Su 27

su 27

Su-27SKM at MAKS-2005 airshow Role Su 27 superiority fighter National origin Soviet Union Russia Manufacturer Sukhoi First flight 20 May 1977 Introduction 1985 Status In service Primary users Russian Air Force People's Liberation Army Air Force Ukrainian Air Force See operators for others Produced 1982–current Number built 809 Unit cost US$30 million Variants Sukhoi Su-30 Sukhoi Su-33 Sukhoi Su-34 Sukhoi Su-35 Sukhoi Su-37 Shenyang J-11 The Sukhoi Su-27 ( Su 27 Сухой Су-27) ( NATO reporting name: Flanker) is a twin-engine supermanoeuverable fighter aircraft designed by Sukhoi.

It was intended as a direct competitor for the large United States fourth generation fighters, with 3,530-kilometre (1,910 nmi) range, heavy armament, sophisticated avionics and high manoeuvrability. The Su-27 most often flies air superiority missions, but is able to perform almost all combat operations. Complementing the smaller MiG-29, the Su-27's closest US counterpart is the F-15 Eagle.

The Su-27 entered service with the Soviet Air Force in 1985. There are several related developments of the Su-27 design. The Su-30 is a two-seat, dual-role fighter for all-weather, air-to-air and air-to-surface deep interdiction missions.

The Su-33 ‘Flanker-D’ is a navy fleet defence interceptor for use on aircraft carriers. Further versions include the side-by-side 2-seat Su-34 ‘Fullback’ strike variant and the Su-35 ‘Flanker-E’ improved air defence fighter. Contents • 1 Development • 1.1 Background • 1.2 Design phase • 2 Design • 2.1 Radar and sensors • 3 Operational history su 27 3.1 Russia • 3.2 Ethiopia • 3.3 Angola • 3.4 Indonesia • 4 Variants • 4.1 Soviet-era • 4.2 Post-Soviet era • 5 Operators • 5.1 Former operators • 5.2 Private ownership • 6 Notable accidents • 7 Aircraft on display • 8 Specifications (Su-27SK) • 8.1 Su-27S armament • 8.2 Su-27SM armament • 9 Popular culture • 10 See also • 11 References • 12 External links Development Background In 1969, the Soviet Union learned of the U.S.

Air Force's "F-X" program, which resulted in the F-15 Eagle. The Soviet leadership soon realised that the new American fighter would represent a serious technological advantage over existing Soviet fighters. What was needed was a better-balanced fighter with both good agility and sophisticated systems. In response, the Soviet General Staff issued a requirement for a Perspektivnyy Frontovoy Istrebitel ( PFI, literally "Prospective Frontline Fighter", roughly "Advanced Frontline Fighter").

[1] Specifications were extremely ambitious, calling for long range, good short-field performance (including the ability to use austere runways), excellent agility, Mach 2+ speed, and heavy armament. The aerodynamic design for the new aircraft was largely carried out by TsAGI in collaboration with the Sukhoi design bureau.

[1] When the specification proved too challenging and costly for a single aircraft su 27 the number needed, the PFI specification was split into two: the LPFI ( Lyogkyi PFI, Lightweight PFI) and the TPFI ( Tyazholyi PFI, Heavy PFI).

The LPFI program resulted in the Mikoyan MiG-29, a relatively short-range tactical fighter, while the TPFI program was assigned to Sukhoi OKB, which eventually produced the Su-27 and its various derivatives. Design phase The Sukhoi design, which was altered progressively to reflect Soviet awareness of the F-15's specifications, emerged as the T-10 (Sukhoi's 10th delta wing design), which first flew on 20 May 1977.

The aircraft had a large delta wing, clipped, with two separate podded engines and a twin tail. The ‘tunnel’ between the two engines, as on the F-14 Tomcat, acts both as an additional lifting surface and hides armament from radar. Su-27 (T-10) in front of a Mil Mi-12 The T-10 was su 27 by Western observers and assigned the NATO reporting name 'Flanker-A'. The development of the T-10 was marked by considerable problems, leading to a fatal crash on 7 May 1978.

Extensive redesigns followed, and a heavily revised version, the T-10S, made its first flight on 20 April 1981. Soviet Su-27 in-flight The su 27 Su-27 (sometimes Su-27S, NATO designation 'Flanker-B') began to enter VVS operational service in 1985, although manufacturing difficulties kept it from appearing in strength until 1990. [2] The Su-27 served with both the V-PVO and Frontal Aviation. Design The Su-27's basic design is aerodynamically similar to the MiG-29, but it is substantially larger.

The swept wing blends into the fuselage at the leading edge extensions and is essentially a cropped delta (the delta wing with tips cropped for missile rails or ECM pods). The Su-27 is also an example of a tailed delta wing configuration, retaining conventional horizontal tailplanes, though it is not a true delta. Sketch of Su-27 performing Pugachev's Cobra manoeuvre The Su-27 had the Soviet Union’s first operational fly-by-wire control system, developed based on Sukhoi OKB’s experience in the Sukhoi T-4 bomber project.

Combined with relatively low wing loading and powerful basic flight controls, it makes for an exceptionally agile aircraft, controllable even at very low speeds and high angles of attack. In airshows the aircraft has demonstrated its manoeuvrability with a Cobra ( Pugachev’s Cobra) or dynamic deceleration – briefly sustained level flight at a 120° angle of attack. The naval version of the 'Flanker', the Su 27 (or Su-33), incorporates canards for additional lift, reducing take-off su 27.

These canards have also been incorporated in some Su-30s, the Su-35, and the Su-37. Su-27 carrying R-27 missiles The Su-27 is armed with a single 30 mm Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1 cannon in the starboard wingroot, and has up to 10 hardpoints for missiles and other weapons. Its standard missile armament for air-to-air combat is a mixture of Vympel R-73 (AA-11 Archer), Vympel R-27 (AA-10 'Alamo') weapons, the latter including extended range and IR guided models.

Radar and sensors The Su-27 is equipped with a Phazotron N001 Myech coherent pulse-Doppler radar with track-while-scan and look-down / shoot-down capability.

The fighter also has an OLS-27 infrared search and track (IRST) system in the nose just forward of the cockpit with a 80–100 km range. [3] Operational history Russia The Su-27 has seen limited action since it first entered service. In the morning of 13 September 1987, a fully armed Soviet Su-27, Red 36, intercepted a Norwegian Lockheed P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft while flying over the Barents Sea.

The Soviet fighter jet performed different close passes, colliding with the reconnaissance aircraft on the third pass. The Su-27 disengaged and both aircraft landed safely at their bases.

[4] These aircraft were used by the Russian Air Force during the 1992–1993 war in Abkhazia against Georgian forces. One fighter, piloted by Major pilot Vaclav Alexandrowich Shipko (Вацлав Александрович Шипко) was reported shot down by an S-75M Dvina on 19 March 1993 while intercepting Georgian Su-25's performing Close Air Support.

[5] [6] Su-27SM3 RuAF In the 2008 South Ossetia War, Russia used Su-27s to gain airspace control over Tskhinvali, the capital city of South Ossetia. [7] [8] On 7 February 2013, two Su-27s briefly entered Japanese airspace off Rishiri Island near Hokkaido, flying south over the Sea of Japan before turning back to the north. [9] Four Mitsubishi F-2 fighters were scrambled to visually confirm the Russian planes, [10] warning them by radio to leave their airspace.

[11] A photo taken by a JASDF pilot of one of the two Su-27s was released by the Japan Ministry of Defense. [12] Russia denied the incursion, saying the jets were making routine flights near the disputed Kuril Islands. [9] Russia plans to replace the Su-27 along with the Mikoyan MiG-29 eventually by the Sukhoi PAK FA stealth fifth-generation multi-role twin-engine fighter.

Ukrainian Air Force Su-27UB in July 2011 Ethiopia Ethiopian Su-27s reportedly shot down two Eritrean MiG-29s and damaged another one [13] [14] in February 1999 and destroyed another two in May 2000. [14] [15] The Su-27s were also used in CAP ( Combat Air Patrol) missions, suppression of air defense, and providing escort for fighters on bombing and reconnaissance missions.

[16] [ verification needed] In the War in Somalia (2006-present), the EtAF used their Su-27s to deadly effect, bombing Islamist garrisons and patrolling the airspace. The Su-27 has replaced the aging Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 as Ethiopia's main air superiority fighter.

Angola The Su-27 entered Angolan service in su 27 during the Angolan Civil War. It is reported that one Su-27 in the process of landing, was shot down by SA-14 MANPADs fired by UNITA forces on 19 November 2000.

[13] [17] Indonesia Four Indonesian Flanker type fighters including Su-27s participated for the first time in the annual Pitch Black exercise su 27 Australia on 27 July 2012. Arriving at Darwin, Australia the Indonesian fighters two Su-27s and two Su-30s were escorted by two Australian No. 77 Squadron F/A-18 Hornets. [18] Exercise Pitch Black is a major multi-national biennial exercise hosted by the Royal Australian Air Force, involving Offensive Counter Air and Offensive Air Support missions being flown at training ranges across the Northern Territory.

Exercise Pitch Black 12 conducted from su 27 July through 17 August 2012, and participated 2,200 personnel and up to 94 aircraft from Australia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, New Zealand and the United States.

[19] Variants Soviet-era Left side scheme of a Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker B, first production series • T10 ("Flanker-A"): Initial prototype configuration. • T10S: Improved prototype configuration, more similar to production spec. • P-42: Special version built to beat climb time records.

The aircraft had all armament, radar and paint removed, which reduced weight to 14,100 kg. It also had improved engines. • Su-27 Pre-production series built in small numbers with AL-31 engine • Su-27S (Su-27 / "Flanker-B"): Initial production single-seater with improved AL-31F engine. The "T10P" • Su-27P (Su-27 / "Flanker-B"): Standard version but without air-to-ground weapons control system and wiring and assigned to Soviet Air Defence Forces units. Often designated Su-27 without -P.

[20] • Su-27UB ("Flanker-C"): Initial production two-seat operational conversion trainer. • Su-27SK: Export Su-27 single-seater. • Su-27UBK: Export Su-27UB two-seater. Russian fighter Su-27K (later designated Su-33) on the deck of Admiral Kuznetsov • Su-27K ( Su-33 / su 27 Carrier-based single-seater with folding wings, high-lift devices, and arresting gear, built in small numbers.

They followed the "T10K" prototypes and demonstrators. • Su-27M ( Su-35/ Su-37, Flanker-E/F): Improved demonstrators for an advanced single-seat multi-role Su-27S derivative. These also included a two-seat "Su-35UB" demonstrator. • Su-32 (Su-27IB): Two-seat dedicated long-range strike variant with side-by-side seating in "platypus" nose.

Prototype of Su-32FN and Su-34 'Fullback'.

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Post-Soviet su 27 • Su-27PD: Single-seat demonstrator with improvements such as inflight refuelling probe. • Su-27PU ( Su-30): Two-seat limited production machine with improvements such as inflight refuelling probe, fighter direction avionics, new flight control system, and so on. • Su-30M / Su-30MK: Next-generation multi-role two-seater. A few Su-30Ms were built for Russian evaluation in the mid-1990s, though little came of the effort.

The Su-30MK export variant was embodied as a series of two demonstrators of different levels of capability. Versions include Su-30MKA for Algeria, Su-30MKI for India, Su-30MKK for the People's Republic of China, and Su-30MKM for Malaysia. • J-11: Version of Su-27 built under licence in China.

• Su-27SM (Flanker-B Mod. 1): Mid-life upgraded Russian Su-27S, featuring technology evaluated in the Su-27M demonstrators. • Su-27SKM: Single-seat multi-role fighter for export. It is a derivative of the Su-27SK but includes upgrades such as advanced cockpit, more sophisticated self-defense electronic countermeasures (ECM) and an in-flight refuelling system. [21] • Su-27UBM: Comparable upgraded Su-27UB two-seater. • Su-27SM2: 4.5-gen block upgrade for Russian Su-27, featuring some technology of the Su-35BM; it includes Irbis-E radar, and upgraded engines and avionics.

• Su-27SM3: The same as the Su-27SM but in contrast is newly built rather than a mid-life upgrade. [22] • Su-27KUB: Essentially an Su-27K carrier-based twin-seater with a side-by-side cockpit, for use as a naval carrier trainer or multi-role aircraft. • Su-35BM/Su-35S: Also dubbed the "Last Flanker" is latest su 27 from Sukhoi Flanker family.

It features newer avionics and new radar. Operators Operators of the Su-27 Around 680 Su-27s were manufactured by the Soviet Union and Russia. This total includes only Su-27s and not later derivative aircraft.

Angola People's Air and Air Defence Force of Angola - 7 Su-27s in service as of January 2013 [23] Three were bought from Belarus in 1998. [24] People's Republic of China People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) - 59 Su-27 fighters, consisting of 33 Su-27SKs and 26 Su-27UBKs as of January 2013 [23] The Flankers were produced under three separate contracts by the Russian KnAAPO and IAPO plants.

Delivery of the aircraft began in February 1991 and finished by September 2009. The first contract was for 18 Su-27SK and 6 Su-27UBK aircraft. The deal, known as '906 Project' within China, saw the Su-27 exported to a foreign country for the first time.

In February 1991, an Su-27 performed a flight demonstration at Beijing's Nanyuan Airport. The official induction to service with the PLAAF occurred shortly thereafter. Su 27 Su-27 pilots described its performance as "outstanding" in all aspects and flight su 27. Differences over the payment method delayed the su 27 of the second, identical contract.

For the first batch, 70% of the payment had been made in barter transactions with light industrial goods and food. Russian Federation argued that future transactions should be made in US dollars. In May 1995, Chinese Central Military Commission Vice Chairman, Liu Huaqing visited Russia and agreed to the term, on a condition that the production line of Su-27 be imported.

The contract was signed the same year. Delivery of the final aircraft from the second batch, occurred in July 1996. In preparation for the expanding Su-27 fleet, the PLAAF sought to augment its trainer fleet. On December 3, 1999, a third contract was signed, this time for 28 Su-27UBKs. All 76 of the aircraft featured strengthened airframe and landing gear - result of the PLAAF demands that the fighter has a su 27 air-ground capability. As a result, the aircraft are capable of employing most of the conventional Air-to-Ground ordnance produced by Russia.

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Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW) increased to 33,000 kg (72,750 lb). As is common for Russian export fighters, the active jamming device was downgraded- Su-27's L005 ECM pod was replaced with the L203/L204 pod. Furthermore, there were slight avionics differences between the batches. The first batch had N001E radar, while the later aircraft had N001P radar, capable of engaging two targets at the same time. Additionally, ground radar and navigational systems were upgraded.

Of some note is that none of the aircraft are capable of deploying the R-77 "Adder" missile due to a downgraded fire control system. [25] At the 2009 Farnborough Airshow, Alexander Fomin- Deputy Director of Russia's Federal Service for Military-Technical Co-operation, confirmed the existence of an all-encompasing contract and an on-going licensed production of the Su-27 variant by the Chinese.

The aircraft are being produced as the Shenyang J-11. [26] Eritrea Eritrean Air Force - 9 Su-27s in service as of January 2013. [23] It received about 8 Su-27SK/27UBs in 2003. [27] Ethiopia Ethiopian Air Force - 12 Su-27s, including 8 Su-27SKs in use as of January 2013 [23] Indonesia Indonesian Air Force ( Tentara Nasional Indonesia: Angkatan Udara) - 5 Su-27SK fighters in service as of January 2013 [23] Su 27 Military of Kazakhstan - 30 Su-27s as of December 2010 [28] It had another 12 on order.

[27] Russia Russian Air Force - 355 Su-27 aircraft, including 225 Su-27s, 74 Su-27SMs, 4 Su-27SM3s, and 52 Su-27UBs in service as of January 2013 [23] A modernisation program began in 2004.

[29] [30] [31] Half of the fleet has been modernized by 2012. [32] The Russian Air Force received 12 Su-27SM3 aircraft in 2011. [33] Ukraine Ukrainian Air Force - 70 Su-27s [34] It has 50 Su-27s in inventory as of January 2013. [23] Uzbekistan Military of Uzbekistan - 34 Su-27s in use as of January 2013 [23] Vietnam Vietnam People's Air Force - 9 Su-27SKs and 3 Su-27UBKs in use as of January 2013 [23] United States Two Su-27s were delivered to the United States in 1995.

[27] [35] Two more were bought from Ukraine in 2009 by a private company to use for warbird exhibition. [36] Former operators Belarus Belarusian Air Force received 23-28 Su-27s from the former Soviet Union.

[27] They had 22 in service as of December 2010. [28] Belarus had 17 Su-27P and 4 Su-27UBM1 aircraft remaining when they were retired in December 2012. [24] Soviet Union Soviet Air Force and Soviet Anti-Air Defence [ citation needed] Private ownership According to the FAA there are 2 privately owned Su-27s in the U.S.

[37] Two Su-27s from the Ukrainian Air Force were demilitarised and sold to Pride Aircraft of Rockford, Illinois, USA. Pride Aircraft modified some of the aircraft to their own desires by remarking all cockpit controls in English su 27 replacing much of the Russian avionics suite with Garmin, Bendix/King, su 27 Collins avionics.

The aircraft were both sold to private owners for approximately $5 million each. [38] The Dutch su 27 training support company ECA Program placed an order with Belarus for 15 unarmed Su-27s (with an option on 18 more) for use in dissimilar air combat training. Deliveries are to be completed by the end of 2012. [39] See Sukhoi Su-30, Sukhoi Su-33, Sukhoi Su-34, and Sukhoi Su-35 for operators of Su-27 derivatives.

Notable accidents Russian Knights paying tribute to Igor Tkachenko, leader of the group who died during practice a week earlier. • 9 September 1990: a Soviet Su-27 crashed at the Salgareda airshow in 1990 due to pulling a loop at too low an altitude.

The pilot, Rimas A.A. Stankevičius and a spectator were killed. [40] [41] • 12 December 1995: two Su-27s and an Su-27UB of the Russian flight demonstration team Russian Knights were lost, crashing into foggy, hilly terrain outside of Cam Ranh, Vietnam, killing 4 team su 27. The team of six Su-27s and an Ilyushin Il-76 support aircraft were en route home from an airshow in Malaysia, with a stop at Cam Ranh for fuel, led by the Il-76 and flying echelon right and left to it.

After being vectored for approach, the lead Il-76 took a wrong course too close to terrain, which the three right-echelon Su-27s impacted. The remaining aircraft landed safely at Cam Ranh. Cause of accident was controlled flight into terrain; contributing factors were pilot error, mountainous terrain and poor weather.

[42] • December 1998: An Ethiopian Su-27 crashed during su 27 night-flying exercise, killing a pilot. [43] • 6 January 1999: An Ethiopian Air Force Su-27, piloted by a Russian pilot, crashed during test flights.

The pilot ejected safely. [43] • 27 July 2002: A Ukrainian Su-27 crashed while performing an aerobatics presentation. It crashed into the crowd and an Il-76 on static display, killing 85 spectators.

Both pilots ejected and suffered only minor injuries. [44] • 15 September 2005: A Russian Air Force Su-27P crashed in Lithuania after it strayed out of its air corridor while it was flying from St. Petersburg to Russia's Baltic enclave of Kaliningrad due to a mechanical failure.

The Su-27 was armed with at least 4 air-to-air missiles. The pilot ejected and was taken in Lithuanian custody. The incident led to an international debate between Lithuania, Russia and NATO. [45] [46] • 29 July 2008: an Su-27UB crashed on a training flight in Primorye Territory, Russia. 1 pilot was killed but the other survived. [47] • 16 August 2009: While practising for an airshow, two Su-27s of the Russian Su 27 collided in mid-air during a test flight 5 km from Zhukovsky Airfield, south-east of Moscow, killing the Knights' leader, Igor Tkachenko.

One of the jets crashed into a house and started a fire. [48] The pilots were training for the 2009 MAKS Airshow.

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A probe into the crash has been launched; it is thought the accident may have been caused by a "flying skill error", according to the Su 27 Defense Ministry. [48] [49] • 30 August 2009: A Belarus Air Force Su-27UBM crashed at the 2009 Radom Air Show in Poland. The Su-27 crashed after exiting a loop, possibly due to an engine failure from a bird strike. Both pilots died after opting to stay with the aircraft to steer it away from spectators. [50] [51] • 6 April 2011: A Russian Air Force Su-27SM crashed during a training drill near the city of Vladivostok in Russia's Far East.

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The pilot ejected unhurt. [52] • 28 June 2012: A Russian Air Force Su-27UB crashed in Karelia, Russia. Both pilots ejected unhurt. [53] • 31 March 2013: A Chinese PLA Air Force Su-27UBK crashed during a drill in Shangdong, China.

Both pilots died. [54] Aircraft su 27 display Su-27 Red 27 at Central Armed Forces Museum su 27 Moscow • A Su-27, Red 27 is on display at the Central Armed Forces Museum in Moscow [55] [56] • A former Ukrainian Air Force Su-27 is on display at the Estonian Aviation Museum, Haaslava, Tartu County [57] Specifications (Su-27SK) Data from Gordon and Davison, [58] KNAAPO Su-27SK page, [59] Sukhoi Su-27SK page, [60] General characteristics • Crew: 1 • Length: 21.9 m (72 ft) • Wingspan: 14.7 m (48 ft 3 in) • Height: 5.92 m (19 ft 6 in) • Wing area: 62 m² (667 ft²) • Empty weight: 16,380 kg (36,100 lb) • Loaded weight: 23,430 kg (51,650 lb) • Max.

takeoff weight: 30,450 kg (67,100 lb) • Powerplant: 2 × Saturn/Lyulka AL-31F turbofans • Dry thrust: 7,670 kgf (75.22 kN, 16,910 lbf) each • Thrust with afterburner: 12,500 kgf (122.6 kN, 27,560 lbf) each • Leading edge sweep: 42° Performance • Maximum speed: Mach 2.35 (2,500 km/h, 1,550 mph) at altitude • Range: 3,530 km (2,070 mi)at altitude; (1,340 km / 800 mi at sea level) • Service ceiling: 19,000 m (62,523 ft) • Rate of climb: 300 m/s [61] (54,000 ft/min) • Wing loading: 371 kg/m² (76 lb/ft²) • Thrust/weight: 1.07 Armament • 1 × 30 mm GSh-30-1 cannon with 150 rounds • 4,430 kg (17,600 lb) on 10 external su 27 [62] • Up to 6 × medium-range AA missiles R-27, 2 × short-range heat-seeking AA missiles R-73 Su-27S armament • 30 mm GSH-30 Cannon, 150 rounds • 6 × Medium-Range R-27R, R-27ER, R-27T, R-27ET • 4 × Short-Range R-73E • FAB-250 • FAB-500 • RBK-250 • RBK-500 • S-8 • S-13 • S-24 • S-25 • SMKB [63] Su-27SM armament • 8 x Vympel R-77 advanced medium-range missile • 6 x KAB-500KR and KAB-500L Guided Bombs • 4 x Kh-29T/L • 4 x Kh-31P/A anti-radar/ship missiles • 4 x Kh-35 anti-ship missile Popular culture The Su-27 is in a starring role in the SSI flight simulator game "Su-27 Flanker" and sequel " Lock On: Modern Air Combat".

See also • Sukhoi Su-30 • Sukhoi Su-33 • Sukhoi Su-34 • Sukhoi Su-35 • Sukhoi Su-37 • Shenyang J-11 • Dassault Rafale • Eurofighter Typhoon • McDonnell Douglas F-15 Su 27 • List of fighter aircraft References References • ↑ 1.0 1.1 Spick, Mike, ed. "MiG-29 'Fulcrum'". "The Flanker". Great Book of Modern Warplanes. Osceola, WI: MBI Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-7603-0893-4. • ↑ http://www.sukhoi.org/eng/planes/military/su27sk/history/ • ↑ Sukhoi Su-27SK FLANKER-B • ↑ http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_287.shtml • ↑ Moscow Defense Brief • ↑ http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_282.shtml • ↑ Lenta.Ru: Georgian army forces falling back from Tskhinvali (Russian) • ↑ Lenta.Ru: Russian airplanes are bombing Georgian army positions (Russian) • ↑ 9.0 9.1 "Russian fighter jets 'breach Japan airspace'".

BBC News. 7 Feb 2013. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-21364559. • ↑ "Japan accuses Russian jets of violating airspace". DAWN.COM. 7 Su 27 2013. http://dawn.com/2013/02/08/japan-accuses-russian-jets-of-violating-airspace/. Retrieved 9 Feb 2013. • ↑ "Japan scrambles fighter jets as Russian warplanes intrude into airspace". Kuwait News Agency (KUNA). 7 Feb 2013. http://www.kuna.net.kw/ArticleDetails.aspx?id=2291677&language=en. Retrieved 10 Feb 2013.

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• ↑ "Japan says su 27 Russian fighters entered its airspace". Yahoo! News. 7 Feb 2013. http://news.yahoo.com/japan-says-2-russian-fighters-entered-airspace-141944662.html. Retrieved 9 Feb 2013. • ↑ 13.0 13.1 "Su-27 operations".

Milavia. http://www.milavia.net/aircraft/su-27/su-27_ops.htm. • ↑ 14.0 14.1 Claims with No Names [ dead link]Air Aces page. • ↑ "Air Aces". http://users.accesscomm.ca/magnusfamily/noname.htm.

• ↑ "ke bahru be chilfa" (Ethiopian Air Force 2007 graduation publication, May 2007), pp. 72–3 • ↑ "Moscow Defense Brief". http://mdb.cast.ru/mdb/2-2001/ff/atdjm/#_ednref24. • ↑ http://defense-update.com/20120727_pitch_black_fencers.html • ↑ http://www.airforce-technology.com/news/newsexercise-pitch-black-2012-concludes • ↑ [1] "Su-27P" • ↑ Production – Defense – Su-27SKM.

KNAAPO • ↑ Sukhoi Company has performed the state contract on delivery of new multi-role Su-27SM3 fighters to the Russian air forces - News - Russian Aviation - RUAVIATION.COM • ↑ 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.7 23.8 "World Military Aircraft Inventory". 2013 Aerospace: Aviation Week and Space Technology, January 2013. • ↑ 24.0 24.1 "Су-27 сняты с вооружения в Белоруссии". su 27 December 2012. http://bmpd.livejournal.com/407154.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. • ↑ Wei, Bai (May 2012).

"A Flanker by any other name". pp. 72–77. • ↑ Rupprecht, Andreas (December 2011). "China's 'Flanker' gains momentum. Shenyang J-11 update.". pp. 40–42. • ↑ 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 Niels Hillebrand (11 October 2008). "Su-27 Flanker Operators List".

MILAVIA. su 27. Retrieved 12 October 2008. • ↑ su 27 28.1 "Directory: World Air Forces". Flight International, 14–20 December 2010. su 27 ↑ Су-27 предлагают списать • ↑ Lenta.ru: Оружие: ВВС России получат восемь новых истребителей Су-27СМ • ↑ AirForces Monthly, Dec 2010 • ↑ http://www.armstrade.org/includes/periodics/news/2012/0313/100511974/detail.shtml • ↑ http://www.ruaviation.com/news/2011/12/23/699/ • ↑ Су-27 - Український мілітарний портал - Український мілітарний портал • ↑ Gordon and Davison 2006, p.

101. • ↑ U.S. buys Su-27 fighters from Ukraine for 'aggressor' training. RIA Novosti • ↑ FAA Registry - Aircraft - Make / Model Inquiry • ↑ Pride Aircraft: Sukhoi SU-27 Flankers • ↑ Air International October 2010, p.9.

• ↑ "Salgareda airshow crash 1990". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wlnnZZsx2k. • ↑ 9 September 1990 crash of Su-27. aviation-safety.net, 11 January 2011.

• ↑ Sidorov, Pavel. "Катастрофа "Русских Витязей" (in Russian)". RU.AVIATION по материалам «ВЕСТHИК ВОЗДУШHОГО ФЛОТА 1-2 1996 года». http://airbase.ru/crashes/1995/12/kamran/. Retrieved 2007-04-24. • ↑ 43.0 43.1 [2] su 27 dead link] • ↑ "Pilots blamed for air show crash". CNN. 7 August 2002. http://archives.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/europe/08/07/ukraine.pilots/index.html.

• ↑ Niels Hillebrand. "MILAVIA Aircraft - Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker Historical Events & Key Dates". Milavia.net. http://www.milavia.net/aircraft/su-27/su-27_history.htm. Retrieved 2011-08-30. • ↑ "Europe - Russian jet jangles Baltic nerves". BBC News. 2005-09-20. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4264010.stm. Retrieved 2011-08-30. • ↑ "Su-27 Flanker fighter crashes in Russia's Far East, 1 pilot dead". RIA Novosti. 29 July 2008. http://en.rian.ru/russia/20080729/115145935.html.

• ↑ 48.0 48.1 "Pilot dies as Russia jets collide". BBC News. 17 August 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/8204072.stm. Retrieved 24 May 2010. • ↑ "Pilot killed as two Su-27 fighters collide southeast of Moscow". RIA Novosti. 16 August 2009. http://en.rian.ru/russia/20090816/155824125.html. • ↑ "Belarusian Air Force Sukhoi Su-27 crash". Centrum Prasowe AIR SHOW – 2009.

30 August 2009. http://www.airshow.sp.mil.pl/index.php/en/news. [ dead link] • ↑ "Belorussian jet crashes at Polish airshow". http://www.newsobserver.com/1635/story/1668275.html. [ dead link] • ↑ ASN Aircraft accident 06-APR-2011 Su-27SM Flanker 08 blue • ↑ Su 27 Fighter Jet Crashes in Karelia • ↑ http://www.ibtimes.com/pla-fighter-jet-crash-two-die-chinese-military-air-drill-video-1164303 • ↑ http://www.bestrussiantour.com/military/central_museum_armed_forces • ↑ http://forum.scramble.nl/viewtopic.php?p=594553 • ↑ http://www.lennundusmuuseum.ee/index.php?lang=2 • ↑ Gordon and Davison 2006, pp.

91–92, 95–96. • ↑ Sukhoi Su-27SK. KNAAPO. • ↑ Su-27SK Aircraft performance page. Sukhoi. • ↑ Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker • ↑ http://www.sukhoi.org/eng/planes/military/su27sk/lth/ • ↑ "Bombas Guiada SMKB" (in Portuguese).

June 2011. p. 29. ISSN 1413-1218. Bibliography • "ECA Program Su-27 Flankers Destined for Iceland". Air International. October 2010, Vol. 79 No. 4. p. 9. ISSN 0306-5634. • Gordon, Yefim. Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker: Air Superiority Fighter. Airlife Publishing, 1999. ISBN 1-84037-029-7CITEREFGordon1999. • Gordon, Yefim and Peter Davison. Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker, Specialty Press, 2006. ISBN 978-1-58007-091-1. • Modern Combat Aircraft: Reference guide, pp.

50–51. Minsk, "Elida", 1997. ISBN 985-6163-10-2. (Russian) External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sukhoi Su-27. • Su-27SК Sukhoi • Su-27 page on knaapo.ru • ECA Program BV Website • Su-27SК Russia Military Analysis • Su-27 page GlobalSecurity.org • Sukhoi Flankers – The Shifting Balance of Regional Air Power • Asia's Advanced Flankers • The Su-27SKM • Su-27 free walkaround (37 shots) • Su-27UB walkaround photos This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia ( view authors).

Soviet Union / Russian Federation (1985) Fighter Plane – 1,946 Built Russia might not be the Superpower it once was. But its recent assertiveness indicates that it is willing to return to the stage as a great power, aiming at asserting its own interests at is neighbouring areas.

One of the tools to do so is air power, which and although diminished in contrast to its former Cold War scale, is still considerable.

The Su-27 and its different variants in service with the Russian Air Force are among the spearhead elements pushing forwards Russia’s interests. And this is not surprising, considering that the Su-27 and its variants are among the most advanced and top-quality technology jet fighters any nation can possess. The Su-27 can be traced back to the same year the F-15 Eagle was under concept and development (1969). The Soviets realized that the features of the F-15 and its technological advancement would threaten Soviet air power, thus prompting the General Staff to issue the requirements for wasit would be the Soviet answer to the Eagle.

The new fighter was purposed to be for a long-range fighter, with good short-field performance (or the ability to take off and land on short airstrips, as well as to use austere runways), remarkable manoeuvring and agility, capable of reaching speed up to Mach 2+ speed and capable of carrying heavy weaponry. The Su-27 was purposed, at the same time, at countering not only the Eagle but also the F-14 Tomcat, as well as to complement the Mig-29, as the latter’s role was as tactical superiority fighter, dealing with NATO fighters and strike aircraft.

It would operate also as bomber escort. As the requirements proved to be very complex and costly, they were split into two different ones: one for a lightweight fighter (whose outcome was the abovementioned Mig-29), and another for a heavyweight fighter (whose outcome was the Sukhoi Su-29).

This fact explains why both airframes are very similar. The first flight took place in 1977. The Su-27 ‘Flanker’ (as it came to be denominated by NATO) is a very though rival of the F-15.

This is possible thanks to the low wing loading and the basic flight power controls, which bestows the fighter agility and good control, even at low speeds and high angle of attack of 120°, at the point ofbeing capable of performing the famous Pugachev’s Cobra manoeuvre.

The structure is very similar to that of the Mig-29, clearly being a product of having a parallel development and starting from a similar requirement, although being larger than that of the Mig. The wing is a swept wing cropped delta type, having the tips cropped for missile rails or ECM pods, and blending with the central fuselage at the leading-edge extensions.

The horizontal tailplanes are also of delta configuration, taking part of the Su-27 tailed delta wing configuration. Being the first Soviet aircraft in incorporating a fly-by-wire technology, its exceptional characteristics in terms of agility and su 27 are in part thanks to this technology.

The engines provide the Su-27 high speed (2500 km/h; 1,550 mph), being slightly lesser than that of the F-15 Eagle; these engines are a couple of Saturn/Lyulka AL-31F turbofans with afterburners. They su 27 installed in two separated pods, each harboring a tail. Hence, it has a twin tail configuration; this and the engine pods configuration make it to be similar to the F-14 Tomcat.

This resemblance is reinforced by the fact that there is a space between the pods, increasing the lifting surface and hiding weaponry from the enemy radars.

The last element making the Su-27 an equal to the F-15 is the avionics installed on it. The radar is a Phazotron N001 Myech pulse-doppler radar with ‘track while scan’ and look-down/shoot-down capabilities, complemented by a OLS-27 infrared search and track at the nose, with a range of between 80-100 km. The armament of the Su-27 is no less important, comprised by a 30mm Gryazev-Shipunov Gsh-3101 located at the starboard wingroot, and up to 10 hardpoint with capability of carrying up to 6000kg (13227,73 Lbs), which includes up to six medium-range R-27 (AA-10 ‘Alamo’ in NATO code) and 2-4 short-range heat-seeking R-73 (AA-11 missiles ‘Archer’ in NATO code).

Armament deployment tends to vary from version to version, being this the most “standard” configuration. The Su 27 has proven to be a very good platform for further development, enhancing the characteristics of the basic model as new variants and subvariants are being introduced at the point of constituting new models by themselves.

There is even a version which is a strike fighter/fighter-bomber su 27 of taking ground and naval targets. One of the first versions that followed is the Su-30 family, known as ‘Flanker-C’ by NATO and based on the Su-27UB training version. This version has enhanced range, thrust vectoring which in turn enhances manoeuvrability while having the same powerplant of the basic model.

The avionics are enhanced as well, having an autopilot for all flight stages and low altitude flight in terrain-following radar mode, individual and group combat capabilities against air and ground/sea-surface targets. The automatic control systems interconnected with navigation systems allows automatic mode for route flight, target approach, recovery to airfield and landing approach.

The version that follows is the Su-33, which is the naval version of the Su-27 and is often denominated as Su-27K (‘Flanker-D’), operated by the Russian Navy from the sole carrier it has (the Admiral Kuznetsov).

Developed since the Su 27 era, it became the first conventional airplane (along with its test su 27, Viktor Pugachev) in landing in the deck of a carrier in November 1989. It was purposed su 27 replacing the less capable Yakovlev Yak-38 and to operate from the projected aircraft carriers, thus requiring the needed structural modifications: reinforced structure and undercarriage, enlargement of leading edge slats, flaperons and similar surfaces, canards, modified rear radome, folding wings and new powerplants (2 x Saturn/Lyulka AL-31F3 with slightly increased thrust).

The Su-33 symbolized the Soviet su 27 of creating its own fleet of aircraft carriers, which was not materialized as the End of the Cold War took place, as well as to have their own naval-based air power to enhance strategic projection.

su 27 marked the year when the Su-33 became fully operational with interception missions, although having limited ground-attack capabilities. Thedetected limits and issues with the combination fighter-warshipsand the budget cuts limited the naval su 27 of this version, yet air-to-air refuelling and real-life fire trainings have taken place. A two-seat version (SU-27KUB) might emerge any time. The next version is the Su-32/34, which is the abovementioned strike fighter/fighter-bomber, purposed at replacing the Su-24.

Equally based on the Su-27 airframe, its mission is to deal at tactical level with ground and naval targets, more specifically tactical bombing, attack, reconnaissance and/or interdiction.

It can operate alone or in groups, under any weather condition and under any environment saturated with AA defences and EW countermeasures. It features canards, a new nose and a side-by-side-seating allowing two pilots, new powerplants (Saturn Lyulka AL-31FM turbofan engines), and a range of 4000 km (2,500 mi). The cockpit provides ample space for the crew to rest, being also pressurized and having at its rear a galley and a toilet. Its electronics – a Su 27 Mounted Display System, Khibiny Electronic countermeasures, and a very ample and capable radar complemented by a second radar at the rear – allows the Su-32/34 to scan an area of su 27 km, to attack four targets either at sea, air or land, and even to be warned against attackers behind and engage them without turning.

This version has seen extensive action in Syria. The version that followed is the Su-35 (‘Flanker-E), an all-weather air superiority and supermanoeuvrable multirole fighter, featuring a structure composed of high-strength composites and Aluminium-lithium alloys, increasing fuel volume while reducing weight.

The tail fins are larger, having carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer square-topped tips. Canards were removed while the powerplant was new, two Saturn/Lyulka AL-31FM turbofan engines, which is larger and with more thrust.

This version also has new avionics, such as the fire-control system and the N011 Pulse-Doppler radar that allows the fighter to track up to 15 airborne targets and guide six missiles at the same time.

The rear radar – a Phazotron N-012 – also complements the fire-control system. LCD screens are also a feature, while the seat is inclined with a 30° angle to allow the pilot to tolerate more -g forces.

It can carry a new array of weapons, like napalm; dumb bombs (free-fall iron bombs) and cluster ammunition; air-to air and air-to-surface missiles, with the payload being increased as two new underwing pylons are installed. It has air-to-air refuelling capabilities, increasing operational range (4000 km / 2,222 mi). Only 58 units are in service with the Russian Air Force.

The Su-37 (‘Flanker-F’ and ‘Terminator’) is the most recent version, based on the Su-35, being a single-seat supermanoeuvrable multirole jet fighter, with upgrades such as avionic suite, fire-control systems and thrust vectoring noozles.

It also features canards, and improved fire-control systems, with an upgraded N-011M BARS passive scanned array radar, tracking 15 airborne targets and guiding 4 missiles at the same time, complemented by a N-012 rearward facing radar, having also updated electronic warfare support measures, and 12 hardpoints allowing air-to-air and/or air-to-surface missiles. Moreover, the cockpit has 4 LCD multi-function displays, providing air data/navigation, system status, weapons/systems selection and tactical situation information.

HUD, an ejection seat with 30° angle of inclination, and a steering with a side-stick and pressure-sensing throttles help the pilot in controlling and su 27 the aircraft. This version, however, remained as a technology demonstrator, with a single unit being the only sample of this model.

Russia is not the only country producing the Sukhoi-27, as China, given the airframes that received 8or the technology and license to build them) has developed its own version of the Su-27. The first one is the Shenyang J-11 (NATO code Flanker-B+), which is based on the Su-27SK, in operation with the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF).

This version is fitted with Chinese-made improvements to the airframe and avionics (such as radars and avionics suites), as well as weaponry (such as the PL-12 medium-range active radar homing air-to-air missile, and anti-ship missiles). The powerplant was reported to be in principle a Chinese Shenyang WS-10 Taihan (based on the CFM56), yet it seems there is the aim of upgrading the J-11 fleet with either Saturn-117S or Salyut Su 27.

The second one, being a variant of the Chinese J-11, is the Shenyang J-15 Flying Shark. This version is purposed for aircraft carrier service and equally based on the Su-27K/Su-33, thanks to an unfinished prototype China acquired from, Ukraine.

And just like the J-11, is equipped with Chinese avionics, powerplants and weaponry. Since its introduction in 2013, the J-15 has been operating from China’s sole carrier Liaoning, mainly on testing and taking-off/landing drills. This would be the main Chinese carrier-based air defence and attack asset when the carrier – and additional expected units – enter in service with the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN). The last Chinese-made version of the Su-27 is the Shenyang J-16, which is a strike fighter and multi-role fighter/bomber based on the J-11B and the Su-30MKK units sold to China by Russia.

Of course, this version is equipped with Chinese avionics and powerplants, as well as weaponry, which includes: super and subsonic anti-ship missiles, satellite guided bombs, cruise missiles and ECM jammers. There is even an electronic warfare variant that lacks Infra-red search and track and the 30mm gun.

The Su-27 has seen action after su 27, year in which was introduced in the Soviet Air Force and after entering officially in service in 1990. The first operational even took place in 187, when a Su-27 intercepted a Su 27 P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft over the Barents Sea, colliding with it after executing some close passes. During the 1992-1993 Abkhazia War, Russian Su-27 operated against the Georgian forces, with a Su-27 lost due to friendly fire as it was intercepting a Georgian Su-25 on CAS mission.

The Su-27s were used again over the skies of Georgia, this time during the 2008 South Ossetia War to gain air superiority over the scenario at Tskhinvali. It is rumoured that the Su-34 also took part during this conflict.

Su-34 were also used to bomb ice dams in Vologda Oblast to prevent floods. In 2013, a couple of Su-27 were intercepted by four Japanese Mitsubishi F-2 after entering briefly Japanese air space and flying near Rishiri Island and the Sea of Japan before turning back. Another Su-27 was close to collide with a USAF Boeing RC-135.

The S-35 is also in use by the Swift and Russian Knights acrobatic teams. The sole S-37 has been used for flight tests, demonstrations and air shows presentations. Su-27 in use by other nations have seen some action too.

In Ethiopia, during its war against Eritrea, the Ethiopian Sukhois reportedly shot down 4 Eritrean Mig-29 and damaging one; being tasked also with combat air patrols, escort, AA suppression, and even bombing Islamists garrisons. In Angola, one Su-27 was reportedly shot down by a SA-14 man-portable air defence missile system during the civil war. Indonesian Su-27s, meanwhile, were used on exercises with Australia, the US and other countries of the region, as four units took part in such.

The most recent action of su 27 Su-27 has been in Ukraine, during the conflict that is currently taking place there, with Ukrainian units tasked with air defence, combat air patrols and escort/interception of civilian flights flying over Eastern Ukraine. The scenario where the Su-27 have seen some action is in Syria, with a squadron of Su-27M3 deploying as part of the Russian air campaign at this country.

Some Russian Air Force Su-30SM have been deployed as well for the same campaign, performing escort and target illumination. The naval version (Su-24K/Su-33) saw very su 27 action during the 90’s, with those on-board the Admiral Kuznetsov carrier taking part in Russia’s air campaign over Syria as well, alongside the Su-34, which in turn executed precision strikes against both rebel and ISIS targets, forced to fly armed with missiles after a Su-24 was shot down by Turkey.

Four Su-35S also took part in the operation. The Chinese fighters have seen also limited action, mainly for interception of US reconnaissance and patrol aircraft, and tests and drills for take-off and landing on carrier decks (for the Chinese naval version). The Su-27 and its variants were considerably produced, reaching a number of 809 (Su-27); near 540 (Su-30), with 18 (SU-30MKM), 134 (SU-30MKK/MK2) and 225 (SU-30MKI); 35 (Su-27K/Su-33); 107 (Su-32/34); 15 (Su-27M); 58 (SU-35S) and 4 (Su-35 for China); 1 (Su-37); 235 (J-11); 20 (J-15); and 624 (J-16).

Russia (and Sukhoi) are not the only producers, as Irkut Corporation, Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO), Shenyang, and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, all produce the Su-27 and its different variants, including those manufactured abroad Russia with license or being copies of airframe, like the Chinese case.

A considerable number of nations are users of the Su-27 and either version, making su 27 aircraft a strong competitor in the international defence industry. In Russia, the Su-27 will be replaced by the 5th generation fighter Sukhoi PAK FA.

Design The Su-27 airframe is similar to that of the Mig-29, only that its size is larger. In fact, the fuselage has a very characteristic shape at the longitudinal view, with more than half of the forward section being ‘above’ the wing, harbouring the nosecone, the cockpit and canopy, as well as the airbrake (placed behind the cockpit).

This one is located at the same area of the wing-edge extensions. This forward area is having a hunchback shape, which gives a great advantage for the pilot, as the height provides a good view, alongside the bubble shape of the canopy. There, a K-63DM series two ejection seat (with an inclination of 17°) is installed, alongside analogue instruments, HUD and head down display data from the radar and the IRST, as well as su 27 for the helmet-mounted target designation system and indicators.

At the very frontal part of the canopy, there is a small radome or protuberance, where IRST device is installed. Interestingly, the inferior section of this area is not straight; in fact, it su 27 a slight inclination forward. The rear part of the main fuselage is where the engine nacelles, nozzles, air intakes and the vertical stabilizers are located.

The landing gear is of tricycle configuration, with the rear wings being retractable to the wing section, and the forward gear being placed below the rear area of the canopy, having a mudguard for protection against foreign object damage (FOD). The wing is a swept trapezoidal wing that is also cropped, with the purpose of allowing missile rails or ECM pods at the wingtips. The horizontal stabilizers are also of a delta shape, which along the main wings makes of the Su-27 to look su 27 a tailed delta wing su 27.

Noteworthy to point out that the main wing merges into the fuselage su 27 the leading-edge extensions (these extensions are slightly curved thus giving the Su-27 its characteristic shape). These wings and configuration in fact bestows the fighter with great manoeuvrability and great control, as it can fly at su 27 low speeds and su 27 an angle of attack of 120°, which result in the Su-27 to be capable of performing the Pugachev’s Cobra and dynamic deceleration.

Some versions have their flight controls and manoeuvrability enhanced by the addition of canards located at the leading-edge extensions, as well the lift – which is increased – and a reduction of distances required for takeoff; the Su-27K/Su-33, some versions of the Su-30, the Su-35 and the Su-37 are fitted with those canards. The wings are not the only secret behind the Su-27 performance, for the incorporated fly-by-wire technology also plays its part on yielding the manoeuvrability this fighter has.

These characteristics come at hand for the Su-27 in case of dogfighting. The Su-27 is also fitted with twin tales located aft the airframe, over the engine nacelles. They are complemented by small winglets su 27 immediately below. The engine noozles are ‘extended’ beyond the location of the twin tail, yet located between the horizontal stabilizers.

Between the noozles, there is a radome aft the fuselage, acting as a rear prolongation of the airframe and hosting a rear-side radar. The avionics make of the Su-27 and its versions a formidable opponent, as it is fitted with a Phazotron N001 Myech coherent pulse-Doppler radar, having track while scan and look-down/shoot-down capability, thus making the Su-27 capable of having a lock on its targets.

This radar has a range of 80-100 km in horizontal, and of 30-40 km at the rear hemisphere. It is capable of tracking 10 targets and prioritize the target to be intercepted. There is also a SUV-27 fire control system fitted with a RLPK-27 radar sighting system, a OEPS-27 electro-optical system, a SEI-31 integrated indication system, an IFF device/interrogator and a built-in test system.

The SUV-27 fire control system is integrated with a PNK-10 flight navigation system, a radio command link, the IFF device, the data transmission, the data transmission equipment and the EW self-defence system. The OEPS-27 is composed of the OLS-27 IRST and the helmet-mount sight that allows lock by look, controlled by the Ts-100 digital (central) computer.

In addition, the SEI-31 integrated indication system provides navigation, flight and sight data to the HUD. These avionics, in fact, enables the SU-27 to engage targets beyond the visual range, bestowing a long punch thus making it a serious contender in aerial combat.

These capacities (especially the manoeuvrability, but also the fire power) are somehow complemented by the powerplant, which bestows the fighter in tandem with the aerodynamics and the wing design, its characteristics, yielding also very good combat capabilities.

The powerplant consists of a couple of Saturn/Lyulka AL-31F bypass engines with a thrust of 12500 kg (each), yielding a maximum speed of 2500 km/h (1,550 mph). Su 27 engine intakes variable ramps allow the engines to receive the air, while the specific shape allows optimal performance at any given speed and altitude. The armament tends to vary according to the different versions. The most common one is the 30mm GSh cannon, located at the starboard wingroot.

The additional advantage the wings have is that they allow the Su-27 to carry large numbers of weapons and other equipment, as it hosts up to 10 hardpoints. The combination of R-73 (AA-11 ‘Archer’) and R-27 (AA—10 ‘Alamo’) is the most common, but there are various schemes of weaponry according to the different versions and models of the Su-27. On The Road to Damascus Russia has waged an extensive air campaign over Syria in order to support the Assad government, which su 27 a very close – in fact, strategic – ally of Russia.

This support is aimed at keeping Assad in the power, so Russia can have a platform from which to strengthen its presence in the Middle East, as the civil war unfolds. Given this context, the Sukhoi Su-27 is one of the main tools used by Russia to wage this campaign, making use of both land and sea-based assets, and of varied versions.

It is also reported that the deployment of the air assets could help in boost the Russian share in the security and defence markets, by demonstrating the capabilities of the Su-27 in real-time combat. The most prolific ones deployed so far is the Su-27SM3, the Su-30SM and the Su-35S, along with other air assets (like the Su-24 ‘Fencer’).

As the air campaign began in September the 30 th 2015, with the objectives being ISIS terrorist personnel, facilities, camps, vehicles and facilities, although it has been reported that Russian air strikes have targeted the rebel groups su 27 of Su 27.

In any case, the role of the ‘Flankers’ has been very important, but some have paid a price. Su 27 first assets deployed were the Su-27SM 3 and the Su-30 SM, tasked mainly with air protection and escort the fighter/bombers and strike aircraft Su-24 ‘Fencer’ and Su-25 ‘Frogfoot’, as well as providing escort to bombers.

Furthermore, the early deployed Flankers were providing target illumination to the bombers launching airstrikes against their designated targets.

After an Su-24 was shot down by Turkey in 2015, Russia decided to deploy the Su-35S, to enhance air superiority and control over the area of operations, along with advanced AA defence systems (such as the S-400) and arming the deployed fighters with live-round missiles. Another deployed version of the Su-27 is the Su-34, with 14 units carrying precision strikes and having no air escort whatsoever, for they have considerable air-defence capabilities.

Noteworthy to point out that Russian air su 27 are deployed mainly at Latakia and Khmeimim air bases, as well as at the airport in Damascus. The Navy-operated Sukhois have seen some action over the skies of Syria as well, as they have taken part in combat flights from the deck of the Russian carrier Admiral Kuznetsov.

These airplanes too have su 27 a series of incidents. On December the 3 rd su 27, a Su-33 failed to land after a first equally failed attempt, as the arresting cable snapped thus not stopping the aircraft, which went overboard. This incident prompted the Russian Navy to move all the carrier’s air assets to the Syrian Hmeymim air base, while the problems with the arresting cables are solved. Variants • T-10 (‘Flanker-A’) – The first prototype of the Flanker • T-10S – The improved version of the T-10 prototype.

• P-42 – A version quite similar to the US F-15 Su 27 Eagle project, it was purposed with beating climb time records, lacking radar, armament and even painting for that.

su 27

• Su-27 – The pre-production series built in small quantities and fitted with the Lyulka AL-31 turbofan engines.

• Su-27 S (Su-27/ ‘Flanker B’), or T10P – The initial production series version with one seat, equipped with the improved version of the Lyulka turbofan engines, the AL-31F. • Su-27 P (Su-27/ ‘Flanker B’) – The standard version yet lacking air-to-ground weapons control system and wiring. These units, denominated as Su-27, were assigned to the Soviet Air Defence Forces, an independent branch from the Soviet Air Force.

• Su-27 UB (‘Flanker C’) – The initial production of a two-seat operational trainer. • Su-27SK – The single-seat export version of the Su 27, delivered to China in su 27 mid 90’s.

The Shenyang J-11 was developed from this particular version. • Su-27UBK – The export version of the Su-27UB two-seat version. • Su-27K (Su-33 / ‘Flanker D’) – A carrier single-seat capable version featuring folding wings, high-lift devices and a tailhook arresting gear for carrier operations. Near 30 were produced. • Su-27M (Su-35/Su-37 ‘Flanker E/F’) – Improved demonstrators for an advanced multi-role single-seat fighter derived from the Su-27S, which included also a two-seated Su-27UB.

• Su-27PU (Su-30) – The two-seat version of the Su-27, with the purpose of supporting with tactical data other single-seat Su-27P, Mig-31 and other interceptors in service with the Soviet Air Defence Forces.

This version resulted in the Su-30, which came to be a multi-role fighter for export. • Su-32 (Su-27IB) – A long-range strike version with a side-by-side seating having a platypus-type nose, it was also the prototype of the Su-32FN and the Su-34 ‘Fullback’.

• Su-27PD – A single seat demonstrator featuring several improvements, including an inflight su 27 probe. • Su-30, Su-30M / Su-30MK – A next-generation two-seat multi-role fighter.

Some units were used for evaluation in Russia, with 88 units (Su-30, Su-30M2 and Su-30SM) in service with both the Russian Air Force and the Naval Aviation. The Su-30MK became a couple of demonstrators to secure exports, deriving in the Su-30MKA, Su-30MKI, Su-30MKK and Su-30MKM.

In detail, the Su-30 has the following (export) versions: • Su-30K – Basic export version of the Su-30. • Su 27 – Proposed upgrade for the Su-27S. it was also a proposed export version for Indonesia, with an order for 24 aborted due to the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis.

• Su-30KN – An upgrade project for two-seat fighters; such as the Su-27UB, the Su-30 and Su-30UBK. Revived as su 27 Su-30M2 after it was briefly cancelled. Belarus was also considering updating former Indian Su-30K to the Su-30KN. • Su-30MK – Commercial version of the Su-30M, fitted with navigation and communication equipment made by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. • Su-30M2 – A KnAAPO version based on the Su-30MK2.

Around su 27 airframes were delivered to the Russian Air Force, and used for combat training aircraft for Su-27SM fighters. • Su-30MKI – A version developed in cooperation with India’s Hindustan Aeronautics Limited for the Indian Air Force (hence the acronym ‘MKI’, which stands for “Modernizirovanny, Kommercheskiy, Indiski”, or “Modernized, Commercial, Indian”). It features thrusts vectoring controls and canards.

A remarkable feature is that it is equipped with a mixture of avionics with components made in Russia, India, France and Israel. • Su-30MKK – A version for export to China (“Modernizirovanny, Kommercheskiy, Kitayiski” / “Modernized, Commercial, China”). • Su-30MKM – Developed from the Su-30MKI, it’s a dedicated version for the royal Malaysian Air Force, and like the Su-30MKI, it features thrust vectoring controls and canards as well as avionics from various nations. The HUD, the navigational forward-looking infra-red system and the Damocles laser designation pod are made in France (Thales group of France).

The MAW-300 missile approach warning system, the RWS-50 RWR and laser warning sensor are made in South Africa (SAAB AVITRONICS). And the NIIP N011M Bars Passive electronically scanner array radar, the EW system, the optical-location System and the glass cockpit are made by Russia.

• Su-30MKA – Another version developed from the Su-30MKI for Algeria, featuring a mixture of Russian and French-made avionics. • Su-30SM and SME – A version for the Russian Air Force, being based on the Su-30MKI (and even MKM), and considered a 4+ generation fighter.

This version is built upon Russian requirements for radar, radio communication systems, friend-or-foe su 27 system, ejection seats, and weapons, among others. The Bars-R radar and a wide-angle HUD are among the features of this version. The export version was unveiled at the Singapore Air Show 2016, denominated SU-30SME.

• Su-30MKV – Export version for Venezuela.

su 27

• Su-30MK2V – A variant for Vietnam, having little modifications. • Su-27SM (‘Flanker-B’ Mod. 1) – The mid-life upgraded version of the Su-27S, having incorporated the technology fitted in the Su-27M. • Su-27SKM – A single-seat multi-role fighter for export, developed from the Su-27SK yet fitted with an advanced cockpit, more-sophisticated self-defence ECM and in-flight refuelling system.

• Su-27UBM – An upgraded Su-27UB. • Su-27SM2 – An upgrade of the Su-27 into a 4+ generation fighter, featuring an Irbis-E radar, upgraded avionics and engines. • Su-27SM3 – Similar to the Su-27SM, only that it is a new airframe instead of an updated one.

• Su-27KUB – A Su-27K carrier version which is a two-seat side-by-side version that is used as carrier version or multi-role aircraft. • Su-35 – The most recent developed version of the Su-27, it has upgraded avionics and radar, powered by a thrust vectoring Saturn AL-41F1S engine. It has the following variants: • Su 27 – A single-seat fighter. • Su-35UB – A two-seat trainer, featuring taller vertical stabilizers (or tails), with the forward fuselage being similar to that of the Su-30.

• Su-35BM – A single-seat fighter having enhanced avionics and some modifications to the airframe. The su 27 “Su-35BM” is an informal one. • Su-37 – A thrust-vectoring demonstrator.Su-35S – A version for the Russian Air Force of the Su-35BM.

• Su-27UB1M – The Ukrainian modernized version of the Su-27UB. • Su-27UP1M – The Ukrainian modernized version of the Su-27UP. • Su-27S1M – The Ukrainian modernized version of the Su-27S. • Su-27P1M – The Ukrainian version of the Su-27P.

• Shengyang J-11, J-15 and J-16 – The Chinese versions of the Su-27(SK). These versions have also their own sub-variants as it follows: • J-11A – Units assembled by both China and Russia, as the parts were provided by Russia with China assembling them.

They were latter upgraded with Missile Approach Warning (MAWS), and reportedly new cockpit displays and fire control for R-77 (AA-12 ‘Adder’) or PL-10. 104 built/assembled. • J-11B – Produced in China with Chinese technology, it is powered by the Shenyang WS-10A turbofan and being also slightly lighter thanks to the use of composite materials. It features new avionics, glass cockpit, MAWS, and onboard oxygen generation system.

It might receive an Active electronically scanned array radar. • J-11BS – The twin-seat version of the J-11 • Su 27 – Naval version of the J-11 • J-11BSH – Naval version of the J-11BS • J-15 – Carrier-based version featuring some structural elements from the acquired Su-33 prototype, as well as avionics of the J-11B • J-16 and J-16D – Strike variant and EW variant, respectively.

The latter has the wingtip pods resembling the AN/ALQ-218, with the wings and fuselage allowing up to 10 hardpoints yet lacking IRST of the Gsh 30mm cannon. • J-11D – Version featuring an electronically scanned array radar, IRST, and capacity to fire heavier imagine/infrared (IRR) air-to-air missiles. Many composite materials are part of the structure, with the engine intakes being the most remarkable one, as it is aimed at reducing radar visibility.

It is supposed that new fly-by-wire control system, glass cockpit, improved electronic warfare systems and an enhanced version of the WS-10A engine are fitted in the plane. Operators • Soviet Union/Russia Russia is among the main users of the Su-27 and variants, in service with both the Air Force and the Navy, starting its career with the Soviet Air Force and soviet Air Defence Forces. By January 2014, the Russian Air Force was su 27 operating 359 Su-27, of which 225 were of the basic Su-27 model, 70 Su-27MS, 12 Su-27MS3 and 52 Su-27UB.

All of these airframes were to be subjected to modernization, with half of them being upgraded to the Su-27MS3. The Russian air force also operates with 3 Su-30, 20 Su-27M2 and 66 Su-30SM. 28 additional Su-30SM are expected as they are in order. 8 were issued to the Russian aerobatic team Russian Knights.

103 units of the Su-32/34 versions are operated by the Russian Air Force. 58 Su-35S are also part of the inventory. The Russian Navy (Naval Aviation branch), in turn, was operating 53 Su-27 by January 2014, operating also 15 Su-30SM, being part of an order for 28 of such airframes, with 50 planned. • United States The US operates with two SU-27 airframes purchased from Belarus in 1995, with two additional su 27 Ukrainian airframes purchased by Pride Aircraft.

The US/private owned airframes are used for combat training for US pilots, with strong emphasis on dissimilar air combat training. • Ukraine The Ukrainian Air Force is having between 50-70 airframes, of which 16 were operational by 2015. They have seen operational action due to the conflict currently taking place at Eastern Ukraine.

• Belarus After the USSR collapsed, Belarus received almost 30 Su-27. Two or three were sold to Angola in 1998, with the remaining 17 Su-27P and 4 Su-27UBM being retired in 2012 • People’s Republic of China The People’s Republic of China is the second main operator of the Su-27, being also the first nation to which the Su-27 was exported by the early 90’s. The Chinese PLAAF was operating 33 Su-27SK and 26 Su-27UBK by January 2013.

As China was allowed to produce its own airframes under license, the Shenyang J-11 (95 J-11A and 110 J-11B and J-11BS by the airforce; 48 J-11B and J-11BS by the Naval Aviation), J-15 (around 20 operated by the Navy Air Force) and J-16 (24 units apparently built) came to be the Chinese versions of the Su-27. The PLAAF and the Naval Aviation of China also operates 76 Su-30MKK and 24 Su-30MK2 respectively. 24 Su-35 were ordered, with 4 units received.

• India The Indian Air Force operates 254 Su-30MKI, with the first units manufactured in Russia, and the following units assembles in India and under license su 27 Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

It is the third main user of the Su-27. • Indonesia The Indonesian Air Force was operating 5 Su-27SK/SKM fighters by 2013. It also operates 18 Su 27. • Vietnam The Vietnamese Air Force (Vietnam People’s Air Force was operating 9 Su-27SK and 3 Su-27UBK by 2013, along with 4 Su-30MK and 20 Su-30 MK2V.

12 more Su-30MK2V were received between 2014-2015, making a total of 32 Su-30MK2V. • Malaysia The Royal Malaysian Air force operates su 27 Su-30MKM.

A curious fact of the purchasing agreement was for Russia to send the first Malayan cosmonaut to the International Space Station. • Mongolia The Air Force of Mongolia operates 4 Su-27, with 8 more to be delivered. • Kazakhstan By 2010 it was operating 30 Su-27, having 12 in order. Reportedly, it operates 6 Su-30SM.

• Uzbekistan 34 Su-27 were reportedly operated by this nation in 2013. • Algeria 44 Su-30MKA are part of su 27 Algerian Air Force inventory, with 14 more airframes ordered.

• Eritrea 8 Su-27SK/UB were received in 2003, with 9 being on service by 2013. • Ethiopia In 2013, this nation was operating 12 Su-27, 8 of which were Su-27SK.

• Angola The Western African nation received 8 Su-27, 3 from Belarus. One was su 27 as shot down by a MANPADS in 2000 during the Civil War. 7 units were in service by 2013. Presumably, 18 Su-30K were ordered.

• Uganda The Ugandan Air Force operates 6 Su-30MK2. • Venezuela The Venezuelan Air Force su 27 24 Su-30MK2, with 12 more being considered for purchase. One was lost during a drug interdiction mission as it crashed. Specifications (Su-27SK) Wingspan 14,7 m / 48 ft 3 in Length 21,9 m / 72 ft Height 5,92 m / 19 ft 6 in Wing Area 62 m² / 667 ft² Engine 2 X Saturn/Lyulka AL-31F afterburning turbofans Maximum Take-Off Weight 30450 Kg / 67,100 lb Empty Weight 16380 kg / 36,100 lb Loaded Weight 23450 kg / 51,650 lb (with 56% of internal fuel) G-limit 9 Climb Rate 59,000 ft/min (300 m/s) Maximum Speed At high altitude: Mach 2,35 (2500 km/h / 1,550+ mph), At low altitude: 1400 km/h / 870 mph) Range 6530 Km / 2,193 miles at high altitude; 1340 Km / 800 miles at low altitude Maximum Service Ceiling 19000 m /62,523 ft Crew 1 (pilot) Armament • 1 X 30mm Gsh-301 autocannon.

• 10 harpoints allowing up to 6000 kg/ 13227.73 lbs: 6 X R-27 medium-range air-to-air missiles; 2 X R-73 short-range su 27 air-to-air missiles. Other versions can carry a large array of weaponry, such as: su 27 and Su-33) R-27ER (AA-10C) and R-27ET, R-73E and R-77 RVV-AE AA missiles; Kh-31P/A, Kh-29T/L, Kh-59ME, Kh-35, and Kh-59MT and MK; rockets; bombs (KAB 500KR, KAB 1500KR, FAB 500T, OFAB 250-270 and nuclear bombs); and ECM pods.

(Su-34) R-27, R-73, R-77 AA missiles; Kh-29L/T, Kh-38, Kh-25MT/ML/MP, Kh-59, Kh-58, Kh-31, Kh-35, P-800 Oniks and Kh-65SE or Kh-SD air-to-ground, anti-radar, anti-ship and cruise missiles; bombs and tactical nuclear bombs; and additional fuel tanks; and EW and reconnaissance pods.

(Su-35) laser-guided and unguided rockets; R-73E/M, R-74M, R-27R/ET/ER/T, R-77 and R-37 AA missiles; Kh-29T/L, Kh-31P/A and Kh-59M/E air-to-surface and cruise missiles; bombs; and a buddy refuelling pod. • The Chinese versions (J-11, J-15 and Su 27 carry the Chinese-made PL-12, PL-9 and PL-8 AA missiles, as well as the Russian-made R-77, R-27 and R-73 AA missiles; unguided rockets and free-fall cluster bombs, satellite-guided bombs and laser-guided bombs; ECM pods; and anti-ship and anti-radar missiles.

Avionics • Among the avionics of the Su-27, there is a Phazotron N001 Myech coherent pulse-Doppler radar, with track while scan and look-down/shoot-down capability and a range of 80-100 km in horizontal, and of 30-40 at the rear hemisphere, capable of tracking 10 targets and prioritize the target to be intercepted.

There is also a SUV-27 fire control system fitted with a RLPK-27 radar sighting system, a OEPS-27 electro-optical system, a SEI-31 integrated indication system, an IFF device/interrogator and a built-in test system. A PNK-10 flight navigation system, a radio command link, the IFF device, the data transmission, the data transmission equipment and EW self-defence system are also part of the avionics.

OLS-27 IRST and the helmet-mount sight, a Ts-100 digital (central) computer, a SEI-31 integrated indication system and HUD are also among the standard avionics fitted in the Su-37.

Gallery Su-27B Flanker B Last Production – 20 Su-27 Flanker B First Production – 36 Su-27 Flanker B Last Production – 05 Sources: Akulov, A. (2016). Su-34: Going global After Impressive Performance in Syria. Strategic Culture on-line journal, Aviastar.org. (n.d.). Su-27: The History. Aviastar.org, Aviation Voice. (2016). Top Fighter Jets Fighting ISIS in Syria. Aviation Voice, Berger, R (Ed.). Aviones [Flugzeuge, Vicenç Prat, trans.]. Colonia, Alemania: Naumann & Göbel Verlagsgessellschaft mbH, Bhat, A.

(2016). Russia loses Su-33 off Syrian coast, pilot ejects to safety. International Business Times, Chant, C. (2006). Barcos de Guerra. [Warships Today, Fabián Remo & Fernando Tamayo, trans.].

Madrid, Spain: Editorial LIBSA (Original work published in 2004, Donald, D. (2009). Aviones militares: guia visual. [Military Aircraft, Visual Guide, Seconsat, trans.]. Madrid, Spain: Editorial LIBSA (Original work published in 2008), Friedman, G.

(2015). Los próximos 100 años. Pronósticos para el siglo XXI. [The next 100 years. A forecast for the 21st century, Enrique Mercado, trans.]. Mexico, Mexico: Editorial Oc éano (Original work published in 2009), GlobalSecurity.org. (n.d.). Su-27 FLANKER. GlobalSecurity.org, Majumdar, D. (2016). Take Note, Turkey: Russia’s New Su-35S Arrives in Syria.

The National Interest, Mirovalev, M. su 27 30, 2016). It’s been one year since Russia began bombing in Syria, and there may be no end in sight. Los Angeles Times, Sharpe, M. (2001).

su 27

Jets de Ataque y Defensa. [Attack and Interceptor Jets, Macarena Rojo, trans.]. Madrid, Spain: Editorial LIBSA (Original work published in 1999), Sukhoi Company (JCS) (2017). Su-27SK aircraft performance. Sukhoi Company (JCS), Summers, C. (2016). A second jet crashed into the Mediterranean while attempting to land on Russian aircraft carrier as it returned from Syria.

The Daily Mail Online, Sukhoi Su-27. (2017, February 6). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia., Sukhoi Su-30. (2017, February 5). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia., Sukhoi Su-33. (2016, Su 27 17). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia., Sukhoi Su-35.

(2017, February 7). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia., Sukhoi Su-37. (2017, February 7). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia., Images: Su-27 Blue Underside by Dmitry Terekhov / CC BY-SA 2.0, Su-27 Camo 69 by Paweł Maćkiewicz / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0, Su-27 Red White and Blue, Su-27 Russian Falcons, Su-30 Blue – Russian Knights, Su-30SM Gray 38, Su-30SM Russian Falcons – Gray 55 Rain, Su-27P Flanker Landing Gear by Pavel Vanka / CC Su 27 2.0, Su-35BM 901 – Su-30MKM 02 Blue CN 722 by Carlos Menendez San Juan / CC BY-SA 2.0, Su-37 Ramp by joabe_brill / CC BY-ND 2.0, Profiles: Su-27 Flanker B Last Production, Su-27 Flanker B First Production by Sapphiresoul / GNU Free Documentation License, Su-27 Flanker B Last Production – 05 by F l a n k e r su 27 CC BY 3.0, Su-30 3 View by Kaboldy / CC BY 3.0 About Mario H Zorro Currently an independent researcher.

Studies in Political Science with a minor degree in Philosophy. Master in Public Policy. Interests in History, International Relations and Security with a strong passion for battletanks and airplanes. Mario blogs at Drakkar Defence. View all posts by Mario H Zorro → Post navigation The Consolidated Vultee XP-81 was a prototype mixed power fighter developed in late 1943 by the Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation in order to meet an Army Air Force requirement calling for a high altitude escort fighter.

Plagued by slow development and engine problems, the XP-81 would never see active service and development su 27 be terminated . Read more
March 8, 2022 Topic: Su-27 Fighter Region: Russia Blog Su 27 The Buzz Tags: Su-27 Fighter Russian Air Force Soviet Aircraft Tu-160 Tu-22 Why Russia's Su-27 Fighter Is Still a Gamechanger Like many interesting Soviet tanks, aircraft, and weapons designs, steady incremental improvements to the initial airplane have greatly extended its service life.

The Su-27 is a Soviet-era airplane that functioned as part of the USSR’s high-low mix air combat su 27. Operationalized, this means that a large number of somewhat small and lower performance aircraft fly with a smaller number of highly capable, high-end jet fighters. This team is a su 27 multiplier and allows a smaller number of aircraft to be more capable against a numerically superior opponent. In addition, the Su-27 was intended to keep an eye on the Soviet Union’s borders as a long-range air superiority fighter, patrolling for NATO bomber sorties.

Speedy and Agile The Su-27 is highly agile thanks to its super maneuverability, an agility grouping that only a few airplanes are capable of. For example, the Su-27 can perform Pugachev’s Cobra, a super maneuver in which an aircraft flying at low-to-moderate speed quickly raises its nose. Then, the airframe acts as a large airbrake, rapidly decelerates, lowers its nose, and accelerates away. Long Past Retirement Like many interesting Soviet tanks, aircraft, and weapons designs, steady, incremental improvements to the initial airplane have greatly extended its service life.

There are an astounding number of Su-27 variants su 27 have flown for the Soviet Union, Russia, and for other customers abroad. This class of airplanes, the Flanker family of aircraft, are improvements over the basic, original Su-27 design that offer improved avionics, extended ranges, and other additional enhancements. And therein lies the Su-27’s continued success as a proficient and highly agile airframe that has steadily incorporated incremental improvements as technology improves and becomes more widely available.

This is reflected in the airplane’s continued service today—the Flanker family of airplanes is flown within former Warsaw Pact countries as well as in various Middle Eastern, Latin American, and African countries. Although stealth is now king, the Su-27 probably will not go away and out of service anytime soon. Su 27 opponents that lack robust air defenses or any kind of air force, the Su 27 could still excel. However, when flying against stealth aircraft or against an opponent with a robust anti-aircraft capability, the airplane would struggle.

Caleb Larson is a multimedia journalist and defense writer with the National Interest. A graduate of UCLA, he also holds a Master of Public Policy and lives in Berlin. He covers the intersection of conflict, security, and technology, focusing on American foreign policy, European security, and German society for both print and radio.

Follow him on Twitter @calebmlarson Image: Wikimedia Commons. Ukrainsk Su-27UB vid Royal International Air Tattoo (2011) Beskrivning Typ Jaktflygplan Besättning su 27 Första flygning 20 maj 1977 I aktiv tjänst 1985 – Versioner Su-27, Su-27S, Su-27P, Su-27UB, Su-27SK, Su-27UBK, Su-27PD, Su-27SM, Su-27SKM, Su-27UBM, Su-27SM2, Su-27SM3 Ursprung Sovjetunionen Tillverkare Suchoj Data Längd 21,9 meter Spännvidd 14,7 meter Höjd 5,93 meter Vingyta 62,0 m² Tomvikt 16 380 kg Max.

startvikt 33 000 kg Motor(er) 2 × Ljulka AL-31F Dragkraft 2 × 122,8 kN Prestanda Max. hastighet 2 500km/h Räckvidd med max. bränsle 1 340 km Transporträckvidd 3 530 km Max. flyghöjd 18 500 meter Stigförmåga 325 m/s Dragkraft/vikt: 1,085 Lastförmåga Lastförmåga 7 000 kg Beväpning Beväpning 1 × GSj-30 30 mm automatkanon Bomber FAB-100, FAB-250, FAB-500, ZB-500, BetAB-500 Robotar R-27, R-73 Su 27 B-8M, B-13MT, S-13, S-25 Elektronik Elektronik OEPS-27 optiskt & infrarött sikte Radar N001 radar Motmedel SPO-15 Berjosa radarvarnare Sorbtsija-S elektronisk motmedels kapsel Ritning Suchoj Su-27S Suchoj Su-27 ( NATO-rapporteringsnamn Flanker) är ett sovjetiskt jaktflygplan utvecklat av den ryska flygtillverkaren Suchoj.

Utvecklingen av Su-27 kom som ett svar på de nya amerikanska stridsflygplanen F-14 och F-15 som sattes i tjänst under 1970-talet. [1 ] Prototypen T-10. Utvecklingen påbörjades under det sena 1970-talet, och det stod snabbt klart att för att nå de uppsatta målen var man su 27 att använda nya designprinciper. [2 ] Övergången mellan vingen och flygkroppen gjordes mjuk så att lyftytan skulle bli så stor som möjligt.

Förlängningar av vingrotens framkant bidrog också med lyftkraft, och gjorde planet instabilt i längdled för ökad su 27. Den ursprungliga designen som gick under beteckningen T-10 levde inte upp till prestandakraven på grund av missar vid designen av vingformen, tyngre avionik och törstigare motorer än beräknat. [3 ] Efter att ett antal prototyper flugit togs beslutet att göra ett flertal radikala ingrepp i designen, och den nya modellen fick beteckningen T-10S.

[4 ] Detta ledde till att stora förseningar uppkom, något som förvärrades av ett antal su 27 till följd av strukturella svagheter. [5 ] I tjänst [ redigera - redigera wikitext ] Två ryska Su-27. 1984 kom de första planen i tjänst i det sovjetiska luftförsvaret, Vojska PVO, och snart fick också flygvapnet, VVS, sina första plan. Det fanns dock problem su 27 den su 27 produktionen och ytterligare modifikationer var nödvändiga innan den slutliga seriestandarden fastställdes.

Det faktum att det ännu inte fanns någon tvåsitsig skolversion su 27 också att steget från Suchoj Su-15, MiG-23 och MiG-21 till Su-27 blev stort för piloterna. [6 ] Under de första åren, 1986–1988, slog en modifierad Su-27 med beteckningen P-42 inte mindre än 27 flygrekord och fick snabbt ryktet om att vara världens bästa jaktflygplan. Flertalet av de rekord som Su-27 slog hade satts av en modifierad Su 27 med beteckningen Streak Eagle.

[7 ] Från 1984 fram till upplösningen av Sovjetunionen hade runt 600 flygplan tillverkats. Av dessa gick majoriteten till Ryssland som också fortsatte producera planet i flera år till. Även Ukraina, Vitryssland, Kazakstan och Uzbekistan ärvde ett mindre antal plan till sina nybildade su 27. Idag (2014) är Ryssland den största användaren med cirka 350 plan i tjänst.

Vidareutveckling [ redigera - redigera wikitext ] Efter sovjetunionens sammanbrott fortsatte Suchoj att vidareutveckla ett flertal stridsflygplan baserade på Su-27. Man tog bland annat fram ett multirollflygplan som fick beteckningen Su-30.

Man har också börjat producera ett attackflyg som går under namnet Su-34. Den senaste modellen kallas för Su-35S. Su 27 har gjort flera beställningar av samtliga versioner. Su-27 i Kina [ redigera - redigera wikitext ] Den kinesiska versionen J-11. Kina beställde under det tidiga 1990-talet cirka 75 Su-27 av Ryssland/ Sovjetunionen. Man har också fått licens för att producera planet lokalt i Kina men då under beteckningen J-11.

Det finns idag cirka 220 Su-27/J-11 i det kinesiska flygvapnet. Användare [ redigera - redigera wikitext ] Användare Varianter Antal Ryssland Su-27S/Su-27SM/Su-27UB/Su-27K 355 Kina Su-27S/J-11 216 Ukraina Su-27S/Su-27UB 65 Su 27 Su-27S 25 Vitryssland Su-27S/Su-27UB 20 Sammanlagd produktion 732 • ^ Gordon 2007, s.

3. • ^ Gordon 2007, s. 13. • ^ Gordon 2007, s. 49. • ^ Gordon 2007, s. su 27. • ^ Gordon 2007, s. 62. • ^ Gordon 2007, s. 322. • ^ Gordon 2007, s. 77. Källor [ redigera - redigera wikitext ] • Gordon, Yefim (2007). Sukhoi Su-27. Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-247-0 • Globalsecurity • Sinodefence, Su-27/J-11 • Sukhoi Flankers Externa länkar [ redigera - redigera wikitext ] • • Wikimedia Commons har su 27 som rör Suchoj Su-27.

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14.04. • Wikipedias text är tillgänglig under licensen Creative Commons Erkännande-dela-lika 3.0 Unported. För bilder, se respektive bildsida (klicka på bilden). Se vidare Wikipedia:Upphovsrätt och användarvillkor. • Wikimedias integritetspolicy • Om Su 27 • Förbehåll • Mobil vy • Utvecklare • Statistik • Information om kakor • •
• May 5, 2022 U.S. Air Force Certifies Polish Air Force M-346 Training System For Future F-16 And F-35 Pilots Military Aviation • May 4, 2022 Exclusive Photos Of The F-117 Stealth Aircraft Currently Taking Part In Exercise ‘Sentry Savannah’ Military Aviation • May 3, 2022 The F-22 Is Finally Getting Some Much Needed Upgrades Military Aviation • May 2, 2022 Vermont Air National Guard’s F-35s On Their Way To Germany To Support NATO In Eastern Europe F-35 • April 30, 2022 ‘Stop Spreading Fake News: The Ghost Of Kyiv Is A Legend’, Ukrainian Military Says Russia The Ukrainian Su-27 that landed at Bacau a few days ago with a full load of air-to-air missiles, has returned home (completely unarmed).

On Feb. 24, 2022, during the opening phases of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, a Ukrainian Air Force Su-27 Flanker was intercepted by two Romanian Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcons in QRA (Quick Reaction Alert) under NATO command after it intruded into the Romanian airspace at 06.15LT.

The Flanker, fully loaded with six R-27 (AA-10 ALAMO) medium/extended-range Air-to-Air Missiles and four IR-guided R-73 (AA-11 ARCHER) AAMs, was escorted to the RoAF 95th Air Base in the northeastern Romanian city of Bacău, where it landed at 07.05LT. According to the Romanian Air Force, After landing, the Ukrainian military pilot was su 27 at the disposal of the Romanian authorities. According to some reports, the aircraft had flown towards Romania after it lost communication with its homebase, under heavy attack by Russian forces.

An image of the Su-27 on the ground at Bacau, Romania. Note the full load of AAMs. (Image credit: Photo credit: MApN) A video of the aircraft landing in Romania circulated online shortly after the Romanian Air Force made the event public.  The Flanker, bort number 23 Blue, eventually returned home on Mar.

1. Stripped off its load of missiles “in accordance with the national and international legislation”, the Su-27 took off from Bacau along with two RoAF MiG-21 LanceR jets that escorted the Ukrainian fighter to the border of the Romanian airspace.

The fighter jet rocked its wings on take off to salute the bystanders. 3/ Video: Ukraine Air Force Su-27 wing salute during take-off from Bacău (Romania). 🎥: championmotor (Reddit) pic.twitter.com/tpH3FOPvaD — BoardingPass (@BoardingPassRO) March 1, 2022 It’s not clear where the aircraft headed, completely unarmed, after it entered the Ukrainian airspace, a contested airspace where, although not achieving air superiority, Russian aircraft and SAMs (Surface to Air Missiles), are operating with some significant result.

For sure, its destination must have been one of the airports that are still safe, although we can’t completely rule out it recovered on a forward, dispersed highway landing area, like the one Ukrainian Flankers have trained to use in the recent past: you will probably remember the incident when Ukrainian Air Force Sukhoi Su-27 combat aircraft narrowly avoided a more serious accident when it landed short and collided with a traffic sign during an expedient tactical airstrip training exercise on Aug.

27, 2020. The Sukhoi Su-27 Ukrainian Air Force which landed in Romania on February 24th has left Bacau today, March 1st, flying back to Ukraine. It was escorted by two Romanian Air Force MiG-21s until leaving the country’s airspace. Photos: Dan Stefan, Plane Spotters Bacau. @TheAviationist pic.twitter.com/LDtgqjlxRb — Aeronews (@AeronewsGlobal) March 1, 2022 David Cenciotti is a freelance journalist based in Rome, Italy.

He is the Founder and Editor of “The Aviationist”, one of the world’s most famous and read military aviation blogs. Since 1996, he has written for major worldwide magazines, including Air Forces Monthly, Combat Aircraft, and many others, covering aviation, defense, war, industry, intelligence, crime and cyberwar. He has reported from the U.S., Europe, Australia and Syria, and flown several combat planes with different air forces.

He is a former 2nd Lt. of the Italian Air Force, a private pilot and a graduate in Computer Engineering. He has written five books and contributed to many more ones.
• Home • Aircraft • Aircraft by Category • Airplanes • Helicopters • Future Aircraft • Airplane Manufacturers • Helicopter Manufacturers • Other Manufacturers • Comparisons • Tools • Compare Aircraft • Aviation Unit Conversion • Resources • Aviation Terminology • Aviation Alphabet • Aviation Museums • Aviation Q&A • Korean War Commemoration • Blog • Airplanes • Helicopters • Private Jets • Drones • Airlines • Airport • Military • WW2 • General • Travel • Flight Training • Gear Search Avionics: Sukhoi Search and Track Radar / Fire Control, OEPS-27 IRST, OEPS-27 electro-optical targeting system Engine: 2x 2 × Saturn/Lyulka AL-31F turbofans Turbofan Power: 27,600 pound-force Max Cruise Speed: 1546 knots 2,863 Km/h Approach Speed (Vref): 129 knots Travel range: 1,906 Nautical Miles 3,530 Kilometers Fuel Economy: 0.62 nautical mile / gallon 0.303 kilometres / litre Service Ceiling: 62,000 feet Rate of Su 27 54000 feet / minute 274.32metre / second Take Off Distance: 450 metre su 27 1,476.36 feet Landing Distance: 620 metre - 2,034.10 feet Seats - Economy / General: 1 seats Seats - Business Class: 1 seats Seats - First Class: 0 Cabin Height: Cabin Width: Cabin Length: Exterior Length: 21.9 metre - 71.85 feet Tail height: 5.92 metre - 19.42 feet Fuselage Diameter: Wing Span / Rotor Diameter: 14.7 metre - 48.23 feet Wing Tips: No Winglets The Sukhoi Su-27 is a Soviet jet fighter aircraft.

It was designed by the Sukhoi Design Bureau and manufactured by the Irkutsk Aviation Plant. A variable geometry wing allows it to be used as both an air superiority fighter and a ground attack aircraft.

It has been built in several variants, including the two seat trainer version, with various armament configurations. The first prototype flew on May 20 1977 at Zhukovsky Airfield near Moscow. The Su-27 entered service with the Soviet Union in 1985, remaining in use as of 2017 with some operators elsewhere after being supplanted by later models such as the Su-30MKK and Su-35S for frontline duties such as air superiority missions over Syria.

All Sukhoi Aircraft • Sukhoi Su-24 “Fencer” -• Sukhoi Su-25 “Frogfoot” -• Sukhoi Su-26 M3 -• Sukhoi Su-27 “Flanker” -• Sukhoi Su-29 -• Sukhoi Su-30 -• Sukhoi Su-31 -• Sukhoi Su-33 su 27 -• Sukhoi Su-34 / Su-32 “Fullback” -• Sukhoi Su-35 -• Sukhoi Su-47 Berkut “Firkin” -• Sukhoi Su-57 Felon -• Sukhoi Su-80 -• Sukhoi Superjet 100-95 Su 27 -• Sukhoi/Beriev Be-103 “Snipe” - • Aircraft • Sukhoi Su-27 “Flanker”• News • Analysis • Back to all sections • Analysis • Comment • Projects • MarketData • Sectors • Back to all sections • Military Fixed-Wing • Military Rotorcraft • Unmanned • C4ISR • Infrastructure, Logistics & Support • Training • Weapons • Technology • Themes • Back to all sections • Artificial Intelligence • Corporate Governance • Cloud • Environmental Sustainability • Cybersecurity • Internet of Things (IoT) • Robotics • Social Sustainbility • COVID-19 • Insights • Back to all sections • Job Analytics • Patent Su 27 • Filing Analytics • Polls & Surveys • Companies • Back to all sections • Company A-Z • Company Categories • Product & Services • White Papers • Sponsored • Company Releases • Videos • Awards & Rankings • Back to all sections • Introducing the Excellence Awards & Rankings su 27 • Media Pack • Research Guidelines • Magazine • Events • Reports • • • • Su-27, codenamed by Nato as Flanker, is a twin-engine, highly manoeuvrable fighter aircraft that provides air superiority.

It was designed by Sukhoi Design Bureau and manufactured by Irkut. The export version of the aircraft is known as the Su-27SK. The aircraft is equipped to operate autonomously in combat over hostile territory, in escort of deep-penetration strike aircraft and in the suppression of enemy airfields.

The aircraft provides general air defence in cooperation with ground-based and airborne control stations. The Su-30M Flanker, Su-33, and Su-35 are all advanced versions of the Su-27 fighter aircraft. Su-27 Flanker development The Su-27 entered production in 1982 and is in service with Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Indonesia, Uzbekistan and Vietnam, and is built under licence in China as the F-11.

A variant, the Su-30MK, was sold to India with licensed local production. A total of 50 aircraft were ordered from Irkut and the first entered service with the Indian Air Force in September 2002. The last was delivered in December 2004. The first of up to 140 aircraft indigenously built by Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) was delivered in November 2004. China ordered 76 two-seat Su-30MKK and 24 Su-30MK2 naval fighters.

Deliveries were completed in August 2004. Indonesia ordered two Su-27SK and two Su-30MK aircraft which were delivered in September 2003. In Su 27 2006, the Su-27 was selected by the Mexican Navy. Ten aircraft are required, eight single-seat and two Su-27UB two-seat trainers. In August 2007, Indonesia ordered a further three Su-27SKM and three Su-30MK2 aircraft. The Su-27SM, an improved version of the Su-27, provided a significant upgrade for the Russian Air Force.

It is equipped with an improved fuselage for extra weapons payload, N001 radar, and a glass cockpit with three-colour multi-function displays and improved avionics. The first Su-27SM was delivered in December 2003. Su-27 design The Su-27 is a highly integrated twin-finned aircraft. The airframe is constructed of titanium and high-strength aluminium alloys. The engine nacelles are fitted with trouser fairings to provide a continuous streamlined profile between the nacelles and the tail beams.

The fins and horizontal tail consoles are attached to tail beams. The central beam section between the engine nacelles consists of the equipment compartment, fuel tank and brake parachute container. The fuselage head comprises a semi-monocoque construction and includes the cockpit, radar compartments, and the avionics bay.

Weapons on Su-27 The aircraft is equipped with su 27 30mm GSh-301 gun with 150 rounds of ammunition and a range of missiles, rockets and bombs mounted externally on ten hardpoints. The aircraft’s infrared search and track system, laser rangefinder, radar and helmet-mounted target designator provide detection, tracking and attack capability.

The range of air-to-air missiles carried by the Su-27 aircraft includes R-27R1 (Nato designation AA-10A Alamo-A), an all-aspect medium-range missile su 27 semi-active radar homing and R-27T1 (AA-10B Alamo-B) with infrared homing and a range from 500m to 60km; and R-73E (AA-11 Archer) all-aspect, close-combat air-to-air missile with infrared homing and a range from 300m to 20km.

Ordnance for air-to-ground missions includes 100kg, 250kg and 500kg freefall and retarded aerial bombs; 500kg incendiary devices; 25kg and 500kg RBK cluster bombs; and C-8, C-13 and C-25 unguided aerial missiles.

Countermeasures of the Su-27 The Su-27 is equipped with a new electronic countermeasures suite for individual aircraft, and mutual and group protection in the forward and rear hemispheres. The countermeasures system su 27 a pilot illumination radar warning receiver, chaff and infrared decoy dispensers, and an active multi-mode jammer in the wingtip pods. Sensors and communication system aboard Su-27 The Su-27 is equipped with a Phazotron N001 Zhuk coherent pulse-Doppler radar with track-while-scan and look-down / shoot-down capability.

The range of the radar against 3m² targets is more than 100km in the forward hemisphere and 40km in the rear hemisphere. The radar has the capacity to search, detect and track up to ten targets with automatic threat assessment and prioritisation. The aircraft had an OEPS-27 electro-optic system, which includes an infrared search-and-track (IRST) sensor collimated with a laser rangefinder. The range of the electro-optical system is 40-100km, depending on the aspect angle presented by the target.

The radio communications suite provides voice and data; VHF/UHF radio communications between aircraft and ground control stations within sight range; voice radio communication with ground control stations and between aircraft up to a range of 1,500km; an encrypted data link for combat information exchange between aircraft; and command guidance from ground control stations using automatic interception mode.

Electro-optical fire-control system The Su-27 is equipped with an electro-optical fire-control system, supplied by the Urals Optical and Mechanical Plant (YOM3), and a Geofizika FLIR (forward-looking infrared) pod. Russian electronic systems provider Leninetz supplies the radar systems and TsNIRTI the electronic countermeasures suite.

Engines of the Su-27 The Su-27SK is powered by two AL-31F turbofan engines, designed by the Lyulka Engine Design Bureau (NPO Saturn). Each engine has two air intakes: a su 27 wedge intake and a louvred auxiliary air intake. The twin-shaft, turbo-fan engine has after-turbine flow mixing, a common afterburner, an all-mode variable area su 27 exhaust nozzle, an independent start and su 27 main electronic control, and a reserve hydromechanical engine mode control system.

The high-temperature sections of the engines are made of titanium alloy. A Su-27 is fitted with AL-41F1 engines being developed by NPO Saturn took its first flight in March 2004. The uprated engine provides a thrust of 145kN (33,000lb). NEWSLETTER Sign up Tick the boxes of the newsletters you would like to receive.

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• SpaceNext50 Britannica presents SpaceNext50, From the race to the Moon to space stewardship, we explore a wide range su 27 subjects that feed our curiosity about space! See all related content → Sukhoi Su-27, also called (NATO designation) Flanker, Su 27 air-superiority fighter plane, introduced into the air forces of the Soviet Union beginning in 1985 and now one of the premier fighters of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Indonesia, India, China, and Vietnam.

Versions of the plane are built under license in China and India. Work on the Su-27 began at the Sukhoi design bureau in 1969 in direct response to the development of the F-15 Eagle fighter of the United States.

While early prototypes were seen as inferior to the F-15, chief designer Mikhail Simonov gradually molded the Su-27 into what was arguably the finest air-superiority platform of the 20th century. Like its Cold War counterpart, the Su 27 developed into a large long-range interceptor, powered by twin turbofan engines and displaying a remarkable agility for its size.

It is capable of flying at more than twice the speed of sound, has a service ceiling higher than 18,000 metres (59,000 feet), and has a flight range of more than 3,000 km (1,800 su 27. Armament includes radar-guided or infrared-homing (“heat-seeking”) air-to-air missiles, unguided air-to-ground rockets, conventional bombs and cluster bombs, and a gun firing 30-mm exploding shells.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Michael Ray.
"Su-27 Flanker" redirects here. For the PC game, see Su-27 Flanker (video game). Su-27 Su-27SKM at MAKS-2005 airshow Role Multirole fighter, air superiority fighter National origin Soviet Union / Russia Manufacturer Sukhoi First flight 20 May 1977 Introduction 22 June su 27 Status In service Primary users Russian Air Force People's Liberation Army Air Force Uzbekistan Air and Air Defence Forces See Operators section for others Produced 1982–present Number built 680 [1] Variants Sukhoi Su-30 Sukhoi Su-33 Sukhoi Su-34 Sukhoi Su-35 Sukhoi Su-37 Shenyang J-11 The Sukhoi Su-27 ( Russian: Сухой Су-27; NATO reporting name: Flanker) is a Soviet-origin twin-engine supermaneuverable fighter aircraft designed by Sukhoi.

It was intended as a direct competitor for the large United States fourth-generation fighters such as the Su 27 F-14 Tomcat and F-15 Eagle, with 3,530-kilometre (1,910 nmi) range, heavy aircraft ordnance, sophisticated avionics and high maneuverability. The Su-27 was designed for air superiority missions, and subsequent variants are able to perform almost all aerial warfare operations.

It was designed with the Mikoyan MiG-29 as its complement. The Su-27 entered service with the Soviet Air Forces in 1985. The primary role was long range air defence against American SAC B-1B and B-52G/H bombers, protecting the Soviet coast from su 27 carriers and flying long range fighter escort for Soviet heavy bombers such as the Tu-95 "Bear", Tu-22M "Backfire" and Tu-160 "Blackjack".

[2] There are several related developments of the Su-27 design. The Su-30 is a two-seat, dual-role fighter for all-weather, air-to-air and air-to-surface deep interdiction missions. The Su-33 'Flanker-D' is a naval fleet defense interceptor for use on aircraft carriers. Further versions include the side-by-side two-seat Su-34 'Fullback' strike/fighter-bomber variant, and the Su-35 'Flanker-E' improved air su 27 and multi-role fighter.

The Shenyang J-11 is a Chinese licence-built version of the Su-27. Contents • 1 Development • 1.1 Air Force • 1.2 Navy • 1.3 Export and post-Soviet development • 2 Design • 3 Operational history • 3.1 Soviet Union and Russia • 3.2 Ethiopia • 3.3 Angola • 3.4 Indonesia • 3.5 Ukraine • 3.5.1 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine • 4 Variants • 4.1 Soviet era • 4.2 Post-Soviet era • 5 Operators • 5.1 Former operators • 5.2 Private ownership • 6 Notable accidents • 7 Aircraft on display • 8 Specifications (Su-27SK) • 9 Notable appearances in media • 10 See also • 11 References • 12 External links Development [ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ( March 2009) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message) In 1969, the Soviet Union learned of the U.S. Air Force's "F-X" program, which resulted in the F-15 Eagle.

The Soviet leadership soon realized that the new American fighter would represent a serious technological advantage over existing Soviet fighters. What was needed was a better-balanced fighter with both good agility su 27 sophisticated systems. In response, the Soviet General Staff issued a requirement for a Perspektivnyy Frontovoy Istrebitel ( PFI, literally "Prospective Frontline Fighter", roughly "Advanced Frontline Fighter").

[3] Specifications su 27 extremely ambitious, calling for long-range, good short-field performance (including the su 27 to su 27 austere runways), excellent agility, Mach 2+ speed, and heavy armament. The aerodynamic design for the new aircraft was largely carried out by TsAGI in collaboration with the Sukhoi design bureau.

[3] When the specification proved too challenging and costly for a single aircraft in the number needed, the PFI specification was split into two: the LPFI ( Lyogkyi PFI, Lightweight PFI) and the TPFI ( Tyazholyi PFI, Heavy PFI).

The LPFI program resulted in the Mikoyan MiG-29, a relatively short-range tactical fighter, while the TPFI program was assigned to Sukhoi OKB, which eventually produced the Su-27 and its various derivatives.

Soviet Su-27 in-flight The Sukhoi design, which was altered progressively to reflect Soviet awareness of the F-15's specifications, emerged as the T-10 (Sukhoi's 10th design), which first flew on 20 May 1977. The aircraft had a large wing, clipped, with two separate podded engines and a twin tail.

The 'tunnel' between the two engines, as on the F-14 Tomcat, acts both as an additional lifting surface and hides armament from radar. Air Force [ edit ] The T-10 was spotted by Western observers and assigned the NATO reporting name su 27. The development of the T-10 was marked by considerable problems, leading to a fatal crash of the second prototype, the T-10-2 on 7 July 1978, [4] due to shortcomings in the FBW control system.

[5] Extensive redesigns followed (T-10-3 through T-10-15) and a revised version of the T-10-7, now designated the T-10S, made its first flight on 20 April 1981. It also crashed due to control problems and was replaced by T-10-12 which became T-10S-2.

This one also crashed on 23 December 1981 during a high-speed test, killing the pilot. [6] [7] Eventually the T-10-15 demonstrator, T-10S-3, evolved into the definitive Su-27 configuration. [8] P-42 at Ramenskoye airfield. The T-10S-3 was modified and officially designated the P-42, setting a number of world records for time-to-height, [9] su 27 those set in 1975 by a similarly modified F-15 called "The Streak Eagle". [10] The P-42 "Streak Flanker" was stripped of all armament, radar and operational equipment.

The fin tips, tail-boom and the wingtip launch rails were also removed. The composite radome was replaced by a lighter metal version. The aircraft was stripped of paint, polished and all drag-producing gaps and joints were sealed. The engines were modified to deliver an increase in thrust of 1,000 kg (2,200 lb), resulting in a thrust-to-weight ratio of almost 2:1 (for comparison with standard example see Specifications).

[11] [12] Twin-seat combat trainer Su-27UB of the Russian Air Force The production Su-27 (sometimes Su-27S, NATO designation 'Flanker-B') began to enter VVS operational service in 1985, although manufacturing difficulties kept it from appearing in strength until 1990. [13] The Su-27 served with both the V-PVO and Frontal Aviation. Operational conversion of units to the type occurred using the Su-27UB (Russian for " Uchebno Boevoy" - "Combat Trainer", NATO designation 'Flanker-C') twin-seat trainer, su 27 the pilots seated in tandem.

[14] When the naval Flanker trainer was being conceived the Soviet Air Force was evaluating a replacement for the Su-24 "Fencer" strike aircraft, and it became evident to Soviet planners at the time that a replacement for the Su-24 would need to be capable of surviving engagements with the new American F-15 and F-16.

The Sukhoi bureau concentrated on adaptations of the standard Su-27UB tandem-seat trainer. However, the Soviet Air Force favoured the crew station (side-by-side seating) approach used in the Su-24 as it worked better for the high workload and potentially long endurance strike roles.

Therefore, the conceptual naval side-by-side seated trainer was used as the basis for development of the Su-27IB (Russian for " Istrebityel Bombardirovshchik" - "Fighter Bomber") as an Su-24 replacement in 1983.

The first production airframe was flown in early 1994 and renamed the Su-34 (NATO reporting name 'Fullback'). [15] Navy [ edit ] Development of a version for the Soviet Navy called the Su-27K (Russian for " Korabyelny" - "Shipborne", NATO designation 'Flanker-D') commenced not long after the development of the main land-based type. Some of the T10 demonstrators were modified to test features of navalized variants for carrier operations.

These modified su 27 led to specific prototypes for the Soviet Navy, designated " T10K" ( Korabyelny). The T10Ks had canards, an arresting hook and carrier landing avionics as well as a retractable inflight re-fueling probe. They did not have the landing gear required for carrier landings or folding wings.

The first T10K flew in August 1987 flown by the famous Soviet test pilot Viktor Pugachev (who first demonstrated the cobra manoeuvre using an Su-27 in 1989), performing test take-offs from a land-based ski-jump carrier deck on the Black Sea coast at Saky in the Ukrainian SSR. The aircraft was lost in an accident in 1988. At the time the naval Flanker was being developed the Soviets were building their first generation of aircraft carriers and had no experience with steam catapults and did not want to delay the introduction of the carriers.

Thus it was decided to use a take-off method that did not require catapults by building up full thrust against a blast deflector until the aircraft sheared restraints holding it down to the deck. The fighter would then accelerate up the deck onto a ski jump and become airborne.

[16] The production Su-27K featured the required strengthened landing gear with a two-wheel nose gear assembly, folding stabilators and wings, outer ailerons that extended further with inner double slotted flaps and enlarged leading-edge slats for low-speed carrier approaches, modified LERX ( Leading Edge Su 27 e Xtension) with canards, a modified ejection seat angle, upgraded FBW, upgraded hydraulics, an arresting hook and retractable in-flight refuelling probe with a pair of deployable floodlights in the nose to illuminate the tanker at night.

The Su-27K began carrier trials in November 1989, again su 27 Pugachev at the controls, on board the first Su 27 aircraft carrier, called Tbilisi at the time and formal carrier operations commenced in September 1991. [17] [18] Development of the naval trainer, called the Su-27KUB (Russian for " Korabyelny Uchebno- Boyevoy" - "Shipborne Trainer-Combat"), began in 1989. The aim was to produce an airframe with dual roles for the Navy and Air Force suitable for a range of other missions such as reconnaissance, aerial refuelling, maritime strike, and jamming.

This concept then evolved into the Su-27IB ( Su-34 "Fullback") for the Soviet Air Force. The naval trainer had a revised forward fuselage to accommodate a side-by-side cockpit seating arrangement with crew access via a ladder in the nose-wheel undercarriage and enlarged canards, stabilisers, fins and rudders. The wings had extra ordnance hard-points and the fold position was also moved further outboard. The inlets were fixed and did not feature FOD suppression hardware.

The central fuselage was strengthened to accommodate 45 tonnes (99,000 pounds) maximum gross weight and internal volume was increased by 30%. This first prototype, the T-10V-1, flew in April 1990 conducting aerial refuelling trials and simulated carrier landing approaches on the Tbilisi.

The second prototype, the T-10V-2 was built in 1993 and had enlarged internal fuel tanks, enlarged spine, lengthened tail and tandem dual wheel main undercarriage. [15] Export and post-Soviet development [ edit ] In 1991, the production facilities at Su 27 Aircraft Plant and Irkutsk developed export variants of the Su-27: the Su-27SK single seat fighter and Su-27UBK twin-seat trainer, (the K in both variants is Russian for " Kommercheskiy" - literally "Commercial") [19] which have been exported to China, Vietnam, Ethiopia and Indonesia.

[20] After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Russia, the successor state, started development of advanced variants of the Su-27 including the Su-30, Su-33, Su-34, Su-35, and Su-37. Since 1998 the export Su-27SK has been produced as the Shenyang J-11 in China under licence. The first licensed-production plane, assembled in Shenyang from Russian supplied kits, was flight tested on 16 December 1998.

These licence-built versions, which numbered 100, were designated J-11A. The next model, the J-11B made extensive use of Chinese developed systems within the Su-27SK airframe. [21] Starting in 2004, the Russian Air Force began a major update of the su 27 Soviet Su-27 ('Flanker-B') fleet. The upgraded variants were designated Su-27SM (Russian for " Seriyniy Modernizovanniy" - literally " Serial Modernized"). This included upgrades in air-to-air capability with the R-77 missile with an active radar homing head.

The modernized Su-27SM fighters belong to the 4+ generation. The strike capability was enhanced with the addition of the Kh-29T/TE/L and Kh-31P/Kh-31A ASM and KAB-500KR/KAB-1500KR smart bombs. The avionics were also upgraded. [22] The Russian Air Force is currently receiving aircraft modernized to the SM3 standard.

The aircraft’s efficiency to hit air and ground targets has increased 2 and 3 times than in the basic Su-27 variant. Su-27SM3 has two additional stations under the wing and a much stronger airframe.

The aircraft is equipped with new onboard radio-electronic systems and a wider range of applicable air weapons. The aircraft’s cockpit has multifunctional displays. [23] The Su-30 is a two-seat multi-role version developed from the Su-27UBK and was designed for export and evolved into two main variants. The export variant for China, the SU-30MKK ('Flanker-G') which first flew in 1999. The other variant developed as the export version for India, the Su-30MKI ('Flanker-H') was delivered in 2002 and has at least five other configurations.

The Su-33 is the Russian Navy version of the Soviet Su-27K which was re-designated by the Su 27 Design Bureau after 1991. (Both have the NATO designation 'Flanker-D') The Su-34 is the Russian derivative of the Soviet-era Su-27IB, which evolved from the Soviet Navy Su-27KUB operational conversion trainer.

It was previously referred to as the Su-32MF. The newest and most advanced version of the Su-27 is the Su-35S (" Serial"). The Su-35 was previously referred to as the Su-27M, Su-27SM2, and Su-35BM. [24] The Su-37 is an advanced technology demonstrator derived from Su-35 prototypes, featuring thrust vectoring nozzles made of titanium rather than steel and an updated airframe containing a high proportion of carbon-fibre and Al-Li alloy. [25] Only two examples were built and in 2002 one crashed, effectively ending the program.

The Su-37 improvements did however make it into new Flanker variants such as the Su 27 and the Su-30MKI. [26] Design [ edit ] Cockpit The Su-27's basic design is aerodynamically similar to the MiG-29, but it is substantially larger.

The wing blends into the fuselage at the leading edge extensions and is essentially a cross between a swept wing and a cropped delta (the delta wing with tips cropped for missile rails or ECM pods).

The fighter is also an example of a tailed delta wing configuration, retaining conventional horizontal tailplanes. Sketch of Su-27 performing Pugachev's Cobra manoeuvre The Su-27 had the Soviet Union's first operational fly-by-wire control system, based on the Sukhoi OKB's experience with the T-4 bomber project. Combined with relatively low wing loading and powerful basic flight controls, it makes for an exceptionally agile aircraft, controllable even at very low speeds and high angle of attack.

In airshows the aircraft has demonstrated its maneuverability with a Cobra ( Pugachev’s Cobra) or dynamic deceleration – briefly sustained level flight at a 120° angle of attack. Su-27 carrying Vympel R-27 missiles The naval version of the 'Flanker', the Su-27K (or Su-33), incorporates canards for additional lift, reducing takeoff distances.

These canards have also been incorporated in some Su-30s, the Su-35, and the Su-37. The Su-27 is equipped with a Phazotron N001 Myech coherent Pulse-Doppler radar with track while scan and look-down/shoot-down capability. The fighter also has an OLS-27 infrared search and track (IRST) system in the nose just forward of the cockpit with an 80–100 km (50–62 mi) range. [27] The Su-27 is armed with a single 30 mm (1.18 in) Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1 cannon in the starboard wingroot, and has up to 10 hardpoints for missiles and other weapons.

Its standard missile armament for air-to-air combat is a mixture of R-73 (AA-11 Archer) and R-27 (AA-10 'Alamo') missiles, the latter including extended range and infrared homing models. Operational history [ edit ] Soviet Union and Russia [ edit ] RuAF Su-27SM3 The Soviet Air Force began receiving Su-27s in June 1985.

It officially entered service in August 1990. [13] On 13 September 1987, a fully armed Soviet Su-27, Red 36, intercepted a Norwegian Lockheed P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft flying over the Barents Sea.

The Soviet fighter jet performed different close passes, colliding with the reconnaissance aircraft on the third pass. The Su-27 disengaged and both aircraft landed safely at their bases. [28] These aircraft were used by the Russian Air Force during the 1992–1993 war in Abkhazia against Georgian forces. One fighter, piloted by Major Vatslav Aleksandrovich Shipko (Вацлав Александрович Шипко) was reported shot down in friendly fire by an S-75M Dvina on 19 March 1993 while intercepting Georgian Su-25s performing close air support.

The pilot was killed. [29] [30] In the 2008 South Ossetia War, Russia used Su-27s to gain airspace control over Tskhinvali, the capital city of South Ossetia. [31] [32] On 7 February 2013, two Su-27s briefly entered Japanese airspace off Rishiri Island near Hokkaido, flying south over the Sea of Japan before turning back to the north.

[33] Four Mitsubishi F-2 fighters were scrambled to visually confirm the Russian planes, [34] warning them by radio to leave their airspace. [35] A photo taken by a JASDF pilot of one of the two Su-27s was released by the Japan Ministry of Defense.

[36] Russia denied the incursion, saying the jets were making routine flights near the disputed Kuril Islands.

[33] In another encounter, on 23 April 2014 an Su-27 nearly collided with a United States Air Force Boeing RC-135U over the Sea of Okhotsk. [37] A Russian Su-27 and a British Typhoon meet over the Baltic, June 2014 Russia plans to replace the Su-27 and the Mikoyan MiG-29 eventually with the Sukhoi Su-57 stealth fifth-generation multi-role twin-engine fighter.

[38] A squadron of Su-27SM3s was deployed to Syria in November 2015 as part of the Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War. [39] [40] A Russian Su-27 crashed over the Black Sea on 25 March 2020, due to an engine failure. The pilot was not found. [41] Ethiopia [ edit ] Ethiopian Su-27s shot down two Eritrean MiG-29s and damaged another one during the Eritrean-Ethiopian War [42] [43] in February 1999 and destroyed another two in May 2000.

[43] [44] The Su-27s were also used in combat air patrol (CAP) missions, suppression of air defense, and providing escort for fighters on bombing and reconnaissance missions. [45] The Ethiopian Air Force (EtAF) used their Su-27s to deadly effect in Somalia during late 2000s and 2010s, bombing Islamist garrisons and patrolling the airspace.

The Su-27 has replaced the aging Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, which was the main air superiority fighter of the EtAF between 1977 and 1999. [46] Ethiopian government used its Su-27s for bombing targets during the Tigray War. Ethiopian Su-27s were depicted armed with OFAB-250 unguided bombs and over the skies of Mekelle. [ citation needed] Angola [ edit ] The Su-27 entered Angolan service in mid-2000 during the Angolan Civil War.

It is reported that one Su-27 in the process of landing, was shot down by 9K34 Strela-3 MANPADs fired by UNITA forces on 19 November 2000. [42] [47] Indonesia [ edit ] Four Indonesian Flanker-type fighters including Su-27s participated for the first time in the biennial Exercise Pitch Black exercise in Australia on 27 July 2012.

Arriving at Darwin, Australia, the two Su-27s and two Sukhoi Su-30s were escorted by two Australian F/A-18 Hornets of No. 77 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force. [48] Exercise Pitch Black 12 was conducted from 27 July through 17 August 2012, and involved 2,200 personnel and up to 94 aircraft from Australia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, New Zealand and the United States. [49] Ukraine [ edit ] B-52H assigned to the 5th Bomb Wing integrates with two Ukrainian Su-27s during a Bomber Task Force Europe mission, Sept.

23, 2020 The Ukrainian Air Force inherited about 66-70 Su-27 aircraft after the collapse of the Soviet Union. [50] Lack of funds in addition to the Su-27's high maintenance led to a shortage of spare parts and inadequate servicing, resulting in approximately 34 remaining in service as of 2019. [51] [52] [53] Years of underfunding meant that the air force has not received a new Su-27 since 1991. Between 2007 and 2017, as many as 65 combat jets were sold abroad, [54] including nine Su-27s.

[55] In 2009, amid declining relations with Russia, the Ukrainian Air Force began to have difficulty obtaining spare parts from Sukhoi. [55] Only 19 Su-27s were serviceable at the time of the Russian annexation of Crimea and subsequent War in Donbas in 2014. [55] Following the Russian invasion, Ukraine increased its military budget, allowing stored Su-27s to be returned to service. [54] [56] The Zaporizhzhya Aircraft Repair Plant "MiGremont" [ uk] in Zaporizhzhia began modernizing the Su-27 to NATO standards in 2012, which involved a minor overhaul of the radar, navigation and communication equipment.

Aircraft with this modification are designated Su-27P1M and Su-27UB1M. The Ministry of Defence accepted the project on 5 August 2014, [56] and the first two aircraft were officially handed over to the 831st Tactical Aviation Brigade in October 2015. [57] In 2014 during the Annexation of Crimea, a Ukrainian Air Force Su-27 was scrambled to intercept Russian fighter jets over Ukraine's airspace su 27 the Black Sea on 3 March. [58] With no aerial opposition and other aircraft available for ground attack duties, Ukrainian Su-27s played only a small role in the ongoing war in Donbas.

Ukrainian Su-27s were recorded performing low fly passes and were reported flying su 27 cover, combat air patrols and eventual escort or intercept of civil aviation traffic over Eastern Ukraine. [59] [60] On 15 April 2014, a video purportedly showing a Ukrainian Su-27 being shot down was released, but the video proved to be a hoax, taken from a previous video of the Syrian Civil War involving a different aircraft model. Videos taken of low-flying Su-27s involved in the operation revealed they were armed with R-27 and R-73 air-to-air missiles.

su 27 There were two fatal crashes involving Ukrainian Su-27s in 2018. [53] On 16 October, a Ukrainian Su-27UB1M flown by Colonel Ivan Petrenko crashed during the Ukraine- USAF exercise "Clear Sky 2018" based at Starokostiantyniv Air Base.

The second seat was occupied by Lieutenant Colonel Seth Nehring, a pilot of the 144th Fighter Wing of the California Air National Guard. Both pilots died in the crash, that happened about 5:00 p.m. local time in the Khmelnytskyi province of western Ukraine. [62] [63] On 15 December, an Su-27 crashed on final approach about 2 km (1 mi) from Ozerne Air Base in Zhytomyr Oblast, after performing a training flight. Major Fomenko Alexander Vasilyevich was killed. [64] On 29 May 2020, Ukrainian Su-27s took part in the Bomber Task Force in Europe with B-1B bombers for the first time in the Black Sea region.

[65] On 4 September 2020, three B-52 bombers from the 5th Bomb Wing, Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota, conducted vital integration training with Ukrainian MiG-29s and Su-27s inside Ukraine’s airspace. [66] 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine [ edit ] On 24 February 2022, a Ukrainian Su-27 and a refueling vehicle were burned out by fire after a Russian attack on the military airfield in Ozerne, Zhytomyr District during the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

[67] The next day, another Su-27 was shot down in Kyiv by a Russian S-400 system [68] and was recorded by residents on their cellphones su 27 published on Twitter; [69] its pilot, Colonel Oleksandr Oksanchenko, was killed. [70] A third Su-27 was reported lost by Ukrainian officials over Kropyvnytskyi, in central Ukraine. Its pilot, Maj. Stepan Choban, was killed. [71] In 7 May 2022, a pair of Ukrainian Su 27 conducted a high-speed, low level bombing run on Russian-occupied Snake Island; the attack was captured on film by a Bayraktar TB2 drone.

[72] Variants [ edit ] Sources: [73] Soviet era [ edit ] Left side scheme of a Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker B, first production series T10 ("Flanker-A") Initial prototype configuration.

T10S Improved prototype configuration, more similar to production spec. P-42 Special version built to beat climb time records. The aircraft had all armament, radar and paint removed, which reduced weight to 14,100 kg (31,100 lb). It also had improved engines. Similar to the US F-15 Streak Eagle project. Between 1986–1988, it established and took several climb records from the Streak Eagle. Several of these records (such as time to climb to 3000 m, 6000 m, 9000 su 27, and 12000 m) still stands current as of 2019.

[74] [75] Su-27 Pre-production series built in small numbers with AL-31 engine. Su-27S (Su-27 / "Flanker-B") Initial production single-seater with improved AL-31F engine. The "T10P". Su-27P (Su-27 / "Flanker-B") Standard version but without air-to-ground weapons control system and wiring and assigned to Soviet Air Defence Forces units. Often designated Su-27 without -P. [76] Su-27UB ("Flanker-C") Initial production two-seat operational conversion trainer.

Su-27SK Export Su-27S single-seater. Exported to China in 1992-1996 and developed into Shenyang J-11. Su-27UBK Export Su-27UB two-seater. Russian fighter Su-27K (later renamed to Su-33) on the deck of Admiral Kuznetsov Su-27K ( Su-33 / "Flanker-D") Carrier-based single-seater with folding wings, high-lift devices, and arresting gear, built in small numbers.

They followed the "T10K" prototypes and demonstrators. Su-27KUB (Su-33UB) Two-seat training-and-combat version based on the Su-27K and Su-27KU, with a side-by-side seating same as Su-34. One prototype built. Su-27M ( Su-35/ Su-37 / "Flanker-E/F") Improved demonstrators for an advanced single-seat multi-role Su-27S derivative.

These also included a two-seat "Su-35UB" demonstrator. Su-27PU ( Su-30) Two-seat version of the Su-27P interceptor, designed to support with tactical data other single-seat Su-27P, MiG-31 and other interceptor aircraft in PVO service.

The model was later renamed to Su-30, and modified into a multi-role fighter mainly for export market, moving away from the original purpose of the aircraft. Su-32 (Su-27IB) Two-seat dedicated long-range strike variant with side-by-side seating in "platypus" nose. Prototype of Su-32FN and Su-34.

Post-Soviet era [ edit ] Su-27PD Single-seat demonstrator with improvements such as inflight refuelling probe. Su-30M/MK Next-generation multi-role two-seater. A few Su-30Ms were built for Russian evaluation in the mid-1990s, though little came of the effort. The Su-30MK export variant su 27 embodied as a series of two demonstrators of different levels of capability. Versions include Su-30MKA for Algeria, Su-30MKI for India, Su-30MKK for the People's Republic of China, and Su-30MKM for Malaysia.

Shenyang J-11 Chinese version of Su-27SK. Su-27SM (Flanker-B Mod. 1) Mid-life upgraded Russian Su-27S, featuring technology evaluated in the Su-27M demonstrators. Su-27SKM Single-seat multi-role fighter for export. It is a derivative of the Su-27SK but includes upgrades such as advanced cockpit, more sophisticated self-defense electronic countermeasures (ECM) and an in-flight refuelling system. [77] Su-27UBM Comparable upgraded Su-27UB two-seater.

Su-27SM2 4+ gen block upgrade for Russian Su-27, featuring some technology of the Su-35BM; it includes Irbis-E radar, and upgraded engines and avionics. Su-27SM3 Increased maximum takeoff weight su 27 tonnes), AL-31F-M1 engines, fully glass cockpit.

[78] Su-27KUB Essentially an Su-27K carrier-based twin-seater with a side-by-side cockpit, for use as a naval carrier trainer or multi-role aircraft. Su-35BM/Su-35S Also named the "Last Flanker" is latest development from Sukhoi Flanker family. It features improved thrust vectoring AL-41F1S engines, new avionics, N035 Irbis-E radar and reduced radar cross-section. Su-27UB1M Ukrainian modernized version of the Su-27UB.

Su-27UP1M Ukrainian modernized version of the Su-27UP. Su-27S1M Ukrainian modernized version of the Su-27S. Su-27P1M Ukrainian modernized version of the Su-27P. Operators [ edit ] All current (blue) and former (red) operators of the Su-27 Angola People's Air and Air Defence Force of Angola – Seven Su-27s in service as of January 2013.

[79] Three were bought from Belarus in 1998. Received a total of eight. [80] One was reportedly shot down on 19 November 2000 by a 9K34 Strela-3 MANPADS during the Angolan Civil War. [81] China People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) – 59 Su-27 fighters, consisting of 33 Su-27SKs and 26 Su-27UBKs as of January 2013. [79] 78 Flankers were delivered under three separate contracts by the Russian KnAAPO and IAPO plants.

Delivery of the aircraft began in February 1991 and finished by September 2009. The first contract was for 20 Su-27SK and 4 Su-27UBK aircraft. The deal, known as '906 Project' within China, saw the Su-27 exported to a foreign country for the first time.

In February 1991, an Su-27 performed a flight demonstration at Beijing's Nanyuan Airport. The official induction to service with the PLAAF occurred shortly thereafter. China found some of the delivered Su-27UBKs are "second-handed", consequently Russia delivered 2 more Su-27UBKs to China as a compensation.

[82] Chinese Su-27 pilots described its performance as "outstanding" in all aspects and flight envelopes. Differences over the payment method delayed the signing of the second, identical contract. For the first batch, 70% of the payment had been made in barter transactions with light industrial goods and food.

Russian Federation argued that future transactions should be made in US dollars. In May 1995, Chinese Central Military Commission Vice Chairman, Liu Huaqing visited Russia and agreed to the term, on a condition that the production line of Su-27 be imported.

The contract was signed the same year. Delivery of the final aircraft from the second batch, which consists of 16 Su-27SKs and 8 Su-27UBKs occurred in July 1996. In preparation for the expanding Su-27 fleet, su 27 PLAAF sought to augment its trainer fleet. On 3 December 1999, a third contract was signed, this time for 28 Su-27UBKs. All 76 of the aircraft featured strengthened airframe and landing gear – result of the PLAAF demands that the fighter has a "usable" air-ground capability.

As a result, the aircraft are capable of employing most of the conventional Air-to-Ground ordnance produced by Russia. Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW) increased to 33,000 kg (73,000 lb). Su 27 is common for Russian export fighters, the active jamming device was downgraded; Su-27's L005 ECM pod was replaced with the L203/L204 pod.

Furthermore, there were slight su 27 differences between the batches. The first batch had N001E radar, while the later aircraft had N001P radar, capable of engaging two targets at the same time. Additionally, ground radar and navigational systems were upgraded. The aircraft are not capable of deploying the R-77 "Adder" missile due to a downgraded fire control system, [83] except for the last batch of 28 Su-27UBKs. [82] At the 2009 Farnborough Airshow, Alexander Fomin- Deputy Director of Su 27 Federal Service for Military-Technical Co-operation, confirmed the existence of an all-encompassing contract and an ongoing licensed production of the Su-27 variant by the Chinese.

The aircraft are being produced as the Shenyang J-11. [84] Eritrea Eritrean Air Force [85] Ethiopia Ethiopian Air Force – up to 17 Su-27S, Su-27P, Su-27UB sourced second–hand from Russia in two different batches: 9 starting from 1998 and 8 starting from 2002. [86] Some crashed over the years. [87] A Su-27 of the Kazakh Air Force taking off Mongolia Mongolian Air Force – 4 Su-27s as of June 2016.

8 more jets to be delivered to complete a squadron. [88] [89] Russia Russian Air Force – 359 Su-27 aircraft, including 225 Su-27s, 70 Su-27SMs, 12 Su-27SM3s, and 52 Su-27UBs in service as of January 2014. [90] A modernization program began in 2004. [91] [92] [93] Half of the fleet had been modernized by 2012. [94] The Russian Air Force is currently receiving aircraft modernized to the SM3 standard.

[95] [96] [97] [98] Russian Navy – 53 Su-27s in use as of January 2014 [90] Ukraine Ukrainian Air Force – 70 Su-27s in inventory. [99] It has 34 Su-27s in service as of March 2019. [54] Uzbekistan Military of Uzbekistan – 34 Su-27s in use as of January 2013 [79] Vietnam Vietnam People's Air Force – 9 Su-27SKs and 3 Su-27UBKs in use as of January 2013 [79] United States Two Su-27s were delivered to the U.S.

in 1995 from Belarus. [100] [101] Two more were bought from Ukraine in 2009 by a private company, Pride Aircraft to be used for aggressor training for U.S.

pilots. [102] They have been spotted operating over Area 51 for evaluation and training purposes. [103] Former operators [ edit ] Belarus Belarusian Air Force inherited 23-28 Su-27s from the former 61st Fighter Aviation Regiment of the Soviet Union. [100] They had 22 in service as of December 2010. [104] Nine Su 27 were sold to Angola in 1998. Belarus had operated 17 Su-27P and 4 Su-27UBM1 aircraft before their retirement in December 2012.

[80] [105] [106] Soviet Union Soviet Air Force and Soviet Air Defence Forces. [107] Passed to different successor nations in 1991. Private ownership [ edit ] According to the U.S. Su 27 there are two privately owned Su-27s in the U.S. [108] Two Su-27s from the Ukrainian Air Force were demilitarised and sold to Pride Aircraft of Rockford, Illinois.

Pride Aircraft modified some of the aircraft to their own desires by remarking all cockpit controls in English and replacing much of the Russian avionics suite with Garmin, Bendix/King, and Collins avionics. The aircraft were both sold to private owners for approximately $5 million each.

[109] On 30 August 2010, the Financial Times claimed that a Western private training support company ECA Program placed a US$1.5 billion order with Belorussian state arms dealer BelTechExport for 15 unarmed Su-27s (with an option on 18 more) to organize a dissimilar air combat training school in the former NATO airbase in Keflavik, Iceland, with deliveries due by the end of 2012.

[110] [111] A September 2010 media report by RIA Novosti questioned the existence of the agreement. [112] No further developments on such a plan have been reported by 2014, while a plan for upgrading and putting the retired Belorussian Air Force Su-27 fleet back to service was reported in February 2014.

[113] Notable accidents [ edit ] Russian Knights paying tribute to Igor Tkachenko, leader of the group who died during practice a week earlier • 9 September 1990: A Soviet Su-27 crashed at the Salgareda airshow in 1990 after pulling a loop at too low an altitude.

The Lithuanian su 27, Rimantas Stankevičius, and a spectator were killed. [114] [115] • 12 December 1995: Two Su-27s and an Su-27UB of the Russian Knights flight demonstration team crashed into terrain outside of Cam Ranh, Vietnam, killing four team pilots. Six Su-27s and an Ilyushin Il-76 support aircraft were returning from a Malaysian airshow. The aircraft were su 27 in echelons right and left of the Il-76 on their way to Cam Ranh for refueling.

During the landing approach, the Il-76 passed too close to the terrain and the three right-echelon Su-27s crashed. The su 27 aircraft landed safely at Cam Ranh. The cause was controlled flight into terrain; contributing factors were pilot error, mountainous terrain and poor weather.

[116] • 27 July 2002: A Ukrainian Su-27 crashed while performing an aerobatics presentation, killing su 27 spectators in what is now considered the deadliest air show disaster in history. Both pilots ejected and suffered only minor injuries.

[117] • 16 August 2009: While practicing for the 2009 MAKS Airshow, two Su-27s of the Russian Knights collided in mid-air above Zhukovsky Airfield, south-east of Moscow, killing the Knights' leader, Igor Tkachenko. One of the jets crashed into a house and started a fire. [118] A probe into the crash was launched; according to the Russian Defense Ministry the accident may have been caused by a "flying skill error".

[118] [119] • 30 August 2009: A Belarusian Su-27UBM (Number black 63) crashed while performing at the Radom Air Show. [120] Aircraft on display [ edit ] Sukhoi Su-27 su 27 drawings Data from [123] Sukhoi, [124] KnAAPO, [125] Deagel.com, [126] Airforce-Technology.com [127] General characteristics • Crew: 1 • Length: 21.9 m (71 ft 10 in) • Wingspan: 14.7 m (48 ft 3 in) • Height: 5.92 m (19 ft 5 in) • Wing area: 62 m 2 (670 sq ft) • Empty weight: 16,380 kg (36,112 lb) • Gross weight: 23,430 kg (51,654 lb) • Max takeoff weight: 30,450 kg (67,131 lb) • Fuel capacity: 9,400 kg (20,723.5 lb) internal [124] • Powerplant: 2 × Saturn AL-31F afterburning turbofan engines, 75.22 kN (16,910 lbf) thrust each dry, 122.6 kN (27,600 lbf) with afterburner Performance • Maximum speed: 2,500 km/h (1,600 mph, 1,300 kn) / M2.35 at altitude 1,400 km/h (870 mph; 760 kn) / Su 27 at sea level • Range: 3,530 km (2,190 mi, 1,910 nmi) At altitude 1,340 km (830 mi; 720 nmi) at sea level • Service ceiling: 19,000 m (62,000 ft) • g limits: +9 • Rate of climb: 300 m/s (59,000 ft/min) [128] • Wing loading: 377.9 kg/m 2 (77.4 lb/sq ft) With 56% fuel 444.61 kg/m 2 (91.1 lb/sq ft) • Thrust/weight: 1.07 with 56% internal fuel; 0.91 with full fuel Armament • Guns: 1 × 30 mm Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1 autocannon with 150 rounds • Hardpoints: 10 external pylons [124] with a capacity of up to 4,430 kg (9,770 lb) [124], with provisions to carry combinations of: • Rockets: • S-8KOM/BM/OM • S-13T/OF • S-25OFM-PU • Missiles: • 6 × R-27R/ER/T/ET/P/EP air-to-air missiles • 6 × R-73E AAMs • Bombs: • FAB-500 general purpose bomb • RBK-250 cluster bomb • RBK-500 cluster bomb Avionics • N001E radar • Phazotron Zhuk-MSE radar • Phazotron Zhuk-MSFE radar • OEPS-27 electro-optical targeting system • SPO-15 Radar Warning Receiver • OEPS-27 IRST [129] Notable appearances in media [ edit ] • ^ Russia Air Force Handbook.

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External links [ edit ] • Media related to Sukhoi Su-27 at Wikimedia Commons • Official Sukhoi Su-27SK webpage at Sukhoi and KnAAPO • Official Sukhoi Su-27UBK webpage at Sukhoi • Official Sukhoi Su-27SKM webpage at KnAAPO • Zacharz, Michel (2005). "Sukhoi Su-27 "Flanker" / Sukhoi Su-27SKM". Zacharz.com.

• "Su-27". GlobalSecurity.org. • Kopp, Carlo (7 January 2007). "Sukhoi Flankers: The Shifting Balance of Regional Air Power". Air Power Australia. • Kopp, Carlo (August 2003). "Asia's Advanced Flankers" (PDF). Air Power Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 December 2006. • "Su-27UBs in the United States".

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