siberia.

[75] Hideo Matsumoto (2009) suggested, based on immunoglobulin analyses, that the Ainu (and Jōmon) have a Siberian origin. Compared with other East Asian populations, the Ainu have the highest amount of Siberian (immunoglobulin) components, higher than mainland Japanese people. [76] A 2012 genetic study has revealed that the closest genetic relatives of the Ainu are the Ryukyuan people, followed by the Yamato people and Nivkh. [5] A genetic analysis in 2016 showed that although the Ainu have some genetic relations to the Japanese people and Eastern Siberians (especially Itelmens and Chukchis), they are not directly related to any modern ethnic group.

Further, the study detected genetic contribution from the Ainu to populations around the Sea of Okhotsk but no genetic influence on the Ainu themselves.

According to the study, the Ainu-like genetic contribution in the Ulch people is about 17.8% or 13.5% and about 27.2% in the Nivkhs. The study also disproved the idea about a relation to Andamanese or Tibetans; instead, it presented evidence of gene flow between the Ainu and "lowland East Asian farmer populations" (represented in the study by the Ami and Atayal in Taiwan, and the Dai and Lahu in Mainland East Asia).

[77] A genetic study in 2016 about historical Ainu samples from southern Sakhalin (8) and northern Hokkaido (4), found that these samples were closely related to ancient Okhotsk people and various other Northeast Asians, such as indigenous populations in Kamchatka ( Itelmens). The authors conclude that this points to heterogeneity among the historical Ainu, as other studies reported a rather isolated position of analyzed Ainu samples from southern Hokkaido.

[78] Recent autosomal evidence suggests that the Ainu derive a majority of their ancestry from the local Jōmon period people of Hokkaido. A 2019 study by Gakuhari et al., analyzing ancient Jōmon remains, finds about 79.3% Hokkaido Jōmon ancestry in the Ainu. [79] Another 2019 study (by Kanazawa-Kiriyama et al.) finds about 66% Hokkaido Jōmon ancestry.

[80] A genetic study in 2021 (Sato et al.) found that the Ainu probably derived about ~49% of their ancestry from the local Hokkaido Jōmon, ~22% from the Okhotsk (samplified by Chukotko-Kamchatkan peoples), and ~29% from the Yamato Japanese. [59] Population genomic data from various Jōmon period samples show that their main ancestry component split from other East Asian people at about 15,000 BCE.

Following their migration into the Japanese archipelago, they became largely isolated from outside geneflow. However geneflow from Ancient North Eurasians towards the Jōmon period population was detected along a North to South cline, with a peak among Hokkaido Jōmon. [81] A study by Adachi et al.

2018 [82] concluded that: " Our results suggest that the Ainu were formed from the Hokkaido Jomon people, but subsequently underwent considerable admixture with adjacent populations. The present study strongly recommends revision of the widely accepted dual-structure model for the population history of the Japanese, in which the Ainu are assumed to be the direct descendants of the Jomon people." Physical description [ edit ] An Ainu from Shiraoi, Hokkaido, c.

1930 Physical differences could be observed between different Ainu subgroups and clans. Many Ainu men have abundant wavy hair and often have long beards.

[83] Some Japanese writers in the 18th century found physical similarity between the Ainu people and Russian, describing the Russians as being " red haired Ainu", this happened when the Japanese defended the Northern borders of Ezo from Russian intrusion. [84] The book of Ainu Life and Legends by author Kyōsuke Kindaichi (published by the Japanese Tourist Board in 1942) contains a physical description of Ainu: "Many have wavy hair, but some straight black hair.

Very few of them have wavy brownish hair. Their skins are generally reported to be light brown. But this is due to the fact that they labor on the sea and in briny winds all day. Old people who have long desisted from their outdoor work are often found to be as white as western men. The Ainu have broad faces, beetling eyebrows, and sometimes large sunken eyes, which are generally horizontal and of the so-called European type.

Eyes of the Mongolian type are rare but occasionally found among them." [ citation needed] A study by Kura et al. 2014 based on cranial and genetic characteristics suggests a mostly Northeastern Asian (" Arctic") origin for Ainu people. Thus, despite Ainu sharing morphological similarities to Caucasoid populations, the Ainu are essentially of North Asiatic origin. Genetic evidence support a closer relation with Paleosiberian Arctic populations, such as the Chukchi people.

[85] A study by Omoto has shown that the Ainu are closer related to other East Asian groups (previously mentioned as 'Mongoloid') than to Western Eurasian groups (formerly termed as "Caucasian"), on the basis of fingerprints and dental morphology. [86] "Ainu men" Department of Anthropology, Japanese exposition, 1904 World's Fair. A study published in the scientific journal Journal of Human Genetics by Jinam et al.

2015, using genome-wide SNP data comparison, found that a noteworthy amount of Ainu carry gene alleles associated with facial features which are commonly found among Europeans but absent from Japanese people and other East Asians, but these alleles are not found in all tested Ainu samples. These alleles are the reason for their pseudo-Caucasian appearance and likely arrived from Paleolithic Siberia. [87] In 2021, it was confirmed that the Hokkaido Jōmon population formed from "Terminal Upper-Paleolithic people" (TUP) indigenous to Hokkaido and Northern Eurasia and from migrants of Jōmon period Honshu.

The Ainu themselves formed from these heterogeneous Hokkaido Jōmon and from a more recent Northeast Asian/Okhotsk population. [88] Military service [ edit ] Russo-Japanese War [ edit ] Ainu men were first recruited into the Japanese military in 1898.

[89] Sixty-four Ainu served in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), eight of whom died in battle or from illness contracted during military service. Two received the Order of the Golden Kite, granted for bravery, leadership or command in battle.

Second World War [ edit ] During World War II, Australian troops engaged in the hard-fought Kokoda Track campaign (July–November 1942) in New Guinea, were surprised by the physique and fighting prowess of the first Japanese troops they encountered. During that day's fighting [30 August 1942] we saw many Japanese of large physique, powerfully built men of six feet and over. These tough assault troops came from Hokkaidō, a northern Japanese island of freezing winters, where the bears roamed freely.

They were known in their own country as " Dosanko" a name for horses from Hokkaidō, and they withstood splendidly the harsh climate of the Owen Stanley Range. A 2/14th Battalion officer said to me: "I couldn't believe it when I saw these big bastards bearing down on us. I thought they must be Pp wa orang lidi in disguise." [90] Language [ edit ] Map of pre-1945 distribution of Ainu languages and dialects In 2008 Hohmann gave an estimate of fewer than 100 remaining speakers of the language; [91] other research (Vovin 1993) placed the number at fewer than 15 speakers.

Vovin has characterised the language as "almost extinct". [92] As a result of this, the study of the Ainu language is limited and is based largely on historical research. Historically, the status of the Ainu language was rather high and was also used by early Russian and Japanese administrative officials to communicate with each other and with the indigenous people.

Despite the small number of native speakers of Ainu, there is an active movement to revitalize the language, mainly in Hokkaidō, but also elsewhere such as Kanto. [93] Ainu oral literature has been documented both in hopes of safeguarding it for future generations, as well as using it as a teaching tool for language learners. [94] As of 2011 there has been an increasing number of second-language learners, especially in Hokkaidō, in large part due to the pioneering efforts of the late Ainu folklorist, activist and former Diet member Shigeru Kayano, himself a native speaker, who first opened an Ainu language school in 1987 funded by Ainu Kyokai.

[95] Although some researchers have attempted to show that the Ainu language and the Japanese language are related, modern scholars have rejected the idea that the relationship goes beyond contact (such as the mutual borrowing of words between Japanese and Ainu). No attempt to show a relationship with Ainu to any other language has gained wide acceptance, and linguists currently classify Ainu as a language isolate. [96] Most Ainu people speak either the Japanese language or the Russian language.

Concepts expressed with prepositions (such as to, from, by, in, and at) in English appear as postpositional forms in Ainu (postpositions come after the word that they modify). A single sentence in Ainu can comprise many added or agglutinated sounds or affixes that represent nouns or ideas. The Ainu language has had no indigenous system of writing, and has historically been transliterated using the Japanese kana or Russian Cyrillic.

As of 2019 [update] it is typically written either in katakana or in the Latin alphabet. Many of pp wa orang lidi Ainu dialects, even those from different extremities of Hokkaidō, were not mutually intelligible; however, all Ainu speakers understood the classic Ainu language of the Yukar, or epic stories. Without a writing system, the Ainu were masters of narration, with the Yukar and other forms of narration such as the Uepeker (Uwepeker) tales being committed to memory and related at gatherings which often lasted many hours or even days.

[97] Culture [ edit ] This section is largely based on an article in the out-of-copyright Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, which was produced in 1911. It should be brought up to date to reflect subsequent history or scholarship (including the references, if any).

When you have completed the pp wa orang lidi, replace this notice with a simple note on this article's talk page. ( November 2016) • View a machine-translated version of the Japanese article. • Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia.

• Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 2,968 articles in the main category, and specifying -topic= will aid in categorization. • Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality.

If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. • You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Japanese Wikipedia article at [[:ja:アイヌ文化]]; see its history for attribution. • You should also add the template {{Translated-ja-アイヌ文化}} to the talk page.

• For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation. Ainu ceremonial dress, British Museum Traditional Ainu culture was quite different from Japanese culture. According to Tanaka Sakurako from the University of British Columbia, the Ainu culture can be included into a wider "northern circumpacific region", referring to various indigenous cultures of Northeast Asia and "beyond the Bering Strait " in North America.

[98] Never shaving after a certain age, the men had full beards and moustaches. Men and women alike cut their hair level with the shoulders at the sides of the head, trimmed semi-circularly behind. The women tattooed ( anchi-piri) their mouths, and sometimes the forearms. The mouth tattoos were started at a young age with a small spot on the upper lip, gradually increasing with size. The soot deposited on a pot hung over a fire of birch bark was used for colour.

Their traditional dress was a robe spun from the inner bark of the elm tree, called attusi or attush. Various styles were made, and consisted generally of a simple short robe with straight sleeves, which was folded around the body, and tied with a band about the waist.

The sleeves ended at the wrist or pp wa orang lidi and the length generally was to pp wa orang lidi calves. Women also wore an undergarment of Japanese cloth.

[99] Ainu woman with mouth tattoos and live bear. Modern craftswomen weave and embroider traditional garments that command very high prices. In winter the skins of animals were worn, with leggings of deerskin and in Sakhalin, boots were made from the skin of dogs or salmon. [100] Ainu culture considers earrings, traditionally made from grapevines, to be gender neutral. Women also wear a beaded necklace called a tamasay.

[99] Their traditional cuisine consists of the flesh of bear, fox, wolf, badger, ox, or horse, as well as fish, fowl, millet, vegetables, herbs, and roots. They never ate raw fish or flesh; it was always boiled or roasted.

[99] Their traditional habitations were reed-thatched huts, the largest 20 ft (6 m) square, without partitions and having a fireplace in the center. There was no chimney, only a hole at the angle of the roof; there was one window on the eastern side and there were two doors. The house of the village head was used as a public meeting place when one was needed.

[99] Another kind of traditional Ainu house was called chise. [101] Instead of using furniture, they sat on the floor, which was covered with two layers of mats, one of rush, the other of a water plant with long sword shaped leaves ( Iris pseudacorus); and for beds they spread planks, hanging pp wa orang lidi around them on poles, and employing skins for coverlets.

The men used chopsticks when eating; the women had wooden spoons. [99] Ainu cuisine is not commonly eaten outside Ainu communities; only a few restaurants in Japan serve traditional Ainu dishes, mainly in Tokyo [102] and Hokkaidō.

[103] The functions of judgeship were not entrusted to chiefs; an indefinite number of a community's members sat in judgment upon its criminals. Capital punishment did not exist, nor did the community resort to imprisonment. Beating was considered a sufficient and final penalty.

However, in the case of murder, the nose and ears of the culprit were cut off or the tendons of his feet severed. [99] Hunting [ edit ] Bear hunting, 19th century The Ainu hunted from late autumn to early summer. [104] The reasons for this were, among others, that in late autumn, plant gathering, salmon fishing and other activities of securing food came to an end, and hunters readily found game in fields and mountains in which plants had withered.

A village possessed a hunting ground of its own or several villages used a joint hunting territory (iwor). [105] Heavy penalties were imposed on any outsiders trespassing on such hunting grounds or joint hunting territory.

The Ainu hunted Ussuri brown bears, Asian black bears, Ezo deer (a subspecies of sika deer), hares, red foxes, Japanese raccoon dogs, and other animals. [106] Ezo deer were a particularly important food resource for the Ainu, as were salmon. [107] They also hunted sea eagles such as white-tailed sea eagles, raven and other birds. [108] The Ainu hunted eagles to obtain their tail feathers, which they used in trade with the Japanese.

[109] Ainu people, c. 1840 The Ainu hunted with arrows and spears with poison-coated points. [110] They obtained the poison, called surku, from the roots and stalks of aconites. [111] The recipe for this poison was a household secret that differed from family to family.

They enhanced the poison with mixtures of roots and stalks of dog's bane, boiled juice of Mekuragumo (a type of harvestman), Matsumomushi ( Notonecta triguttata, a species of backswimmer), tobacco and other ingredients. They also used stingray stingers or skin covering stingers. [112] They hunted in groups with dogs. [113] Before the Ainu went hunting, particularly for bear and similar animals, they prayed to the god of fire, the house guardian god, to convey their wishes for a large catch, and to the god of mountains for safe hunting.

[114] The Ainu usually hunted bear during the spring thaw. At that time, bears were weak because they had not fed at all during their long hibernation. Ainu hunters caught hibernating bears or bears that had just left hibernation dens. [115] When they hunted bear in summer, they used a spring trap loaded with an arrow, called an amappo.

[115] The Ainu usually used arrows to hunt deer. [116] Also, they drove deer into a river or sea and shot them with arrows. For a large catch, a whole village would drive a herd of deer off a cliff and club them to death. [117] Fishing [ edit ] Further information: Itaomacip Fishing was important for the Ainu. They largely caught trout, primarily in summer, and salmon in autumn, as well as "ito" ( Japanese huchen), dace and other fish. Spears called " marek" were often used.

Other methods were " tesh" fishing, " uray" fishing and " rawomap" fishing. Many villages were built near rivers or along the coast. Pp wa orang lidi village or individual had a definite river fishing territory. Outsiders could not freely fish there and needed to ask the owner.

[118] Ornaments [ edit ] Men wore a crown called sapanpe for important ceremonies. Sapanpe was made from wood fibre with bundles of partially shaved wood. This crown had wooden figures of animal gods and other ornaments on its centre. [119] Men carried an emush (ceremonial sword) [120] secured by an emush at strap to their shoulders.

[121] An Ainu woman pp wa orang lidi Hokkaido, c. 1930 Women wore matanpushi, embroidered headbands, and ninkari, earrings. Ninkari was a metal ring with a ball. Matanpushi and ninkari were originally worn by men.

Furthermore, aprons called maidari now are a part of women's formal clothes. However, some old documents say that men wore maidari.

[ citation needed] Women sometimes wore a bracelet called tekunkani. [122] Women wore a necklace called rektunpe, a long, narrow strip of cloth with metal plaques.

[119] They wore a necklace that reached the breast called a tamasay or shitoki, usually made from glass balls. Some glass balls came from trade with the Asian continent. The Ainu also obtained glass balls secretly made by the Matsumae clan.

[123] Housing [ edit pp wa orang lidi Ainu traditional house. Ainu: "cise". A village is called a kotan in the Ainu language. Kotan were located in river basins and seashores where food was readily available, particularly in the basins of rivers through which salmon went upstream. In the early modern times, the Ainu people were forced to labor at the fishing grounds of the Japanese.

Ainu kotan were also forced to move near fishing grounds so that the Japanese could secure pp wa orang lidi labor force. When the Japanese moved to other fishing grounds, Ainu kotan were also forced to accompany them. As a result, the traditional kotan disappeared and large villages of several dozen families were formed around the fishing grounds. [ citation needed] Cise or cisey (houses) in a kotan were made of cogon grass, bamboo grass, bark, etc.

The length lay east to west or parallel to a river. A house was about seven meters by five with an entrance at the west end that also served as a storeroom.

pp wa orang lidi

The house had three windows, including the "rorun-puyar," a window located on the side facing the entrance (at the east side), through which gods entered and left and ceremonial tools were taken in and out.

The Ainu have regarded this window as sacred and have been told never to look in through it. A house had a fireplace near the entrance. The husband and wife sat on the fireplace's left side (called shiso). Children and guests sat facing them on the fireplace's right side (called harkiso). The house had a platform for valuables called iyoykir behind the shiso. The Ainu placed sintoko (hokai) and ikayop (quivers) there. [ citation needed] • A traditional Ainu marriage ceremony The Ainu people had various types of marriage.

A child was promised in marriage by arrangement between his or her parents and the parents of his or her betrothed or by a go-between. Pp wa orang lidi the betrothed reached a marriageable age, they were told who their spouse was to be.

There were also marriages based on mutual consent of both sexes. [124] In some areas, when a daughter reached a marriageable age, her parents let her live in a small room called tunpu annexed to the southern wall of her house. [125] The parents chose her spouse from men who visited her. The age of marriage was 17 to 18 years of age for men and 15 to 16 years of age for women, [119] who were tattooed.

At these ages, both sexes were regarded as adults. [126] When a man proposed to a woman, he visited her house, ate half a full bowl of rice handed to him by her, and returned the rest to her. If the woman ate the rest, she accepted his proposal.

If she did not and put it beside her, she rejected his proposal. [119] When a man became engaged to a woman or they learned that their engagement had been arranged, they exchanged gifts.

He sent her a small engraved knife, a workbox, a spool, and other gifts. She sent him embroidered clothes, coverings for the back of the hand, leggings and other handmade clothes. [127] Chishima Ainu working The worn-out fabric of old clothing was used for baby clothes because soft cloth was good for the skin of babies and worn-out material protected babies from gods of illness and demons due to these gods' abhorrence of dirty things.

Before a baby was breast-fed, they were given a decoction of the endodermis of alder and the roots of butterburs to discharge impurities. [128] Children were raised almost naked until about the ages of four to five. Even when they wore clothes, they did not wear belts and left the front of their clothes open. Subsequently, they wore bark clothes without patterns, such as attush, until coming of age.

Newborn babies were named ayay (a baby's crying), [129] shipo, poyshi (small excrement), and shion (old excrement). Children were called by these "temporary" names until the ages of two to three.

They were not given permanent names when they were born. [129] Their tentative names had a portion meaning "excrement" or "old things" to ward off the demon of ill-health. Some children were named based on their behaviour or habits. Other children were named after impressive events or after parents' wishes for the future of the children. When children were named, they were never given the same names as others. [130] Men wore loincloths and had their hair dressed properly for the first time at age 15–16.

Women were also considered adults at the age of pp wa orang lidi. They wore underclothes called mour [131] and had their hair dressed properly and wound waistcloths called raunkut and ponkut around their bodies.

[132] When women reached age 12–13, the lips, hands and arms were tattooed. When they reached age 15–16, their tattoos were completed. Thus were they qualified for marriage. [126] Religion [ edit ] Ainu traditional ceremony, c. 1930 The Ainu are traditionally animists, believing that everything in nature has a kamuy (spirit or god) on the inside.

The most important include Kamuy-huci, goddess of the hearth, Kim-un-kamuy, god of bears and mountains, and Repun Kamuy, god of the sea, fishing, and marine animals.

[133] Kotan-kar-kamuy is regarded as the creator of the world in the Ainu religion. [134] The Ainu have no priests by profession; instead the village chief performs whatever religious ceremonies are necessary. Ceremonies are confined to making libations of sake, saying prayers, and offering willow sticks with wooden shavings attached to them. [99] These sticks are called inaw (singular) and nusa (plural).

They are pp wa orang lidi on an altar used to "send back" the spirits of killed animals. Ainu ceremonies for sending back bears are called Iyomante. The Ainu people give thanks to the gods before eating and pray to the deity of fire in time of sickness.

They believe that their spirits are immortal, and that their spirits will be rewarded hereafter by ascending to kamuy mosir (Land of the Gods). [99] The Ainu are part of a larger collective of indigenous people who practice "arctolatry" or bear worship. [135] The Ainu believe that the bear holds particular importance as Kim-un Kamuy's chosen method of delivering the gift of the bear's hide and meat to humans.

[136] John Batchelor reported that the Ainu view the world as being a spherical ocean on which float many islands, a view based on the fact that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. He wrote that they believe the world rests on the back of a large fish, which when it moves causes earthquakes. [137] Ainu assimilated into mainstream Japanese society have adopted Buddhism and Shintō, while some northern Ainu were converted as members of the Russian Orthodox Church.

Regarding Ainu communities in Shikotanto ( 色丹) and other areas that fall within the Russian sphere of cultural influence, there have been cases of church construction as well as reports that some Ainu have decided to profess their Christian faith. [138] There have also been reports that the Russian Orthodox Church has performed some missionary projects in the Sakhalin Ainu community. However, not many people have converted and there are only reports of several persons who have converted.

Converts have been scorned as "Nutsa Ainu" (Russian Ainu) by other members of the Ainu community. Even so, the reports indicate that many Ainu have kept their faith in the deities of ancient times.

[139] According to a 2012 survey conducted by Hokkaidō University, a high percentage of Ainu are members of their household family religion which is Buddhism (especially Nichiren Shōshū Buddhism). However, it is pointed out that similar to the Japanese religious consciousness, there is not a strong feeling of identification with a particular religion, with Buddhist and traditional beliefs being part of their daily life culture. [140] Institutions [ edit ] Ainu cultural promotion centre and museum, in Sapporo (Sapporo Pirka Kotan) Most Hokkaidō Ainu and some other Ainu are members of an umbrella group called the Hokkaidō Utari Association.

It was originally controlled by the government to speed Ainu assimilation and integration into the Japanese nation-state. It now is run exclusively by Ainu and operates mostly independently of the government. Other key institutions include The Foundation for Research and Promotion of Ainu Culture (FRPAC), set up by the Japanese government after enactment of the Ainu Culture Law in 1997, the Hokkaidō University Center for Ainu and Indigenous Studies [141] established in 2007, as well as museums and cultural centers.

Ainu people living in Tokyo have also developed a vibrant political and cultural community. [142] [143] Since late 2011, the Ainu have cultural exchange and cultural cooperation with the Sámi people of northern Europe. Both the Sámi and the Ainu participate in the organization for Arctic indigenous peoples and the Sámi research office in Lapland (Finland).

[144] Currently, there are several Ainu museums and cultural parks. The most famous are: [145] • National Ainu Museum • Kawamura Kaneto Ainu museum • Ainu Kotan • Ainu folklore museum • Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples Ethnic rights [ edit ] Ainu people in front of a traditional building in Shiraoi, Hokkaido.

Legal action [ edit ] On 27 March 1997, the Sapporo District Court decided a landmark case that, for the first time in Japanese history, recognized pp wa orang lidi right of the Ainu people to enjoy their distinct culture and traditions.

The case arose because of a 1978 government plan to build two dams in the Saru River watershed in southern Hokkaidō. The dams were part of a series of development projects under the Second National Development Plan that were intended to industrialize the north of Japan. [146] The planned location for one of the dams was across the valley floor close to Nibutani village, [147] the home of a large community of Ainu people and an important center of Ainu culture and history.

[148] In the early 1980s when the government commenced construction on the dam, two Ainu landowners refused to agree to the expropriation of their land. These landowners were Kaizawa Tadashi and Kayano Shigeru—well-known and important leaders in the Ainu community. [149] After Kaizawa and Kayano declined to sell their land, the Hokkaidō Development Bureau applied for and was subsequently granted a Project Authorization, which required the men to vacate their land.

When their appeal of the Authorization was denied, Kayano and Kaizawa's son Koichii (Kaizawa died in 1992), filed suit against the Hokkaidō Development Bureau. The final decision denied the relief sought by the plaintiffs for pragmatic reasons, the dam was already standing, but the decision was nonetheless heralded as a landmark victory for the Ainu people. In short, nearly all of the plaintiffs' claims were recognized.

Moreover, the decision marked the first time Japanese case law acknowledged the Ainu as an indigenous people and contemplated the responsibility of the Japanese nation to the indigenous people within its borders. [147] : 442 The decision included broad fact-finding that underscored the long history of the oppression of the Ainu people by Japan's majority, referred to as Wa-Jin in the case and discussions about the case. [147] [150] The decision was issued on March 27, 1997, and because of the broad implications for Ainu rights, the plaintiffs decided not to appeal the decision, which became final two weeks later.

After the decision was issued, on 8 May 1997, the Diet passed the Ainu Culture Law and repealed the Ainu Protection Act—the 1899 law that had been the vehicle of Ainu oppression for almost one hundred years. [151] [152] While the Ainu Culture Law has been widely criticized for its shortcomings, the shift that it represents in Japan's view of the Ainu people is a testament to the importance of the Nibutani decision. In 2007 the 'Cultural Landscape along the Sarugawa River resulting from Ainu Tradition and Modern Settlement' was designated an Important Cultural Landscape of Japan.

[153] A later action seeking restoration of Ainu assets held in trust by the Japanese Government was dismissed in 2008. [154] Governmental bodies on Ainu affairs [ edit ] There is no single government body to coordinate Ainu affairs, rather, various advisory boards are set up by the Hokkaido government to advise specific matters.

One such committee operated in the late 1990s, [155] and its work resulted in the 1997 Ainu Culture Law [ ja]. [151] This panel's circumstances were criticized for including not even a single Ainu person among its members. [155] More recently, a panel was established in 2006, which notably was the first time an Ainu person was included.

It completed its work in 2008 issuing a major report that included an extensive historical record and called for substantial government policy changes towards the Ainu. [156] Formation of Ainu political party [ edit ] The Ainu Party ( アイヌ民族党, Ainu minzoku tō) was founded on 21 January 2012, [157] after a group of Ainu activists in Hokkaidō announced the formation of a political party for the Ainu on 30 October 2011.

The Ainu Association of Hokkaidō reported that Kayano Shiro, the son of the former Ainu leader Kayano Shigeru, will head the party. Their aim is to contribute to the realization of a multicultural and multiethnic society in Japan, along with rights for the Ainu.

[158] [159] Official promotion [ edit ] Japan [ edit ] The 2019 Ainu act simplified procedures for getting various permissions from authorities in regards to the traditional lifestyle of the Ainu and nurture the identity and cultures of the Ainu without defining the ethnic group by blood lineage. [160] The National Ainu Museum was opened on 12 July 2020. The museum had been scheduled to open on 24 April 2020, prior to the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games scheduled in the same year, in Shiraoi, Hokkaidō.

The park will be a base for the protection and promotion of Ainu people, culture and language. [161] The museum promotes the culture and habits of the Ainu people who are the original inhabitants of Hokkaidō.

Upopoy in Ainu language means "singing in a large group". The National Ainu Museum building has images and videos exhibiting the history and daily life of the Ainu. [162] Russia [ edit ] Main article: Ainu in Russia As a result of the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1875), the Kuril Islands – along with their Ainu inhabitants – came under Japanese administration.

A total of 83 North Kuril Ainu arrived in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky on September 18, 1877, after they decided to remain under Russian rule.

They refused the offer by Russian officials to move to new reservations in the Commander Islands. Finally a deal was reached in 1881 and the Ainu decided to settle in the village pp wa orang lidi Yavin. In March 1881, the group left Petropavlovsk and started the journey towards Yavin on foot. Four months later they arrived at their new homes. Another village, Golygino, was founded later.

Under Soviet rule, both the villages were forced to disband and residents were moved to the Russian-dominated Zaporozhye rural settlement in Ust-Bolsheretsky Raion.

[163] As a result of intermarriage, the three ethnic groups assimilated to form the Kamchadal community. In 1953, K. Omelchenko, the minister for the protection of military and state secrets in the USSR, banned the press from publishing any more information on the Ainu living in the USSR. This order was revoked after two decades.

[164] As of 2015 [update], the North Kuril Ainu of Zaporozhye form the largest Ainu subgroup in Russia. The Nakamura clan (South Kuril Ainu on their paternal side), the smallest group, numbers just six people residing in Petropavlovsk. On Sakhalin island, a few dozen people identify themselves as Sakhalin Ainu, but many more with partial Ainu ancestry do not acknowledge it. Most of the 888 Japanese people living in Russia (2010 Census) are of mixed Japanese–Ainu ancestry, although they do not acknowledge it (full Japanese ancestry gives them the right of visa-free entry to Japan.

[165]) Similarly, no one identifies themselves as Amur Valley Ainu, although people with partial descent live in Khabarovsk. There is no evidence of living descendants of the Kamchatka Ainu.

In the 2010 Census of Russia, close to 100 people tried to register themselves as ethnic Ainu in the village, but the governing council of Kamchatka Krai rejected their claim and enrolled them as ethnic Kamchadal.

[164] [166] In 2011, the leader of the Ainu community in Kamchatka, Alexei Vladimirovich Nakamura, requested that Vladimir Ilyukhin (Governor of Kamchatka) and Boris Nevzorov (Chairman of the State Duma) include the Ainu in the central list of the Indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East. This request was also turned down. [167] Ethnic Ainu living in Sakhalin Oblast and Khabarovsk Krai are not organized politically.

According to Alexei Nakamura, as of 2012 [update] only 205 Ainu live in Russia (up from just 12 people who self-identified as Ainu in 2008) and they along with the Kurile Kamchadals ( Itelmen of Kuril islands) are fighting for official recognition. [168] [169] Since the Ainu are not recognized in the official list of the peoples living in Russia, they are counted as people without nationality or as ethnic Russians or Kamchadal.

[170] The Ainu have emphasized that they were the natives of the Kuril islands and that the Japanese and Russians were both invaders. [171] In 2004, the small Ainu community living in Russia in Kamchatka Krai wrote a letter to Vladimir Putin, urging him to reconsider any move to award the Southern Kuril Islands to Japan.

In the letter they blamed the Japanese, the Tsarist Russians and the Soviets for crimes against the Ainu such as killings and assimilation, and also urged him to recognize the Japanese genocide against the Ainu people—which was turned down by Putin.

[172] Karafuto (Sakhalin) Ainu family behind their house in 1912. As of 2012 [update] both the Kuril Ainu and Kuril Kamchadal ethnic groups lack the fishing and hunting rights which the Russian government grants to the indigenous tribal communities of the far north. [173] [174] In March 2017, Alexei Nakamura revealed that plans for an Ainu village to be created in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and plans for an Ainu dictionary are underway. [175] Geography [ edit ] Historical extent of the Ainu The traditional locations of the Ainu are Hokkaido, Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, Kamchatka, and the northern Tohoku region.

Many of the place names that remain in Hokkaido and the Kuril Islands have a phonetic equivalent of the Ainu place names.

[ citation needed] In 1756 CE, Mitsugu Nyui was a kanjō-bugyō (a high-ranking Edo period official responsible for finance) of the Hirosaki Domain in the Tsugaru Peninsula. He implemented an pp wa orang lidi policy for Ainu who were engaged in fishing in the Tsugaru Peninsula.

Since then, Ainu culture was rapidly lost from Honshu. [ citation needed] After the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1875), most of the Ainu from the Kuril islands were moved to the island Shikotan by persuading the pioneers for difficult life supplies and for defense purposes (Kurishima Cruise Diary).

[ citation needed] In 1945, the Soviet Union invaded Japan and occupied Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. The Ainu who lived there were repatriated to their home country, Japan, except for those who indicated their willingness to remain. [176] Population [ edit ] See also: Ainu in Russia The population of the Ainu during the Edo period was a maximum of 26,800, but it has declined due to the epidemic of infectious diseases since it was regarded as a Tenryō territory.

According to the 1897 Russian census, 1,446 Ainu native speakers lived in Russian territory. [177] Currently, there are no Ainu items in the Japanese national census, and no fact-finding has been conducted at national institutions. Therefore, the exact number of Ainu people is unknown. However, multiple surveys were conducted that provide an indication of the total population.

According to a 2006 Hokkaido Agency survey, there were 23,782 Ainu people in Hokkaido. [178] [179] When viewed by the branch office (currently the Promotion Bureau), there are many in the Iburi / Hidaka branch office. In addition, the definition of "Ainu" by the Hokkaido Agency in this survey is "a person who seems to have inherited the blood of Ainu" or "the same livelihood as those with marriage or adoption." Additionally, if it is denied pp wa orang lidi the other person is an Ainu then it is not subject to investigation.

According to a 1971 survey, there were 77,000 survey results. There is also a survey that the total number of Ainu living in Japan is 200,000. [1] However, there's no other survey that supports this estimate.

Many Ainu live pp wa orang lidi Hokkaido. A 1988 survey estimated that the population of Ainu living in Tokyo was 2,700. [178] According to a 1989 survey report on Utari living in Tokyo, it is estimated that the area around Tokyo alone exceeds 10% of Ainu living in Pp wa orang lidi, and there are more than 10,000 Ainu living in the Tokyo metropolitan area. In addition to Japan and Russia, it was reported in 1992 that there was a descendant of Kuril Ainu in Poland, but there are also indications that it is a descendant of the Aleut.

[180] On the other hand, the descendant of the children born in Poland by the Polish anthropologist Bronisław Piłsudski, who was the leading Ainu researcher and left a vast amount of research material such as photographs and wax tubes, was born in Japan. According to a 2017 survey, the Ainu population in Hokkaido is about 13,000. This has dropped sharply from 24,000 in 2006, but this is because the number of members of the Ainu Association of Hokkaido, which is cooperating with the survey, has decreased, and interest in protecting personal information has increased.

It is thought that pp wa orang lidi number of people who cooperated is decreasing, and that it does not match the actual number of people.

[181] Subgroups [ edit ] These are unofficial sub groups of the Ainu people with location and population estimates. Subgroup Location Description Population Year Hokkaido Ainu Hokkaido Hokkaidō Ainu pp wa orang lidi predominant community of Ainu in the world today): A Japanese census in 1916 returned 13,557 pure-blooded Ainu in addition to 4,550 multiracial individuals. [182] A 2017 survey says the Ainu population in Hokkaido is about 13,000. It decreased sharply from 24,000 in 2006.

[181] 13,000 2017 Tokyo Ainu Tokyo Tokyo Ainu (a modern age migration of Hokkaidō Ainu highlighted in a documentary film released in 2010) [142] According to a 1989 survey, more than 10,000 Ainu live in the Pp wa orang lidi metropolitan area. 10,000 1989 †Tohoku Ainu Tohoku Tohoku Ainu (from Honshū, no officially acknowledged population exists): Forty-three Ainu households scattered throughout the Tohoku region were reported during the 17th century.

[183] There are people who consider themselves descendants of Shimokita Ainu on the Shimokita Peninsula, while the people on the Tsugaru Peninsula are generally considered Yamato but may be descendants of Tsugaru Ainu after cultural assimilation.

[184] Extinct 17th century Sakhalin Ainu Sakhalin Sakhalin Ainu: Pure-blooded individuals may be surviving in Hokkaidō. From both Northern and Southern Sakhalin, a total of 841 Ainu were relocated to Hokkaidō in 1875 by Japan.

Only a few in remote interior areas remained, as the island was turned over to Russia. Even when Japan was granted Southern Sakhalin in 1905, only a handful returned. The Japanese census of 1905 counted only 120 Sakhalin Ainu (down from 841 in 1875, 93 in Karafuto and 27 in Hokkaidō). The Soviet census of 1926 counted 5 Ainu, while several of their multiracial children were recorded as ethnic Nivkh, Slav or Uilta.

• North Sakhalin: Only five pure-blooded individuals were recorded during the 1926 Soviet Census in Northern Sakhalin. Most of the Sakhalin Ainu (mainly from coastal areas) were relocated to Hokkaidō in 1875 by Japan. The few that remained (mainly in the remote interior) were mostly married to Russians as can be seen from the works of Bronisław Piłsudski. [185] • Southern Sakhalin ( Karafuto): Japanese rule until 1945. Japan evacuated almost all the Ainu to Hokkaidō after World War II.

Isolated individuals might have remained on Sakhalin. [186] In 1949, there were about 100 Ainu living on Soviet Sakhalin. [187] 100 Sakhalin 1949 †Northern Kuril Ainu Northern Kuril islands Northern Kuril Ainu (no known living population in Japan, existence not recognized by Russian government in Kamchatka Krai): Also known as Kurile in Russian records.

Were under Russian rule until 1875. First came under Japanese rule after the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1875). Major population was on the island of Shumshu, with a few others on islands like Paramushir. Altogether they numbered 221 in 1860. They had Russian names, spoke Russian fluently and were Russian Orthodox in religion. As the pp wa orang lidi were given to the Japanese, more than a hundred Ainu fled to Kamchatka along with their Russian employers (where they were assimilated into the Kamchadal population).

[187] [188] Only about half remained pp wa orang lidi Japanese rule. To derussify the Kurile, the entire population of 97 individuals was relocated to Shikotan in 1884, given Japanese names, and the children were enrolled in Japanese schools.

Unlike the other Ainu groups, the Kurile failed to adjust to their new surroundings and by 1933 only 10 individuals were alive (plus another 34 multiracial individuals). The last group of 20 individuals (including a few pure-bloods) were evacuated to Hokkaidō in 1941, where they vanished as a separate ethnic group soon after.

[185] Extinct 20th century †Southern Kuril Ainu Southern Kuril islands Southern Kuril Ainu (no known living population): Numbered almost 2,000 people (mainly in Kunashir, Iturup and Urup) during the 18th century. In 1884, their population had decreased to 500. Around 50 individuals (mostly multiracial) who remained in 1941 were evacuated to Hokkaidō by the Japanese soon after World War II.

[187] The last full-blooded Southern Kuril Ainu was Suyama Nisaku, who died in 1956. [189] The last of the tribe (partial ancestry), Tanaka Kinu, died on Hokkaidō in 1973. [189] Extinct 1973 †Kamchatka Pp wa orang lidi Kamchatka Kamchatka Ainu (no known living population): Known as Kamchatka Kurile in Russian records. Ceased to exist as a separate ethnic group after their defeat in 1706 by the Russians.

Individuals were assimilated into the Kurile and Kamchadal ethnic groups. Last recorded in the 18th century by Russian explorers. [96] Extinct 18th century †Amur Valley Ainu Amur River (Eastern Russia) Amur Valley Ainu (probably none remain): A few individuals married to ethnic Russians and ethnic Ulchi reported by Bronisław Piłsudski in the early 20th century.

[190] Only 26 pure-blooded individuals were recorded during the 1926 Russian Census in Nikolaevski Okrug (present-day Nikolayevsky District, Khabarovsk Krai). [191] Probably assimilated into the Slavic rural population. Although no one identifies as Ainu nowadays in Khabarovsk Krai, there are a large number of ethnic Ulch with partial Ainu ancestry.

[192] [193] Extinct 20th century In popular culture [ edit ] This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sources, rather than simply listing appearances. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ( May 2022) • The characters Nakoruru, Rimururu, and Rera from the SNK game series Samurai Shodown are Ainu.

• The manga and anime series Golden Kamuy has an Ainu girl, Asirpa, as one of the protagonists, and features many aspects of Ainu culture. [194] • The character Fredzilla from Big Hero 6 is of Ainu descent. • The character Okuru from the anime series Samurai Champloo is the sole survivor of an Ainu village wiped out by disease.

• Usui Horokeu, also known as Horohoro, from the manga series Shaman King is a member of an Ainu tribe. • "Ainu" is a playable nation in the game Europa Universalis IV.

• The history of the island of Hokkaido, and of the Ainu people, are part of the plot of a chapter in the manga Silver Spoon. [195] • A coming-of-age film, Ainu Mosir (2020), was released in Japan on 17 October 2020. The film portrays Kanto, a sensitive 14 year-old Ainu boy, who struggled to come to terms with his father's death and his identity. The film also focuses on the dilemma of controversial bear sacrifice under the shadow of the modern Japanese society and the Ainu's heavy reliance on tourists for their livelihood.

Along with other restless teenagers, Kanto is under pressure to retain their Ainu identity and participate in the cultural rituals. [196] [197] • In the James Bond pp wa orang lidi You Pp wa orang lidi Live Twice and film, Bond's character spends some time living pp wa orang lidi an Ainu village and (in the film) is supposedly disguised as one of the local people, 'marrying' a local pearl fisher ( ama) as part of his cover.

See also [ edit ] • Ainu-ken • Pp wa orang lidi Ifukube • Bibliography of the Ainu • Bikki Sunazawa • Constitution of Japan • Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples • Emishi • Aterui • Ethnocide • Genocide of indigenous peoples • Hiram M. Hiller, Jr.

• Indigenous peoples • Kankō Ainu • Takashi Ukaji • Shigeru Kayano • Nibutani Dam Ainu culture [ edit ] • Ainu music • Ainu flag • Ainu genre painting • Ikupasuy • Iomante • Matagi • Yukar Ethnic groups in Japan [ edit ] • Ethnic issues in Japan • Human rights in Japan • Ryukyuan people • Ryūkyū independence movement • Nivkhs References [ edit ] Citations [ edit ] • ^ a b c Poisson, Barbara Aoki (2002). The Ainu of Japan.

Minneapolis: Lerner Publications. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-82254-176-9. • ^ a b "Results of the All-Russian Population Census of 2010 in relation to the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of individual nationalities". Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian).

March 2019. Archived from the original on July 15, 2012. Retrieved January 28, 2013. • ^ "2010 Census: Population by ethnicity". Federal State Statistics (in Russian). Archived from the original on April 24, 2012. • ^ Gordon, Raymond G. Jr., ed. (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (15th ed.).

Dallas: SIL International. ISBN 978-1-55671-159-6. OCLC 224749653. • ^ a b Suzuki, Yuka (December 6, 2012). "Ryukyuan, Ainu People Genetically Similar". Asian Scientist. Archived from the original on June 16, 2016. Retrieved June 11, 2016. • ^ Tajima, Atsushi; Hayami, Masanori; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Juji, Takeo; Matsuo, Masafumi; Marzuki, Sangkot; Omoto, Keiichi; Horai, Satoshi (April 1, 2004). "Genetic origins of the Ainu inferred from combined DNA analyses of maternal and paternal lineages".

Journal of Human Genetics. 49 (4): 187–193. doi: 10.1007/s10038-004-0131-x. PMID 14997363. pp wa orang lidi ^ Cobb, Ellie (August 11, 2020). "Japan's unknown indigenous cuisine". www.bbc.com. Retrieved August 16, 2020. • ^ "Ainu Indigenous Source 1". October 25, 2017. • ^ "Ainu Pp wa orang lidi Source 2". • ^ Shibatani, Masayoshi (1990). The Languages of Japan. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-521-36918-3. Archived from the original on January 6, 2017. Retrieved September 21, 2016.

• ^ Li, David C.S.; Lee, Sherman (2004). "Bilingualism in East Asia". In Tej K. Bhatia; William C. Ritchie (eds.). The Handbook of Bilingualism. Malden: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 742–779. ISBN 9780470756744. • ^ Honna, Nobuyuki; Tajima, Hiroko Tina; Minamoto, Kunihiko (2000). "Japan". In Kam, Ho Wah; Wong, Ruth Y.

L. (eds.). Language Policies and Language Education: The Impact in East Asian Countries in the Next Decade. Singapore: Times Academic Press. ISBN 978-9-81210-149-5. • ^ Hohmann, S.

(2008). "The Ainu's modern struggle". World Watch. 21 (6): 20–24. • ^ de Graaf, Tjeerd and Shiraishi, Hidetoshi (2013). Documentation and Revitalisation of two Endangered Languages in Eastern Asia: Nivkh and Ainu (PDF).

Verlag Kulturstiftung Sibirien. pp. 49–64. ISBN 978-3-942883-12-2. {{ cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link) • ^ "The hardship pp wa orang lidi the Ainu people". Mt. Apoi – UNESCO Global Geopark. The culture of Hokkaido's indigenous Ainu people is considered to have originated with the marine-centred Okhotsk culture that prevailed from the 5th century to the 9th century and Satsumon culture, which developed under strong influence from the culture of Honshu (Japan's main island) and thrived from the 7th century to the 12th century.

• ^ Sato, Takehiro; et al. (2007). "Origins and genetic features of the Okhotsk people, revealed by ancient mitochondrial DNA analysis". Journal of Human Genetics. 52 (7): 618–627. doi: 10.1007/s10038-007-0164-z. PMID 17568987. • ^ Leeming, David (2001). The Dictionary of Asian Mythology.

Oxford University Press. p. 10. • ^ 第59回 交易の民アイヌ VII 元との戦い (in Japanese). Asahikawa City. June 2, 2010. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved March 2, 2011. • ^ "公益社団法人 北海道アイヌ協会". 公益社団法人北海道アイヌ協会 (in Japanese). Archived from the original on August 8, 2019. Retrieved August 7, 2019. • ^ Weiner, M., ed. (1997). Japan's Minorities: The Illusion of Homogeneity.

London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-41515-218-1. • ^ "Island of the Spirits – Origins of the Ainu". NOVA Online. PBS. Archived from the original on April 29, 2008. Retrieved May 8, 2008. • ^ Walker, Brett L.

(2001). The Conquest of Ainu Lands: Ecology and Culture in Japanese Expansion,1590-1800. NIPPON FOUNDATION (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 133, 134. ISBN 0520227360. • ^ ( Sei Wada, ‘ The Natives of the Lower reaches of the Amur as Represented in Chinese Records’, Memoirs of the Research Department of Toyo Bunko, no. 10, 1938, pp. 40‒102) (Shina no kisai ni arawaretaru Kokuryuko karyuiki no dojin 支那の記載に現はれたる黒龍江下流域の土人(The natives on the lower reaches of the Amur river as represented in Chinese records)Tõagaku 5vol.

1Sept. 1939.) Wada, ‘Natives of the Lower Reaches of the Amur River’, p. 82. • ^ Morris-Suzuki, Tessa (November 15, 2020). "Indigenous Diplomacy: Sakhalin Ainu (Enchiw) in the Shaping of Modern East Asia (Part 1: Traders and Travellers)". Japan Focus: The Asia-Pacific Journal. 18 (22). • ^ Forsyth, James (1994). A History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony 1581-1990 (illustrated, reprint, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 214. ISBN 0521477719. • ^ a b Walker, Brett (2001).

The Conquest of Ainu Lands: Ecology and Culture in Japanese Expansion, 1590–1800. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 49–56, 61–71, 172–176. ISBN 978-0-52022-736-1. • ^ Lewallen (2016). The fabric of indigeneity : Ainu identity, gender, and settler colonialism in Japan. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. pp. 131–142. ISBN 978-0-8263-5736-6. • ^ Shelton, Dinah (2005).

Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. Vol. 2. Macmillan Reference. • ^ Howell, David (1997). "The Meiji State and the Logic of Ainu 'Protection' ". In Hardacre, Helen (ed.). New Directions in the Study of Meiji Japan. Leiden: Brill Publishers. p. 614. ISBN 978-9-00410-735-9. • ^ (Mamiya Rinzō (trans. and ed. John Harrison), ‘Kita Ezo Zutsetsu or a Description of the Island of North Ezo by Mamiya Rinzō’, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol.

99, no. 2, 1955, pp. 93‒117) Mamiya, ‘Kita Ezo Zutsetsu’, 107. The name ‘Yaepikarainu’ is my approximation based the Manchu version of his name, which was given as ‘Yabirinu’, and the Japanese version which was given as ‘Yaepikaran’, and the Ainu honorific naming convention of adding ‘-ainu’ to the end of the names of elders.

• ^ Morris-Suzuki, Tessa (November 15, 2020). "Indigenous Diplomacy: Sakhalin Ainu (Enchiw) in the Shaping of Modern East Asia (Part 1: Traders and Travellers)". Japan Focus: The Asia-Pacific Journal. 18 (22).

pp wa orang lidi

• ^ a b Sjöberg, Katarina (1993). The Return of the Ainu. Studies in Anthropology and History. Vol. 9. Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-3-71865-401-7. • ^ Loos, Noel; Osani, Takeshi, eds. (1993). Indigenous Minorities and Education: Australian and Japanese Perspectives on their Indigenous Peoples, the Ainu, Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders.

Tokyo: Sanyusha Publishing Co., Ltd. ISBN 978-4-88322-597-2. [ page needed] • ^ Fogarty, Philippa (June 6, 2008). "Recognition at last for Japan's Ainu". BBC News. BBC. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017. Retrieved June 7, 2008.

• ^ Siddle, Richard (1996). Race, Resistance, and the Ainu of Japan. Routledge. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-41513-228-2. • ^ Sjöberg, Katarina (1993). The Return of the Ainu. Studies in Anthropology and History. Vol. 9. Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers. p. 117. ISBN 978-3-71865-401-7. • ^ Levinson, David (2002). Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. Vol. 1. Charles Scribner's Sons.

p. 72. ISBN 978-0-684-80617-4. • ^ Yamada, Yoshiko (2010). "A Preliminary Study of Language Contact around Uilta in Sakhalin". Journal of the Center for Northern Humanities. 3: 59–75. hdl: 2115/42939. • ^ Walker, Brett (2001). The Conquest of Ainu Lands: Ecology and Culture in Japanese Expansion, 1590–1800. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-52022-736-1. • ^ a b Siddle, Richard (1997).

Japan's Minorities. London: Pp wa orang lidi. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-415-13008-0. • ^ Shim, Karen (May 31, 2004). "Will the Ainu language die?".

TalkingITGlobal. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 13, 2015. • ^ Yokoyama, Yuzuru (n.d.). "Human Right Issues on the Ainu People in Japan". China.org. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved December 13, 2015. • ^ "アイヌ⇔ダブ越境!異彩を放つOKIの新作". HMV Japan (in Japanese). May 23, 2006. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved March 26, 2011. • ^ "First nationwide survey on Ainu discrimination to be carried out". Japan Times. August 29, 2014.

ISSN 0447-5763. Archived from the original on December 24, 2015. Retrieved December 13, 2015. • ^ a b Oguma, Eiji (February 5, 2020). "「麻生発言」で考えた…なぜ「日本は単一民族の国」と思いたがるのか?". Mainichi Shimbun. Archived from the pp wa orang lidi on October 17, 2021.

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Outlook Traveller. • ^ Камчадальские айны добиваются признания [ Kamchadal Ainu seek recognition] (in Russian). vostokmediaTV. March 21, 2011. Archived from the original on October 15, 2015. Retrieved October 18, 2015 – via YouTube. • ^ a b Айны [Ainu]. Kamchatka-Etno (in Russian). 2008. Archived from the original on June 23, 2012. • ^ В России снова появились айны – самый загадочный народ Дальнего востока [In Russia, the Ainu appear again – the most mysterious people of the Far East].

5-tv.ru (in Russian). March 22, 2011. Archived from the original on July 19, 2012. Retrieved Pp wa orang lidi 22, 2012. • ^ Айны – древние и таинственные [Ainu – ancient and mysterious]. russiaregionpress.ru (in Russian). March 22, 2011.

Archived from the original on December 29, 2016 pp wa orang lidi. Retrieved February 21, 2012. • ^ Айны просят включить их в Единый перечень коренных народов России [Aina ask to be included in the Unified List of Indigenous Peoples of Russia]. severdv.ru (in Russian). July 5, 2011.

Archived from the original on March 25, 2016. • ^ Алексей Накамура [Alexey Nakamura]. nazaccent.ru (in Russian). January 17, 2012. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013. Retrieved February 21, 2012. • ^ Skvortsov, Ivan (January 29, 2012). Айны – борцы с самураями [Ainu – wrestlers with samurai]. Сегодня.ру (in Russian). Archived from the original on February 7, 2012.

Retrieved February 21, 2012. • ^ Bogdanova, Svetlana (April 3, 2008). Без национальности: Представители малочисленного народа хотят узаконить свой статус [Without nationality: Representatives of a small number of people want to legitimize their status].

Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian). Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved February 21, 2012. • ^ McCarthy, Terry (September 22, 1992). "Ainu people lay ancient claim to Kurile Islands: The hunters and fishers who lost their land to the Russians and Japanese are gaining the confidence to demand their rights". The Independent.

Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2017. • ^ Yampolsky, Vladimir. Трагедия Российского Дальнего Востока [Tragedy of the Russian Far Pp wa orang lidi. Kamchatskoye Vremya (in Russian). Archived from the original on November 3, 2013. Retrieved February 22, 2012. • ^ Представители малочисленного народа айну на Камчатке хотят узаконить свой статус [Representatives of the Ainu people in Kamchatka want to legitimize their status].

indigenous.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on May 13, 2013. Retrieved February 21, 2012. • ^ "The Ainu: one of Russia's indigenous peoples".

Voice of Russia. Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. • ^ Tanaka, Takayuki (March 3, 2017). "Russian Ainu leader calls for greater respect". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on December 21, 2019. Retrieved February 4, 2020. • pp wa orang lidi 「昭和21年(1946年)12月19日、東京でデレヴャンコ中将と日本における連合国軍最高司令官代表ポール・J・ミューラー中将が、ソ連領とのその支配下にある地域からの日本人捕虜と民間人の本国送還問題に関する協定に署名した。協定では、日本人捕虜と民間人はソ連領とその支配下のある地域から本国送還されなければならない、と記されていた。日本市民はソ連領から自由意志の原則に基づいて帰還することが特に但し書きされていた。」(ネットワークコミュニティきたみ・ 市史編さんニュース №100 ヌプンケシ 平成17年1月15日発行) pp wa orang lidi ^ "Демоскоп Weekly – Приложение.

Справочник статистических показателей" (in Russian). Archived from the original on July 3, 2019. Retrieved March 16, 2019."Демоскоп Weekly – Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей" (in Russian). Archived from the original on July 1, 2019. Retrieved March 16, 2019. • ^ a b 北海道アイヌ協会 Archived May 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine • ^ Science Council of Japan Area Studies Committee Anthropology Subcommittee (日本学術会議 地域研究委員会 人類学分科会) (September 15, 2011).

"Report Ainu Policy and National Understanding (PDF)" (PDF). Science Council of Japan. Retrieved January 8, 2021. • ^ 「しかしアキヅキトシユキは実際には1975年の樺太・千島交換条約の際に千島に住んでいた90人のアレウト族の末裔だったのではないかと推測している。そのアイヌがどこのだれのことを示しているのかということに関してそれ以上の情報はでてこなかった」 David L.

Howell (February 7, 2005). Geographies of Identity in Nineteenth-Century Japan. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-93087-2. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 13, 2014. 小坂洋右 (1992). 流亡: 日露に追われた北千島アイヌ-和書-要ページ番号. 北海道新聞社. ISBN 9784893639431. • ^ a b "北海道のアイヌ、10年余で4割減 実態反映せず". 日本経済新聞. August 27, 2018. Archived from the original on September 6, 2018.

Retrieved September 7, 2018. • ^ Siddle, Richard (1996). Race, Resistance, and the Ainu of Japan. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-41513-228-2. • ^ 本多勝一 (2000). Harukor: An Ainu Woman's Tale. University of California Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-520-21020-2. • ^ "VI 〈東北〉史の意味と射程".

Joetsu University of Education (in Japanese). Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved March 2, 2011. • ^ a b Howell, David L. (2005). Geographies of Identity in 19th Century Japan. University of California Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-520-24085-8. • ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1926 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам РСФСР. дальне-Восточныи: Саxалинскии округ" [All-Union Population Census of 1926.

National composition of the population by regions of the RSFSR. Far East: Sakhalin District]. Central Statistical Office of the USSR. 1929. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2011 – via Демоскоп Weekly.

• ^ a b c Wurm, Stephen Adolphe; Mühlhäusler, Peter; Tyron, Darrell T. (1996). Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas: Maps.

Walter de Gruyter. p. 1010. ISBN 978-3-11-013417-9. • ^ Minichiello, Sharon (1998). Japan's Competing Modernities: Issues in Culture and Democracy, 1900–1930. University of Hawaii Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-8248-2080-0. • ^ a b Harrison, Scott (2007). The Indigenous Ainu of Japan and the 'Northern Territories' Dispute (Thesis). hdl: 10012/2765. • ^ Piłsudski, Bronisław; Majewicz, Alfred F. (December 30, 2004). Materials for the Study of the Ainu Language and Folklore 2: Volume 3.

Walter de Gruyter. p. 816. ISBN 978-3-11-017614-8. • ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1926 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам РСФСР.

дальне-Восточныи: Николаевскии округ [ All-Union Population Census of 1926. National composition of the population by regions of the RSFSR. Far East: Nikolaevsky District]. Central Statistical Office of the USSR.

1929. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2011 – via Демоскоп Weekly. • ^ Shaman: an international journal for Shamanistic research, Volumes 4–5, p.155. • ^ Piłsudski, Bronisław; Majewicz, Alfred F. (December 30, 2004). Materials for the Study of the Ainu Language and Folklore 2: Volume 3.

Walter de Gruyter. p. 37. ISBN 978-3-11-017614-8. • ^ Rogers, Krista (April 4, 2016). "Satoru Noda's Golden Kamuy manga series wins the 2016 Manga Taisho award". SoraNews24. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020. Retrieved February 27, 2020. • ^ Donovan, Caitlin (October 7, 2014). "The Philosophy of Fullmetal Alchemist's Hiromu Arakawa". The Mary Sue. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020. Retrieved February 27, 2020. • ^ "Ainu Mosir the Movie" (in Japanese).

Retrieved November 30, 2020. • ^ "Ainu Mosir". Tribeca Film. Archived from the original on November 17, 2020. Retrieved November 30, 2020. Sources [ edit ] • Japan Times. Ainu Plan Group for Upper House Run, October 31, 2011 • Hudson, Mark J (1999).

"Ainu Ethnogenesis and the Northern Fujiwara". Arctic Anthropology. 36 (1/2): 73–83. JSTOR 40316506. • Levin, Mark A. (2001). "Essential Commodities and Racial Justice: Using Constitutional Protection of Japan's Indigenous Ainu People to Inform Understandings of the United States and Japan".

New York University Journal of International Law and Politics. 33: 419, 447. SSRN 1635451. Further reading [ edit ] • Batchelor, John (1901). "On the Ainu Term 'Kamui". The Ainu and Their Folklore. London: Religious Tract Society. • Etter, Carl (2004) [1949]. Ainu Folklore: Traditions and Culture of the Vanishing Aborigines of Japan. Whitfish, MT: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4179-7697-3. • Fitzhugh, William W.; Dubreuil, Chisato O. (1999). Ainu: Spirit of a Northern People. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

pp wa orang lidi

ISBN 978-0-295-97912-0. OCLC 42801973. • Honda Katsuichi (1993). Ainu Minzoku (in Japanese). Tokyo: Asahi Shimbun Publishing. ISBN 978-4-02-256577-8. OCLC 29601145. • Ichiro Hori (1968). Folk Religion in Japan: Continuity and Change. Haskell lectures on History of religions. Vol. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

• Junko Habu (2004). Ancient Jomon of Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77670-7. OCLC 53131386. • Hitchingham, Masako Yoshida (trans.), Act for the Promotion of Ainu Culture & Dissemination of Knowledge Regarding Ainu Traditions, Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Journal, vol.

1, no. 1 (2000). • Kayano, Shigeru (1994). Our Land Was A Forest: An Ainu Memoir. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-1880-6. ISBN 978-0-8133-1880-6. • Landor, A. Henry Savage (1893). Alone with the Hairy Ainu. Or, 3,800 miles on a Pack Saddle in Yezo and a Cruise to the Kurile Islands. London: John Murray. • Levin, Mark (2001). Essential Commodities and Racial Justice: Using Constitutional Protection of Japan's Indigenous Ainu People to Inform Understandings of the United States and Japan (2001).

Vol. 33. New York University of International Law and Politics. p. 419. SSRN 1635451. • Levin, Mark (1999). "Kayano et al. v. Hokkaido Expropriation Committee: 'The Nibutani Dam Decision' ". International Legal Materials. 38: 394. doi: 10.1017/S0020782900013061. SSRN 1635447. • Siddle, Richard (1996). Race, Resistance and the Ainu of Japan. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-13228-2.

OCLC 243850790. • Walker, Brett (2001). The Conquest of Ainu Lands: Ecology and Culture in Japanese Expansion, 1590–1800. Berkeley: University of California Press.

ISBN 978-0-520-22736-1. OCLC 45958211. • John Batchelor (1901). The Ainu and their folk-lore. London: Religious Tract Society. p. 603. ISBN 978-0-524-04857-3. Retrieved March 1, 2012. (Harvard University)(Digitized January 24, 2006) • John Batchelor (1892).

The Ainu of Japan: the religion, superstitions, and general history of the hairy aborigines of Japan. London: Religious Tract Society. p. 336. Retrieved March 1, 2012. • Basil Hall Chamberlain, ed. (1888). Aino Folk-Tales. Forgotten Books. ISBN 978-1-60620-087-2. Retrieved March 1, 2012. 1606200879 • Basil Hall Chamberlain (1888). Aino folk-tales: By Basil Hall Chamberlain. With introduction by Edward B. Taylor.

Publications of the Folklore Society. Vol. 22. Saxony: Privately printed for the Folk-lore Society. p. 57. Retrieved March 1, 2012 – via C.G. Röder, Ltd., Leipsic. (Indiana University) (digitized September 3, 2009) • Batchelor, John; Miyabe, Kingo (1898).

Ainu economic plants. Vol. 21. p. 43. Retrieved April 23, 2012. [Original from Harvard University Digitized Jan 30, 2008] [YOKOHAMA : R. MEIKLEJOHN & CO., NO 49.] The Collected Works of Bronisław Piłsudski, translated and edited by Alfred F. Majewicz with the assistance of Elzbieta Majewicz. • Volume 1: The Aborigines of Sakhalin • Volume 2: Materials for the Study of the Ainu Language and Folklore (Kraków 1912) • Volume 3: Materials for the Study of the Ainu Language and Folklore II • Volumn 4: Materials for the Study of Tungusic Languages and Folklore External links [ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ainu.

Wikisource has original text related to this article: Aino Folk-Tales, Chamberlain, B. H. Folk-Lore Society, 1888. (Members edition, without expurgation) Organizations • Hokkaido Utari Kyokai/Ainu Association of Hokkaido (in Japanese and English) • Sapporo Pirka Kotan Ainu Cultural Center • Foundation for Research and Promotion of Ainu Culture (centers located in Sapporo and Tokyo) (in Japanese and English) • Hokkaido University Center for Ainu and Indigenous Studies • Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Ainu in Samani, Hokkaidō • Foundation for Ainu Culture (in Japanese and English) Museums and exhibits • Smithsonian Institution • The Boone Collection • Nibutani Ainu Cultural Museum (in Japanese) • The Ainu Museum at Shiraoi • Ainu Komonjo (18th & 19th century records) – Ohnuki Collection • The Regions: North America—Ainu–North American cultural similarities Articles • "Japan's Ainu hope new identity leads to more rights" in The Christian Science Monitor, June 9, 2008 • A Salmon's Life: An Incredible Journey (Columbia River basin, June 8, 2016)—Posterback Activities Video • "A Trip through Japan with the YWCA (ca.

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• Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the U.S., affecting 40 million adults in the United States age 18 and older, or 18.1% of the population every year. • Anxiety disorders are highly treatable, yet only 36.9% of those suffering receive treatment. • People with an anxiety disorder are three to five times more likely to go to the doctor and six times more likely to be hospitalized for psychiatric disorders than those who do not suffer from anxiety disorders.

• Anxiety disorders develop from a complex set of risk factors, including genetics, brain chemistry, personality, and life events. Anxiety and Depression It's not uncommon for someone with an anxiety disorder to also suffer from depression or vice versa. Nearly one-half of those diagnosed with depression are also diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Find out more about depression. Facts Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) GAD affects 6.8 million adults, or 3.1% of the U.S.

population, yet only 43.2% are receiving treatment. Women are twice as likely to be affected as men. GAD often co-occurs with major depression. Panic Disorder (PD) PD affects 6 million adults, or 2.7% of the U.S. population. Women are twice as likely to be affected as men. Social Anxiety Disorder SAD affects 15 million adults, or 6.8% of the U.S. pp wa orang lidi.

SAD is equally common among men and women and typically begins around age 13. According to a 2007 ADAA survey, 36% of people with social anxiety disorder report experiencing symptoms for 10 or more years before seeking help.

Specific Phobias Specific phobias affect 19 million adults, or 8.7% of the U.S. population. Women are twice as likely to be affected as men. Symptoms typically begin in pp wa orang lidi the average age-of-onset is 7 years old. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are closely related to anxiety disorders, which some may experience at the same pp wa orang lidi, along with depression.

Stress Everyone experiences stress and anxiety at one time or another. The difference between them is that stress is a response to a threat in a situation. Anxiety is a reaction to the stress. Read APA: Stress in America: A National Mental Health Crisis (Oct 2020) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) OCD affects 2.2 million adults, or 1.0% of the U.S.

population. OCD is equally common among men and women. The average age of onset is 19, with 25 percent of cases occurring by age 14. One-third of affected adults first experienced symptoms in childhood. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) PTSD affects 7.7 million adults, or pp wa orang lidi of the U.S. population. Women are more likely to be affected than men. Rape is the most likely trigger of PTSD: 65% of men and 45.9% of women who are raped will develop the disorder.

Childhood sexual abuse is a strong predictor of lifetime likelihood for developing PTSD. Major Depressive Disorder The leading cause of disability in the U.S. for ages 15 to 44.3. MDD affects more than 16.1 million American adults, or about 6.7%of the U.S.

population age 18 and older in a given year. While major depressive disorder can develop at any age, the median age at onset is 32.5 years old. More prevalent in women than in men. Persistent depressive disorder, or PDD, (formerly called dysthymia) is a form of depression that usually continues for at least two years. Affects approximately 1.5 percent of the U.S. population age 18 and older in a given year. (about 3.3 million American adults). Only 61.7% of adults with MDD pp wa orang lidi receiving treatment.

The average age of onset is 31 years old. (Source: National Institute of Mental Health) Related Illnesses Many people with an anxiety disorder also have a co-occurring disorder or physical illness, which can make their symptoms worse and recovery more difficult. It’s essential to be treated for both disorders. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress pp wa orang lidi (PTSD) are closely related to anxiety disorders, which some may experience at the same time, along with depression.

Read on to learn more about the co-occurrence of anxiety and these disorders: • Bipolar disorder • Eating disorders • Headaches • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) • Sleep disorders • Substance abuse • Adult ADHD (attention deficit/hyperactive disorder) • BDD (body dysmorphic disorder) • Chronic pain • Fibromyalgia • Stress Children Anxiety disorders affect 25.1% of children between 13 and 18 years old.

Research shows that untreated children with anxiety disorders are at higher risk to perform poorly in school, miss out on important social experiences, and engage in substance abuse. • See statistics for anxiety disorders among children from the National Institute of Mental Health. Anxiety disorders also often co-occur with other disorders such as depression, eating disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

• Childhood anxiety disorders • Anxiety and depression • Treatment • Tips for parents and caregivers • Anxiety disorders at school • School refusal Older Adults Anxiety is as common among older adults as among the young. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is the most common anxiety disorder among older adults, though anxiety disorders in this population are frequently associated with traumatic events such as a fall or acute illness.

Read the best way to treat anxiety disorders in older adults. Treatment Options Anxiety disorders are treatable, and the vast majority of people with an anxiety disorder can be helped with professional care. Several standard approaches have proved effective: • Therapy • Medication • Complementary and alternative treatment • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Additional Statistics and Resources • Mental Health America: State of Mental Health in America 2020 Report • APA: Stress in America: A National Mental Health Crisis (Oct 2020) Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide.

Almost 75% of people with mental disorders remain untreated in developing countries with almost 1 million people taking their lives each year. In addition, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), 1 in 13 globally suffers from anxiety.

The WHO reports that anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders worldwide with specific phobia, major depressive disorder and social phobia being the most common anxiety disorders.

2 Sources: 1 National Institute of Mental Health 2 World Health Organization: Mental Healthnone
Statistics Explained, your guide to European statistics. Statistics Explained is an official Eurostat website presenting statistical topics in an easily understandable way.

Together, the articles make up an encyclopedia of European statistics for everyone, completed by a statistical glossary clarifying all terms used and by pp wa orang lidi links to further information and the latest data and metadata, a portal for occasional and regular users. In absolute terms, Germany had the highest employment in the tourism industries (2.6 million people, not including passenger rail transport interurban), followed by Italy (1.7 million) and Spain (1.6 million, not including taxi operation).

These three Member States accounted for nearly half (48 %) of employment in the tourism industries across the EU. More . In 2021, about 9 million persons worked as ICT specialists across the European Union (EU). The highest number (2 million) worked in Germany, which provided work to more than one fifth (22.5 %) of the EU’s ICT workforce.

France (1.2 million) had the second largest ICT workforce (13.9 % of the EU total), followed by Italy (0.8 million; 9.5 %). More . Without accounting for reserve assets, the net international investment position of the EU amounted to –€552.2 billion in 2021 (–€1 053.0 bn in 2020), mainly caused by a negative net position of –€1 979.2 bn in portfolio investment.

Setting reserve assets aside, the net international investment position of the euro area also recorded negative value of –€1 237.3 bn. In relative terms, the estimated net IIP (excluding reserve assets) of the EU measured as a share of GDP was –3.8 % in 2021, while for the euro area it was –10.1 %.

Taking into account reserve assets, the euro area recorded a negative IIP of –€180.2 bn, which in relative terms corresponds to –1.5 % of GDP. More .

• Full list In absolute terms, Germany had the highest employment in the tourism industries (2.6 million people, not including passenger rail transport interurban), followed by Italy (1.7 million) and Spain (1.6 million, not including taxi operation).

These three Member States accounted for nearly half (48 %) of employment in the tourism industries across the EU. More . In 2021, about 9 million persons worked as ICT specialists across the European Union (EU). The highest number (2 million) worked in Germany, which provided work to more than one fifth (22.5 %) of the EU’s ICT workforce. France (1.2 million) had the second largest ICT workforce (13.9 % of the EU total), followed by Italy (0.8 million; 9.5 %).

More . Without accounting for reserve assets, the net international investment position of the EU amounted to –€552.2 billion in 2021 (–€1 053.0 bn in 2020), mainly caused by a negative net position of –€1 979.2 bn in portfolio investment.

Setting reserve assets aside, the net international investment position of the euro area also recorded negative value of –€1 237.3 bn. In relative terms, the estimated net IIP (excluding reserve assets) of the EU measured as a share of GDP was –3.8 % in 2021, while for the euro area it was –10.1 %. Taking into account reserve assets, the euro area recorded a negative IIP of –€180.2 bn, which in relative terms corresponds to –1.5 % of GDP. More . • Full list

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