Public speaking

public speaking

• Portal • History General aspects • Communication theory • Information • Semiotics • Language • Logic • Sociology Fields • Discourse analysis • Linguistics public speaking Mass communication • Organizational communication • Pragmatics • Public speaking • Sociolinguistics Disciplines • Public speaking • Discourse • Culture • Argumentation • Persuasion • Research • Rhetoric Categories • Outline • v • t • e Public speaking, also called oratory or oration, has traditionally meant the act of speaking face to face to a live audience.

Today it includes any form of speaking (formally and informally) to an audience, including pre-recorded speech delivered over great distance by means of technology. Confucius, one of many scholars associated with public speaking, once taught that if a speech was considered to be a good speech, it would impact the individuals' lives whether they listened to it directly or not.

[1] His idea was that the words and actions of someone of power can influence the world. [1] Public speaking is used for many different purposes, but usually some mixture public speaking teaching, persuasion, or entertaining. Each of these calls upon slightly different approaches and techniques. Public speaking has developed as a primary sphere of knowledge in Greece and Rome, where prominent thinkers codified it as a central part of rhetoric. Today, the art of public speaking has been transformed by newly available technology such as videoconferencing, multimedia presentations, and other nontraditional forms, but the essentials remain the same.

Contents • 1 Purpose of public speaking • 1.1 Persuasion • 1.2 Education • 1.3 Intervention • 2 History • 2.1 Greece • 2.2 Rome • 2.3 China • 3 Theorists • 3.1 Aristotle • 4 Historical speeches • 5 Women and public speaking • 6 Glossophobia • 7 Training • 8 Professional speakers • public speaking Modern • 9.1 Technology • 9.2 Telecommunication • 9.3 Notable modern theorists • 10 See also • 11 References • 12 Further reading • 13 External links Purpose of public speaking [ edit ] The function of public speaking depends entirely on what effect a speaker intends when addressing a particular audience.

The same speaker, with the same strategic intention, might deliver a substantially different speech to two different audiences. The point is to change something, in the hearts, minds, or actions of the audience. Despite its name, public speaking is frequently delivered to a closed, limited audience with a broadly common outlook.

Audiences may be ardent fans of the speaker; they may be hostile (attending an event unwillingly, or out of spite), or they may be random strangers (indifferent to a speaker on a soapbox in the street).

All the same, effective speakers remember that even a small audience is not one single mass with a single point of view but a variety of individuals. [2] As a broad generalization, public speaking seeks either to reassure a troubled audience, or to awaken a complacent audience to something important.

Having decided which of these approaches is needed, a speaker will then combine information and storytelling in the way most likely to achieve it. Persuasion [ edit ] The word persuasion comes from a Latin term “persuadere.” [3] The main goal behind a persuasive speech is to change the beliefs of a speaker's audience.

[3] Examples of persuasive speaking can be found in any political debate where leaders are trying to persuade their audience, whether it be the general public, or members of the public speaking. [3] Persuasive speaking public speaking be defined as a style of speaking in which there are four parts to the process: the one who is persuading, the audience, the method in which the speaker uses to speak, and the message that the speaker is trying to enforce.

[3] When trying to persuade an audience, a speaker targets the audience's feelings and beliefs, to help change the opinions of the audience. [3] There are different techniques a speaker can use to gain the support of an audience. [3] Some of the major techniques would include demanding the audience to take action, using inclusive language ('we' & 'us') to make the audience and speaker seem as if they are one group, and choosing specific words that have a strong connotative meaning increasing the impact of the message.

[3] Asking rhetorical questions, generalizing information (including anecdotes), exaggerating meaning, using metaphors, and applying irony to situations are other methods in which a speaker can enhance the chances of persuading an audience.

[3] Education [ edit ] Knowledge may be transferred through public speaking. A popular example of educational public speaking is TEDTalks, where the speaker will inform listeners about various topics, such as science, physics, biology, technology, religion, economics, human society, astronomy, animal studies, psychology, and many others. TED speakers also share their personal experiences with traumatic life events, such as abuse, bullying, grief, assault, suicidal ideation and/or attempts, near death experiences, and mental illness, or use their platform to raise awareness and acceptance for disabilities, facial differences, LGBT rights, women's rights, and stigmatized life circumstances.

Intervention [ edit ] The intervention public speaking of speaking is a relatively new method proposed by a rhetorical theorist named William R. Brown. [4] This style revolves around the fact that humans create a symbolic meaning for life and the things we interact with around them.

[4] Due to this, the symbolic meaning of everything changes based on the way we communicate. [4] When approaching communication with an intervention style, communication is understood to be responsible for the constant changes in our society, behaviors, and how we consider the meaning behind objects, public speaking, and every day life.

[4] From an interventional perspective, when individuals communicate, they are intervening with what is already a reality and might “shift symbolic reality.” [4] This approach to communication also encompasses the possibility or idea that we may be responsible for unexpected outcomes due to what and how we communicate.

[4] This perspective also widens the scope of focus from a single speaker who is intervening to a multitude of speakers all communicating and intervening, simultaneously affecting the world around us. [4] History [ edit ] The Orator, c. 100 BCE, an Etrusco- Roman bronze sculpture depicting Aule Metele (Latin: Aulus Metellus), an Etruscan man wearing a Roman toga while engaged in rhetoric; the statue features an inscription in the Etruscan alphabet. Although there is evidence of public speech training in ancient Egypt, [5] the first known piece [6] on oratory, written over 2,000 years ago, came from ancient Greece.

This work elaborated on principles drawn from the practices and experiences of ancient Greek orators. Aristotle was one who first recorded the teachers of oratory to use definitive rules and models. One of his key insights was that speakers always combine, to varying degrees, three things: reasoning, credentials, and emotion, which he called Logos, Ethos, and Pathos. [7] Aristotle's work became an essential part of a liberal arts education during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The classical antiquity works written by the ancient Greeks capture the ways they taught and developed the art of public speaking thousands of years ago.

In classical Greece and Rome, rhetoric was the main public speaking of composition and speech delivery, both of which were critical skills for citizens public speaking use in public and private life. In ancient Greece, citizens spoke public speaking their own behalf rather than having professionals, like modern lawyers, speak for them.

Any citizen who wished to succeed in public speaking, in politics, or in social life had to learn techniques of public speaking. Rhetorical tools were first taught by a group of rhetoric teachers called Sophists who were notable for teaching paying students how to speak effectively using the methods they developed.

Separately from the Sophists, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle developed their own theories of public speaking and taught these principles to students who wanted to learn skills in rhetoric.

Plato and Aristotle taught these principles in schools that they founded, The Academy and The Lyceum, respectively. Although Greece eventually lost political sovereignty, the Greek culture of training in public speaking was adopted almost identically by the Romans.

Demosthenes was a well-known orator from Athens. After his father died when he was 7, he had three legal guardians which were Aphobus, Demophon, and Theryppides. [8] His inspiration for public speaking came after he learned that his guardians had public speaking his father's money left for his education.

[9] He was first exposed to public speaking when his suit required him to speak in front of the court. [10] Demosthenes started practicing public speaking more after that and is known for sticking pebbles into his mouth in order to help his pronunciation, talk while running so that he wouldn't lose his breath while speaking, and practice talking in front of a mirror to improve his delivery.

[10] When Philip II, the ruler of Macedon, tried to conquer the Greeks, Demosthenes made a speech called Kata Philippou A. [8] In this speech, he spoke to the rest of the Greeks about why he opposed Philip II and why he was a threat to them. [8] This speech was one of the first speeches that were known as Philippics.

[10] He had other speeches known as Olynthiacs and these speeches along with the Philippics were used to get the people in Athens to rally against Philip II. [10] Demosthenes was known for being in favor of independence. [9] Rome [ edit ] In the political rise of the Roman Republic, Roman orators copied and modified the ancient Greek techniques of public speaking.

Instruction in rhetoric developed into a full curriculum, including instruction in grammar (study of the poets), preliminary exercises ( progymnasmata), and preparation of public speeches (declamation) in both forensic and deliberative genres. The Latin style of rhetoric was heavily influenced by Cicero and involved a strong emphasis on a broad education in all areas of humanistic study in the liberal arts, including philosophy. Other areas of study included the use of wit and humor, the appeal to the listener's emotions, and the use of digressions.

Oratory in the Roman empire, though less central to political life than in the days of the Republic, remained significant in law and became a big form of entertainment. Famous orators became like celebrities in ancient Rome—very wealthy and prominent members of society.

The Latin style was the primary form of oration until the beginning of the 20th century. After World War II, however, the Latin style of oration began to gradually grow out of style as the trend of ornate speaking was seen as impractical.

This cultural change likely had to do with the rise of the scientific method and public speaking emphasis on a "plain" style of speaking and writing.

Even formal oratory is much less ornate today than it was in the Classical Era. China [ edit ] Ancient China had a delayed start to the implementation public speaking Rhetoric (persuasion) as China did not have rhetoricians teaching rhetoric to its people. [1] It was understood that Chinese rhetoric was already within Chinese philosophy.

[1] However, ancient China did have philosophical schools that focused on two concepts: “‘Wen’ (rhetoric) and ‘Zhi’ (thoughtful content).” [1] Ancient Chinese rhetoric shows strong connections with modern-day teachings of public speaking because of ethics being of high value in Chinese rhetoric. [1] Ancient Chinese rhetoric had three meanings: modifying language use to reflect people’s feelings; modifying the language used to be more punctual, effective, and impactful; and rhetoric being used as an “aesthetic tool.” [1] Traditionally, Chinese rhetoric focused primarily on written language vice spoken, but written language and spoken language share similar constructional characteristics.

[1] The unique and key difference between Chinese rhetoric and the rhetoric of western cultures can be found in the type of audience being persuaded. [1] In western rhetoric, a public audience is typically the target for persuasion, whereas state rulers were the focus public speaking persuasion in Chinese rhetoric. [1] Another difference between Chinese public speaking Western rhetoric practices is how a speaker establishes credibility or Ethos.

[1] The ethical appeal in Chinese rhetoric is not solely focused on the speaker itself, as seen with the western implementation of credibility, but more in the way that the speaker connects to the audience with collectivism. [1] A speaker can accomplish this by sharing personal experiences and establishing a connection between a speaker's concern and public interest. [1] When analyzing public speakers, the Chinese approach to rhetoric indicates that an audience should identify three standards: tracing, examination, and practice.

[1] Establishing the tracing of a speaker can be described as how the speaker is speaking according to traditional practices of speech. [1] Examination refers to the consideration of civilian's daily lives.

[1] Practice is found in the topic or argument itself and public speaking it is relevant and benefits the “state, society, and people.” [1] Theorists [ edit ] This section may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. Please improve the article by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the issue on the talk page.

( March 2022) Aristotle [ edit ] Aristotle and one of his most famous writings, " Rhetoric" (written in 350 B.C.E), have been used as a foundation for learning how to master the arts of public speaking. In his works, rhetoric is the act of publicly persuading the audience. [11] Rhetoric is similar to dialect in that he defines both being acts of persuasion. However, dialect is the act of public speaking someone in private, whereas rhetoric is about persuading people in a public setting.

[11] More specifically, Aristotle defines someone who practices rhetoric or a "rhetorician" as an individual who is able to interpret and understand what persuasion is and how it is applied.

public speaking

{INSERTKEYS} [11] Aristotle breaks up the making of the practice of rhetoric into three categories, the categories being the elements of a speech: the speaker, the topic or point of the speech, and the audience. [11] [12] Aristotle also includes three types of oratory or respects: politics, forensic, and ceremonial.

[12] The political oratory is used when the intent is to convince someone or a body of people to do something or not. [12] In the forensic approach, someone is the center of attention for them to be accused or defended. Lastly, with the ceremonial approach, someone is being recognized for their actions in either a positive or negative way. [12] Aristotle breaks down the political category into five focus or themes: "ways and means, war and peace, national defense, imports and exports, and legislation." [12] These focuses are broken down into detail so that a speaker can focus on what is needed to take into consideration so that the speaker can effectively influence an audience to agree and support the speaker's ideas.

[12] The focus of "ways and means" deals with economic aspects in how the country is spending money. [12] "Peace and War" focus on what the country has to offer in terms of military power, how war has been conducted, how war has affected the country in the past, and how other countries have conducted war.

[12] "National defense" deals with taking into consideration the position and strength of a country in the event of an invasion. Forces, fortifying structures, points with a strategic advantage should all be considered. [12] "Food supply" is concerned with the ability to support a country in regards to food, importing and exporting food, and carefully making decisions to arrange agreements with other countries. [12] Lastly, Aristotle breaks down the "legislation" theme, and this theme seems to be the most important to Aristotle.

The legislation of a country is the most crucial aspect of all the above because everything is affected by the policies and laws set by the people in power. [12] In Aristotle's "Rhetoric" writing, he mentions three strategies someone can use to try to persuade an audience: [11] Establishing the character of a speaker ( Ethos), influencing the emotional element of the audience (Pathos), and focusing on the argument specifically (Logos).

[11] [13] Aristotle believes establishing the character of a speaker is effective in persuasion because the audience will believe what the speaker is saying to be true if the speaker is credible and trustworthy. [11] With the audience's emotional state, Aristotle believes that individuals do not make the same decisions when in different moods. [11] Because of this, one needs to try to influence the audience by being in control of one's emotions, making persuasion effective. [11] The argument itself can affect the attempt to persuade by making the argument of the case so clear and valid that the audience will understand and believe that the speaker's point is real.

[11] In the last part of "Rhetoric", Aristotle mentions that the most critical piece of persuasion is to know in detail what makes up government and to attack what makes it unique: "customs, institutions, and interest". [12] Aristotle also states that everyone is persuaded by considering people's interests and how the society in which they live influences their interests. [12] Historical speeches [ edit ] See also: List of speeches Despite the shift in style, the best-known examples of strong public speaking are still studied years after their delivery.

Among these examples are: • Pericles' Funeral Oration in 427 BC addressing those who died during the Peloponnesian War • Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address in 1863 • Sojourner Truth's identification of racial issues in " Ain't I a Woman?" • Martin Luther King, Jr.'s " I Have a Dream" speech at the Washington Monument in 1963.

[14] As in other parts of general culture, the notion of a canon of the most important historical speeches is giving way to a broader understanding. Many previously forgotten historical speeches are being recovered and studied. [15] Women and public speaking [ edit ] The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

You may improve this section, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new section, as appropriate. ( August 2020) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) Between the 18th and 19th century in the United States, women were publicly banned from speaking in the courtroom, the senate floor, and the pulpit.

[16] [ pages needed] It was also deemed improper for a woman to be heard in a public setting. Exceptions existed for women from the Quaker religion, allowing them speak publicly in meetings of the church. [17] [ pages needed] Frances Wright was one of the first female public speakers of the United States, advocating equal education for both women and men through large audiences and the press.

[16] [ pages needed] Maria Stewart, a woman of African American descent, was also one of the first female speakers of the United States, lecturing in Boston in front of both men and women just 4 years after Wright, in 1832 and 1833, on educational opportunities and abolition for young girls.

[17] [ pages needed] The first female agents, and sisters, of the American Anti-Slavery Society, Angelina Grimké and Sarah Grimké created a platform for public lectures to women, and conducted tours between 1837 and 1839.

The sisters advocated how slavery relates to women's rights, and why women need equality [18] following disagreement with churches that did not agree with the two speaking publically, due to them being women. [19] In addition to figures in the United States, there are many international female speakers.

Much of women's earlier public speaking is directly correlated to activism work. Emmeline Pankhurst, who was a British political activist, founded the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) on October 10, 1903.

[20] The organization was aimed towards fighting for a woman's right for parliamentary vote, which only men were granted for at the time. [21] Emmeline was known for being a powerful orator, who led many women to rebel through militant forms until the outbreak of World War I in 1914.

[20] Malala Yousafzai is a modern-day public speaker, who was born in the Swat Valley in Pakistan, and is an educational activist for women and girls. [22] After the Taliban restricted the educational rights of women in the Swat Valley, Yousafzai presented her first speech How Dare the Taliban Take Away My Basic Right to Education?, in which she protested the shutdowns of the schools.

[23] She presented this speech to a press in Peshawar. [23] Through this, she was able to bring more awareness to the situation in Pakistan. [23] She is known for her “inspiring and passionate speech” about educational rights given at the United Nations.

[22] She is the youngest person ever to receive the Nobel Peace Prize, which was awarded to her in 2014. [22] Her public speaking has brought worldwide attention to the difficulties of young girls in Pakistan.

She continues to advocate for educational rights for women and girls worldwide through the Malala Fund, [22] with the purpose of helping girls around the world receive 12 years of education.

[23] Kishida Toshiko (1861-1901) was a female speaker during the Japanese Meiji Period. In October 1883, she publicly delivered a speech entitled 'Hakoiri Musume' (Daughters Kept in Boxes) in front of approximately 600 people. {/INSERTKEYS}

public speaking

{INSERTKEYS} [24] Performed in Yotsu no Miya Theater in Kyoto, she criticised the action of parents that shelter their daughters from the outside world. Despite her prompt arrest, Kishida demonstrates the ability for Japanese women to evoke women's issues, experience, and liberation in public spaces, through the use of public speaking.

[25] Glossophobia [ edit ] See also: Glossophobia The fear of speaking in public, known as glossophobia [26] or public speaking anxiety, [27] is often mentioned as one of the most common phobias. [26] [27] The reason is uncertain, but it has been speculated that this fear is primal, like how animals fear being seen by predators.

[28] However, the apprehension experienced when speaking in public can have a number of causes, [26] [27] such as social anxiety disorder, or a prior experience of public humiliation. Training [ edit ] Effective public speaking can be developed by joining a club such as Rostrum, Toastmasters International, Association of Speakers Clubs (ASC), or Speaking Circles, in which members are assigned exercises to improve their speaking skills. Members learn by observation, and practice and hone their skills by listening to constructive suggestions, followed by new public speaking exercises.

Toastmasters International Toastmasters International is a public speaking organization with over 15,000 clubs worldwide, and more than 300,000 members.

[29] This organization helps individuals with their public speaking skills, as well as other skills necessary for them to grow and become effective public speakers. [30] Members of the club meet and work together on their skills; each member practices giving speeches, while the other members evaluate and provide feedback. [30] There are also other small tasks that the members do, like practice impromptu speaking by talking about different topics without having anything planned.

[30] Each member has a specific role, and all of these roles help with the process of gaining their skills as public speakers, and as leaders. [30] The number of roles lets each member be able to speak at least one time at the meetings. [29] Members are also able to participate in a variety of speech contests, in which the winners can compete in the World Championship of Public Speaking. [31] Rostrum Rostrum is another public speaking organization, founded in Australia, with more than 100 clubs all over the country.

[32] This organization aims at helping people become better communicators, no matter the occasion. [32] At the meetings, speakers are able to gain skills by presenting speeches, while members provide feedback to those presenting. [33] Qualified speaking trainers attend these meetings as well, and provide professional feedback at the end of the meetings. [33] There are also competitions that are held for members to participate in.

[32] An online club is also available for members, no matter where they live. [34] The new millennium has seen a notable increase in the number of training solutions, offered in the form of video and online courses.

Videos can provide simulated examples of behaviors to emulate. Professional public speakers often engage in ongoing training and education to refine their craft. This may include seeking guidance to improve their speaking skills, such as learning better storytelling techniques, learning how to effectively use humor as a communication tool, and continuously researching in their topic area of focus.

[ citation needed] Professional speakers [ edit ] Public speaking for business and commercial events is often done by professionals, whose expertise is well established. These speakers can be contracted independently, through representation by a speakers bureau, or by other means.

Public speaking plays a large role in the professional world. In fact, it is believed that 70 percent of all jobs involve some form of public speaking. [35] Modern [ edit ] Technology [ edit ] Ettus Ted Talk New technology has also opened different forms of public speaking that are nontraditional such as TED Talks, which are conferences that are broadcast globally. This form of public speaking has created a wider audience base because public speaking can now reach both physical and virtual audiences.

[36] These audiences can be watching from all around the world. YouTube is another platform that allows public speaking to reach a larger audience. On YouTube, people can post videos of themselves. Audiences are able to watch these videos for all types of purposes. [37] Multimedia presentations can contain different video clips, sound effects, animation, laser pointers, remote control clickers, and endless bullet points.

[38] All adding to the presentation and evolving our traditional views of public speaking. Public speakers may use audience response systems. For large assemblies, the speaker will usually speak with the aid of a public address system or microphone and loudspeaker. These new forms of public speaking, which can be considered nontraditional, have opened up debates about whether these forms of public speaking are actually public speaking.

Many people consider YouTube broadcasting to not be true form of public speaking because there is not a real and physical audience. Others argue that public speaking is about getting a group of people together in order to educate them further regardless of how or where the audience is located [ citation needed]. Telecommunication [ edit ] Telecommunication and videoconferencing are also forms of public speaking.

David M. Fetterman of Stanford University wrote in his 1997 article Videoconferencing over the Internet: "Videoconferencing technology allows geographically disparate parties to hear and see each other usually through satellite or telephone communication systems." This technology is helpful for large conference meetings and face-to-face communication between parties without demanding the inconvenience of travel.

Notable modern theorists [ edit ] • Harold Lasswell developed Lasswell's model of communication. There are five basic elements of public speaking that are described in this theory: the communicator, message, medium, audience, and effect.

In short, the speaker should be answering the question " who says what in which channel to whom with what effect?" See also [ edit ] • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Pei-Ling, Lee (October 2020).

"The Application of Chinese Rhetoric to Public Speaking". China Media Research. 16 (4). • ^ Flintoff, John-Paul (2021). A Modest Book About How To Make An Adequate Speech. Short Books. p. 52. ISBN 978-1780724560. {/INSERTKEYS}

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An audience is not a single entity, but a group of individuals who differ from one another perhaps as much as they may differ from you. If you forget that, the slip is unlikely to work in your favor. • ^ a b c d e f g h Hassan Sallomi, Azhar (2018-01-01). "A STYLISTIC STUDY OF PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE".

International Journal of Language Academy. 6 (23): 357–365. doi: 10.18033/ijla.3912. ISSN 2342-0251. • ^ a b c d e f g Opt, Susan K. (September 2019). " "To Intervene: A Transcending and Reorienting Goal for Public Speaking." ". Atlantic Journal of Communication. 27 (4): 247–259. doi: 10.1080/15456870.2019.1613657. S2CID 181424112. • ^ Womack, Morris M.; Bernstein, Elinor (1990). Speech for Foreign Students. Springfield, IL: C.C.

Thomas. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-398-05699-5. Retrieved June 12, 2017. Some of the earliest written records of training in public speaking may be traced to ancient Egypt. However, the most significant records are found among the ancient Greeks. • ^ Murphy, James J.

"Demosthenes – greatest Greek orator". Encyclopædia Britannica. • ^ Heinrichs, Jay. (2008). Thank You For Arguing. Penguin. p. 39. ISBN 978-0593237380. Aristotle called them logos, ethos, and pathos, and so will I, because the meanings of the Greek versions are richer than those of the English versions • ^ a b c May, James (2004). "Demosthenes". Salem Press. Great Lives from History: The Ancient World, Prehistory-476 c.e.

Retrieved December 12, 2020. • ^ a b "Demosthenes (Greek orator) - World History: A Comprehensive Reference Set - Credo Reference". Retrieved 2020-12-13. • public speaking a b c d "Gale Power Search - Document - Demosthenes & Cicero". Retrieved 2020-12-13. • ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rapp, Christof. "Aristotle's Rhetoric". Retrieved 2021-08-06. • ^ a b c public speaking e f g h i j k l m Roberts, Rhys, translator. " "The Internet Classics Archive - Rhetoric by Aristotle." ".

The Internet Classics Archive: 441 Searchable Works of Classical Literature. Retrieved 1 July 2021. {{ cite web}}: -first= has generic name ( help) CS1 maint: url-status ( link) • ^ Higgins, Colin; Walker, Robyn (September 2012). "Ethoslogospathos : Strategies of persuasion in social/environmental reports". Accounting Forum.

36 (3): 194–208. doi: 10.1016/j.accfor.2012.02.003. ISSN 0155-9982. S2CID 144894570. • ^ German, Kathleen M. (2010). Principles of Public Public speaking. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-205-65396-6. • ^ "Archives of Women's Political Communication". • ^ a b Mankiller, Wilma Pearl (1998). The Reader's Companion to U.S.

Women's History. ISBN 978-0585068473. • ^ a b O'Dea, Suzanne (2013). From Suffrage to the Senate: America's Political Women. ISBN 978-1-61925-010-9. • ^ Bizzell, Patricia (2010). "Chastity Warrants for Women Public Speakers in Nineteenth-Century American Fiction". Rhetoric Society Quarterly. 40 (4): 17. doi: 10.1080/02773945.2010.501050. S2CID 143052545. • ^ Bahdwar, Neera. "Sarah Grimké and Angelina Grimké Weld: Abolitionists and Feminists".

The Future of Freedom Foundation. FFF. Retrieved 28 September 2020. • ^ a b "Gale eBooks - Document - Pankhurst, Emmeline, Christabel, and Sylvia". Retrieved 2020-12-13. • ^ Purvis, June (2013), Gottlieb, Julie V.; Toye, Richard public speaking, "Emmeline Pankhurst in the Aftermath of Suffrage, 1918–1928", The Aftermath of Suffrage: Women, Gender, and Politics in Britain, 1918–1945, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp.

19–36, doi: 10.1057/9781137333001_2, ISBN 978-1-137-33300-1retrieved 2020-12-13 • ^ a b c d "Yousafzai, Malala (1997–) - Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World - Credo Reference". Retrieved 2020-12-13. • ^ a b c d "Gale Power Search - Document - Education Meant Risking Her Life A Young Girl's Deadly Struggle to Learn". Retrieved 2020-12-13. • ^ Public speaking, Marnie (2006-12-01). "Kishida Toshiko and the Rise of the Female Speaker in Meiji Japan". U.S.-Japan Women's Journal (31): 36–59. • ^ Sievers, Sharon L. (1981). "Feminist Criticism in Japanese Politics in the 1880s: The Experience of Kishida Toshiko".

Signs. 6 (4): 602–616. doi: 10.1086/493837. ISSN 0097-9740. JSTOR 3173734. S2CID 143844577. • ^ a b c Black, Rosemary (2018-06-04). "Glossophobia (Fear of Public Speaking): Are You Glossophobic?". Retrieved 2019-07-11. • ^ a b c Ireland, Christopher (2020). "Apprehension felt towards delivering oral presentations: a case study of accountancy students". Accounting Education. 29 (3): 305–320. doi: 10.1080/09639284.2020.1737548. S2CID 216369153.

• ^ Flintoff, John-Paul (2021-02-07). "Can I Have Your Attention? How I came public speaking love public speaking". The fear is primal, because for most of history if you had lots of eyeballs on you, it meant you were about to be gobbled up. For thousands of years, hardly anyone knew what it felt like to be stared at, and listened to, by large groups of others. • ^ a b Yasin, Burhanuddin; Champion, Ibrahim (November 12–13, 2016).

"FROM A CLASS TO A CLUB". Proceedings of the 1st English Education International Conference public speaking in Conjunction with the 2nd Reciprocal Graduate Research Symposium (RGRS) of the Consortium of Asia-Pacific Education Universities (CAPEU) Between Sultan Idris Education University and Syiah Kuala University. ISSN 2527-8037. • ^ a b c d "Toastmasters International -All About Toastmasters". Retrieved 2020-12-13. • ^ "Toastmasters International -". Retrieved 2020-12-13. • ^ a b c "Rostrum Australia - About Rostrum Public Speaking". Retrieved 2020-12-13. • ^ a b "Rostrum Australia - FAQ". Retrieved 2020-12-13. • ^ "Rostrum Australia - Rostrum Online".

Retrieved 2020-12-13. • ^ Schreiber, Lisa. Introduction to Public Speaking. [ ISBN missing] [1] • ^ Gallo, Carmine (2014). Talk Like TED: The 9 Public-Speaking Secrets of the World's Top Minds. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1466837270. • ^ Anderson, Chris (2016). TED Talks: The Official TED Guide to Public Speaking.

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Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. • ^ Ridgley, Stanley K. (2012). The Complete Guide to Business School Presenting: What your professors don't tell you. What you absolutely must know. Anthem Press. Further reading [ edit public speaking • Collins, Philip. "The Art of Speeches and Presentations" (John Wiley & Sons, 2012). • Fairlie, Henry. "Oratory in Political Life," History Today (Jan 1960) 10#1 pp 3–13. A survey of political oratory in Great Britain from 1730 to 1960.

• Flintoff, John-Paul. "A Modest Book About How To Make An Adequate Speech" (Short Books, 2021). excerpt • Gold, David, and Catherine L. Hobbs, eds. Rhetoric, History, and Women's Oratorical Education: American Women Learn to Speak (Routledge, 2013). • Heinrichs, Jay. "Thank You For Arguing" (Penguin, 2008). • Lucas, Stephen E. The Art of Public Speaking (13th ed. McGraw Hill, 2019). • Noonan, Peggy.

"Simply Speaking" (Regan Books, 1998). • Parry-Giles, Shawn J., and J. Michael Hogan, eds. The Handbook of Rhetoric and Public Address (2010) excerpt • Sproule, J. Michael. "Inventing public speaking: Rhetoric and the speech book, 1730–1930." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 15.4 (2012): 563–608. excerpt • Turner, Kathleen J., Randall Osborn, et al. Public speaking (11th ed.

Houghton Mifflin, 2017). excerpt • Dale Carnegie · Arthur R. Pell. Public Speaking for Success. 2006 • Dale Carnegie. Public Speaking and Influencing Men in Business.

2003 • Dale Carnegie.How to Develop Self-Confidence &Influence People by Public Speaking. New York: Pocket Books,1926 • Chris Anderson. The Official TED Guide to Public Speaking. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, 2016. External links [ edit ] Wikiquote has quotations related to: Public speaking Wikimedia Commons has media related to Public speaking.

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public speaking Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • Contact Wikipedia • Mobile view • Developers • Statistics • Cookie statement • • 15 Shares Public speaking skills refer to the talent of effectively addressing an audience. Whether it is in front of a group of people you already know or a crowd of complete strangers, your ability to communicate to them with clarity and confidence is known as your public speaking skills. There may or may not be an opportunity for interaction between the speaker and audience.

The basic difference, however, between a casual talk and public speaking is that the latter is more purposeful and meant for celebratory, entertainment, influencing, or informative purposes. Why is public speaking important Good public speaking skills can have a huge impact on your career for the following reasons: • Demonstrates your knowledge. You are always at your best public speaking you can articulate your thoughts clearly and effectively. Public speaking skills help you do exactly that.

After all, the true worth of the knowledge you possess can only be realized when you can show and apply it. • Demonstrates your confidence. Not only does public speaking increase your knowledge during the process of preparation but it also develops and demonstrates your confidence.

Whether you are interviewing for a job or hoping for a promotion, your confidence is what will make you stand out among other candidates.

• Helps you lead better. The higher you public speaking up the career ladder, the greater will be the number of people you shall have to lead. As a result, the need for public speaking skills and the confidence pertinent to it also increases, making it one of the determining characteristic when considering someone for promotion. How to improve public speaking skills Following are some helpful tips for improving your public speaking skills: • Prepare with practice.

Once you have prepared a presentation or speech by giving it a logical flow and making it more vibrant with the addition of examples, stories, and visually appealing props, only then your true preparation begins. If you are wondering what that means, remember that practice is the key to preparation.

Practice your speech/presentation alone or seek to speak in front of other people until you can speak fluidly with confidence and comfort. This may sometimes require you to tweak your words during practice but it’s preferable to do so in practice instead of doing so at the occasion where you intend to take the mike.

• Accentuate your strengths.

public speaking

Analyze yourself as a public speaker and identify your true strengths and weaknesses. Most of us tend to imitate other public speakers who are popular amongst the crowd. However, the best way is to be yourself and focus on your own strengths. For instance, you might have a good sense of humor that helps in grabbing attention of the crowd, you may be an interesting story teller, or you may be good at clearly explaining complex ideas.

Whichever is your strength, utilize it wisely to keep your audience paying attention. • Keep your ears and eyes open public speaking feedback. Although, all sorts of public speaking do not involve direct interaction between the speaker and his audience, there are various ways in which audience is able to provide feedback.

If the audience cannot speak their opinion out loud, as a speaker you should be able to look for nonverbal cues such as the body language or facial expressions of the audience. The feedback, thus, provided by the audience can prove to be a helpful guide in improving one’s public speaking skills.
In this tutorial you'll learn a public speaking definition and more. (Image Source: Envato Elements) Public speaking is important in both business, education, and the public arena.

Public speaking are many benefits to speaking in public whether you're an individual or a business. In this article, we'll define public speaking for you. We'll discuss the importance of public speaking in general.

public speaking

We'll also cover the importance of public speaking in business. Plus, we'll share some resources to help you become a better public speaker. This includes some public speaking examples. Also, if you want to pursue speaking in public yourself, be sure to download our free eBook: The Complete Guide to Making Great Presentations. It'll help you master the complete presentation process.

A Public Speaking Definition What is public speaking? Basically, it's a presentation that's given live before an audience. Public speeches can cover a wide variety of different topics. The goal of the speech may be to educate, entertain, or influence the listeners. Often, visual aids in the form of an electronic slideshow are used to supplement the speech. This makes it more interesting to the listeners. A public speaking presentation is different from an online presentation.

The online presentation is available any time. A public speech is typically limited to a specific time or place. Online presentations often use slideshows. Or they use pre-recorded videos of a speaker. This includes recordings of a live public speaking presentation).

Because speaking in public public speaking done before a live audience, you need to consider some special factors. We'll touch on those shortly. Now you've got an understanding of the meaning of public speaking so let's take a quick look at the history of (and the importance of) public speaking.

A History of Public Speaking What public speaking the history of public speaking? And why is public speaking important? Woman speaking in front of an audience on - Public speech image (Image source: Envato Elements) There's a good chance that there's been public speech, in one form or another, as long as there've been people. But most public speaking experts involved with public speaking in business communication, trace the origins of modern public speaking back to ancient Greece and Rome.

Of course, those societies didn't have slideshows to help with public speech. But they did have a need for speaking in public. As a result, they developed public speaking methods that are still studied today. The ancient Greeks used public speech primarily to praise or persuade others. At one point, all Greek citizens had the right to suggest or oppose laws during their assemblies. This resulted in a public speaking for skilled public speakers. Speaking in public became a desirable skill and was taught.

Public speaking in the time of the Public speaking was called rhetoric. The Latin style of public speaking was popular in the U.S. and Europe until the mid-20th century. After World War II, a less formal and more conversational speaking style of speaking became popular. Also, electronic tools became available to enhance public presentations. Towards the end of the 20th century, those electronic tools migrated to the computer.

public speaking

They evolved into the computer software tools. PowerPoint, is one of those tools that we know and use today. Don't be fooled, though. Even though today's public speeches are less formal, they still need to public speaking well organized. More on that later. Now let's take a look at the importance of public speaking. The Importance of Public Speaking If you ask most people, they'll probably say they don't like public speech. They may even admit to being afraid of it since fear of public speaking is a very common fear.

public speaking

Or they may just be shy or introverted. For those reasons, many people avoid speaking in public if they can. If you're one of those people who avoid speaking in public, you're missing out. Over the years, public speaking in communication has played a major role in education, government, and business. Words have the power to inform, persuade, educate, and even entertain. And the spoken word can be even more powerful than the written word in the hands of the right speaker.

Whether you're a small business owner, or a student, you'll benefit from improving your public speaking skills. Some benefits to speaking in public include: • improves confidence • better research skills • stronger deductive skills • ability to advocate for causes • and more Speaking in public is especially important for businesses to market their offers.

This allows them to get their message in front of potential customers. Sales people and executives are often expected to have good public speaking skills. To learn more about some of the benefits of speaking in public, review the following article: • Okay, so now you understand the benefits of public speaking.

You might be a little more interested in the topic. Still, you might think it's not for you. Maybe you gave a speech once and it public speaking go well. Maybe you're afraid of speaking in public. Or maybe you think you don't have a natural ability for public speaking speeches.

The truth is that speaking in public is a skill. And you can learn any skill. While some people may have more natural public speaking ability than others, anyone can learn to be a better public speaker. It just takes some know-how and some effort. To help you become better at giving public speeches, we'll take a look at these five areas: • writing the speech • overcoming a fear of speaking • practicing the speech • preparing your presentation slide designs • giving the speech We'll start with writing the speech.

1. Write an Effective Speech The first thing you'll want to do is work on writing a well-organized, engaging speech. Because even a great speaking voice or a great deal of charisma isn't enough if your material isn't any public speaking.

The following tutorials can help you learn to write better speeches: • Laura Spencer 2. Overcome the Fear of Speaking Fear of public speaking is very real and can hold you back if you let it. If you don't feel confident when giving your speech, your listeners may pick up on that.

This can make your presentation less effective. Fortunately, there are some techniques to help manage the fear of speaking in public. They also help you become more confident. First, let's tackle fear of public speaking. The following tutorials can help you overcome a fear of public speaking: • Laura Spencer 3. Practice the Speech Even if you're not afraid of speaking in public, practice helps you give a more effective speech. If you're in a rush, you may be tempted to skip practicing your speech to save time.

While skipping practice may seem like a good idea, it's really not. Practicing your speech improves your public presentation skills. It also increases your familiarity with the presentation. As a result, your speech will go smoothly. This tutorial includes a handy checklist to help you practice your speech (and other tips): • Laura Spencer 4.

Prepare Your Presentation Slide Designs Your slide design needs to be on point. You’ll want to make sure it looks professional and is easy to read. Luckily, you can find plenty of modern and professional presentation templates on Envato Elements and GraphicRiver. Public speaking also want to download The Complete Guide to Making Great Presentations eBook now. Download it for FREE with a subscription to the Tuts+ Business Newsletter.

Learn how to get your ideas formed into a powerful presentation that'll move your audience. Don't forget to make good use of tools like PowerPoint, Google Slides, or Keynote. The right template for public speaking slide deck can make a huge difference in your presentation. Here are some of the best presentation templates available: • Sean Hodge 5.

Give the Speech You've written a good speech. You feel more confident about giving a speech in public, and you've practiced. You're ready to actually give the speech. There are some tips and tricks you can use on the day of your speech to make it go more smoothly, though. Remember, you're giving a presentation before a live audience at a specific place and time.

So, you've public speaking some concerns about the speaking venue that those who give online presentations don't have to worry about. Some common concerns for public speakers include: • Will the audience be able the hear me? • Does the venue have the equipment I need? • Are there enough seats for all my listeners? Here's a tutorial with ideas that'll help you while you're giving your speech: • Laura Spencer Public Speaking Examples Public speaking examples are great for learning or improving a new skill.

That applies to speaking in public as well. If you get the chance to listen to some top-rated public speakers, you should do it. Public speaking can observe how other speakers go about giving their speech. In the process, you'll improve your own speaking skills.

One great source of recorded public speeches is Ted Talks, which is a series of short presentations on a wide variety of topics. Ted Talks are known for attracting world-class and celebrity speakers. You can find my favorite Ted Talks in this article: • Laura Spencer The Best Source for Simple PowerPoint Templates (With Unlimited Use) Envato Elements is the perfect place to find modern PowerPoint templates.

For a single monthly fee, access unlimited downloads of PowerPoint themes, photos, fonts, and other resources to use in your next presentation. Elements gives you the best bang for your buck. And thanks to the unlimited downloads, you can try out a variety of slide designs as you build out your public speaking PowerPoint presentation. PowerPoint templates on Envato Elements PowerPoint templates from Envato Elements have plenty of features to help you create a stunning presentation, such as: • bold text and title slides to capture audience attention • rich image placeholders to show off photos and videos • many infographic elements and charts public speaking visualize data • plenty of customization options to make the template your own Thanks to these templates, you’ll be able to create a modern, standout presentation to go with your public speech.

5 Modern PowerPoint Templates From Envato Elements For 2021 Take a look at the top modern PowerPoint templates that are available on Envato Elements right now: 1. Minimalism Clean PowerPoint Presentation Try this template if you’re looking for a clean and simple PowerPoint slide design. The template features a versatile design. Use it for any type of presentation or topic.

It includes 50+ unique slide designs, tons of customization options, and vector elements. The template was designed in widescreen format. 2. Kaspa PowerPoint Presentation The Kaspa PowerPoint template has a modern and trendy design. It’s best suited for presentations that need a lot of photos to share information.

The template can be customized completely. It comes with slide animations and transitions. The template also includes vector icons. 3. Guava PowerPoint The Guava PowerPoint has a dramatic, yet elegant design. You’ll notice dark image overlays and elegant typography that makes your message stand out. The template comes with 50+ public speaking designs, image placeholders, and master slides. It was designed in widescreen resolution. 4. Dauna Minimalist PowerPoint The Dauna template is another minimalist PowerPoint design.

It works well for any type of business presentation. You’ll find 30 unique slides and two color variations. The template comes with image placeholders and plenty of customization options. public speaking. Pastelize Colorful Business PowerPoint Presentation If you’re looking for a colorful and bold PowerPoint, the Pastelize template is the perfect choice.

The template includes many slide designs, three color variations and color themes, and image placeholders. Make Great Presentations ( Free PDF eBook Download) We also have the perfect complement public speaking this tutorial, which will walk you through the complete presentation process.

Learn how to write your presentation, design it like a pro, and prepare it to present powerfully. Download our new eBook: The Complete Guide to Making Great Presentations. It's available for free with a subscription to the Tuts+ Business Newsletter. Conclusion You've just learned all about public speaking. You now know the importance of public speaking. You've also learned a bit about the history of public speaking in Rome. And you've learned the public speaking definition. We've shared some tools to help you learn how to give a public speech.

We also provided you with a source for good public speaking examples that you can learn from. You should now be ready to create public speeches of your own. So, go ahead. Write that public speech and give it. You'll be glad you did! Editorial Note: This tutorial was last published in June of 2018. It's been revised to make it current, accurate, and up to date by our staff—with special help from Brenda Barron. Laura Spencer is our Associate Business Editor here on Tuts+. She uses her business knowledge to help a wide variety of audiences.

By sharing her knowledge in well-researched articles, she hopes to help others do well. Laura graduated with a degree in business. Besides Tuts+, Laura's work has been published on many sites including Vandelay Design Blog,, Freelance Folder, Lubbock Avalanche Journal, Woman's Day, LifeHacker, and more.

She's also written over 40 business study guides for continuing education companies. Laura has also managed her own writing business since 2002. Before that, she worked in corporate America as a technical writer and also as a marketing writer. As a lifelong learner, Laura continues to seek out better information to help her readers. Check out her latest ideas on her blog. • Curated Design Assets • Best Cool Fonts • InDesign Magazine Templates • Photoshop Actions • InDesign Newsletter Templates • InDesign Templates • Curated Web Design Assets • Responsive WordPress Themes • WordPress Themes for Consultants • Wireframe Templates • Best Shopify Themes • Masonry WordPress Themes • Web Themes & Templates • WP Themes • HTML Templates • Shopify Themes • Bootstrap Themes • Free WordPress Themes • Video • After Effects Templates • Apple Motion Templates • Video Effects • Lower Thirds • Stock Footage • Placeit • Logo Maker • Video Maker • Design Templates • Free Templates • Mockups • Curated Video Assets • After Effects Slideshow Templates • Premiere Pro Video Intro Templates • Final Cut Pro Templates • Final Cut Pro Title Templates • Premiere Pro Video Effects • Curated Presentation Assets • Keynote Pitch Deck Templates • Google Slides Business Templates • PowerPoint Pitch Deck Templates • Best Shopify Mobile Themes • Best Presentation Templates • Free Tools • Image Resizer • Video Cropper • Video Public speaking Gif Converter • Elements • WordPress Themes • Stock Images • Website Templates • Logos • Fonts • Tuts+ • Learn JavaScript • Photoshop Tutorials • How to Draw • How to Use WordPress • How to Use PowerPoint Whether you’re new to public speaking speeches or are a seasoned Toastmaster, these how-to articles will help you hone your public speaking skills.

Get quick and easy tips for how to prepare and present an award, use visual aids and props, incorporate body language into your presentations, and more.

With time and practice, you’re sure to see improvement in your ability to communicate and an increase in your confidence as well.
Whether we're talking in a team meeting or presenting in front of an audience, we all have to speak in public from time to time.

We can do this well or we can do this badly, and the outcome strongly affects the way that people think about us. This is why public speaking causes so much anxiety and concern. The good news is that, with thorough preparation and practice, you can overcome your nervousness and perform exceptionally well.

public speaking

This article and video explain how. Click here to view a transcript of this video. The Importance of Public Speaking Even if you don't need to make regular presentations in front of a group, there are plenty of situations where good public speaking skills can help you advance your career and create opportunities. For example, you might have to talk about your organization at a conference, make a speech public speaking accepting an award, or teach a class to new recruits.

public speaking

Speaking to an audience also includes online presentations or talks; for instance, when training a virtual team, or when speaking to a group of customers in an online meeting. Good public speaking skills are important in other areas of your life, as well. You might be asked to make a speech at a friend's wedding, give a eulogy for a loved one, or inspire a group of volunteers at a charity event.

In short, being public speaking good public speaker can enhance your reputation, boost your self-confidenceand open up countless opportunities. However, while good skills can open doors, poor ones can close them. For example, your boss might decide against promoting you after sitting through a badly-delivered presentation. You public speaking lose a valuable new contract by failing to connect with a prospect during a sales pitch. Or you could make a poor impression with your new team, because you trip over your words and don't look people in the eye.

Make sure that you learn how to speak well! Strategies for Becoming a Better Public speaking The good news is that speaking in public is a learnable skill.

As such, you can use the following strategies to become a better speaker and presenter. Plan Appropriately First, make sure that you plan your communication appropriately. Use tools like the Rhetorical TriangleMonroe's Motivated Sequenceand the 7Cs of Communication to think about how you'll structure what you're going to say. When you do this, think about how important a book's first paragraph is; if it doesn't grab you, you're likely going to put it down.

The same principle goes for your speech: from the beginning, you need to intrigue your audience. For example, you could start with an interesting statistic, headline, or fact public speaking pertains to what you're talking about and resonates with your audience. You can also use story telling as a powerful opener; our Expert Interviews with Annette Simmons and Paul Smith offer some useful tips on doing this.

Planning also helps you to think on your feet. This is especially important for unpredictable question and answer sessions or last-minute communications. Tip: Remember that not all occasions when you need to speak in public will be scheduled. You can make good impromptu speeches by having ideas and mini-speeches pre-prepared. It also helps to have a good, thorough understanding of what's going on in your organization and industry.

Practice There's a good reason that we say, "Practice makes perfect!" You simply cannot be a confident, compelling speaker without practice. To get practice, seek opportunities to speak in front of others. For example, Toastmasters is a club geared specifically towards aspiring speakers, and you can get plenty of practice at Toastmasters sessions.

You could also put yourself in situations that require public speaking, such as by cross-training a group from public speaking department, or by volunteering to speak at team meetings.

public speaking

If you're going to be delivering a presentation or prepared speech, create it as early as possible. The earlier you put it together, the public speaking time you'll have to practice.

Practice it plenty of times alone, using the resources you'll rely on at the event, and, as you practice, tweak your words until they flow smoothly and easily. Then, if appropriate, do a dummy run in front of a small audience: this will help you calm your jitters and make you feel more comfortable with the material.

Your audience can also give you useful feedbackboth on your material and on your performance. Engage With Your Audience When you speak, try to engage your audience. This makes you feel less isolated as a speaker and keeps everyone involved with your message. If appropriate, ask leading questions targeted to individuals or groups, and encourage people to participate and ask questions.

Keep in mind that some words reduce your power as a speaker. For instance, think about how these sentences sound: "I just want to add that I think we can meet these goals" or "I just think this plan is a good one." The words "just" and "I think" limit your authority and conviction. Don't use them. A similar word is "actually," as in, "Actually, I'd like to add that we were under budget last quarter." When you use "actually," it conveys a sense of submissiveness or even surprise.

Instead, say what things are. "We were under budget last quarter" is clear and direct. Also, pay attention to how you're speaking. If you're nervous, you might talk quickly. This increases the chances that you'll trip over your words, or say something you don't mean.

Force yourself to slow down by breathing deeply. Don't be afraid to gather your thoughts; pauses are an important part of conversation, and they make you sound confident, natural, and authentic. Finally, avoid reading word-for-word from your notes. Instead, make a list of important points on cue cards, or, as you get better at public speaking, try to memorize what you're going to say – you can still refer back to your cue cards when you need them.

Pay Attention to Body Language If you're unaware of it, your body language will give your audience constant, subtle clues about your inner state. If you're nervous, or if you don't believe in what you're saying, the audience can soon know. Pay attention to your body language: stand up straight, take deep breaths, look people in the eye, and smile. Don't lean on one leg or use gestures that feel unnatural. Many people prefer to speak behind a podium when giving presentations. While podiums can be useful for holding notes, they put a barrier between you and the audience.

They can also become a "crutch," giving you a hiding place from the dozens or hundreds of eyes that are on you. Instead of standing behind a podium, walk around and use gestures to engage the audience. This movement and energy will also come through in your voice, making it more active and passionate. Think Positively Positive thinking can make a huge difference to the success of your communication, because it helps you feel more confident.

Fear makes it all too easy to slip into a cycle of negative self-talk, especially right before you speak, while self-sabotaging thoughts such as "I'll never be good at this!" or "I'm going to fall flat on my face!" lower your confidence and increase the chances that you won't achieve what you're truly capable of.

Use affirmations and visualization to raise your confidence. This is especially important right before your speech or presentation. Visualize giving a successful presentation, and imagine how you'll feel once it's over and when you've made a positive difference for others. Use positive affirmations such as "I'm grateful I have the opportunity to help my audience" or "I'm going to do well!" Cope With Nerves How often have you listened to or watched a speaker who really messed up?

Chances are, the answer is "not very often." When we have to speak in front of others, we can envision terrible things happening. We imagine forgetting every point we want to make, passing out from our nervousness, or doing so horribly that we'll lose our job.

But those things almost never come to pass! We build them up in our minds and end up more nervous than we need to be. Many people cite speaking to an audience as their biggest fear, and a fear of failure is often at the root of this. Public speaking can lead your "fight or flight" response to kick in: adrenaline courses through your bloodstream, your heart rate increases, you sweat, and your breath becomes fast and shallow.

Although these symptoms can be annoying or even debilitating, the Inverted-U Model shows that a certain amount of pressure enhances performance. By changing your mindset, you can use nervous public speaking to your advantage. First, make an effort to stop thinking about yourself, your nervousness, and your fear. Instead, focus on your audience: what you're saying is "about them." Remember that you're trying to help or educate them in some way, and your message is more important than your fear.

Concentrate on the audience's wants and needs, instead of your own. If time allows, use deep breathing exercises to slow your heart rate and give your body the oxygen it needs to perform. This is public speaking important right before you speak. Take deep breaths from your belly, hold each one for several seconds, and let it out slowly. Crowds are more intimidating than individuals, so think of your speech as a conversation that you're having with one person.

Although your audience may be 100 people, focus on one friendly face at a time, and talk to that person as if he or she is the only one in the room. Watch Recordings of Your Speeches Whenever possible, record your presentations and speeches.

You can improve your speaking skills dramatically by watching yourself later, and then working on improving in areas that didn't go well.

As you watch, notice any verbal stalls, such as public speaking or "like." Look at your body language: are you swaying, leaning on the podium, or leaning heavily on one leg? Are you looking at the audience?

Did you smile? Did you speak clearly at all times? Pay attention to your gestures. Do they appear natural or forced? Make sure that people can see them, especially if you're standing behind a podium. Last, look at how you handled interruptions, such as a sneeze or a question that you weren't prepared for.

Does your face show surprise, hesitation, or annoyance? If so, practice managing interruptions like these smoothly, so that you're even better next time. Key Points Chances are that you'll sometimes have to speak in public as part of your role. While this can seem intimidating, the benefits of being able to speak well outweigh any perceived fears. To become a better speaker, use the following strategies: • Plan appropriately.

• Practice. • Engage with your audience. • Pay attention to body language. • Think positively. • Cope with your nerves. • Watch recordings of your speeches. If you speak well in public, it can help you get a job or promotion, raise public speaking for your team or organization, and educate others. The more you push yourself to public speaking in front of others, the better you'll become, and the more confidence you'll have.

Hi rashi9327, True - many people do fear public speaking. Maybe they fear "falling short" or being ridiculed rather than the speaking itself. Confidence, as you say, is key. And one of the things the help us to be more confident, is solid public speaking. Thanks for your comment - we always love hearing people's thoughts. Yolande, Mind Tools Team Toolkit • Leadership Skills (60) • Team Management (310) • Strategy Tools (144) • Problem Solving (47) • Decision Making (57) • Project Management (65) • Time Management (64) • Stress Management (76) • Communication Skills (150) • Creativity Tools (29) • Learning Skills (56) • Career Skills (212) My Learning Plan

2016 World Champion of Public Speaking, Darren Tay Wen Jie