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We at EssaysExperts.net are a paper writing service designed to help students overcome all academic challenges. Our writers are highly skilled to complete any given assignment on time with zero plagiarism. There are several advantages and disadvantages of pesticide use by farmers. Pesticides are chemicals that kill pests.
To most farmers, pesticide use is an unavoidable aspect of farming or gardening. This is because pesticides help in keeping the plants free from pest infestation. Pests are harmful insects whose effects on the crop can be devastating if they are not controlled. Pesticides help farmers in preventing crop damage by these harmful insects. Although pesticides are important to farmers, using them can pose a risk to the farmer, his family and animals.
However, when used properly pesticides may not have significant side effect on humans and animals. Nevertheless, it is important to consider the advantages and disadvantages of pesticide use before a farmer start using them. One of the major advantages of pesticide use is that they kill pests faster than other pest control methods.
This is because pesticides are specifically formulated chemicals that target certain pests. Once administered in a crop that has been invaded by the pest, pesticides start working immediately by affecting the normal biological functions of the organs of the insect. Pesticides are also easy to use. With most pesticides, a farmer is just required to mix the pesticide with a specified amount of water and then spray the crop.
There are powder pesticides that a farmer applies to the crop that is infested with pests directly. Thus, it takes a few minutes or hours to apply the pesticide and control the pest. There is also a wide range of pesticides from which a farmer or gardener can choose from. This implies that a farmer can easily find the pesticide that they need to control a particular pest in their farm. Additionally, if a pest has developed resistance to a specific pesticide, a farmer can use another.
Nevertheless, there are also disadvantages of pesticide use as well. For instance, when a pesticide is overused in controlling a particular pest it can develop resistance. If the traits for the resistance are genetic-based, then the pesticide will no longer be effective in controlling that pest.
Some pesticides also kill beneficial insects. Insects such as bees which are agents of pollination can be killed by some pesticides. In addition, some pesticides have residual effects that can be passed on to humans who consume the crops on which they are applied.
When used in the field, pesticides are carried by rain water and deposited in water bodies such as rivers and lakes where they interfere with aquatic life. Buy an essay on advantages and disadvantages of pesticide use online Are you struggling to write an essay on advantages and disadvantages of pesticide use?
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Once complete, your paper shall be delivered to you via contacts you provide. There is no best way to deal with pests in agriculture. Pesticides which are commonly used may cause many problems.
I think combining different management operations is the most effective way to control pests. Firstly, the chemicals in the pesticides may build up as residues in the environment and in the soil which absorbs the chemicals.
This reduces the quality of farm product. Secondly, pests can gradually become resistant to pesticides. This means that newer and stronger ones have to be developed.
Lastly, some pesticides affect non target plants and animals such as fish and bees. This affects the ecology and environment as well. So, understanding of ecology of an area helps a lot in pest control. Pesticides should be chosen and applied carefully one of the disadvantages of using chemical pesticides is that they don’t affect the ecological balance and environment.
Therefore, integrated pest management is a safe and more effective option to fight pest in agriculture and livestock. Soal di atas menanyakan tentang "Salah satu kelemahan penggunaan pestisida kimia adalah…" Jawaban dari soal ini terdapat dalam paragraf kedua sampai keempat yang artinya: Pertama, bahan kimia dalam pestisida dapat menumpuk sebagai residu di lingkungan dan di dalam tanah yang menyerap bahan kimia. Ini mengurangi kualitas produk pertanian.
Kedua, hama secara bertahap dapat menjadi resisten terhadap pestisida. Ini berarti bahwa yang lebih baru dan lebih kuat harus dikembangkan. Terakhir, beberapa pestisida mempengaruhi tanaman dan hewan non target seperti ikan dan lebah. Ini mempengaruhi ekologi dan lingkungan juga. Pilihan jawabannya adalah: A.
killing fish and bees. : membunuh ikan dan lebah. B. increasing crops productivity. : meningkatkan produktifitas pangan. C. creating balanced ecosystem.
: menciptakan ekosistem yang seimbang. D. causing the pests to become inactive : menyebabkan hama menjadi tidak aktif E. helping reduce pollutants in the environment. : membantu mengurangi polutan di lingkungan. Berdasarkan pilihan jawaban yang ada, jawaban yang sesuai dengan isi paragraf kedua sampai keempat tentang kelemahan pesitisida adalah " killing fish and bees." Jadi, jawaban yang benar adalah A.
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When your prize rose is covered in aphids or blackfly are eating your beans before you can, reaching for the sprayer is tempting, but pause and consider that insecticide as only a last resort.
Some insecticides, such as insecticidal soaps, work through non-toxic methods, but others contain chemicals that are harmful to other forms of life. Insecticides are also ineffective when used excessively because pests build up resistance. Non-chemical control methods don't have these disadvantages.
Insecticides can affect many more organisms than the ones they're intended to kill. Insecticides are not without risks to the humans who use them.
And when insecticides enter water sources through runoff, drift, leaching or accidental release, they kill fish and other aquatic wildlife.
Birds die from drinking contaminated water and eating affected insects, one of the disadvantages of using chemical pesticides is well as from accidental exposure to sprays. The long-term effects of insecticides on non-target organisms are unknown. Some remain in the bodies of animals that eat them and travel up the food chain, becoming more concentrated until finally affecting top predators. Some insecticides, including DDT, were largely banned in the United States because they were found to affect the reproductive abilities of predatory birds.
Insecticides can kill insects that help gardeners and farmers. Honeybees are essential for crop pollination as well as making honey, yet they and other pollinators are killed by widely-used insecticides. Insecticides also kill ladybugs, predatory wasps, lacewings, hoverflies, ground beetles, spiders and other insects that eat pests. One of the disadvantages of chemical pesticide use is that repeated exposure to insecticides builds up resistance in insects, until finally the insecticide has little or no effect.
Every insect population produces some individuals with a genetic makeup that allows them to withstand the insecticide's effects. These individuals survive the spraying and pass on their protective genetic makeup to their offspring.
Over time, the population of resistant individuals increases until it forms the majority. Insects reproduce quickly, often as frequently as a new generation every three or four weeks, so resistance can build up rapidly. Frequent insecticide applications make the problem worse.
How to Minimize the Effects Using selective, non-persistent insecticides and taking precautions when spraying help minimize the disadvantages of insecticides, says the University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. Selective insecticides kill only a narrow range of organisms, and non-persistent insecticides break down quickly in the environment. Use ready-mixed products to avoid having to contaminate other containers with pesticide, and spray only where the pest attack is most severe.
Don't spray on windy days or when rain is forecast, and spray in the early morning to have the least impact on bees. Non-chemical pest control methods include optimizing growing conditions, growing resistant varieties, using insect traps or barriers, hosing plants down and growing plants that attract beneficial insects. none
Search Field Exit Search • • Project Information • Support • Description • Development • Core Group of Developers • Regional Advisors Group • Topic Experts Group of Developers • Production • Instructional Design • Lesson Template • Overall Course Design • Goals • Objectives • Assessment • Instructor Materials: Assessments: Prerequisite Test • One of the disadvantages of using chemical pesticides is • Evaluation • Revision • Production Process • Instructor Materials • Assessments • Exams • Learner Survey • Post Test • Prerequisite Test • Prerequisite Test • Pretests • Quizzes • Testing Rationale • Writing Evaluation • Available Topics • Introduction to Forages • Overview • Pretest - Introduction • Instructional Objectives • Define forages and differentiate between forage types.
• Explain how forages have been and are essential to civilization. • Summarize the history of forages. • Define grassland agriculture. Discuss a typical grassland ecosystem.
• Define sustainable agriculture and discuss how forages are a key component. • List several grassland organizations and describe their role in promoting forages and grassland agriculture. • Summary • Exam • References • Grasslands of the World • Overview • Pretest - World Grasslands • Instructional Objectives • Define and describe the natural grasslands of the world. • Locate and describe the tropical grasslands and their forages.
• Locate and describe the temperate grasslands and their forages. • Important issues affecting grasslands and their forages. • Summary • Exam • References • Forages in the US • Overview • Pretest - U.S. Grasslands • Instructional Objectives • Describe the role of forages in the history of the US. • Describe the current role of forages in US agriculture.
• Discuss regional forage production. • Discuss forages from a livestock perspective. • Discuss the environmental benefits of forages. • Discuss the possible future role of forages in the One of the disadvantages of using chemical pesticides is.
• Summary • Exam • References • Grasses • Overview • Pretest - Grasses • Instructional Objectives • Grasses are very common but very important. • Differentiate warm-season from cool-season grasses. • Summarize the distinctive physical characteristics of grasses • Describe the utilization of grass in forage-livestock systems. • Describe how knowledge of grass regrowth is beneficial to forage managers.
• Provide specific information about the common grasses used as forage • Summary • Exam • References • Legumes • Overview • Pretest - Legumes • Instructional Objectives • Legumes are a valuable part of forage production.
• Differentiate warm-season from cool-season legumes. • Summarize the distinctive physical characteristics of legumes. • Define the utilization of legumes in forage-livestock systems. • Provide specific information about the common legumes used as forage. • Summary • Exam • References • Plant Identification • Overview • Pretest - Plant Identification • Instructional Objectives • Explain the reasons why forage plant identification is important. • Describe the major differences between the plant families used as forages.
• Provide the vocabulary needed to identify grasses. • Provide the basic vocabulary for identifying legumes. • Identify common species of forage. • Provide practice in identifying common forages. • Summary • References • Forage Selection • Overview • Pretest - Forage Selection • Instructional Objectives • The selection of a forage plant is crucial. • Determine limitations to forage selection. • Forage selection requires an understanding of species and cultivars. • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of selecting mixtures.
• A model for forage selection • Summary • Exam • References • Establishment • Overview • Pre-Test • Instructional Objectives • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pasture establishment • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pasture renovation. • Discuss the steps in seedbed preparation. • Discuss the considerations of seed quality. • Discuss the methods and timing of seeding.
• Discuss the purpose and wise utilization of companion crops. • Summary • Exam • References • Weeds • Overview • Pre-Test • Define the term weed. • Instructional Objectives • Explain why producers and the public should be concerned about weeds.
• Describe several ways in which weeds cause forage crop and animal production losses. • Describe methods in determining quality • List several poisonous plants found on croplands, pasturelands, rangelands, one of the disadvantages of using chemical pesticides is forests. • Describe the five general categories of weed control methods. • Describe the concept of Integrated Pest Management and how it applies to weed control. • Distinguish between selective and non-selective herbicides and give an example of each.
• Describe how weeds are categorized by life cycle and how this is correlated with specific control methods. • Describe conditions that tend to favor weed problems in pastures and describe how to alleviate these conditions. • Describe several common weed control practices in alfalfa production. • List printed and electronic sources of weed control information. • List local, regional, and national sources of weed control information.
• Summary • Exam • References • Management/Physiology • Overview • Pre-Test • Instructional Objectives • Discuss the basics of grass growth. • Describe the impact of defoliation on grass plants. • Discuss how grasses regrow. • Discuss how livestock interaction impacts grass growth. • Discuss grass growth in mixed stands. • Discuss the practical applications of regrowth mechanisms. • References • Fertilization • Overview • Pre-Test • Instructional Objectives • Discuss the importance of soil fertility and the appropriate use of fertilization.
• Define and discuss the nitrogen cycle. • Discuss the major elements needed for good soil fertility and plant growth. • Define and discuss micronutrients. • Discuss the uses and methods of liming. • Discuss fertilizer management for mixed stands.
• References • Biological Nitrogen Fixation • Overview • Pre-Test • Instructional Objectives • Define biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and explain its importance. • Describe the benefits of BNF in economic and environmental terms. • Estimate the amount of BNF that is contributed by various crops. • List and discuss factors that affect the quantity of nitrogen fixed. • Describe the processes of infection and nodulation in forage legumes.
• Describe the process of inoculation in the production of forage legumes. • Summary • Exam • Grazing • Overview • Pre-Test • Instructional Objectives • Discuss the role of grazing in a pasture-livestock system. • List and discuss the types of grazing. • Compare and contrast the different types of grazing. • Discuss the livestock dynamics on pastures and grazing. • Discuss the utilization of a yearly grazing calendar. • Summary • References • Mechanically Harvested Forages • Overview • Pre-Test • Instructional Objectives • Discuss the purpose for mechanically harvested forages.
• List the characteristics of good hay and the steps needed to make it. • Determine the characteristics of good one of the disadvantages of using chemical pesticides is and the steps in producing it. • Discuss the potential dangers in mechanically harvesting and storing forages. • Compare and contrast the types of storage and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each.
• Summary • References • Irrigation • Overview • Pre-Test • Instructional Objectives • Describe the importance of irrigation in producing forages. • Describe major types of irrigation systems in US forage production.
• List and discuss factors that affect irrigation efficiency. • Describe basic principles of scheduling irrigation for efficient use of water resources. • Describe potential problems that may arise from the use one of the disadvantages of using chemical pesticides is irrigation in forages. • Summary • References • Quality & Testing • Overview • Pre-Test • Instructional Objectives • Define forage quality and management decisions that increase forage quality.
• Describe important factors that determine hay and silage quality. • Discuss components of forage • Define and discuss antiquality factors affecting animal health • Discuss the need for and progress towards standards in national forage testing • Summary • References • Breeding • Overview • Pre-Test • Instructional Objectives • Discuss the history of forage breeding in the United States • Discuss the philosophy of why new plant cultivars are needed • Discuss the objectives of forage plant breeding • Discuss the process of creating a new cultivar • Discuss the steps in maintaining and producing new cultivars • Compare and contrast plant breeding in the US and Europe • Summary • References • Forage-livestock Systems • Overview • Pre-Test • Define a livestock system and their importance • Describe the basic principles of a successful forage-livestock system • Discuss forage-livestock systems in a larger picture • Discuss how economics are a part of a forage-livestock system • Discuss the types of forage-livestock systems • Summary • References • Miscellaneous Forages • Overview • Pre-Test • Instructional Objectives • Discuss the importance of utilizing forages other than common grasses and legumes • Discuss the species suitable to use as miscellaneous forages • Compare and contrast the species suitable to use as miscellaneous forages • Discuss the utilization of crop residues in a forage-livestock system • Discuss the utilization of a yearly grazing calendar • Summary • Exam • References • Economics of Forages • Overview • Pre-Test • Instructional Objectives • Discuss the balance needed between input and output • Describe marginal analysis • Discuss macroeconomic questions • Discuss microeconomic questions • Discuss enterprise budgets • Discuss the available tools for better economic management • Summary • References • Environmental Issues of Forages • Overview • Pre-Test • Instructional Objectives • Describe several important environmental issues that relate to forage production • Define the terms renewable resource and nonrenewable and give examples of each resource type that are related to forage production • Define the term sustainable agriculture and apply the concept to forage production • Diagram and describe a sustainable forage production system • Discuss factors that contribute to soil erosion and discuss ways that soil erosion control can be integrated into forage product • Discuss advantages and disadvantages in using synthetic agrichemicals in forage production • Explain the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and how it can be used to enhance sustainable forage production • Define the term biodiversity and explain how this concept could be applied to forage production • Discuss the controversy over using agricultural land to produce crops for animal consumption • Summary • References • Instructor Feedback • Laboratory Strategies • Lecture Strategies • Mailing Groups • Student Materials • Mailing Groups • Math Review • Practice Exam • Reading Test • Reading Sample • Writing Evaluation • Reference Materials • CD's • Glossaries • People • Publications • Slides • Software • Videotapes • Websites • • Future Students • Current Students • Alumni & Parents • Faculty & Staff • • Calendar • Library • Maps • Online Services • Make a Gift One of the most publicized and controversial issues in crop production is the use of agrichemicals.
To many in the public arena, the use of synthetic or manufactured chemicals on crops presents a frightening image of immediate and long term health problems. Concerns about chemical residues on food products one of the disadvantages of using chemical pesticides is lead to a whole new marketing approach in which crop products are advertised as 'residue free'. Separating fact from fallacy in this area is difficult. Even so called experts in the fields of agriculture, human nutrition, and medicine don't always draw the same conclusions about the use of agrichemicals in food production.
What are synthetic or manufactured agrichemicals? In its broadest sense the term refers to any chemical manufactured by humans that is used in the production of crops or livestock. More specifically the term agrichemicals includes herbicides (chemicals that are toxic to weeds), pesticides (chemicals that are toxic to insects), fungicides (chemicals that are toxic to fungi - a group of organisms that cause diseases in plants and animals), rodenticides (chemicals toxic to rodents), and antibiotics administered to livestock.
With such a wide range of chemicals and uses it is difficult, if not inappropriate to broadly condemn or praise the use of all agrichemicals. Furthermore, it is far beyond the scope of this curriculum to address the many details of the hundreds of compounds that are in the category of agrichemicals.
Â Perhaps the most useful and concise way to discuss the issue of agrichemicals in the context of this curriculum is to point out major advantages and disadvantages in the use of these products in forage production. Â Advantages of Using Agrichemicals (Benefits) Disadvantages of Using Agrichemicals (Risks) Higher Crop Yields Contamination of crop products with harmful chemical residues Higher Crop Quality Contamination of soils and groundwater Ability of a small population of agricultural producers to provide food for the much larger nonagricultural population Development of crop pest populations that are resistant to agrichemical treatment Lower labor costs resulting in more affordable food Health risks to those who apply agrichemicals Â As indicated parenthetically in the table above, some prefer using the terms benefits and risks instead of advantages/disadvantages.
The use of the terms benefits and risks serves as a reminder that virtually any human activity that produces benefits involves some risks. Clearly some risks are greater than others, but humans sometimes take great risks to obtain great rewards. Some would argue the benefit of a plentiful food supply is worth the risk posed by the use of agrichemicals.
Others argue the reverse, that the risk to human health is so great that agrichemicals should not be used. Current trends suggest that relatively large amounts of manufactured agrichemicals will continue to be used in the near future.
If public pressure against the use of these materials continues, this trend may change, but for now society remains divided over the use of agrichemicals in food production.
Pest control protects fruit. Linda Crampton The Pest Problem All living things strive to survive, but unfortunately the needs of other creatures sometimes conflict with our needs.
An example of this conflict is the struggle between pests and humans. Pests are creatures that injure or kill plants or domestic animals, transmit disease, cause economic damage, or are a nuisance in some other way.
They eat our food crops or ornamental plants, infect plants that are useful to us, make us sick by transmitting infectious organisms, infest our livestock and pets, and destroy property. An effective form of pest control is essential if we're going to win the battle with the creatures. Many different chemicals are used to kill pests. These pesticides often work well, but since they're designed to kill living things they may cause serious problems in humans or pets. Pesticides contaminate the environment and the food that we eat and may enter our bodies when we're applying them to our plants or animals.
They sometimes harm other organisms in addition to their target. Another problem with using chemicals to control the population of an organism is that a pest may become resistant to a pesticide. Biological control involves the use of another living organism to kill a pest. No chemicals are needed, there is no environmental contamination with pesticides, and the pests don’t become resistant to the control method. However, introducing a plant or animal to an area where it doesn’t normally occur can create new problems.
Biopesticides are on the borderline between biological and chemical control and may be useful. Strawberries are one of the produce types likely to harbour pesticides.
AllAnd, Pixabay License Types of Biological Pest Control Three types of biological pest control exist. In classical biological control, natural predators, parasites, or pathogens of a pest are imported one of the disadvantages of using chemical pesticides is an area to protect a crop or livestock.
A "pathogen" is an organism that causes disease. Importation can be a useful strategy when the pest has been introduced from another region and has no predators in its new habitat. In augmentation biological control, plants and animals that control a particular pest and are already present in an area are increased in number by inoculation or inundation.
Inoculation is the introduction of relatively few organisms. Inundation involves the introduction of a very large number of organisms. The Environmental Working Group (EWG) publishes a yearly "Dirty Dozen" list of the produce with the most pesticide residues.
In the latest list, strawberries have the most pesticides, spinach has the second highest level of the chemicals, and kale, collard, and mustard greens occupy the third slot. The EWG recommends that we eat these items in an organic form. Spinach occupies the second position in the Dirty Dozen list created by the EWG. ponce_photography, Pixabay License Advantages of Biological Control Biological pest control has some distinct advantages compared to the chemical process.
Farmers and gardeners don’t have to worry about poisoning themselves, their families, or their pets when they treat their crops or plants. There are no toxic chemicals to store and no concerns about children or animals discovering the stored pesticides. There are no pesticides to give off dangerous vapors, accumulate in the soil, or collect in water.
The food that's produced will be free of pesticides (or low in pesticides, since the food may have picked up chemicals distributed by other people). Disadvantages of the Process Despite the appealing advantages of biological pest control, there may be important disadvantages to the activity. Artificially increasing the population of a certain predator may have unforeseen consequences.
In addition, an organism that has been introduced from another area to destroy a pest may become a pest itself, especially if it has no natural predators in its new habitat.
A famous example of this effect is the introduction of the cane toad into Australia. In 1935, cane toads were transported from Hawaii to North Queensland. The goal was for the toads to catch and eat the beetles that were attacking the sugar cane crops. Not only was this plan unsuccessful (the toads couldn't jump high enough to reach the beetles on the sugar cane stalks), but the cane toad has now become an invasive species.
The toads have spread to new areas and have a thriving population. They feed on native animals, and the toxin in their bodies often kills their potential predators. Fortunately, previous experiences have taught researchers how to better assess the likelihood that an introduced predator, parasite, or pathogen will cause a problem. Nature's behavior can't be completely predicted, however, and scientists never know for certain what will happen when they introduce a plant or animal to an area.
The Amazing Life of Gertrude Bell Biological pest control often takes longer to work than the chemical method and frequently reduces a pest population to a low level rather than eliminating it completely. These facts may be considered a disadvantage by some people. Once a predator population is established, however, biological pest control will operate on its own without the need for further human input (as long as the predator survives).
Biopesticides Biopesticides are chemicals, but they are produced from or by living things and are considered to be safer for humans than chemical pesticides. That being said, new discoveries are constantly being made by scientists. They may well discover new information about all types of pesticides in the near future. Three types of biopesticides currently exist—microbial pesticides, plant-incorporated protectants (or PIPs), and biochemical pesticides.
I describe each of them below. Microbial Pesticides Microbial pesticides are made from microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, which are used to infect and kill pests. Although the microbes are said to form a pesticide, their use is actually an example of biological pest control. A popular microbial pesticide is the bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis, also known as Bt. Different strains of Bt exist, each producing a distinct mix of proteins.
Some of these proteins kill one of the disadvantages of using chemical pesticides is larvae. Different proteins kill different species of insects. Plant-Incorporated Protectants or PIPs PIPs are chemicals made by plants that have been genetically altered in order to produce a particular pesticide. For example, the Bt genes that make pesticide proteins can be inserted into plants. The genes become active and the plants produce their own pesticide, which kills insects that try to eat the plant.
The pesticide proteins appear to be harmless to humans. The effects of PIPs are tested before farmers can use them. Ornamental plants are beautiful, unless they're being attacked by pests. Linda Crampton Biochemical Pesticides and Semiochemicals Biochemical pesticides are non-toxic (or almost non-toxic) chemicals made by living creatures.
They are usually the only kind of pesticide that organic food producers are allowed to use. A biochemical pesticide's job is to control a pest, but it may not kill the organism directly. Semiochemicals are chemicals released by living things that influence the behavior of other organisms.
A pheromone is a semiochemical that affects a member of the same species as the organism that made the pheromone. Insect pheromones attract other insects, which may be insects of the opposite gender or insects of both genders, depending on the pheromone. Pheromones can be used by farmers to lure insects into a trap. Pyrethrins Pyrethrins are another type of biochemical pesticide.
They are made in the seed cases of a type of chrysanthemum and kill insects by damaging their nervous systems. Unlike some chemical pesticides, pyrethrins quickly break down in the environment and are said to be non-residual chemicals. They have low toxicity to humans and other mammals but should still be treated with respect. It's important to realize that just because a chemical is natural doesn't automatically mean that it's completely safe for humans.
Still, pyrethrins are considered to be some of the safest chemicals to use as pesticides. They are toxic to fish and bees, however. Kitchen Ingredients That May Remove Pests Some common kitchen substances may be useful for getting rid of garden pests and may be worth trying before another method of control is used.
For example, a canola oil spray is sometimes used as an insecticide yet is non-toxic for humans. It shouldn't be sprayed near water, however.
Garlic is said to repel birds and insects and also degrades quickly. Black pepper oil is used to repel mammals.
Although it may not be a common household product in some countries, neem seeds and the oil from the seeds are used to create a natural pesticide that kills many insects.
Chili peppers are chopped and then soaked in water for a day to make an insecticide. Some people add a small amount of soapy water to the chili water to make a spray that will stick to plants. Try to use a soap or detergent that is safe for the environment and for the plants if you do this. Be careful if you use chili peppers, since they can burn and irritate skin and mucous membranes.
Types of Chemical Pesticides Chemical pesticides are synthetic substances that are created to kill or injure pests. They can be classified in several different ways. For example, pesticides may be categorized based on when they begin to work after they are applied.
Contact pesticides kill a pest shortly after touching the surface one of the disadvantages of using chemical pesticides is its body. Systemic pesticides are absorbed by plants or animals and must spread through the inside of their bodies to untreated areas before they can kill the pests.
The pesticides may travel through the whole body or just to one particular area in the body. Pesticides may also be classified based on how they work. Desiccants remove water from the bodies of plants or animals, for example, and defoliants cause plants to drop their leaves. Insect growth regulators kill insect larvae by interfering with the process in which juvenile insects molt and turn into adults.
Although most pesticides kill the pests that they attack, not all of them do. Repellents simply repel pests, as their name implies. An example of this type of pesticide is DEET, a common substance in personal insect repellents. Sterilizing agents interfere with the ability of the pest to reproduce, but they don't kill the creature that they affect. Peeling fruit removes some types of pesticides but not every type. Linda Crampton Potential Problems for Human Health Chemical pesticides are potent substances designed to destroy pests.
They may harm us, too. This harm is generally reduced because farmers often have to follow strict laws about pesticide use. These laws include rules about allowable pesticide levels on crops and about storage, transport, and application of the chemicals.
Despite all the regulations, however, we do ingest pesticides in our foods and drinks, inhale them from the air that we breathe, and absorb them through our skin. The agencies that regulate pesticides usually admit that chemical pesticide use does involve safety risks, but they say that these risks are acceptable considering our need to protect agricultural crops and feed people. Many individuals disagree with the idea that the risk is "acceptable", however.
The agencies also claim that most people are exposed to only small amounts of pesticides in their daily lives. However, if a pesticide is very toxic a small amount can be dangerous. Fruit with blemishes is often safe to eat. Linda Crampton Possible Effects of Pesticide Poisoning The effects of a pesticide on the human body depend on several factors, including the nature of the pesticide, the amount of chemical involved, the length and frequency of exposure, and the age of the person being exposed to the chemical.
Children are especially susceptible to the effects of chemicals because of their small size and the fact that their bodies and nervous systems are still developing. Symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning develop immediately or shortly after exposure to a dangerous dose of the chemical. The symptoms may be relatively minor, such as a headache, dizziness, nausea, and diarrhea.
More serious symptoms include vomiting, abdominal pain, a rapid pulse, lack of muscle coordination, mental confusion, inability to breathe, burns, loss of consciousness, and even death. Beautiful and flawless flowers are lovely to see, but the use of a pesticide to keep them that way needs to be considered very carefully.
Linda Crampton Common Types of Insecticides and Their Dangers Many pests are insects and so most pesticides are insecticides. Important types of insecticides, which are classified based on their chemical structure, are organophosphates, carbamates, organochlorines, pyrethroids, and neonicotinoids. Organophosphates Organophosphates kill insects by interfering with the activity of their brains and nervous systems. Unfortunately, they can also affect the nervous systems of humans and other animals.
They do this by altering a normal process involving acetylcholine, a common neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters control the transmission of a nerve impulse from one nerve cell to the next. They are normally broken down or removed once they've done their job. Organophosphates interfere with the action of acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine. Organochlorines The most famous organochlorine is DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane).
It has been banned in several countries for decades, except for very specialized use, but it is a very persistent pesticide. "Persistent" pesticides stay in the environment for a long time one of the disadvantages of using chemical pesticides is don't break down.
DDT is still found in soil and in the bodies of animals and humans. DDT thins the shells of bird eggs, causing the developing babies to die. It also disrupts our endocrine systems (which produce one of the disadvantages of using chemical pesticides is hormones that we need) and is thought to damage genes and increase the risk of cancer. Pyrethroids Pyrethroids are synthetic chemicals derived from pyrethrins.
Like pyrethrins, their use is increasing because they are considered to be less toxic than the other categories of insecticides. Integrated Pest Management or IPM Due to the concerns about chemical pesticide safety, some communities are now using integrated pest management techniques to control pest problems.
Integrated pest management, or IPM, involves the use of multiple techniques to solve a problem as safely as possible. These techniques include: • using physical or mechanical protection methods, such as picking pests off plants, creating barriers to block them from entering an area, and removing clutter • choosing an appropriate garden or field design, such as choosing companion plants that protect a desired crop • changing soil composition or growing conditions to discourage pests • using specific techniques to prevent invasions by particular pests, such as fixing water leaks, storing wood in a dry location, and preventing tree or shrub branches from touching buildings • using biological control methods and applying biopesticides • applying chemical pesticides if these are absolutely necessary Some Good News The good news is that public pressure and human health concerns are stimulating some communities and individuals to use safer methods to manage pests.
These methods include physical control, biological control, the use of biopesticides, and, if necessary, the use of safer chemical pesticides. Some local governments have even stopped using pesticides on ornamental plants and lawns for purely cosmetic reasons.
In addition, some people are now willing to accept fruit that hasn't been treated with chemical pesticides and looks less than perfect, provided it's safe to eat. I hope these strategies for avoiding harmful chemicals become very popular.
References and Resources • Biological pest control notes from the University of California • What Is Biological Control? from Cornell University • Information about biopesticides from the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) • Ideas for natural homemade insecticides from TreeHugger • Facts about pesticides from the National Institute of Environmental Health Studies (part of the NIH, or National Institutes of Health) • Principles of integrated pest management from the EPA • The Environmental Working Group has a Dirty Dozen list as well as other information about pesticide residues on food.
• The National Pesticide Information Center is a useful resource for pest control and pesticide safety information. The website is run by Oregon State University and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. If you read the article again, especially the section called "Advantages", you'll see some benefits of biological control.
Salah on March 25, 2019: I need The Reason Why biological control is better than chemical control in the control of pests and parasites Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on June 06, 2018: Thank you. I think it definitely is a topic for discussion. Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on June 24, 2017: Thanks for the comment, gokul. I'm glad the article was useful for you.
Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on May 26, 2017: I'm glad you find the site useful, Mohammed.
l am very very great tanks to this website. I will be get many more references for the future. sincerely yours. Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on November 12, 2015: Thanks for the visit and the great comment, breathing. Like you, I always prefer natural products whenever I can use them. TANJIM ARAFAT SAJIB from Bangladesh on November 12, 2015: There are always possibilities of diseases with chemicals.
That's why I prefer natural pesticides over the chemical ones. Yeah there are cases where you can get great results with the chemical pesticides but there are always chances of great destruction too! That's why if you are ever bound to use chemical pesticides don't do anything on your own. Try to take the suggestion from experts. If possible try to perform the whole process taking the expert along with you. After all it will not take you years to do so! Thank you very much for both the comment and for voting, twinstimes2!
Karen Lackey from Ohio on May 28, 2012: Well done, Alicia. I learned quite a bit reading your hub. Both useful and interesting.and voted up! Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on May 24, 2012: Hi, theraggededge. Thank you for the visit and the comment. It's good that we have some natural pesticides to choose from instead of having to rely on chemical ones!. Bev G from Wales, UK on May 24, 2012: Wow - so much information!
I like the natural insecticides you suggest and have used one or two of them but didn't know about the others. Many thanks. Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on May 23, 2012: Thank you for the comment, Karen!
I'm lucky to have a garden, so I grow some fruits and vegetables there, without chemical control. A large part of the garden is used by my dogs, though, one of the disadvantages of using chemical pesticides is I still have to buy a lot of produce. I try to buy organic food whenever I can. ~Kaz x Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on May 19, 2012: Thank you for the visit and the comment, drbj. It is interesting - and a little scary - to think that substances that we eat have the power to kill insects!
drbj and sherry from south Florida on May 19, 2012: Fascinating information and thorough research, Alicia. But now thanks to your edifying description of chili peppers potential use as insecticide, I am swearing off chili peppers.
Promise. Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on May 18, 2012: Thanks for the visit and for commenting, teaches. I use natural remedies, too! They work in my garden. I am going with your natural remedy approach. It would be a better world for all of us without those harmful chemicals that have the potential to cause severe reactions.
Thanks for posting. Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on May 17, 2012: Thank you very much for the comment, chrissieklinger! I appreciate your visit. chrissieklinger from Pennsylvania on May 17, 2012: I might just try that chili pepper spray mixture. Loved reading this hub.thanks for all the information! Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on May 17, 2012: Thank you very much for the votes and for sharing the hub, Peggy!
It is scary to think about the pesticides in our bodies and their possible effects. It's certainly time for individuals and communities to think very carefully about what forms of pest control to use.
Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on May 17, 2012: Hi Alicia, It is a perennial problem for farmers of all types.commercial concerns as well as backyard gardeners.
I am happy to see the movement towards using more natural pesticides and plants that can be grown together for best effect. The old saying."we are what we eat".includes the pesticides used! Excellent hub. Up votes and SHARING this. Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on May 17, 2012: Hi, Tom. I'm very glad that more people are thinking about safe ways to control pests, too. There are still a lot of potentially dangerous chemicals being used as pesticides, though.
Thank you for the comment and the votes. I hope that you have a wonderful weekend as well! Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on May 17, 2012: Hi, Danette. Yes, the web of life is very intricate and there is still so much to learn about how nature works. I agree with you - we may never be able to control one of the disadvantages of using chemical pesticides is environment and the connections between living things! Thank you very much for the comment and the share.
Thomas Silvia from Massachusetts on May 17, 2012: Hi my friend, has always i love reading your hubs, it is so nice to hear that they are trying to find better ways and safer ways to manage pests in order to protect us,our pets and our food supply. Vote up and more !!! Have a awesome weekend my friend !
Danette Watt from Illinois on May 17, 2012: Hey Alicia, I have to agree with mwilliams66. I had a questions/comment about introducing a predator to control a pest (that it wasn't always a good idea) and you addressed that with the toads in Australia. When will we learn that we can't always (maybe never?) control the environment/chain of life. There was a lot of info here to absorb and I'll have to come back to reread it but as always, I enjoyed your writing and I'm going to share it on Google+ mwilliams66 from Left Coast, USA on May 16, 2012: Thanks Alicia.
I'm working up to it. I'm doing a lot of reading and commenting right now. I'm really enjoying that. I have found that your hubs are some of the most interesting. Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on May 16, 2012: Thank you very much, mwilliams66!
I appreciate your comment. I'm looking forward to reading your hubs! mwilliams66 from Left Coast, USA on May 16, 2012: As with all the hubs written by you that I have so far read, I found this to be a very interesting article. All the questions that came to mind as I read, were answered.
Very thorough and useful. © 2022 The Arena Media Brands, LLC and respective content providers on this website. HubPagesÂ® is a registered trademark of The Arena Platform, Inc. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. The Arena Media Brands, LLC and respective content providers to this website may receive compensation for some links to products and services on this website.none