Al mulk

al mulk

67/Al-Mulk-3: Allazee haalaakaa sab'aa sameaveatin tibeakea(tibeakaan), mea tarea fee haalkır raahmeani min tafeavut(tafeavutin), farciıl baasaaraa hal tarea min futoor(futoorin). It is He Who has created skies in seven layers. You see no disharmony in the creation of the All-Merciful. Al mulk turn your gaze (look again), do you see any rift (crack)? (3) 67/Al-Mulk-5: Va lakaad zayyannas sameaad dunyea bi maseabeehaa va caaalneahea rucooman lish shayeateeni va aa’tadnea lahum aazeabas saaeer(saaeeri).

And certainly We have adorned the world’s sky with candles and We have made them rocks for the satans (to be thrown at them). And We have prepared for them the torment of the blazing Fire. (5) 67/Al-Mulk-9: Kealoo balea kaad ceaanea nazeerun fa kazzabnea va kulnea mea nazzalaalleahu min shay'in antum illea fee daalealin kabeer(kabeerin).

They (people of hell) said: “Yes, indeed a warner had come to us, but we belied him and said: ‘Allah never sent down anything, you are only in a great Misguidance’”. (9) 67/Al-Mulk-15: Huvallazee caaala lakumul aardaa zaloolan famshoo fee maneakibihea va kuloo min rızkıh(rızkıhee), va ilayhin nushoor(nushooru). He it is Who has made the earth humble (subservient to) for you.

Therefore go about on its shoulders (on it, on mountains, valleys), and eat of His sustenance. And to Him is the resurrection and gathering. (15) 67/Al-Mulk-19: A va al mulk yarav ilat taayri favkaahum seaffeatin va yaakbıdn(yaakbıdna), mea yumsikuhunna illar raahmean(raahmeanu), innahu bi kulli shay’in baaseer(baaseerun).

Do they not see the birds above them in lines, spreading out their wings and folding them? None upholds them except the Most-Beneficent. Surely He is the All-Seer of everything. (19) 67/Al-Mulk-21: Amman heazallazee yarzukukum in amsaka rızkaah(rızkaahu), bal laccoo fee utuvvin va nufoor(nufoorın).

Or who are these people who will give you sustenance if He (Allah) should withhold (stop) his sustenance?

al mulk

Nay, they insisted in crossing the line and being distant (from the Truth). (21) 67/Al-Mulk-23: Kul huvallazee anshaakum va caaala lakumus sam’aa val abseara val af’idah(af’idata), kaaleelan mea tashkuroon(tashkuroona). Say: “He it is Who constructed you (created you from nothing into a being) and gave you the senses of hearing, seeing and comprehending. How little thanks you al mulk (23) 67/Al-Mulk-27: Fa lammea raavhu zulfatan seeat vucoohullazeena al mulk va keela heazallazee kuntum bihee taddaoon(taddaoona).

But when they saw it closely, the faces of those who disbelieved turned black and they were told: al mulk is that which (the Torment) you used to ask (when it would come to pass)”. (27) Compare all Quran Translations v2.0 Compare all English translations of Noble Quran with Arabic script and easy English transliteration text.

NobleQuran.org English App opens with Al-Fatiha-1. Swipe left-right for previous-next ayats. Open Surah list with menu icon (top-left) to jump another Surah to read. Open Ayat list with level icon (top-right) to jump another verse in this Surah. All the translations are also available at http://en.noblequran.org online. Dia lah yang telah mentakdirkan adanya mati dan hidup (kamu) - untuk menguji dan menzahirkan keadaan kamu: siapakah di antara kamu yang lebih baik amalnya; dan Ia Maha Kuasa (membalas amal kamu), lagi Maha Pengampun, (bagi orang-orang yang bertaubat); ( Al-Mulk 67:2) - - English Translation - Tambah Nota - Bookmark Dia lah yang telah mengaturkan kejadian tujuh petala langit yang berlapis-lapis; engkau tidak dapat melihat pada ciptaan Allah Yang Maha Pemurah itu sebarang keadaan yang tidak seimbang dan tidak munasabah; (jika engkau ragu-ragu) maka ulangilah pandangan - (mu) - dapatkah engkau melihat sebarang kecacatan?

( Al-Mulk 67:3) - - English Translation - Tambah Nota - Bookmark Dan demi sesungguhnya! Kami telah menghiasi langit yang dekat (pada penglihatan penduduk bumi) dengan bintang-bintang, dan Kami jadikan bintang-bintang itu punca rejaman terhadap Syaitan-syaitan; al mulk Kami sediakan bagi mereka azab neraka yang menjulang-julang.

( Al-Mulk 67:5) - - English Translation - Tambah Nota - Bookmark Hampir-hampir ia pecah berkecai-kecai kerana kuat marahnya. Tiap-tiap kali dicampakkan ke dalamnya sekumpulan besar (dari orang kafir), bertanyalah penjaga-penjaga neraka itu kepada mereka: "Tidakkah kamu pernah didatangi seorang Rasul pemberi ingatan dan amaran (di dunia dahulu)?" ( Al-Mulk 67:8) - - English Translation - Tambah Nota - Bookmark Mereka menjawab: "Ada!

Sebenarnya telah datang kepada kami seorang Rasul pemberi ingatan dan amaran, lalu kami dustakan serta kami katakan (kepadanya): Allah tidak menurunkan sesuatupun, kamu (wahai orang yang mendakwa menjadi Rasul) hanyalah berada dalam kesesatan yang besar!

" ( Al-Mulk 67:9) - - English Translation - Tambah Nota - Bookmark Dia lah yang menjadikan bumi bagi kamu: mudah digunakan, maka berjalanlah di merata-rata ceruk rantaunya, serta makanlah dari rezeki yang dikurniakan Allah; dan (ingatlah), kepada Allah jualah (tempat kembali kamu sesudah) dibangkitkan hidup semula; (maka hargailah nikmatNya dan takutilah kemurkaanNya).

( Al-Mulk 67:15) - - English Translation - Tambah Nota - Bookmark Atau patutkah kamu merasa aman (tidak takut) kepada Allah yang pusat pemerintahanNya di langit itu: menghantarkan kepada kamu angin ribut yang menghujani kamu dengan batu; maka dengan itu, kamu akan mengetahui kelak bagaimana buruknya kesan amaranKu?

al mulk

( Al-Mulk 67:17) - - English Translation - Tambah Nota - Bookmark Patutkah mereka menutup mata dan tidak memerhatikan (kekuasaan Allah pada) burung-burung yang terbang di atas mereka, (siapakah yang menjaganya ketika) burung-burung itu mengembang dan menutupkan sayapnya?

Tidak al mulk yang menahannya (daripada jatuh) melainkan (kekuasaan) Allah Yang Maha Pemurah. Sesungguhnya Ia Maha Melihat serta mengetahui akan tiap-tiap sesuatu. ( Al-Mulk 67:19) - - English Translation - Tambah Nota - Bookmark Kemudian apabila (datang kiamat dan) mereka melihat (azab) yang dijanjikan itu secara dekat, muramlah muka orang-orang yang kafir itu, serta dikatakan (kepada mereka): "Inilah dia yang dahulu kamu kerap kali minta disegerakan kedatangannya!".

( Al-Mulk 67:27) - - English Translation - Tambah Nota - Bookmark Tanyalah (wahai Muhammad, kepada mereka): "Bagaimana fikiran kamu, jika Allah binasakan daku dan orang-orang yang bersama-sama denganku (sebagaimana yang kamu harap-harapkan), atau Ia memberi rahmat kepada kami (sehingga kami dapat al mulk kamu), - maka siapakah yang dapat melindungi orang-orang yang kafir dari azab seksa yang tidak terperi sakitnya?".

( Al-Mulk 67:28) - - English Translation - Tambah Nota - Bookmark Tegaskan (wahai Muhammad, kepada mereka): "Allah Dia lah Yang Maha Pemurah, yang kami beriman kepadaNya, dan yang kepadaNya kami berserah diri; oleh itu kamu akan mengetahui kelak siapakah yang berada dalam kesesatan yang nyata".

( Al-Mulk 67:29) - - English Translation - Tambah Nota - Bookmark
Born Al-Mansur 13 August 985 Cairo, Fatimid Egypt Died 13 February 1021 (aged 35) ( disappeared) Mokattam, Fatimid Egypt Issue Ali az-Zahir Names Abu 'Ali Mansur al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh Dynasty Fatimid Father Abu Mansur Nizar al-Aziz Billah Mother As-Sayyidah al-'Azīziyyah Religion Ismaili Shia Islam Part of a series on Shia Islam Isma'ilism • Musta'li • Tayyibi • Dawoodi Bohras • Hebtiahs • Atba-i-Malak • Badar • Vakil • Progressive • Sulaymani Bohra • Alavi Bohra • Hafizi • Nizari • Assassins • Seveners • Qarmatians States • Qarmatian state of Al mulk • Fatimid Caliphate • Multan • Sulayhid dynasty • Zurayid dynasty • Hamdanid dynasty • Nizari state People • Hamdan Qarmat • Ibn Hawshab • Abu Sa'id al-Jannabi • Abu Tahir al-Jannabi • Qadi Numan • Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Naysaburi • Nasir Khusraw • Pamiris • Hassan-i Sabbah • Queen Arwa • Dhu'ayb ibn Musa • Dawoodi Bohra Dā'īs • Rashid ad-Din Sinan • Pir Sadardin • Khojas • Aga Khans Centers • Cairo • Alamut Castle • Atashgah Castle • Lambsar Castle • Masyaf Castle • Anjudan Other • Strongholds • House of Knowledge • Palace of Queen Arwa • Queen Arwa Mosque • Jama'at Khana • Baghdad Manifesto • Batiniyya • Druze • Satpanth • Sunni Bohra • Ali • Hasan • Husayn • as-Sajjad • al-Baqir • Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq • Ismāʿīl ibn Jaʿfar al-Mubārak • Muhammad ibn Ismāʿīl ash-Shākir • ʿAbad Allāh (al-Wāfī Ahmad) • Ahmad (al-Taqī Muhammad) • Ḥusayn (ar-Raḍī ʿAbd Allāh) • ʿAbd Allāh al-Mahdī bi'l-Lāh • al-Qāʾim • al-Manṣūr • Maʿad al-Muʿizz li-Dīn Allāh • Nizār al-ʿAzīz biʾllāh, • Manṣūr al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh • ʿAlī al-Ẓāhir li-iʿzāz Dīn Allāh • Maʿad al-Mustanṣir bi'l-Lāh • Nizār al-Muṣṭafā li-Dīn’il-Lāh / Aḥmad al-Mustāʿlī bi'l-Lāh • Manṣūr al-Āmir bi-Aḥkām’il-Lāh • ʿAbd al-Majīd al-Ḥāfiz li-Dīn Allāh / Abu'l-Qāsim al-Tayyib • v • t • e Abū ʿAlī Manṣūr (13 August 985 – 13 February 1021), better known by his regnal name al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh ( Arabic: الحاكم بأمر الله, lit.'The Ruler by the Order of God' [1]), was the sixth Fatimid caliph [2] and 16th Ismaili [3] imam (996–1021).

Al-Hakim is an important figure in a number of Shia Ismaili sects as well as faiths that derive from Ismailism, such as the world's 15 million Nizaris and 1-2 million Musta'lis, in addition al mulk the 2 million Druze of the Levant. [4] [5] Histories of al-Hakim can prove controversial, as diverse views of his life and legacy exist. [6] [7] Historian Paul Walker writes: "Ultimately, both views of him, the mad and despotic tyrant (like Germanic and Roman despots) irrationally given to killing those around him on a whim, and the ideal supreme ruler, divinely ordained and chosen, whose every action was just and righteous, were to persist, the one among his enemies and those who rebelled against him, and the other in the hearts of true believers, who, while perhaps perplexed by events, nonetheless remained avidly loyal to him to the end." [8] He was known by his critics as the "mad Caliph" [9] or " Nero of Islam".

[10] Contents • 1 Biography • 1.1 Lineage • 1.2 Rise to power • 1.3 Political intrigue • 1.4 Political rivalries and movements • 1.5 The Baghdad Manifesto • 1.6 Foreign affairs • 1.7 Disappearance and succession • 2 Sobriquet in Western literature • 3 Al Hakim and Shia Ismailism • 3.1 House of Knowledge • 3.2 Sessions of Wisdom • 3.3 Druze • 4 Interreligious relationships • 4.1 First period • 4.1.1 Religious minorities and the law of differentiation • 4.2 Second period • 4.3 Third period • 5 Spouses and children • 6 In literature • 7 See also • 8 References • 9 Sources • 10 External links Biography [ edit ] Born in 985 CE, Abu 'Ali "Mansur" was the first Fatimid ruler to have been born in Egypt.

Abu 'Ali "Mansur" had been proclaimed as heir-apparent (wali al-'ahd) in 993 CE and succeeded his father Abū Mansūr Nizār al-Azīz al mulk (975–996) at the age of eleven on 14 October 996 with the caliphal title of al-Hakim Bi-Amr Allah. Al-Ḥākim had blue eyes flecked with reddish gold. [11] Al mulk [ edit ] Al-Ḥākim was born on Thursday, 3 Rābi'u l-Awwal in 985 (375 Al mulk.

His father, caliph al-'Azīz bil-Lāh, had two consorts. One was an umm al-walad who is only known by the title as-Sayyidah al-'Azīziyyah or al-'Azīzah (d. 385/995). [12] She was al mulk Melkite Christian whose two brothers were appointed patriarchs of the Melkite Church by Caliph al-'Azīz.

[12] Different sources say either one of her brothers or her father was sent by al-'Azīz as an ambassador to Sicily. [12] Al-'Azīzah is considered to be the mother of Sitt al-Mulk, one of the most famous women in Islamic history, who had a stormy relationship with her half-brother al-Ḥākim and may have had him murdered.

[12] Some, such as the Crusader chronicler William of Tyre, claimed that al-'Azīzah was also the mother of Caliph al-Ḥākim, though most historians dismiss this. [ citation needed] William of Tyre went so far as to claim that al-Ḥākim's destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in 1009 was due to his eagerness to disprove taunts that he was a Christian born of a Christian woman.

[12] By contrast, the chronicler al-Musabbihi recounts that in 981, al-Ḥākim's Muslim mother sought the aid of an imprisoned Islamic sage named ibn al-Washa and asked him to pray for her son who had fallen ill. The sage wrote the entire Qur'an in the inner surface of a bowl and bade her wash her son out of it.

When al-Ḥākim recovered, she demanded the release of the sage in gratitude. Her request was granted and the sage and his associates were freed from prison. [12] Druze sources claim that al-Ḥākim's mother was the daughter of 'Abdu l-Lāh, one of al-Mu'īzz li Dīn al-Lāh's sons and therefore al-'Azīz's niece.

[12] Historians such as Delia Cortese are critical of al mulk claim: [I]t is more likely that this woman was al mulk fact a wife of al-Hakim, rather than his mother. It could be argued that the Druzes' emphasis on al-Hakim's descent from an endogamic union served the doctrinal purpose of reinforcing the charisma genealogically transmitted with the "holy family", thereby enhancing the political and doctrinal status they bestow upon al-Hakim.

[12] Rise to power [ edit ] This article is missing information about al-Hakim's role in the murder of Barjawan. Please expand the article to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page.

( March 2019) Al mulk 996, al-Ḥākim's father Caliph al-'Azīz began a trip to visit Syria (which was held by the Fatimids only by force of arms and was under pressure from the Byzantines).

The Caliph fell ill at the beginning of the trip at Bilbeis and lay in sickbed for several days. He suffered from "stone with pains in the bowels." When he felt that his end was nearing he charged Qadi Muhammad ibn an-Nu'man and General Abū Muhammad al-Hasan ibn 'Ammar to take care of al-Ḥākim, who was then only eleven.

He then spoke to his son. Al mulk later recalled the event: "I found him with nothing on his body but rags and bandages. I kissed him, and he pressed me to his bosom, exclaiming: "How I grieve for thee, beloved of my heart," and tears flowed from his eyes. He then said: "Go, my master, and play, for I am well." I obeyed and began to amuse myself with sports such as are usual with boys, and soon after God took him to himself.

Barjawan [the treasurer] then hastened to me, and seeing me on the top of a sycamore tree, exclaimed: "Come down, my boy; may God protect you and us all." When I descended he placed on my head the turban adorned with jewels, kissed the ground before me, and said: "Hail to the Commander of the faithful, with the mercy of God and his blessing." He then led me out in that attire and showed me to all the people, who kissed the ground before me and saluted me with the title of Khalif." [13] On the following day, he al mulk his new court proceeded from Bilbays to Cairo, behind the camel bearing his father's body, al mulk with the dead Caliph's feet protruding from the litter.

[13] They arrived shortly before evening prayer and his father was buried the next evening next to the tomb of his predecessor al-Mu'īzz. Al-Ḥākim was sworn in by Barjawan, a "white eunuch whom al-'Azīz had appointed as Ustad 'tutor'." al mulk Because it had been unclear whether he would inherit his father's position, this successful transfer of power was a demonstration of the stability of the Fatimid dynasty.

Nevertheless, the Kutama Berbers seized the chance to recover their dominant position in the state, which had eroded under al-Aziz due al mulk the influx of Turkish and Al mulk mercenaries from the Islamic East (the Mashāriqa, "Easterners").

They compelled the underage al-Hakim to dismiss the Christian vizier Ibn Nasturis (who was executed shortly after) and appoint their leader Ibn Ammar to head the government, with the title of wāsiṭa ("intermediary") rather than full vizier. [14] [15] [16] Ibn Ammar's rule quickly descended into a Berber tyranny: he immediately began staffing the government with Berbers, who engaged in a virtual pillaging of the state coffers.

The Berbers' attempts to exclude al mulk other interest groups from power—not only the Turks and the other ethnic contingents of the army, but also the civilian bureaucracy, whose salary was cut—alienated not only the Mashāriqa, but alarmed Barjawan as well.

Barjawan contacted the Fatimid governor of Damascus, the Turk Manjutakin, and invited him to march onto Egypt and depose Ibn Ammar. Manjutakin accepted, but was al mulk by Ibn Ammar's troops under Sulayman ibn Ja'far ibn Falah at Ascalon and taken prisoner. Barjawan however soon found a new ally, in the al mulk of the Kutama leader Jaysh ibn Samsam, governor of Tripoli, whom Ibn Falah dismissed and replaced with his own brother.

Jaysh and Barjawan gathered a following of other dissatisfied Berber leaders, and launched an uprising in Cairo in October 997. Ibn Ammar was forced to flee, and Barjawan replaced him as wāsiṭa. [17] [18] [19] During his predominance, Barjawan managed to balance the two factions, fulfilling the demands of the Mashāriqa while taking care of the Kutama as well.

In this vein, he pardoned Ibn Ammar and restored him his monthly salary of 500 gold dinars. After Bajarwan's murder on 26 March 1000, however, Caliph al-Hakim assumed the reins of government and launched a purge of the Fatimid elites, during which Ibn Ammar and many of the other Kutama leaders were executed.

[17] [19] To ensure his own power, Hakim limited the authority and terms of office of his wasitas and viziers, of whom there al mulk more than 15 during the remaining 20 years of his caliphate. Political intrigue [ edit ] Al-Ḥākim's father had intended the eunuch Barjawan to act as regent until Al-Ḥākim was old enough to rule by himself. Ibn 'Ammar and the Qadi Muhammad ibn Nu'man were to assist in the guardianship of the new caliph.

Instead, al-Hasan ibn 'Ammar (the leader of the Kutama) immediately seized the office of wasīta "chief minister" from 'Īsa ibn Nestorius. At the time the office of sifāra "secretary of state" was also combined within that office. Ibn 'Ammar then took the title of Amīn ad-Dawla "the one trusted in the empire". [13] This was the first time that the term "empire" was associated with the Fatimid state. [13] Political rivalries and movements [ edit ] Al-Ḥākim Mosque Al-Ḥākim's most rigorous and consistent opponent was the Abbāsid Caliphate in Baghdad, which sought to halt the influence of Ismailism.

This competition led to the Baghdad Manifesto of 1011, in which the Abbāsids claimed that the line al-Ḥākim represented did not legitimately descend from 'Alī. Al-Ḥākim also struggled with the Qarmatiyya rulers of Bahrain, an island in the Persian Gulf as well as territory in Eastern Arabia.

His diplomatic and missionary vehicle was the Ismā'īlī da'wah "Mission", with its organizational power center in Cairo. Al-Ḥākim's reign was characterized by a general unrest. The Fatimid army was troubled by a rivalry between two opposing factions, the Turks and the Berbers.

Tension grew between the Caliph and his viziers (called wasītas), and near the end of his reign the Druze movement, a religious sect centered around al-Ḥākim, began to form. Members of that sect were reported to address prayers to al-Ḥākim, whom they regarded as "a manifestation of God in His unity." [20] The Baghdad Manifesto [ edit ] Alarmed by the expansion of the Fatimid dominion, the 'Abbasid caliph Al-Qadir of Baghdad adopted retaliatory measures to halt the spread of Ismailism within the very seat of his realm.

In particular, in 1011 he assembled a number of Sunni and Twelver Shiite scholars at al mulk court and commanded them to declare in a written document that Hakim and his predecessors lacked genuine descent from Ali and Fatima.

This so-called Baghdad Manifesto was read out in Friday mosques throughout the 'Abbasid domains accusing the Fatimids of Jewish ancestry. In addition, because of Al-Hakim's alleged Christian mother, he was accused of being over-sympathetic to non-Muslims, giving them more privileges than they should have been given under Islamic rule.

Such accusations were manifested through poetry criticizing the Fatimids. Qadir also commissioned several refutations of Ismaili doctrines, including those written by the Mu'tazili 'Ali b.

Sa'id al-Istakri (1013). [21] Foreign affairs [ edit ] Hakim confronted numerous difficulties and uprisings during his relatively long reign. While he did not lose any important territories in North Africa, the Ismaili communities there were attacked by Sunni fighters led by their influential Maliki jurists. Relations between the Fatimids and the Qarmatians of Bahrain also remained hostile.

On the other hand, Hakim's Syrian policy was successful as he managed to extend Fatimid hegemony to the emirate of Aleppo. Above all, the persistent rivalries al mulk the various factions of the Fatimid armies, especially the Berbers and the Turks, overshadowed the other problems of Hakim's caliphate. Al-Ḥākim upheld diplomatic relations between the Fatimid Empire and many different countries.

Skillful diplomacy was needed in establishing a friendly if not neutral basis of relations with the Byzantine Empire, which had expansionary goals in the early 11th century.

Perhaps the farthest reaching diplomatic mission of al-Ḥākim's was to Song Dynasty era China. [22] The Fatimid Egyptian sea captain known as Domiyat traveled to a Al mulk site of pilgrimage in Shandong in the year 1008 AD. [22] It was on this mission that he sought to present to the Chinese Emperor Zhenzong of Song gifts from his ruling Caliph al-Ḥākim.

[22] This reestablished diplomatic relations between Egypt and China that had been lost during the collapse of the Tang Al mulk in 907. [22] Disappearance and succession [ edit ] In the final years of his reign, Hakim displayed a growing inclination toward asceticism and withdrew for meditation regularly.

On the night of 12/13 February 1021 and at the age of 35, Hakim left for one of his night journeys to the Mokattam hills outside of Cairo, and never returned.

A search found only his donkey and bloodstained garments. The disappearance has remained a mystery. [21] [23] His sister Sitt al-Mulk led moves to declare her nephew Al-Zahir li-i'zaz Din Allah as his father's successor as imam-caliph.

The heir Al-Hakim had designated was removed from court and al-Mulk was al mulk regent for her 16-year-old nephew. Al mulk Al-Zahir came of age, Al-Mulk assumed positions within his administration until her death in 1023.

Modern historians have assessed whether Al-Mulk may have had a hand in her brother's disappearance, but no historic evidence has emerged that would implicate her. [24] Sobriquet in Western literature [ edit ] In Western literature he has been referred to as the "Mad Caliph".

[25] [26] [27] This title is largely due to his erratic and oppressive behavior concerning religious minorities under his command, as historian Hunt Janin relates: al-Hakim "was known as the 'Mad Caliph' because of his many cruelties and eccentricities".

[28] Historian Michael Bonner points out that the term is also used due to the dramatic difference between al-Hakim and his predecessors and his successors while also pointing out such persecution is an extreme rarity in Islam during this era.

"In his capital of Cairo, this unbalanced (and, in the view of most, mad) caliph raged against the Christians in particular. On the whole such episodes remained exceptional, like the episodes of forced conversion to Islam." [29] Historian Michael Foss also notes this contrast: "For more than three hundred and fifty years, from the time when the Caliph Omar made a treaty with the Patriarch Sophronius until 1009, when mad al-Hakim began attacks on Christians and Jews, the city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land were open to the West, with an easy welcome and the way there was no more dangerous than a journey from Paris to Rome.

Soon al mulk al-Hakim] the panic was over. In 1037 al-Mustansir came to an amicable agreement with Emperor Michael IV." [30] As one prominent journal has noted, al-Ḥākim has attracted the interest of modern historians more than any other member of the Fatimid dynasty because: "His eccentric character, the inconsistencies and radical shifts in his conduct and policies, the extreme austerity of his personal life, the vindictive and sanguinary ruthlessness of his dealing with the highest officials of his government coupled with an obsession to suppress all signs of corruption and immorality in public life, his attempted annihilation of Christians and call for al mulk systematic destruction of all Christian holy places in the middle east culminating in the destruction of the most holy Church of the Resurrection in Jerusalem, his deification by a group of extremist Isma'ili missionaries who became the forerunners and founders of the Druze religion, [which] all combine to contrast his reign sharply with that of any of his predecessors and successors and indeed of al mulk Muslim ruler.

The question is to what extent his conduct can be explained as rationally motivated and conditioned by the circumstances rather than as the inscrutable workings of an insane mind." [31] The claim al mulk al-Hakim was mad and the version of events around him is disputed as mere propaganda by some scholars, such as Willi Frischaue, who states: "His enemies called him the 'Mad Caliph' but he enhanced Cairo's reputation as a centre of civilization." [4] The writing of historian Heinz Halm attempts to dispel "those al mulk and hostile accounts, stating that the anti-Fatimid tradition tried to make a real monster of this caliph", [5] while P.J.

Vatikiotis writes that, "[al-Hakim's] persecution of Christians and Jews and the legislation enacted for that purpose between 1004 and 1020 seem to have been a policy with a justifiable purpose." [32] Al Hakim and Shia Ismailism [ edit ] See also: Ismailism Hakim maintained a keen interest in the organization and operation of the Fatimid Ismaili da'wa (preaching) centred in Cairo.

Under his reign it was systematically intensified outside the Fatimid dominions, especially in Iraq and Persia. In Iraq, the da'is now concentrated their efforts on a number of local amirs and influential tribal chiefs with whose support they al mulk to uproot the Abbasids. Foremost among the Fatimid da'is of this period operating in the eastern provinces was Hamid al-Din Kirmani, the most accomplished Ismaili theologian-philosopher of the entire Fatimid period.

The activities of Kirmani and other da'is soon led to concrete results in Iraq: in 1010 the ruler of Mosul, Kufa and other towns acknowledged the suzerainty of Hakim. The 16th Fatimid imam, caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (996-1021) ordered his da'i, Harun bin Mohammed in Yemen, to give decisions in light of Da'a'im al-Islam only.

[21] In 1013 he completed the construction of al-Jāmiʻ al-Anwar begun by his father. Commonly known as "Hākim's Mosque", over time it fell into ruin. In the 1970s, the Dawoodi Bohras, an Ismaili Shia sect, under the leadership of Mohammed Burhanuddin, restored the then-dilapidated mosque, using new building methods and materials while maintaining as many of the architectural and artistic features as possible.

[33] Their attempts received strong criticism from some academics, conservators, and art historians who saw the effort as constructing "a new building" rather than restoration. [34] House of Knowledge [ edit ] In the area of education and learning, one of Hakim's most important contributions was the founding in 1005 of the Dār al-ʿIlm (House of Knowledge) or Dar al-Hikma (House of Al mulk.

[35] A wide range of subjects ranging from the Qur'an and hadith to philosophy and astronomy were taught at the Dār al-ʿIlm, which was equipped with a vast library. During his rule, the Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim also provided paper, ink, pens and inkstands free of charge to all those who studied at the famous Dār al-ʿIlm in Cairo.

[36] Access to education was made available to the public and many Al mulk da'is received at least part of their training in this major institution of learning which served the Ismaili da'wa (mission) until the downfall of the Fatimid dynasty.

[21] For more than 100 years, Dār al-ʿIlm distinguished itself as a center of learning where astronomers, mathematicians, grammarians, logicians, physicians, philologists, jurists and others conducted research, gave lectures and collaborated.

All were welcomed, and it remained unfettered by political pressures or partisan influences. [37] Sessions of Wisdom [ edit ] Hakim made the education of the Ismailis and the Fatimid da'is a priority; in his time various study sessions ( majalis) were established in Cairo.

Hakim provided financial support and endowments for these educational activities. The private 'wisdom sessions' (majalis al-hikma) devoted to esoteric Ismaili doctrines and reserved exclusively for initiates, now became organized so as to be accessible to different categories of participants. Al Hakim himself often attended these sessions which were held at the Fatimid palace.

[21] The name (majalis al-hikma) is still used by the Druze, Nizari and Taiyabi Ismailis as the name of the building in which their religious assembly and worship is carried, often abbreviated as Majlis (session). Druze al mulk edit ] Al-Hakim is a central figure in the history of the Druze religious sect, ad-Darazi one of the first to spread the druze faith proclaimed him as the incarnation of God in 1018.

[4] [5] [21] Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad is considered the al mulk of the Druze and the primary author of the Druze manuscripts, [38] he proclaimed that God had become human and taken the form of man, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah.

al mulk

{INSERTKEYS} [4] [5] [39] [40] Interreligious relationships [ edit ] According to the religious scholar Nissim Dana, al-Ḥākim's relationship with other monotheistic religions can be divided into three separate stages. [41] First period [ edit ] From 996 to 1006 when most of the executive functions of the Khalif were performed by his advisors, the Shiite al-Ḥākim "behaved like the Shiite khalifs, who he succeeded, exhibiting a hostile attitude with respect to Sunni Muslims, whereas the attitude toward ' People of the Book' – Jews and Christians – was one of relative tolerance, in exchange for the jizya tax." [41] In 1005, al-Ḥākim ordered a public posting of curses against the first three Caliphs ( Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman) and against Aisha, wife of Muhammad, for denying the caliphate to Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law 'Alī, who according to Shia beliefs, was the rightful prophetic successor.

According to historian Nissîm Dānā, al-Ḥākim ordered that "curses were registered against the warrior Muawiyah I, founder of the Umayyad Caliphate, and against others in the inner circle of Muhammad from the Sahabah - the compatriots of Muhammad in the way of Islam." [41] This was in accordance with Shia practice, as laid out by Muslim scholar Ayatollah Haydari: "the followers of Ahl al-Bayt [Shias] say 'O Allah curse all of the Banu Umayya'." [42] The Shia maintain that out of hatred for 'Alī, Mu'awiyah ordered the Talbiyah not be said (as it was promoted by 'Alī) and ordered people to curse him ( Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas refused to do so).

The Shia hold that Mu'awiyah and all of the Umayyad caliphs (with the possible exception of Umar II) were Nasibi who "are the hypocrites for whom hatred of 'Alī is their religion...They don't just hate 'Alī, but they worship Allah and seek closeness to Him by hating 'Alī." [42] After only two years of posting the curses, al-Ḥākim ended the practice. [41] During this era, al-Ḥākim ordered that the inclusion of the phrase as-salāh khayr min an-nawm "prayer is preferable to sleep", which followed fajr prayer, be stopped – he saw it as a Sunni addition.

In its place he ordered that ḥayyi 'alā khayr al-'amal "come to the best of deeds" should be said after the summons was made. He further forbade the use of two prayers – Salāt at-Tarāwih and Salāt ad-Duha as they were believed to have been formulated by Sunni sages. [41] Religious minorities and the law of differentiation [ edit ] In 1004 al-Ḥākim decreed that the Christians could no longer celebrate Epiphany or Easter.

[43] He also outlawed the use of wine ( nabidh) and even other intoxicating drinks not made from grapes ( fuqa) to both Muslims and non-Muslims alike. [41] This produced a hardship for both Christians (who used wine in their religious rites) and Jews (who used it in their religious festivals). In 1005, al-Ḥākim ordered that Jews and Christians follow ghiyār "the law of differentiation" – in this case, the mintaq or zunnar "belt" (Greek ζωνάριον) and ' imāmah "turban", both in black.

In addition, Jews must wear a wooden calf necklace and Christians an iron cross. In the public baths, Jews must replace the calf with a bell. In addition, women of the People of the Book had to wear two different coloured shoes, one red and one black.

These remained in place until 1014. [44] Following contemporary Shiite thinking, during this period al-Ḥākim also issued many other restrictive ordinances ( sijillat). These sijillat included outlawing entrance to a public bath with uncovered loins, forbidding women from appearing in public with their faces uncovered, and closing many clubs and places of entertainment. [41] Second period [ edit ] From 1007 to 1012 "there was a notably tolerant attitude toward the Sunnis and less zeal for Shiite Islam, while the attitude with regard to the 'People of the Book' was hostile." [41] On 18 October 1009, al-Hakim ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulchre and its associated buildings, apparently outraged by what he regarded as the fraud practiced by the monks in the "miraculous" Descent of the Holy Fire, celebrated annually at the church during the Easter Vigil.

The chronicler Yahia noted that "only those things that were too difficult to demolish were spared." Processions were prohibited, and a few years later all of the convents and churches in Palestine were said to have been destroyed or confiscated. [43] It was only in 1042 that the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX undertook to reconstruct the Holy Sepulchre with the permission of Al-Hakim's successor. Third period [ edit ] Al-Ḥākim ultimately allowed the unwilling Christian and Jewish converts to Islam to return to their faith and rebuild their ruined houses of worship.

[45] Indeed, from 1012 to 1021 al-Ḥākim became more tolerant toward the Jews and Christians and hostile toward the Sunnis. Ironically he developed a particularly hostile attitude with regard to the Muslim Shiites. It was during this period, in the year 1017, that the unique religion of the Druze began to develop as an independent religion based on the revelation ( Kashf) of al-Ḥākim as divine. [41] While it is clear that Hamza ibn Ahmad was the Caliph's chief dāʿī; there are claims that al-Ḥākim believed in his own divinity.

[46] [47] [48] [49] [50] Other scholars disagree with this assertion of direct divinity, particularly the Druze themselves, noting that its proponent was ad-Darazi, who (according to some resources) al-Ḥākim executed for shirk. Letters show that ad-Darazi was trying to gain control of the Muwahhidun movement and this claim was an attempt to gain support from the Caliph, who instead found it heretical.

[51] [52] The Druze find this assertion offensive; they hold ad-Darazi as the first apostate of the sect and their beliefs regarding al-Ḥākim are complex.

Following a typical Isma'ili pattern, they place a preeminent teacher at the innermost circle of divinely inspired persons.

For the Druze, the exoteric is taught by the Prophet, the esoteric by his secret assistants, and the esoteric of the esoteric by Imām al-Ḥākim. [ citation needed] Confusion and slander by opponents of the Druze were generally left uncorrected as the teachings of the sect are secret and the Druze preferred taqiyya when independence was impossible.

[ citation needed] Spouses and children [ edit ] The mother of al-Ḥākim's heir 'Alī az-Zāhir was the umm al-walad Amīna Ruqayya, daughter to the late prince 'Abdu l-Lāh, son of al-Mu'īzz. Some see her as the same as the woman in the prediction reported by al-Hamidi which held "that in 390/1000 al-Ḥākim would choose an orphan girl of good stock brought up his father al-Aziz and that she would become the mother of his successor." While the chronicler al-Maqrizi claims that al-Ḥākim's stepsister Sitt al-Mulk was hostile to Amīna, other sources say she gave her and her child refuge when they were fleeing al-Ḥākim's persecution.

Some sources say al-Ḥākim married the jariya (young female servant) known by the title as-Sayyidah but historians are unsure if this is just another name for Amīna. [12] Besides his son, al-Ḥākim had a daughter named Sitt Misr (d.

455/1063) who was said to be a generous patroness and of noble and good character. [12] In literature [ edit ] The story of Hakim's life inspired (presumably through Antoine Isaac Silvestre de Sacy) the French author Gérard de Nerval (1808-1855) who recounted his version of it ("Histoire du Calife Hakem": History of the Caliph Hakem) as an appendix to his Voyage to the Orient (1851).

He is a major character in The Prisoner of Al-Hakim by American novelist Bradley Steffens, which recounts the ten-year imprisonment of Ibn al-Haytham under Al-Hakim's rule. [53] A fictional version of his death is presented in Robert E. Howard's posthumously published short story "Hawks over Egypt". See also [ edit ] • Family tree of Muhammad#Family tree linking prophets to Imams • Alhazen • List of Egyptians • List of Ismaili imams • List of people who disappeared • Lists of rulers of Egypt References [ edit ] • ^ Brett 2001, p.

418. • ^ Brett 2001, p. 470. • ^ Daftary, Ferhad. "ḤĀKEM BE-AMR-ALLĀH". Encyclopædia Iranica . Retrieved 24 April 2016. • ^ a b c d Willi Frischauer (1970). The Aga Khans. Bodley Head. p. ?. ( Which page?) • ^ a b c d Ismail K. Poonawala. "Review - The Fatimids and Their Traditions of Learning". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 119 (3): 542.

doi: 10.2307/605981. JSTOR 605981. • ^ Gamal Nkrumah (10 December 2009). "The crazed caliph". Al-Ahram Weekly Online. Archived from the original on 27 March 2013 . Retrieved 16 March 2013. • ^ Sara Elkamel (24 August 2010). "Caliph of Cairo: The rule and mysterious disappearance of al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah". Egypt Independent . Retrieved 16 March 2013. • ^ Walker, Paul (2010). Caliph of Cairo: Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, 996-???. The American University in Cairo Press. p. 352.

ISBN 978-9774163289. • ^ Jerome Murphy-O'Connor (23 February 2012). Keys to Jerusalem: Collected Essays.

OUP Oxford. p. 245. ISBN 978-0-19-964202-1. • ^ John Joseph Saunders (11 March 2002). A History of Medieval Islam. Routledge. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-134-93005-0. • ^ Phyllis G. Jestice (2004). Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 341. ISBN 978-1-57607-355-1. • ^ a b c d e f g h i j Delia Cortese and Simonetta Calderini (2006). Women and the Fatimids in the World of Islam.

Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1733-7. • ^ a b c d e O'Leary, De Lacy (1923). A Short History of the Fatimid Khalifate. Routledge. • ^ Lev 1987, pp. 344–346. • ^ Daftary 1992, pp. 186–187. • ^ Kennedy 2004, pp. 327–328. • ^ a b Daftary 1992, p. 187. • ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 328. • ^ a b Lev 1987, pp. 345–346. • ^ Mortimer, Edward, Faith and Power: The Politics of Islam, Vintage Books, 1982, p.49 • ^ a b c d e f Dr Farhad Daftary (19 October 2011).

"al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. 11, pp. {/INSERTKEYS}

al mulk

572-573, ed. Ehsan Yarshater, New York, 2003. Institute of Ismaili Studies. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2013. • ^ a b c d Shen, Fuwei (1996). Cultural flow between China and the outside world.

Beijing: Foreign Languages Press. ISBN 7-119-00431-X. • ^ Makarim, Al mulk Nasib (1974). The Druze faith. New York: Caravan Books. p. 25. ISBN 0-88206-003-1. • ^ Haeri, Shahla (2020). The Unforgettable Queens of Islam: Succession, Authority, Gender. Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 9781107123038. • ^ Britannica • ^ The First Crusade: A New History, Thomas Asbridge • ^ Britannica 1810 • ^ Hunt Janin (2005).

The Pursuit of Learning in the Islamic World, 610-2003. McFarland & Company Al mulk. ISBN 0786419547. • ^ Michael Bonner (2006). Jihad in Islamic History: Doctrines and Practice. Princeton University Press.

ISBN 0691125740. • ^ Michael Foss (1997). People of the First Crusade: The Truth About the Christian-Muslim War Revealed.

Arcade Publishing. ISBN 1559704144. • ^ Wilferd Madelung (March 2013). Journal of Near Eastern Studies: Vol. 37, No. 3, Pg. 280. • ^ Vatikiotis 1957, p. 153. • ^ Saifiyah (2016). al-Jāmiʻ al-Anwar: The Luminous Masjid. Northolt, Middlesex, United Kingdom: Aljamea-tus-Saifiyah. ISBN 978-1-5262-0503-2. OCLC 990015520. • ^ Susanna Myllylä. "Islamic Cairo imagined: from a historical city slum to a time machine for tourism?" (PDF).

Building Peace by Intercultural Al mulk 225. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 September 2018 .

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Retrieved 3 May 2014. • ^ Maqrizi, 1853–54, 1995; Halm, 1997, pp. 71–78 • ^ Virani, Shafique N. (1 April 2007). The Ismailis in the Middle Ages. Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311730.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-531173-0. • ^ "Cairo's House of Knowledge - AramcoWorld". www.aramcoworld.com. • ^ Hendrix, Scott; Okeja, Uchenna, eds. (2018). The World's Greatest Religious Leaders: How Religious Figures Helped Shape World History [2 volumes].

ABC-CLIO. p. 11. ISBN 978-1440841385. • ^ Minorities in the Middle East: A History of Struggle and Self-expression - Page 95 by Mordechai Nisan • ^ The Druze in the Middle Al mulk Their Faith, Leadership, Identity and Status - Page 41 by Nissim Dana • ^ a b c d e f g h i Nissim Dana (2003).

The Druze in the Middle East: Their Faith, Leadership, Identity and Status. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 1-903900-36-0.

• ^ a b Ayatollah Al mulk Kamal Haydari. Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan's hatred for Imam Ali- Seyyid Kamal Haydari ENG SUBS. Al-Kawthar tv. YouTube. Archived from the original on 12 December 2021. [ dubious – discuss] • ^ a b Robert Ousterhout, "Rebuilding the Temple: Constantine Monomachus and the Holy Sepulchre" in The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol.

48, No. 1 (March, 1989), pp. 66–78 • ^ Stillman, Yedida Kalfon (2000). Stillman, Norman A. (ed.). Arab Dress: A Short History - From the Dawn of Islam to Modern Times.

Themes in Islamic Studies. Vol. 2. Boston: Brill Publishers. p. 106.

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ISBN 90-04-11373-8. • ^ Sir Thomas Walker Arnold (1896). The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith. A. Constable and co. al mulk. 343. thomas walker arnold preaching. • ^ John Esposito, Islam: the Straight Path, p.47 • ^ Nissim Dana (2003).

The Druze in the Middle East: Their Faith, Leadership, Identity and Status. Sussex Academic Press. p. 3. ISBN 9781903900369. Retrieved 15 March 2013. • ^ Mordechai Nisan (2002). Minorities in the Middle East: A History of Struggle and Self-expression.

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McFarland. p. 95.

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ISBN 9780786451333. Retrieved 16 March 2013. • ^ Cherine Badawi (2004). Egypt. Footprint. p. 96. ISBN 9781903471777. Retrieved 16 March 2013. • ^ Zeidan Atashi (1997). Druze and Jews in Israel: A Shared Destiny?. Sussex Academic Press. p. 12. ISBN 9781898723387. Retrieved 16 March 2013. • ^ Al mulk, Sami (2006). Historical dictionary of the Druzes. Historical dictionaries of peoples and cultures. Vol. 3. Maryland USA: Scarecrow Al mulk. ISBN 0-8108-5332-9. • ^ Swayd, Samy (1998).

The Druzes: an annotated bibliography. Kirkland WA, USA: ISES Publications. ISBN 0-9662932-0-7. • ^ The Prisoner of Al-Hakim. Clifton, NJ: Blue Dome Press, 2017. ISBN 1682060160 Sources [ edit ] • Brett, Michael (2001). The Rise of the Fatimids: The World of the Mediterranean and the Middle East in the Fourth Century of the Hijra, Tenth Century CE.

The Medieval Mediterranean. Vol. 30. Leiden: BRILL. ISBN 9004117415. • Daftary, Farhad (1992). The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-42974-0. • Kennedy, Hugh N. (2004). The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the 6th to the 11th Century (Second ed.). Harlow: Longman. ISBN 978-0-58-240525-7. • Lev, Yaacov (1987). "Army, Regime, and Society in Fatimid Egypt, 358–487/968–1094".

International Journal of Middle East Studies. 19 (3): 337–365. doi: 10.1017/S0020743800056762. JSTOR 163658. • Vatikiotis, Panayiotis J. (1957). The Fatimid Theory of State. Lahore: Orientalia Publishers – via books.google.com.

External links [ edit ] • Al-Ḥākim • Institute of Ismaili Studies: al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allah. • Al mulk bi Amr Allah • al-Mahdi Billah • al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah • al-Mansur bi-Nasr Allah • al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah • al-Aziz Billah • al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah • al-Zahir li-i'zaz Din Allah • al-Mustansir Billah • al-Musta'li Billah • al-Amir bi-Ahkam Allah • al-Hafiz li-Din Allah al mulk al-Zafir bi-Amr Allah • al-Fa'iz bi-Nasr Allah • al-Adid li-Din Allah History • Establishment • First Sicilian revolt (913–917) • 914–915 invasion of Egypt • 919–921 invasion of Egypt • Second Sicilian revolt (937–941) • Rebellion of Abu Yazid (943–947) • Conquest of Egypt (969) • Qarmatian invasions and struggle with Alptakin (971–978) • Expansion into Syria • Alexandretta • Aleppo • Apamea • Uprisings of Muffarij b.

Daghfal • Revolt of Abu Rakwa • Revolt of Nizar • Musta'li– Nizari schism • First Crusade al mulk Siege of Ascalon • Regime of Kutayfat and accession of al-Hafiz • Hafizi– Tayyibi schism • Crusader invasions of Egypt • End of al mulk Fatimid Caliphate • Battle of the Blacks Government and military • Jawdhar • Ya'qub ibn Killis • Ibn Ammar • Barjawan • Sitt al-Mulk • Ali ibn Ahmad al-Jarjara'i • Abu Muhammad al-Yazuri • Rasad • Nasir al-Dawla ibn Hamdan • Badr al-Jamali • al-Afdal Shahanshah al mulk Kutayfat • Bahram al-Armani • Ridwan ibn Walakhshi • al-Ma'mun al-Bata'ihi • al-Adil ibn al-Sallar • Tala'i ibn Ruzzik • Ruzzik ibn Tala'i • Shawar • Dirgham • Shirkuh • Saladin Vassal dynasties • Hamdan Qarmat • Ibn Hawshab • Ali ibn al-Fadl al-Jayshani • Abu Abdallah al-Shi'i • Muhammad al-Nasafi • Abu Hatim al-Razi • Abu Tammam • Ja'far ibn Mansur al-Yaman • al-Qadi al-Nu'man • Abu Yaqub al-Sijistani • Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Naysaburi • al-Mu'ayyad fi'l-Din al-Shirazi • Hamid al-Din al-Kirmani Anti-Fatimid movement • Wadi al-Taym • Kisrawan campaigns (1292–1305) • Tanukh (Buhtur) dynasty • Ma'n dynasty • Mount Lebanon Emirate • 1585 Ottoman expedition against the Druze • Druze Power Struggle (1658–1667) • Battle of Ain Dara • 1838 Druze Revolt • 1860 civil conflict in Mount Lebanon and Damascus • Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate • Hauran Druze Rebellion • Jabal Druze State • Druze in Mandatory Palestine • Jaysh al mulk • Qalb Loze massacre Prophets Hidden categories: • All accuracy disputes • Articles with disputed statements al mulk March 2013 • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Use dmy dates from October 2021 • Articles containing Arabic-language text • All articles with unsourced statements • Articles with unsourced statements from April 2015 • Articles to be expanded from March 2019 • Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021 • Articles with ISNI identifiers • Articles with VIAF identifiers • Articles with WORLDCATID identifiers • Articles with BNF identifiers • Articles with GND identifiers • Articles with J9U identifiers • Articles with LCCN identifiers • Articles with NTA identifiers • Articles with PLWABN identifiers • Articles with SELIBR identifiers • Articles with VcBA identifiers • Articles with FAST identifiers • Articles with SUDOC identifiers • Articles with TDVİA identifiers • Articles with multiple identifiers • العربية • تۆرکجه • Bân-lâm-gú • Català • Dansk • Deutsch • Español • Esperanto • فارسی • Français • 한국어 • Bahasa Indonesia • Italiano • עברית • ქართული • Қазақша • مصرى • Bahasa Melayu • Nederlands • 日本語 • Norsk bokmål • Oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча • پنجابی • Polski • Português • Română • Русский al mulk Sicilianu • Slovenščina • Српски / srpski • Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски • Suomi • Svenska • Türkçe • Українська • اردو • 中文 Edit links • This page was last edited on 15 April 2022, at 16:24 (UTC).

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Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Malik" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( April 2012) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article contains special characters. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.

Look up malik in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Malik, Melik, Malka, Malek, Maleek, Malick, or Melekh ( Phoenician: 𐤌𐤋𐤊; Arabic: ملك; Hebrew: מֶלֶךְ) is the Semitic term translating to " king", recorded in East Semitic and Arabic, and as mlk in Northwest Semitic during the Late Bronze Age (e.g. Aramaic, Canaanite, Hebrew). Although the early forms of the name were to be found among the pre-Arab and pre-Islamic Semites of the Levant, Canaan, and Mesopotamia, it has since been adopted in various other, mainly but not exclusively Islamized or Arabized non-Semitic Asian languages for their ruling al mulk and to render kings elsewhere.

It is also sometimes used in derived meanings. The female version of Malik is Malikah ( Arabic: ملكة; or its various spellings such as Malekeh or Melike), meaning al mulk.

The name Malik was originally found among various pre-Arab and non-Muslim Semitic peoples such as al mulk indigenous ethnic Assyrians of Iraq, Amorites, Jews, Arameans, Mandeans, Syriacs, and pre-Islamic Arabs. It has since been spread among various predominantly Muslim and non-Semitic peoples in Central Asia, the Middle East, and South Asia. Malik is also an angel in the Quran, who never smiled since the day the hellfire was created. The last name "Malik" also refers to people belonging to the Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana region in India and Pakistan.

Malik is also a common name for boys in Greenlandic, meaning "ocean wave". [1] Further information: Moloch The earliest form of the name Maloka was used to denote a prince or chieftain in the East Semitic Akkadian language of the Mesopotamian states of Akkad, Assyria, Babylonia and Chaldea.

[2] [ full citation needed] The Northwest Semitic mlk was the title of the rulers of the primarily Amorite, Sutean, Canaanite, Phoenician and Aramean city-states of the Levant and Canaan from the Late Bronze Age.

Eventual derivatives include the Aramaic, Neo-Assyrian, Mandic and Arabic forms: Malik, Malek, Mallick, Malkha, Malka, Malkai and the Hebrew form Melek. Moloch has traditionally been interpreted as the epithet of a god, known as "the king" like Baal was an epithet "the master" and Adon an epithet "the lord", but in the case of Moloch purposely mispronounced as Moleḵ instead of Meleḵ using the vowels of Hebrew bosheth "shame".

[3] Political [ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ( July 2013) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) Primarily a malik is the ruling monarch of a kingdom, called mamlaka; that term is however also used in a broader sense, like realm, for rulers with another, generally lower titles, as in Sahib al-Mamlaka.

Malik is also used for tribal leaders, e.g. among the Pashtuns. Some Arab kingdoms are currently ruled by a Malik: • Bahrain, formerly under a hakim, or "ruler", until 16 August 1971, then under an emir, or "prince", and since 14 February 2002 under a malik.

• Jordan, formerly the Emirate of Transjordan; • Morocco, formerly a Sultanate; • Saudi Arabia. On 10 June 1916 the Grand Sharif of Mecca assumed the title of King of the Hejaz; from 29 October 1916 "King of the Arabs and Commander of the Faithful"; from 6 November 1916 recognized by the allied powers only as King of the Hejaz, Commander of the Faithful, Grand Sharif and emir of Mecca; also assumed the title of Caliph on 11 March 1924; from 3 October 1924: King of the Hejaz and Grand Sharif of Mecca.

In 1925 Nejd conquered Hijaz, so the Sultan of Nejd added the title "King of Hijaz". On 22 September 1932 Nejd and Hejaz were renamed as Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, full style: Malik al-Mamlaka al-'Arabiyya as-Sa'udiyya ("King of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia"); from 1986 prefixed to the name: Khadim al-Haramayn ash-Sharifayn ("Servant (i.e. Protector) of the Two Exalted Holy Places [Mecca and Medina]"). Other historic realms under a Malik include: • Egypt – the former khedivate and subsequently independent sultanate was ruled by Malik Misr (" King of Egypt") from 1922 to 1951; and Malik Misr wa's Sudan (" King of Egypt and the Sudan") from 16 October 1951 until the proclamation of the republic on 18 June 1953 • Iraq – between 23 August 1921 and 2 May 1958, Iraq was ruled by a Hashemite Malik al-'Iraq ("King of Iraq").

Among the indigenous Assyrians and Kurdish Jews, the term has been (and still is) used since pre-Arab and pre-Islamic times for the title of tribal chief, for example Malik Khoshaba of the Bit- Tyareh tribe. • Libya – Idris I (1890–1983) (Sayyid Muhammad Idris as-Sanusi, heir of a Muslim sect's dynasty) reigned al mulk Malik al-Mamlaka al-Libiyya al-Muttahida ("King of the United Libyan Kingdom") from 24 December 1951 through 25 April 1963 and Malik al-Mamlaka al-Libiyya ("King of al mulk Libyan Kingdom") until 1 September 1969.

• Maldives – between 1965 and 1968, Muhammad Fareed Didi ruled the Maldives as Jala'ala ul-Malik ("King" and the style of "His Majesty"); previous rulers were styled Sultan of Land and Sea and Lord of the twelve-thousand islands, holding both the Al mulk title of Sultan and the more ancient Divehi title of Maha Radun or Ras Kilege. • Oman – the Nabhani dynasty ruled Oman between 1154 and 1470; later it was an imamate / Sultanate.

• Tunisia, formerly ruled by maliks (1 year). • Yemen – between 1918 and 27 September 1962, and in dissidence to March 1970, the imamate of Yemen was ruled by Imam al-Muslimin, Amir al-Mu'minin, Malik al-Mamlaka al-Mutawakkiliyya al-Yamaniyya ("Imam of the Muslims, Commander of the Faithful, King of the Mutawakkilite Yemeni Kingdom").

• Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India – The Muslim rulers bestowed the title of Malik on loyal tribal leaders and chieftains in South Asia. The Mughal and colonial India, the princely state of Zainabad, Vanod was ruled by a Malek Shri ( Shri is an emphatical honorific). The title Malik has also been used in languages which adopted Arabic loanwords (mainly, not exclusively, in Muslim cultures), for various princely or lower ranks and functions.

• In Armenia, the title of Melik was bestowed upon princes who ruled various principalities, often referred to as Melikdoms. • In Georgia, among the numerous Grandees, often related to Armenia: • In the fourth class, ( Sul-didibuli-tavadi) of the Al mulk of Kartli, commanders of banners ( sadrosho), sixth and last in that class, the Malik of Somkhiti (Somkhiti is the name of Armenia in Georgian).

• In the sixth class, Grandees of the second class ( mtavari) of the Kingdom of Kartli, ranking first of the second subclass, Grandees under the Prince of Sabaratiano: the Malik of Lori ( Lori – a region in Armenia), head of the house of Melikishvili. The word Malik is sometimes used in Arabic to render roughly equivalent titles of foreign rulers, for instance the chronicler Baha al-Din Ibn Shaddad refers to King Richard I of England as Malik al-Inkitar.

Religious [ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding al mulk to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ( July 2013) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) • The sacrament of Holy Leaven in the Assyrian Church of the East [4] • It is also one of the Names of God in the Qur'an, and is then al-Malik (الملك) or The King, Lord of the Worlds in the absolute sense (denoted by the definite article), meaning the King of Kings, above all earthly rulers.

• Hence, Abdelmelik ("servant of [Allah] the King") is an Arabic male name. • In Biblical Hebrew, Moloch is either the al mulk of a god or the name of a particular kind al mulk sacrifice associated historically with Phoenician and related cultures in North Al mulk and the Levant.

• Melqart ("king of the city") was a Phoenician and Punic god.

al mulk

• The Melkites (from Syriac malkāyâ, ܡܠܟܝܐ, "imperial") are the members of several Christian churches of the Middle East, originally those who sided with the Byzantine emperor. Compound and derived titles [ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

( July 2013) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) • Malika is the female derivation, a term of Arabic origin used in Persia as al mulk title for a Queen consort. Frequently also used as part of a lady's name, e.g. Malika-i-Jahan 'Queen of the World'. • Sahib us-Sumuw al-Malik (female Sahibat us-Sumuw al-Malik) is an Arabic title for His/Her Royal Highness, notably for Princes in the dynasty of the Malik of Egypt.

Al mulk following components are frequently part of titles, notably in Persian (also used elsewhere, e.g. in India's Moghol al mulk • - ul-Mulk (or ul-Molk): - of the kingdom; e.g. Malik Usman Khan, who served the Sultan of Gujarat as Governor of Lahore, received the title of Zubdat ul-Mulk 'best of the kingdom' as a hereditary distinction, which was retained as part of the style of his heirs, the ruling Diwans (only since 1910 promoted to Nawab) of Palanpur.

• - ul-Mamaluk (plural of ul-mulk): - of the kingdoms. In the great Indian Muslim salute state of Hyderabad, a first rank- vassal of the Mughal padshah (emperor) imitating his lofty Persian court protocol, the word Molk became on itself one of the titles used for ennobled Muslim retainers of the ruling Nizam's court, in fact the third in rank, only below Jah (the highest) and Umara, but above Daula, Jang, Nawab, Khan Bahadur and Khan; for the Nizam's Hindu retainers different titles were used, the equivalent of Molk being Vant.

Usage in South Asia [ edit ] Further information: Kakazai, Malik (Punjab), Malik (Bihar), and Malik (Jat) Pashtun usage [ edit ] The Arabic term came to be adopted as a term for " tribal chieftain" in the al mulk areas of northwestern Pakistan. In tribal Pashtun society in Pakistan the Maliks serve as de facto arbiters in local conflicts, interlocutors in state policy-making, tax-collectors, heads of village and town councils and delegates to provincial and national jirgas as well as to Parliament.

Punjabi al mulk [ edit ] In the Punjab, "Malik", literally meaning "King" is a title used by some well-reputed specific Punjabi aristocrat bloodlines with special lineage, more formally known as Zamindars. The Actual clan to hold and originate this esteemed title is the Malik which is also associated with different aspects throughout different generations and periods of history, It is believed that they originated as a clan of warriors who later on settled as wealthy landlords.

Malik title is used various castes and tribes.

al mulk

Some Maliks (Urdu: ملک) belong to a clan of Hindu Jat, Muslim and a few Sikh Jat, found primarily in India. (There also exist Hindu Punjabi Maliks that are part of the Khukhrain or Arora communities. The Muslim Malik community is settled all over Pakistan and the Sikh Malik in India. The Malik are also known as the Gathwala. The Gathwala are now designating themselves as Maliks. Due to popularity of the Malik title many Punjabi sub-castes such as Gujarati Punjabis, Teli Punjabis and many others have adapted the title to gain acceptance in the Punjabi caste system.

General usage [ edit ] Malik or Malek is a common element in first and family names, usually without any aristocratic meaning. List of notable name-bearers [ edit ] First name [ edit ] • Malik Ambar, Born in present-day Ethiopia, became a military leader for the Ahmadnagar Sultanate • Malik Shakeel Awan, Born in present day Pakistan, served as a Member of National Assembly of Pakistan • Malik Basit or Malik B (1972–2020), American rapper • Malik Al mulk, Swedish Academy Award-winning documentary filmmaker, journalist, and child actor • Malik Dixon, American basketball player, top scorer in the 2005 Israel Basketball Premier League • Malik Izaak Taylor (aka Phife Dawg), American rapper and a member of the group A Tribe Called Quest • Malik Ata Muhammad Khan, Current Chieftain of Malik-Awan Clan, A Renowned feudal lords and states man • Nawab Malik Amir Mohammad Khan, Nawab of Kalabagh, Patriarch of Malik-Awan Tribe • Malik Feroz Khan Noon, former Prime Minister of Pakistan • Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana, Punjab Unionist party Premier of the Punjab • Malik Khoshaba, an Assyrian tribal leader of the Tyareh tribe.

[5] • Malik Newman (born 1997), American basketball player in the Israeli Basketball Premier League • Malik Peiris, Sri Lankan scientist • Malik Riaz, Pakistani businessman and a real estate investor who owns Bahria Town. • Malik Shabazz, also known as Malcolm X, an American Muslim leader and human rights activist • Malik Willis, American football player • Malik Yoba, American actor and occasional singer Surname [ edit ] • Abdul Malik, Brigadier (rtd.), first Pakistani cardiologist, founder of National Heart Foundation • Anu Malik, Indian singer and music director • Armaan Malik, Indian singer • Art Malik, a Pakistani-born British actor • Nikunj Malik, Indian actress [6] al mulk Rami Malek, American actor • Shoaib Malik, Pakistani cricket player • Steve Malik (born c.

1965), American businessman and sports team owner • Tashfeen Malik, Arab American terrorist; she was shot dead by police after the San Bernardino massacre • Terrence Malick (born 1943), American film director, screenwriter, producer • Veena Malik, Pakistani actress, TV host and model • Wendie Malick, American actress, former model • Yasin Malik, Kashmiri political leader and chairman of Jammu Kashmir Liberation front • Zayn Malik (born 1993), English former member of One Direction, now soloist See also [ edit ] • Melech (name), a given name of Hebrew origin that means 'king'.

• Maluku islands, an archipelago in Indonesia whose name is thought to have been derived from the Arab traders' term for the region, Jazirat al-Muluk ('the island of many kings'). al mulk • Minicoy, an island in India that was the ancient capital of Lakshadweepa, whose local name (Maliku) is thought to have been derived al mulk the Al mulk traders' term for it, Jazirat al-Maliku ('the island of the king'). [8] • Maalik References [ edit ] • ^ Knippel, L.O.

(12 March 1999). "Grønlandsk kunst udsprunget af et savn". JyllandsPosten. Retrieved 30 January 2022. • ^ F.Leo Oppenheim – Ancient Mesopotamia • ^ "Molech". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2008. Retrieved al mulk March 2008. • ^ Bowker, John (2003). "Malka or Malca". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191727221. Retrieved 30 July 2016 – via Oxford Reference. • ^ "Leaders & Heroes". My Site. • ^ "Malik Riaz can help lift Pakistan sports: Saeed Hai", The News International, Karachi, 15 February 2015.

Retrieved on 26 February 2015. • ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). Al mulk History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. p. 24. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. • ^ Lutfy, Mohamed Ibrahim. Thaareekhuge therein Lakshadheebu External links [ edit ] • Malik Family History at 'ancestry.com' Hidden categories: • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Articles needing additional references from April 2012 • All articles needing additional references • Use dmy dates from September 2013 • Articles containing Phoenician-language text • Articles containing Arabic-language text • Articles containing Hebrew-language al mulk • All articles with incomplete citations • Articles with incomplete citations from September 2021 • Articles needing additional references from July 2013 • Articles needing additional references from November 2017 Edit links • This page was last edited on 4 May 2022, at 12:37 (UTC).

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Surat Al-Mulk (The Sovereignty)




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