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Louis • Master Gardeners • Community Gardening • Classes • Plant Societies • Plastic Pot Recycling Culture Grow in medium to wet, well-drained soils in sambucus nigra sun to part shade. Best in full sun. Tolerates a wide range of soils, but prefers moist, humusy ones. Plants spread by root suckers to form colonies. Prune suckers as they appear unless naturalizing is desired. Plants also spread freely by self-seeding in optimum conditions.
A large number of late winter pruning options include (a) pruning out dead or weakened stems, (b) shortening one year stems or (c) cutting back to the ground to rejuvenate.
Unpruned plants can rapidly become unattractive and weedy in appearance. Although plants are self-pollinating, fruit yields can be increased by planting more than one cultivar together.
Noteworthy Characteristics Sambucus nigra, commonly called European elder, is a deciduous, somewhat sprawling, multi-stemmed shrub (occasionally a small tree) that is native to Europe, southwestern Asia and northern Africa.
It typically grows to 8-20â€™ (less frequently to 30') tall. It is particularly noted for its aromatic late spring flowers and its edible fruits (elderberries). Compound pinnate leaves (to 10â€ long) are dark green. Each leaf contains 3-7 serrate, ovate to elliptic leaflets (to 5â€ long). Leaves have an unpleasant aroma when cut or crushed. Tiny white flowers in large flattened umbel-like cymes (to 10â€ across) bloom in June-July.
Flowers have sambucus nigra musky fragrance. Flowers give way to clusters of glossy black elderberry fruits (each to 3/8â€ across) in late summer. Fruits have been used to make jams, jellies and pie fillings, but are not considered to be as flavorful as the American elderberry ( Sambucus canadensis). Fruits and flowers have also been used to make elderberry wine.
Fruits are attractive to birds and wildlife. Species plants are infrequently sold in commerce, but a large number of smaller cultivars featuring purple foliage, variegated foliage, double flowers or berry colors other than black have become popular landscape plants. Genus name comes from the Latin name, perhaps connected with sambuca a kind of harp. Specific epithet comes from the Latin word for black in obvious reference to berry color.
College of Agricultural Sciences - Department of Horticulture » Landscape Plants • • About • Latin Names • Common Names • Woody Plants of Oregon • Woody Plant Search • Woody Broadleaf Search • Conifer Search • Additional Information • Plant Identification: Examining Leaves • Scientific Plant Names • Glossary of technical terms sambucus nigra USDA Hardiness Zone Maps of the United States • Sunset's Climate Zones • References • Oregon Master Gardener Training: Identifying Woody Plants • • Calendar • Library • Maps • Online Services • Make a Gift • Broadleaf deciduous large shrub or small tree to 30 ft (10 m), bark sambucus nigra furrowed.
Leaves pinnately compound, 3-7 leaflets, usually 5, each short stalked, elliptic to elliptic-ovate, 4-12 cm long, acute, margin sharply serrate, dark green above and sparingly hairy on veins below, has a disagreeable odor when bruised. Flowers yellowish-white, muskily scented, in flat clusters, 12-20 cm across.
Fruit lustrous purple-black, 6-8 mm across. • Sun and part shade. Easily grown, sometimes considered a weed.
Can prune to control size. Much folklore is associated with this plant, e.g., "if a baby is laid in a cradle of elderwood it will pine"(Coats, 1992). • Hardy to USDA Zone 4 or 5 (depends upon the selection) Native to Europe, north Africa and western Asia; cultivated since ancient times.
• Richard Bolli published a monograph in 1994 titled, "Revision of the Genus Sambucus", in it he proposed the placement of 6 species of elderberry as subspecies of Sambucus nigra, including S. caerulea, Blue Elderberry, to S. nigra ssp. cerulea (note spelling) and S. canadensis, American Elderberry, to S. nigra ssp. canadensis. This change has been accepted by the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
• Some of the available selections include: • ‘Aureomarginata’ - to 8 ft (2.4 m), green leaves with irregular bright to creamy yellow margins; typical white flowers and black fruit. • Black Beauty™ - (syn.
‘Gerda’) leaves are a very dark purple-red, veins and stems are purple, flowers have an intense pink color; upright, dense shrub, slightly spreading, 10 ft (3 m) in height and spread if left un-pruned. From the Horticulture Research International, East Malling, England; Plant Patent 12,305, 12/25/01.
• Black Lace™ - (syn. ‘Eva’) leaves finely cut (laciniate), dark purple almost black, flowers medium pink, compact to about 6-8 ft (1.8-2.4 m) tall and wide. From the Horticulture Research International, East Malling, England; Plant Patent 15,575, 2/22/05. • ‘Guincho Purple’ (‘Purpurea’) - to 8 ft (2.4 m), leaves emerge purple in spring but fade to green in summer before turning attractive shades of purple and red in fall, flowers white but may be flushed with red.
May be more than one selection sold under this name and/or the its foliage color is very sensitive to the environment, for example, some say that leaves emerge green (or purple green) and then turn purple, whereas other describe it as having purple leaves that turn green in summer. • ‘Laciniata’ - (syn. S. nigra f. laciniata) [Fern-leaved Elderberry] leaves finely cut, green, fern-like, typical white flowers and black fruit.
• ‘Madonna’ - leaves variegated, having bright yellow-golden margins which become creamy white in summer. Reportedly slower growing than other green selections but may reach 8 ft (2.4 m) high.
• ‘Purpurea’ - leaves are green but become dark purple, turning sambucus nigra in the fall. Flowers white flushed with pink. This selection may be the same as ‘Guincho Purple’ (see above), for Dirr (1998, p. 930) states that "according to Nelson, The Plantsman 8(3):189-190 (1986), the original cultivar names 'Follis Purpureis' and 'Purpurea' are no longer valid and the name 'Guincho Purple' is proposed".
The Hiller Manual of Trees and Shurbs (1998) lists 'Follis Purpureis' and 'Purpurea' as equivalent to 'Guincho Purple'. sambucus nigra nigra: black, the fruit.
Phonetic Spelling sam-BYOO-kus NY-gruh This plant has medium severity poison characteristics.
See below Description Black elder is a large multi-stemmed deciduous shrub or small tree in the Viburnaceae family native to Europe. The Latin name sambuca means harp and nigra means black referring to the color of the fruits. It can grow at a rapid pace through root suckering to 8 to 20 feet tall and wide. Plant in moist, high organic matter, well-drained soil though it tolerates a wide range of soils including heavy clay.
Full sun to partial shade though it flowers and fruits best in the full sun. This shrub grows rapidly through suckering and through self-seeding forms colonies easily so immediately prune back any unwanted suckers. Sambucus nigra leaves are large and deeply divided and are distinctive for their unpleasant sambucus nigra when crushed.
The white flowers with a musky fragrance appear in the summer attracting butterflies and are followed by black fruits. The attractive black fruits are edible and are used for making pies, wines, and jellies as well as being forage for birds.
The fruits are not considered as delicious as the American elderberry ( Sambucus canadensis) Increased fruit yield is achieved by planting multiple cultivars in the same area. It does best in a background planting, as an informal hedge and with enough room to naturalize. Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems: Spider mites and aphids are occasional problems.
Cankers, leaf spot, and powdery mildew do occur. Branches are susceptible to wind and winter snow breakage.
Plants grow quickly and aggressively and it can be weedy in sambucus nigra regions. See this plant in the following landscape: Sun to Shade Garden Cultivars / Varieties: • 'Albovariegata' Cream variegation around leaves • 'Black Lace' Dark deeply divided leaves • 'Laced Sambucus nigra • 'Marginata' Creamy margins of leaves • Variegata 'Albovariegata', 'Black Lace', 'Laced Up', 'Marginata', Variegata Tags: #showy flowers #deciduous #small tree #fragrant flowers #wildlife plant #weedy #nectar plant #showy fruits #food source wildlife #fast growing #multistemmed #weak wood #background planting #edible leaves #black fruits #naturalized area #glossy fruits #clay soils tolerant #bird friendly #malodorous #wind damage prone Full Form Jim Robbins CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 Form in flower Jim Robbins CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 leaves and flowers H.
Zell CC BY-SA 3.0 leaves and flowers Walter Siegmund CC BY-SA 4.0 leaves and flowers Franz Xaver CC BY-SA 3.0 leaves and flowers Renjusplace CC BY-SA 3.0 Leaves and black fruits. H. Zell CC BY-SA 3.0 leaves and flowers H. Zell CC BY-SA 3.0 Sambucus nigra 'Variegata' Leonora Enking CC-BY-SA 2.0 'Black Lace' Form (Asheville, NC) Jim Robbins CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 'Black Lace' Leaves (Ashville, NC) Jim Robbins CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 'Laced Up' Leaves (Buncombe County, NC) Randy Harter CC BY 4.0 'Laced Up' Flower and leaves (Buncombe County, NC) Randy Harter CC BY 4.0 Cultivars / Varieties: • 'Albovariegata' Cream variegation around leaves • 'Black Lace' Dark deeply divided leaves • 'Laced Up' • 'Marginata' Creamy margins of leaves • Variegata 'Albovariegata', 'Black Lace', 'Laced Up', 'Marginata', Sambucus nigra Tags: #showy flowers #deciduous #small tree #fragrant flowers #wildlife plant #weedy #nectar plant #showy fruits #food source wildlife #fast growing #multistemmed sambucus nigra wood #background planting #edible leaves #black fruits #naturalized area #glossy fruits #clay soils tolerant #bird friendly #malodorous #wind damage prone • Attributes: Genus: Sambucus Species: nigra Family: Viburnaceae Uses (Ethnobotany): This plant has been used in traditional medicine.
Life Cycle: Woody Country Or Region Of Origin: Europe Wildlife Value: Flowers attract butterflies. Fruits attract birds. Edibility: Flowers and blue-black berries. Flowers are used to make wines and cordials and the berries can be made into jam and syrup. Dimensions: Height: 10 ft. 0 in. - 20 ft.
0 in. Width: 8 ft. 0 in. - 20 ft. 0 in. • Whole Plant Traits: Plant Type: Shrub Tree Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics: Deciduous Habit/Form: Multi-stemmed Growth Rate: Rapid Maintenance: High • Cultural Conditions: Light: Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day) Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours) Soil Texture: Clay High Organic Matter Loam (Silt) Sand Soil Drainage: Good Drainage Moist Available Space To Plant: 6-feet-12 feet 12-24 feet NC Region: Mountains Piedmont USDA Plant Hardiness Zone: 5b, 5a, 6b, 6a, 7b, 7a • Fruit: Fruit Color: Black Blue Fruit Value To Gardener: Edible Showy Display/Harvest Time: Fall Summer Fruit Type: Drupe Fruit Length: < 1 inch Fruit Description: Lustrous glossy black fruits 3/8" across in late summer to fall.
• Flowers: Flower Color: Cream/Tan White Flower Inflorescence: Cyme Umbel Flower Value To Gardener: Fragrant Showy Flower Bloom Time: Summer Flower Size: < 1 inch Flower Description: Tiny yellowish white to cream flowers on large 5" to 8" flat-topped umble-like cymes wide in summer.
Flowers smell musky. • Leaves: Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics: Deciduous Leaf Color: Green Leaf Type: Compound (PinnatelyBipinnately, Palmately) Leaf Arrangement: Alternate Opposite Leaf Shape: Ovate Leaf Margin: Serrate Hairs Present: No Leaf Length: > 6 inches Leaf Description: Dark green pinnately compound leaves reach 10" long with 3 to 9 serrate ovate leaflets that are 5" long.
Unpleasant odor when crushed • Stem: Stem Is Aromatic: No • Landscape: Landscape Sambucus nigra Naturalized Area Landscape Theme: Butterfly Garden Edible Garden Rain Garden Design Feature: Hedge Attracts: Butterflies Songbirds Problems: Malodorous Weak Wood Weedy • Poisonous to Humans: Poison Severity: Medium Poison Symptoms: feeling ill, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Poison Toxic Principle: cyanide-inducing glycosides Causes Contact Dermatitis: No Poison Part: Leaves Roots Seeds Stems NC State University and N.C.
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L. Sambucus nigra is a species complex of flowering plants in the family Adoxaceae native to most of Europe.  Common names include elder, elderberry, black elder, European sambucus nigra, European elderberry, European black elderberry and tramman ( Isle of Man).
  It grows in a variety of conditions including both wet and dry fertile soils, primarily in sunny locations. The plant is a very common feature of hedgerows and scrubland in Britain and northern Europe, but is also widely grown as an ornamental shrub or small tree. Both the flowers and the berries have a long tradition of culinary use, primarily for cordial and wine.  The Latin specific epithet nigra means "black", and refers to the deeply dark colour of the berries.
 Although elderberry is commonly used in dietary supplements and traditional medicine, there is no scientific evidence that it provides any benefit for maintaining health or treating diseases.
 Contents • 1 Description • 1.1 Subspecies • 2 Distribution • 3 Habitat • 4 Cultivation • 5 Culinary uses • 6 Traditional medicine • 7 Phytochemicals and potential for poisoning • 8 Diseases • 9 Wildlife value • 9.1 Poisonous to mammals • 10 Gallery • 11 References • 12 Further reading • 13 External links Description [ edit ] Flowers Elderberry is a deciduous shrub sambucus nigra small tree growing to 6 m (20 ft) tall and wide,  rarely reaching 10 m (33 ft) tall.
The bark, light grey when young, changes to a coarse grey outer bark with lengthwise furrowing, lenticels prominent.  The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, 10–30 cm long, pinnate with five to seven (rarely nine) leaflets, the leaflets 5–12 cm long and 3–5 cm broad, with a serrated margin. The young stems are hollow.  The English term for the sambucus nigra is not believed to come from the word "old", but from the Anglo Saxon æld, meaning fire, because the hollow stems of the branches were used as bellows to blow air into a fire.
 The hermaphroditic flowers have five stamens,  which are borne in large, flat corymbs 10–25 cm diameter in late spring to mid-summer, the individual flowers are ivory white, 5–6 mm diameter, with five petals; they are pollinated by flies. The fruit is a glossy, dark purple to black berry 3–5 mm diameter, produced in drooping sambucus nigra in late autumn;  they are an important food for many fruit-eating birds, notably blackcaps.
See also: Sambucus There are several other sambucus nigra related species, native to Asia and North America, which are similar, and sometimes treated as subspecies of Sambucus nigra. The blue or Mexican elderberry, Sambucus mexicana, is now generally treated as one or two subspecies of Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis  and Sambucus nigra subsp. caerulea.  Distribution [ edit ] Sambucus nigra is native to Europe as far east as Turkey.  It is native in, and common throughout, the British Sambucus nigra.
 It has been introduced to parts of most other continents of the world.  Habitat [ edit sambucus nigra Hedges, waste-ground roadsides, and woods are the typical habitats for the species.  S. sambucus nigra is recorded as very common in Ireland in hedges as scrub in woods.   Cultivation [ edit ] Some selections and cultivars have variegated or coloured leaves and other distinctive qualities, and are grown as ornamental plants.
Sambucus nigra f. porphyrophylla has dark maroon or black leaves, and pale pink flowers. The following cultivars sambucus nigra gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award sambucus nigra Garden Merit:  • S.
nigra f. laciniata (cut-leaved alder)  • S. nigra f. porphyrophylla 'Eva'  • S. nigra f. porphyrophylla 'Gerda'  Culinary uses [ edit ] The dark blue or purple berries are mildly poisonous in their raw state.  Unripe berries, the seeds of the fruit, and all green parts of the plant are poisonous, containing cyanogenic glycosides.
sambucus nigra The berries are edible after cooking and may be used to make jam, jelly,  chutney, and Pontack sauce. In Scandinavia and Germany, soup made from the elderberry (e.g. the German Fliederbeersuppe) is a traditional meal. [ citation needed] Commonly, the flowerheads are used in infusions, giving a drink in Northern Europe and the Balkans. These drinks are sold commercially as elderflower cordial.  In Europe, the flowers are made into a syrup or cordial (in Romanian: Socată, in Swedish: fläder(blom)saft, in Danish: hyldeblomstsaft / hyldedrik), which is diluted with water before drinking.
The popularity of this traditional drink recently has encouraged some commercial soft drink producers to introduce elderflower-flavoured drinks ( Fanta Shokata, Freaky Fläder).
The flowers also may be dipped into a light batter and then fried to make elderflower fritters. The berries may be made into elderberry wine.  In Hungary, an elderberry brandy is made that requires 50 kg of fruit to produce 1 litre of brandy.
In south-western Sweden, it is traditional to make a snaps liqueur flavoured with elderflower. Elderflowers are used in liqueurs such as St-Germain, and in a mildly alcoholic sparkling elderflower 'champagne', although a more alcoholic home-made version can be made. Sambucus nigra Beerse, Belgium, a variety of jenever called beers vlierke is made from the berries.
Traditional medicine [ edit ] "Godfrey's Extract of Elder-Flowers" ad in 1900 This plant is used in traditional medicine by native sambucus nigra and herbalists.   Extracts of the flowers and fruits are used for cold and flu symptoms,   although there is no high-quality clinical evidence that it is effective for treating any disease.
  Phytochemicals and potential for poisoning [ edit ] The dark color of elderberry fruit occurs from its rich phenolic content, particularly from anthocyanins.  Components of the elderberry plant, including its fruit, contain diverse phytochemicals, such as alkaloids, lectins, and cyanogenic glycosides, which may be toxic if consumed raw.  Consumption of berries, leaves, bark or stems, if not properly prepared, may cause nausea, vomiting, and severe diarrhea.
   Elderberry plant sambucus nigra or sambucus nigra should not be consumed during pregnancy or by people with allergies or gastrointestinal diseases.   Elderberry products may cause adverse effects when used with prescription drugs.   Diseases [ edit ] Elder whitewash fungus ( Hyphodontia sambuci) Like other elderberries, Sambucus nigra is subject to elder whitewash fungus and jelly ear fungus. Wildlife value [ edit ] Elder rates as fair to good forage for animals such as mule deer, elk, sheep, and small birds.
It is classified as nesting habitat for many birds, including hummingbirds, warblers, sambucus nigra vireos. Ripe elderberries are a favorite food for migrating band-tailed pigeons in northern California, which may sometimes strip an entire bush in a short time. It is also a larval host to the spring azure.  It is good habitat for large and small mammals.  Poisonous to mammals [ edit ] Except for the flowers and ripe berries (but including the ripe seeds), all parts of the plant are poisonous to mammals, containing the cyanogenic glycoside sambunigrin (C 14H 17NO 6, CAS number 99-19-4).
 The bark contains calcium oxalate crystals. Gallery [ edit ] • • ^ "Flora Europaea Search Results". Rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk. Retrieved 13 October 2017. • ^ " Sambucus nigra". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. • ^ "Plants Profile for Sambucus nigra (black elderberry)".
Plants.usda.gov. Sambucus nigra 13 October 2017. • ^ a b c RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Michael and Vikram: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. ISBN 978-1405332965. • ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for Gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 978-1845337315. • ^ a b c d e f g "European elder".
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Library of Medicine. 1 August 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2021. • ^ Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. and Warburg, E.F. 1968 Excursion Flora of the British Isles Second Edition Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-04656-4 • ^ Vedel, H. and Lange, J. 1971. Trees and Bushes in Wood and Hedgerow. p.196. Methuen and Co. Ltd. ISBN 0416-61780-8 • ^ "Elder (Sambucus nigra) - British trees -". Woodland Trust. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
• ^ a b Parnell, J. and Curtis, T. 2012. Webb's An Irish Flora. Cork University Press. ISBN 978-185918-4783 • ^ "Sambucus mexicana". Calflora. Retrieved 2012-07-16. • ^ "Sambucus nigra ssp. caerulea". Calflora. Retrieved 2012-07-16. • ^ a b " Sambucus nigra L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Sambucus nigra, Kew. Retrieved 10 February 2022. • ^ " Sambucus nigra". Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora.
Biological Records Centre and Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 10 February 2022. • ^ Hackney, P. 1992. Stewarts and Corry's Flora of the North-east of Ireland. Institute of Irish Studies The Queen's University of Belfast.
ISBN 0 85389 446 9(HB) • ^ Webb, D.A., Parnell, J. and Doogue, D. 1996. An Irish Flora. Dundalgan Press Ltd, Dundalk.
ISBN 0-85221-131-7 • ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 95. Retrieved 21 October 2018. • ^ " Sambucus nigra f. laciniata / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2021-03-06. • ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Sambucus nigra 'Eva' ". Retrieved 21 October 2018.
• ^ " Sambucus nigra f. porphyrophylla 'Gerda' ". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2021-03-06. • ^ a b Fagan, Damian (2019). Wildflowers of Oregon: A Field Guide to Over 400 Wildflowers, Trees, and Shrubs of the Coast, Cascades, and High Desert.
Guilford, CT: FalconGuides. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-4930-3633-2. OCLC 1073035766. • ^ Kikbracken, J. 1995. Easy way guide Trees. Larousse. • ^ " Sambucus nigra: Elderberry - European Elder, Black elderberry, American black elderberry, Blue elderberry".
Plants for a Future. Retrieved 13 October 2017. • ^ a b c d sambucus nigra f g "Elderberry". Drugs.com. 4 August 2021. Retrieved 4 September 2021. • ^ a b c "Elderberry". Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020. • ^ The Xerces Society (2016), Gardening for Butterflies: How You Can Attract and Protect Beautiful, Beneficial Insects, Timber Press.
• ^ "Sambucus sambucus nigra subsp. cerulea". Fs.fed.us. Retrieved 13 October 2017. • ^ Campa C, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Cataldi TR, Bufo SA, Freitag D, Kettrup A (2000).
"Analysis of cyanogenic glycosides by micellar capillary electrophoresis". Journal of Chromatography B. 739 (1): 95–100.
doi: 10.1016/S0378-4347(99)00375-8. PMID 10744317. Further reading [ edit ] • Blanchan, Neltje (1900). Wild Flowers: An Aid to Knowledge of our Wild Flowers and their Insect Visitors. New York City: Doubleday. OCLC 16950204. • Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. HarperCollins Sambucus nigra 0-00-220013-9. External links [ edit ] Media related to Sambucus nigra at Wikimedia Commons • Wikidata: Q22701 • Wikispecies: Sambucus nigra • APDB: 131240 • APNI: 60926 • BioLib: 40476 • Calflora: 10347 • Ecocrop: 2413 • eFloraSA: Sambucus_nigra • EoL: 488731 sambucus nigra EPPO: SAMNI • EUNIS: 165363 • FoIO: SAMNIG • GBIF: 2888728 • GRIN: 32994 • iNaturalist: sambucus nigra • IPNI: 30122169-2 • IRMNG: 11104802 • ISC: 48259 • ITIS: 35324 • IUCN: 61684 • MoBotPF: 278936 • NBN: NBNSYS0000004324 • NCBI: 4202 • NSWFlora: Sambucus~nigra • NZOR: c78eb096-19d0-4f50-85dd-1aae1155f5b4 • NZPCN: 2686 • PalDat: Sambucus_nigra sambucus nigra PFI: 5142 • Plant List: kew-2486519 • PLANTS: SANI4 • POWO: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:30122169-2 • Tropicos: 6000026 • VASCAN: 2438 • VicFlora: f1ebf3c9-5cd1-4a06-9d98-8d31dff991fa • WoI: 2296 • WFO: wfo-0000439308 Hidden categories: • Articles with short description • Short description is different from Wikidata • Articles with 'species' microformats • All articles with unsourced statements • Articles with unsourced statements from July 2019 • Commons category link is on Wikidata • Taxonbars with 30–34 taxon IDs • Articles with GND identifiers • Articles with LCCN identifiers • Адыгэбзэ • العربية • Aragonés • Asturianu • Azərbaycanca • Башҡортса • Беларуская • Български • Bosanski • Català • Cebuano • Čeština • Corsu • Cymraeg • Dansk sambucus nigra Deutsch • Dolnoserbski • Eesti • Ελληνικά • Español • Esperanto • Euskara • فارسی • Français • Frysk • Gaeilge • Gaelg • Galego • 한국어 • Հայերեն • Hornjoserbsce • Hrvatski • Íslenska • Italiano • ქართული • Kaszëbsczi • Latina • Latviešu • Lëtzebuergesch • Lietuvių • Magyar • Македонски • മലയാളം • مصرى • Bahasa Melayu • Nederlands • 日本語 • Napulitano • Нохчийн • Nordfriisk • Norsk bokmål • Norsk nynorsk • Occitan • Pälzisch • پښتو • Piemontèis • Polski • Português • Română • Runa Simi • Русский • Sardu • Shqip • Slovenčina • Slovenščina • Српски / srpski • Suomi • Svenska • Taqbaylit • Українська • Vèneto • Tiếng Việt • West-Vlams • Winaray • 吴语 • 中文 Edit links • This page was last edited on 10 March 2022, at 07:05 (UTC).
Black Lace ® elderberry is a perfectly stylish addition to your landscape.
Intense purple black foliage is finely cut like lace, giving it an effect similar to that of Japanese maple. Indeed, some designers are using it in place of more sensitive plants since Black Lace is extremely durable and adaptable. Pink flowers in early summer contrast with the dark leaves for a stunning effect and give way to black berries if a compatible pollinator is planted nearby.
Awards: Silver Medal, Royal Boskoop Horticulture Society. Top reasons to grow Black Lace ® elderberry: - unique lacy black foliage is unlike anything else in the landscape - pink flowers in early summer look chic against the black foliage - tough and adaptable plant grows in a range of challenging conditions Uses Notes: This beautiful, versatile shrub works in just about any landscape setting or as a potted shrub on the patio.
Good in groupings or masses, or perennial and shrub borders. Makes a nice specimen or screen. Good in wet soils.
PLEASE NOTE: To produce berries, you'll need a Black Beauty ®, Instant Karma ®, or Laced Up ® elderberry as a pollinator Maintenance Notes: According to the Humane Society of America, elderberry can be toxic to pets if consumed. Best in moist soil although will tolerate dry soils.
Thrives under acid or alkaline soils. Best if pruned immediately after blooming.
May be pruned to the ground each year and grown like a perennial. Fertilize in early spring by applying a granular fertilizer formulated for trees and shrubs. Follow the label for the recommended rate of application. The color on Black Lace elderberry is best in cool climates; in hot areas, it may grow primarily green foliage. My favorite and most unique perennial shrub in my garden. I was first introduced to this plant at world-renown Longwood Gardens where they have many scattered amongst their beds.
I bought my at a local nursery maybe 5 years ago and its grown fabulously (Zone 7a) ever since. Just as at Longwood, I've placed my in full shade and it grows dark foliage. Not sure why its recommended for full sun. A volunteer popped up and I've moved that to another bed, under a Pin Oak, so its getting dappled sunlight (may 3 hrs/day), sambucus nigra growing fast. I trim my in April and again in July/August to keep it at 4' hgt and width. I lose flowers when I trim middle summer, but I'm not concerned for that.
I grow them for the black foliage that stands out so well against the hostas and other shade-loving green perennials in the beds. I bought this after buying a Black Lace first. I loved the black and wanted copious berries. Its year 2 now and both are green! I’d like to know what constitutes a “cooler” vs hot climate.
I am in Zone 5. Its hot in the summer and that’s when plants grow so I am uncertain how to interpret the caution provided above that the black color is recommended for cool climates and it can green up in hot ones. I bought this at a local nursery in the summer of 2020 and it just sat with no new growth, some wilting and dieback of branches. I maintained it as best I could and had a chat with it this spring: thrive or you’re gone!
Well, this year it is doing just that with decent sambucus nigra, blooms and no dieback. The only disappointment is that the leaves are green rather than black. It gets primarily afternoon sambucus nigra. Beautiful form. 5 years ago I purchased 1 plant.
Over the winter it died. The place I had purchased it had a warranty that they would replace after first winter if it died. I tried again and again it died. This plant is beautiful so I bought another and then a month later another store in the chain was offering the plant for $5 less than the last store. Just had too buy it as well. This year they are just blooming wildly.
I sambucus nigra a sea of these pink white rosie and purple across my backyard. Everyday I see many new flower sites. I have berries galore and The tiny fruit flies are just starting to show up.
Thank god I have plenty of berries all ready and I hope many of these flowers transform to fruit before the flies get to them. I live in zone 7. I was lucky enough to find one of these in our local area two years ago and planted it beside my house in a western facing direction in southern Michigan.
I’m happy to say it has taken off and is growing extremely well, and surpassed 8 feet this last summer. I love the way the colors contrast with the red brick of our home and I’m excited to see what it will do in the future. I am looking for ways to creatively prune to keep a. I’ve appearance. It’s one of my favorites! I've grown these for years and was surprised to see the reviews that indicated that the plant has struggled in zones 5 or less.
We are growing it in a Zone 4b and it has thrived, and as well I've sold it to customers sambucus nigra a zone 3b, higher up in the mountains, and it has thrived up there as well. Overall, it has been very easy to care for and has several uses. I've grown it in areas where it gets no pruning and it can get large and it's absolutely beautiful. I'm also growing it as a 4' hedge where I cut it back to 10" tall each winter and it'll grow to around 4' tall every summer.
And we have one that we've pruned the lower sambucus nigra off of to make sambucus nigra look more like a small tree. Great plant. Has thrived in our high pH (pH of 8) and has tolerated our native, heavy clay soils well.
Sambucus nigra The relationship of SNA binding and protein concentration is demonstrated by the differences in the RFU signals obtained at decreasing concentrations applied to the microarray as shown in Fig.
19.2A–C. To normalize the results obtained at each concentration, a rank for each glycan was obtained at each GBP concentration using the calculation, Rank=100×[RFU bound/highest RFU value in the assay]. From: Methods in Enzymology, 2010 Related terms: • Lectin • Sambucus nigra • Agglutinin • Proteins • Elderberries • Anthocyanins • Cyanidin • Quercetin • Brandy • Cydonia oblonga Hale G. Ağalar, in Nonvitamin and Nonmineral Nutritional Sambucus nigra, 2019 Abstract Sambucus nigra L.
known as “elderberry, black elder, and European elder” has become more and more popular due to its promising antiviral and immunomodulatory effects. It has a very long history as a medicinal plant. Although all parts have been used for the treatment of various ailments, elderberries and elderflowers have attracted more attention by researchers. The elderflower extract standardized on flavonoids, expressed as isoquercitroside, is recorded in the European and British Pharmacopoeias.
In the Complete German Commission E Monographs, elderflower is recorded because of its use against the common cold. An elderflower monograph has also been prepared by the World Health Organization. The European Medicines Agency has published a detailed assessment report on Sambuci fructus.
The food supplements of elderberries and elderflowers have been marketed in different countries for a long time. A.R. Yasmin. . A. Ideris, sambucus nigra Feed Additives, 2020 Sambucus nigra L. (elderberries) Sambucus nigra L., or commonly known as black elderberries, exhibits antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory effect in vitro and in vivo ( Krawitz et al., 2011).
Elderberries are rich in phenolic acids, flavonoids, catechins, and proanthocyanidins, of which some flavonoids have been shown to significantly block influenza virions in vitro ( Roschek et al., 2009). Like the findings of Echinacea, Karimi et al.
(2014) found that the compound inhibited the virus penetration when the extract and virus were mixed prior to inoculation but no effect was observed after the virus has entered sambucus nigra cells.
Molecular detection of the virus such as qRT-PCR of the viral gene showed that the virus titer was significantly reduced. Irwin J. Goldstein Ph.D. . Ronald D. Poretz Ph.D., in New Comprehensive Biochemistry, 1997 3.7.1 Sambucus nigra I lectin The Sambucus nigra I lectin (SNA), a tetrameric protein ( M r = 140 000 Da), was first shown to bind primarily to Neu5Ac(α2–6)Gal/GalNAc disaccharide sequences by Shibuya et al.
. This lectin has found important application in the distinction and separation of oligosaccharides and glycopeptides containing Neu5Ac(α2–6)Gal/GalNAc from the isomeric α-2,3-saccharide  e.g. oligosaccharides from milk, porcine thyroglobulin, human transferrin and bovine fetuin , human colorectal cancer tissue  and Ehrlich ascites tumor cells [244,245].
Both a free carboxyl group at C-l and the glyceryl side chain (C7–C9) of Neu5Ac are required for interaction with SNA I [239,242]. Nicole Pabi. . Barbara Siegmund, in Flavour Science, 2014 17.1 Introduction In southern Austrian regions, elderberries ( Sambucus nigra L.) have become a very important crop.
Up until now, the properties of the ripe elderberry have been the main reasons for the cultivation of elders. Due to its very intense color, the berry is much in demand as a raw material for the production of natural food colorings. Moreover, the ripe elderberry contains a number of bioactive compounds and, as a consequence, shows a number of health-promoting effects.
Within recent years, requests for the flowers have risen because of the very pleasant flavor, which is of interest not only to the food industry but also to the cosmetics industry.
In contrast to the properties of the berries, the very fragile flavor of elderflowers has not been studied very intensely [1–3]. Over 100 volatile compounds have been identified and reported in the literature; nevertheless, the results concerning the composition of the elderflower flavor are not consistent. The delicate flavor of the flowers, in combination with different extraction techniques, may be the reason for this fact.
In this study we investigated the volatile compounds of elderflowers of various varieties, with the aim of discovering whether elder varieties can be differentiated via their aroma profile, obtaining more information about the frequently found wild forms, and investigating the influence of the plantation site on flavor formation. We were able to make some interesting observations regarding the subtle details of glycan-binding specificity by SNA by comparing the ranking of selected structures that were bound to related structures that were ranked low or unbound by SNA in the three assays used for the analyses.
A comparison of selected glycan structures and their ranking analysis is shown in Table 19.2. It has been known for some time that SNA-I binds Neu5Acα2-6Gal terminating structures and that the galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine residues may be important in binding ( Shibuya et sambucus nigra, 1987a,b, 1989; Van Damme et al., 1997).
However, based on the simultaneous analysis of SNA binding to a variety of related glycans of defined structure, it is possible to identify the minimal SNA-I determinant to be Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc based on the relative affinity of SNA for Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc (glycans 258 and 257 at Average Ranks of 49 and 44) and Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4Glc (glycan number 261 ranked at 0) indicating a strong requirement for the sequence Galβ1-4GlcNAc.
Thus, Table 19.2 shows the minimal SNA determinant formatted in bold in all structures where it appears. Only one glycan structure on the microarray carries Neu5Acα2-6Gal on a type 1 glycan (glycan number 407, Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-3GlcNAcβ1-3(Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-6)Galβ1-4Glc), and this had a low average Ranking of 26, supporting the concept that the minimal determinant for SNA-I binding is Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc, which contains a type 2 chain.
Substituting the terminal sialic acid with KDN (glycan 353) increased the average ranking almost twofold, whereas replacing the terminal sialic acid with Neu5Ac(9-O-Ac) sambucus nigra 46) increased the average ranking slightly. Placement of a sulfate at the 6-OH of the GlcNAc (glycan 256) also increased binding.
Changing the sialic acid linkage from α2-6 to α2-3 eliminated binding by SNA, as seen in glycan numbers 240 and 250, whereas substituting Neu5Ac with Neu5Gc did not change the average ranking of the minimal determinant (glycan 275).
The fact that there was no significant difference in binding between glycans 260 (Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc) and 325 (Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-3Galβ1-3GlcNAc), which differ at the linkage position of the fourth monosaccharide in the sequence, also supports the hypothesis that the minimal determinant for high affinity binding by SNA-I is the trisaccharide Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc, and this is consistent with previously published studies ( Shibuya et al., 1987a,b, 1989; Van Damme et al., 1997).
Glycan v4.0 Structure of selected SNA ligands Rank 353 KDNa2-6 Galb1-4GlcNAc-Sp0 87 256 Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4[ 6OSO3] GlcNAcb-Sp8 85 240 Neu5Aca 2-3Galb1-4[6OSO3] GlcNAcb-Sp8 0 46 Neu5Ac(9Ac)a2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb-Sp8 55 258 Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb-Sp8 49 257 Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb-Sp0 44 275 Neu5Gca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb-Sp0 49 260 Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-3Galb 1-4GlcNAcb-Sp0 47 325 Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-3Galb 1-3GlcNAcb-Sp0 44 255 Neu5Aca2-6 GalNAcb1-4GlcNAcb-Sp0 28 407 Neu5Aca2-6Galb 1-3GlcNAcb1-3(Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-6)Galb1-4Glc-Sp21 26 250 Neu5Aca 2-3Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-3Galb1-4GlcNAcb-Sp0 0 261 Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4 Glcb-Sp0 0 Structure of selected SNA N-glycan ligands 343 Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana1-3Manb1-4GlcNAcb1-4GlcNAc-Sp12 67 341 Mana1-6( Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana1-3)Manb1-4GlcNAcb1-4GlcNAc-Sp12 69 315 GlcNAcb1-2Mana1-3( Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana1-3)Mana1-4GlcNAcb1-4GlcNAcb-Sp12 62 314 Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana1-6( Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana1-3)Manb1- 4GlcNAcb1-4GlcNAcb-Sp12 56 54 Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana1-6( Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana1-3) Manb1-4GlcNAcb1-4GlcNAcb-Sp13 66 52 Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana1-6( Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana1-3) Manb1-4GlcNAcb1-4GlcNAcb-Sp8 60 51 Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana1-6( Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana1-3)Manb1-4GlcNAcb1-4GlcNAcb-N(LT)AVL 55 321 Neu5Aca 2-3Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana1-6( Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana1-3)Manb1-4GlcNAcb1-4GlcNAcb-Sp12 42 342 Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana 1-6Manb1-4GlcNAcb1-4GlcNAc-Sp12 35 300 Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana 1-6(GlcNAcb1-2Mana1-3)Manb1-4GlcNAcb1- 4GlcNAcb-Sp12 22 292 Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana 1-6(Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana1-3)Manb1-4GlcNAcb1-4GlcNAcb-Sp12 22 313 Neu5Aca2-6Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana 1-6( Neu5Aca 2-3Galb1-4GlcNAcb1-2Mana1-3)Manb1-4GlcNAcb1-4GlcNAcb-Sp12 8 The minimal determinant for SNA binding is highlighted in bold and structural features that enhance binding are highlighted in italic sambucus nigra structural features that decrease binding are highlighted in bold italic.
Alpha and beta linkages are denoted by a and b, respectively. A more complex aspect of the determinant recognized by SNA-I was observed when ranking was performed on a large number of complex-type biantennary N-glycans identified as SNA-binding N-glycan ligands in the bottom half of Table 19.2. The availability of a microarray with this unique set of N-glycan structures, together with the comparison of their sambucus nigra ranking, permitted the identification of effects of N-glycan structure on recognition of the determinant for SNA.
When the minimal determinant (Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc shown in Table 19.2, formatted in bold) is located on the α3-branch of the trimannosyl core alone, as in glycan 343, compared to glycans containing incomplete α6-branched side chains (glycans 341, 315, 314), including those with more complete side chains with two minimal determinants (glycans 51 and 52, one on the three-branch and another on the six-branch), no significant difference in average ranking was observed.
In addition, if the α6-branch terminated in a α2-3-linked Neu5Ac (glycan 321), only a slight change in average ranking was observed. Taken together these data suggest that SNA-I recognizes the minimal determinant on the α3-branch, but not the α6-branch, of a biantennary N-glycan. These observations are in agreement with the low average rankings of N-glycans, where the minimal determinant is only on the α6-branch with the α3-branch missing (glycan 342) or partially complete (glycans 300 and 292).
In addition, if the minimal determinant is on the α6-branch and the Neu5Ac on the α3-branch is linked α2-3, binding is almost completely lost, again supporting the conclusion that SNA primarily recognized Neu5Acα2-3Galβ21-4GlcNAc on the α3-branch of biantennary N-glycans.
Thus, SNA possesses a minimal sambucus nigra motif and an extended binding motif when the determinant is located on an N-glycan as sambucus nigra in Fig. 19.3. These studies demonstrate the sambucus nigra of this high throughput analysis of GBP specificities and motif definition on microarrays of large numbers of defined glycans. Figure 19.3. The glycan-binding motif of SNA on a biantennary complex N-glycan terminating in the minimal determinant defined by NeuAca2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc as determined by inspection of the ranking of glycans shown in Table 19.1 and the relative binding of SNA to selected glycan structures shown in Table 19.2.
Carbohydrate chains of C1-inhibitor were identified by a binding assay using different lectins . Lectins from Sambucus nigra (SNA) and Maackia amurensis (MAA), that are specific for sialic acids, were shown to bind to Cl-inhibitor. Lectin from Datura stramonium (DSA) also reacted with the inhibitor indicating complex and hybrid sugar structures. Cl-inhibitor was enzymatically desialylated and reexamined for lectin binding. SNA sambucus nigra MAA did not react anymore, but in addition to DSA, peanut agglutinin, which can bind to carbohydrate chains after sialic acids are removed, bound to desialylated Cl-inhibitor.
Cl-inhibitor contains about 30 sialic acid residues per molecule. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that desialylated Cl-inhibitor had a higher mobility than native Cl-inhibitor. The N-terminal sequence of desialylated Cl-inhibitor was the same as that of native Cl-inhibitor and no change in the inhibition of human plasma kallikrein was observed. The structure of the N- and O-linked glycans of Cl inhibitor have been established by NMR spectroscopy and are shown in Fig.
5 , Keith J. Stine, in Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, 2017 6.5 Lectin-Modified Porous Silica Lectin-modified macroporous silica particles of 10 μm diameter were prepared by surface modification with 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane, followed by conversion of the epoxy to diol by H 2SO 4 and then diol to aldehyde by sodium periodate.
117 The lectins Con A or Sambucus nigra (SNA) lectin were coupled to the aldehyde groups and then treated with sodium borohydride to reduce the formed Schiff bases to secondary amines.
The Bradford assay was used to determine the lectin loading. Immobilization of Con A within the particles was confirmed by using fluorescence microscopy to image FITC-Con A (fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled Con A) and capture of glycoprotein confirmed by imaging Texas red-labeled ovalbumin. The lectin-modified particles were used in online lectin microcolumns for capture of ribonuclease B and of glycopeptides from a tryptic digest of fetuin.
The glycoprotein and glycopeptides on the column were desorbed for Q-TOF-MS analysis. Much smaller porous silica particles were subsequently used in lectin microcolumns. 118 Porous silica particles of size 1.6 ± 0.3 μm were produced using spray pyrolysis.
The particles were of surface area 203 m 2 g −1 and contained pores in the 50–150 nm range. The particles were found to be mechanically stable when subjected to 11,000 psi for 12 h. Surface modification of the particles with 3-(glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane, followed by conversion of the epoxy groups to aldehydes, was carried out prior to covalent lectin immobilization. The particles were covalently modified with the lectin Con A for use in sambucus nigra affinity chromatography.
The lectin Aleuria aurantia (AAL, specific for α-linked fucose residues) was immobilized in a biotinylated form to particles surface modified to present avidin groups. Compared to the previously reported 10 μm size silica particles modified by Con A, 117 the amount of ribonuclease B captured by a column of the smaller particles was greater by factors of 37–75.
Treatment of the material with aqueous NaOH to create more hydrophilic silanol groups resulted in higher loading of Con A as determined by the bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA assay) and a column able to retain analyte longer during elution of glycoprotein (horseradish peroxidase or α-1 acid glycoprotein). The sambucus nigra material was tested using diluted blood serum, and using only a 1-μL aliquot the fractions bound to Con A and also not bound to Con A were sambucus nigra to LC–MS/MS analysis to create a glycoprotein profile.
The AAL-modified column was used to analyze human blood serum depleted of albumin and Sambucus nigra. Porous silica monoliths modified with carbohydrates (β-lactoside, β- N-acetyllactosaminide, β- d-galactoside, β- d- N-acetylgalactosaminide, and β- d-glucoside) were prepared. 119 The sugars had oligomeric ethylene oxide sambucus nigra for reducing nonspecific binding and were coupled to carboxylic acid-modified porous silica by EDC/NHS coupling chemistry.
TGA was used to evaluate sugar loading on the monoliths. The lactose and N-acetyllactose-modified monoliths were found to adsorb ricin and lectin RCA 120 efficiently.
T. Peters, in Comprehensive Glycoscience, 2007 184.108.40.206.1 Identification of key hydroxy groups with STD Sambucus nigra The proper recognition of carbohydrates by receptor proteins critically depends on the correct spatial orientation of key hydroxy groups.
The identification of such key hydroxy groups may be achieved by the synthesis of carbohydrate derivatives where hydroxy groups are systematically substituted by, for example, deoxy functions or fluorine atoms. As this approach requires the synthesis of a number of derivatives, it is rather time and labor intensive.
STD NMR experiments in combination with random methylation of carbohydrates offer a straightforward alternative for the identification of key hydroxy groups. 109 Figure 4.
Compound library from Ref. 109. First row: β- d-galactopyranosides 2– 5; second row: α- d-galactopyranosides, sambucus nigra row: α- d-mannopyranosides, fourth row: β- d-glucopyranosides, fifth row: α- d-glucopyranosides. All compounds are present in approx.
equimolar amounts. With permission from Vogtherr, M.; Peters, T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 6093–6099).
Using a combination of STD NMR and totally correlated spectroscopy (TOCSY) spectroscopy, the identification of those components of the compound library with binding affinity for SNA is rather simple as only those traces of signals are observed in the STD-TOCSY spectrum that result from binding to SNA.
As the chemical shifts of all protons of the derivatives in the compound library of Figure 6 are known, identification of the binding components is straightforward and compounds 1 and 4 are identified as ligands with binding affinity for SNA.
For this example it was also shown that the combination of the STD experiment with the heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence spectroscopy (HMQC) pulse sequence is of great advantage to the identification of the key hydroxy groups sambucus nigra in binding. For this experiment a library of randomly 13C-methylated methyl β- d-galactopyranoside was employed.
The STD HMQC spectrum shown in Figure 5 immediately reveals the key hydroxy groups that are required for recognition by SNA. Figure 5. HMQC (left) and STD HMQC (right) spectra of library B in the presence of SNA. The region of O-methyl 13C resonance signals is shown. Subtraction of on- and off-resonance HMQC spectra to generate the STD HMQC spectrum was achieved by shifting the receiver phase by 180 °.
The pre-saturation time was 2 s. It is immediately obvious that only compounds 2 and 5 bind to SNA. With permission from Vogtherr, M.; Peters, T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 6093–6099. The availability of cryogenic probe technology now also allows the use of STD HMQ or STD HSQC experiments with sample at natural 13C abundance.
Krista Weikkolainen. . Jari Natunen, in Lectins, 2007 5.1 Analysis of the receptor from glycolipids Using TLC binding methods, a high affinity receptor for human influenza A virus was found among glycolipids prepared from human neutrophils. Selected fractions containing complex glycolipids were shown to bind the virus sambucus nigra with high strength. The smallest binding glycolipids corresponded to sialylated hexaglycosylceramides.
The binding of the human virus to less complex glycolipids was not detected. Analysis of the binding species by sialic acid-binding lectins, Sambucus sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) and Maackia amuriensis agglutinin (MAA), revealed binding to α6-linked sialic acid (as identified by SNA) in the material, but not α3-linked sialic acid (as identified by MAA).
Further analysis by MS revealed sialylated lactosamine type structures in the fraction of the bound glycolipids . A control experiment sambucus nigra a regular avian (duck) influenza strain confirmed the expected α3-sialic acid binding specificity and a strong binding to less complex sialylated glycolipid with tetrasaccharide core chains . These results were somewhat in contrast to previous results, which suggested binding of human influenza strains to α3-sialylated and possible fucosylated structures of human neutrophils .
These differences could be due to strain specificity variety or even to differences in the resolution of the TLC method. It is also of interest that the recent microarray analysis also indicated that biantennary α6-sialylated N-glycans are especially effective receptors for pandemic human and avian influenza viruses . F. Matei, in Science and Sambucus nigra of Fruit Wine Production, 2017 4.1.3 Elderberry Wine Elderberries make a rich, flavorful wine, but they have long been added to other fruit and berry wines, including grape, to add color, tannin, and complexity ( Keller, 2009).
Home winemakers may add elderberry in grape wine for a richer color and flavor (which is not allowed on industrial level). Dried elderberries do not leave the residue, described as “elderberry goo,” that defies conventional clean-up methods. Two species account for the majority of elderberry wine made in Europe and America. The European Elder ( Sambucus nigra) grows all over in Europe, as well as in North Africa and in Asia.
It has become naturalized in North America and the American Elder ( Sambucus canadensis) grows throughout sambucus nigra of the United States and the eastern half of Canada.
According to Keller (2009) in the United States the most popular varieties, Adams No. 1 and Adams No. 2, are known as having good growth characteristics and large berries. They are followed by a newer variety, York, which is even more vigorous and yields bigger berries. Some other popular varieties have been reported, as Johns, Kent, Nova and Scotia. In Europe, the most cultivated varieties are Haschberg and Black Beauty. Some caution has to be taken into account in the case of elderberry, because the stems, leaves, bark, roots, and all immature (green) berries are toxic.
Box 14.6 Elderberry Wine (Recipe for 1 gallon/3.8 L, According to Keller, 2006) Ingredients: 4–5 1/4 oz. (0.11–0.15 g) dried elderberries 2 1/2 lbs. (1.1 kg) sugar 7 3/4 pts. (3.7 L) water 1 tsp. acid blend 1 tsp. yeast nutrient 1 crushed Campden tablet 1 pkg. of yeast Boil the water with sugar; stir until the sugar is dissolved and the water is clear.
Wash dried elderberries and put in nylon straining bag with several sanitized marbles for weight. Tie bag and put in primary. Pour boiling sugar water over elderberries and cover primary. When cool, stir in crushed Campden tablet, yeast nutrient, and acid blend until dissolved.
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